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C++ Datatypes and Conditional Constructs

C++ Datatypes
1.1 Objective
To understand what are Data types and their usage in programs.
1.2 Introduction
A datatype defines a set of values set of operations that can be performed on those values. The
size of the field in which data can be stored.
Datatypes in C++ :

Primitive or Basic datatype

Derived datatypes

User defined data types

1.2.1 Primitive or Basic datatypes in C++

void data type in C++: The void data type has no values and no operations.
Integer data types in C++: An integer is a number without a fractional part.

C++ supports three different sizes of the integer data type.

The size of the integer data types are as shown in the table below:

Note: In C++ this size is machine dependent, hence there can be a variation.
Floating point datatypes in C++:
Floating point: A floating point type is a number with a fractional part, such as 43.32. C++ supports
three different sizes of floating point numbers.

The size of the integer data types are as shown in the table below:

Character Datatype in C++: character type can hold an ASCII character .When initializing a
constant or a variable of char type, or when changing the value of a variable of char type, the value
is enclosed in single quotation marks.
Variable Declarations

Constants and variables must be declared before they can be used.

A constant declaration specifies the type, the name and the value of the constant.

A variable declaration specifies the type, the name and possibly the initial value of the

When you declare a constant or a variable, the compiler reserves a memory location in
which to store the value of the constant or variable.

Associates the name of the constant or variable with the memory location. In the program
this name is used for referring to the constant or variable.

Constants are used to store values that never change during the program execution.

Syntax for declaring a constant :

const <type> <identifier> = <expression>;
const double US2HK = 7.8;
//Exchange rate of US$ to HK$
Variables are used to store values that can be changed during the program execution. A variable is
best thought of as a container for a value.
< type > < identifier >;
< type > < identifier > = < expression >;
int sum;
int total = 3445;
char answer = 'y';
double temperature = -3.14;
Boolean Datatype: A boolean type, typically denoted "bool" or "boolean", is typically a logical type
that can be either "true" or "false".In C++, boolean values may be implicitly converted to integers,
according to the mapping false 0 and true 1 .
Derived Datatype:These are the datatypes derived from primitive datatypes.
Pointer - Please refer to the chapter - 1.3 Pointers and Functions
Reference - Please refer to the chapter - 1.3 Pointers and Functions
C++ provides a data structure, the array, which stores a fixed-size sequential collection of elements
of the same type. An array is used to store a collection of data, but it is often more useful to think of
an array as a collection of variables of the same type.
Instead of declaring individual variables, such as Age1, Age2, ..., and Age5, you declare one array
variable such as Age and use Age[0], Age[1], and ..., Age[5] to represent individual variables. A
specific element in an array is accessed by an index or subscript.
All arrays consist of contiguous memory locations. The lowest address corresponds to the first
element and the highest address to the last element.

Declaring Arrays:
To declare an array in C++, the specify the type of the elements and the number of elements as size
required by an array :
Syntax: type arrayName [ arraySize ];
This is called a single-dimension array. The arraySize must be an integer constant greater than zero
and type can be any valid C++ data type.
For Ex: double balance[5];
The above code declare a 5-element array called balance of type double
Initializing an Array:
An array can be initialized along with declaration. For array initialization it is required to place the
elements separated by commas enclosed within braces.
You can initialize C++ array elements either one by one as follows:

You can initialize C++ array elements using a single statement as follows:

The number of values between braces { } can not be larger than the number of elements that we
declare for the array between square brackets [ ].

The above figure represent array balance with specific values.

If you omit the size of the array, an array just big enough to hold the initialization is created.
Therefore, if you write:

The above code will create exactly the same array as you did in the previous example.
Accessing Array Elements
In any point of a program in which an array is visible, we can access the value of any of its elements
individually as if it was a normal variable, thus being

able to both read and modify its value. This is done by placing the index of the element within square
brackets after the name of the array. For example:

The above statement will take 5th element from the array and assign the value to salary variable.
Following is an example, which will use all the above-mentioned three concepts viz. declaration,
assignment and accessing arrays:

This program makes use of setw() function to format the output. When the above code is compiled
and executed, it produces the following result:
Element Value
0 100
1 101
2 102
3 103
4 104
5 105
6 106
7 107
8 108
9 109

User defined Datatype

These are the datatyps defined by users. These are defined by user by combining different primitive
and user defined datatypes.
class Structure

A structure is a user defined composite datatype.

A structure is one or a group of data elements of different types grouped together under one
name .

A structure is declared in C++ by using the keyword struct using the following syntax

struct structure_name
member_datatype1 member_name1;
member_dataype2 member_name2;
For example: struct students
char studentName[10]; //name of student
int SSN; // social security number
char standard[10];
float score;
Accessing the members of a Structure: We can access all the members of a structure by adding
a period after the name of the structure variable name and then the name of the field we want to
There are the two formats to access structure members:
struct_name_variable.member_name // structure
struct_name_pointer->member_name // structure pointer
For example if we create a structure variable of type Student declared above as,
Struct Student newStudent={Renuka,234576,12th,78.5};
The name of the newStudent can be changed as
newStudent.studentName=Renuka Lal;
If a pointer to structure is declared as,
struct Student *studentPtr=&newStudent;
In this case the members can be accessed using the instead of . As folows
studentPtr->newStudent; Union
A union is also a user defined composite datatype like structure.
Unlike structure it enables to store different data types in the same memory location.
A union can be defined with many members, but only one member can contain a value at any given
Unions provide an efficient way of using the same memory location for multi-purpose.

The memory occupied by a union will be large enough to hold the largest member of the union. For
example, in above example
To define a union, you must use the keyword union is used in very similar way like structure. The
syntax of the union declaration statement is as follows:
union union_name
member_datatype1 member_name1;
member_dataype2 member_name2;
union students
char studentName[20]; //name of student
int SSN; // social security number
char standard[10];
float score;
Now, a variable of Student type can store either an integer or a floating-point number, or a string of
characters. This means that a single variable ie. same memory location can be used to store
multiple types of data. The memory occupied by a union will be large enough to hold the largest
member of the union. For example, in above example Data type will occupy 20 bytes of memory
space because this is the maximum space which can be occupied by character string.
Accessing the members of a union is same as structure.
Enumerated types used is to create new data types that can take on only a restricted range of
values and these values are all expressed as constants.
When an enumerated type is declared, the name of the new type is specified along with the
possible values it can take on.
Syntax is enum datatype_name {list of values};
For example , enum studentGrade {'A','B','C','D'};
Please refer to the chapter - 2.1 Introduction to OOP concepts

C++ Fundamentals
C++ Overview

C++ is a statically typed, compiled, general-purpose, case-sensitive, free-form programming

language that supports procedural, object-oriented, and generic programming.

C++ is regarded as a middle-level language, as it comprises a combination of both high-level

and low-level language features.

C++ was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup starting in 1979 at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, New
Jersey, as an enhancement to the C language and originally named C with Classes but later
it was renamed C++ in 1983.

C++ is a superset of C, and that virtually any legal C program is a legal C++ program.

Note: A programming language is said to use static typing when type checking is performed during
compile-time as opposed to run-time.
Writing first C++ Program
Let us have a look at a sample code in C++ that would print Hello World in the console:

Let us look various parts of the above program:

The C++ language defines several headers, which contain information that is either
necessary to your program. For this program, the header <iostream> is needed.

using namespace std; tells the compiler to use the namespace std.

int main() is the main function where program execution begins.

cout << "Hello World."; Displays the message Hello World on screen.

// prints Hello World : Is a single-line comment available in C++. Singleline comments begin
with // and stop at the end of the line

return 0; terminates main()function and return the value 0 to the calling process.

Compiling and Executing C++ Program

Open a text editor and add the code as above.

Save the file as: hello.cpp

Open a command prompt and go to the directory where you saved the file.

Type 'g++ hello.cpp ' and press enter to compile your code. If there are no errors in your
code the command prompt will take you to the next line and would generate a.out executable

Now, type ' a.out' to run your program.

You will be able to see ' Hello World ' printed on the window.

Working with Data Items

Variable Declaration in C++
A variable provides us with named storage that programs can manipulate.
Each variable in C++ has a specific type, which determines the size and layout of the variable's
memory; the range of values that can be stored within that memory; and the set of operations that
can be applied to the variable.

The name of a variable can be composed of letters, digits, and the underscore character. It must
begin with either a letter or an underscore. Upper and lowercase letters are distinct because C++ is
A variable declaration tells the compiler where and how much to create the storage for the variable.
A variable declaration specifies a data type, and contains a list of one or more variables of that type
as follows:
Syntax: <datatype> variable_list;
Here, type must be a valid C++ data type including char, int, float, double, bool etc., and variable_list
may consist of one or more identifier names separated by commas. Some valid declarations are
shown here:

You can declare more than one variable of same type in a single statement

Variable Initialization in C++

When we declare a variable it's default value is undetermined. We can declare a variable with some
initial value.
Syntax: variable_name = value
Variables can also be initialized (assigned an initial value) in their declaration. The initializer consists
of an equal sign followed by a constant expression as follows:
Syntax: type variable_name = value;

The following example shows how variable can be declared an initialized inside the main function:

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result:

Scope of Variable
A scope is a region of the program where variables can be declared:
Inside a function or a block which is called local variables,
Outside of all functions which is called global variables.
Local Variables:
Variables that are declared inside a function or block are local variables.
They can be used only by statements that are inside that function or block of code. Local variables
are not known to functions outside their own. Following is the example using local variables:

Global Variables:
Global variables are defined outside of all the functions, usually on top of the program. The global
variables will hold their value throughout the life-time of your program.
A global variable can be accessed by any function. That is, a global variable is available for use
throughout the entire program after its declaration.
Following is the example using global and local variables:

A program can have same name for local and global variables but value of local variable inside a
function will take preference. For example:

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result:
Using Constants in C++
Constants refers to fixed values that program may not alter. They are also called literals.
Any attempt to change the value of a constant will result in an error message. Constants can be of
any of the basic data types and can be divided into Integer constants, Floating-Point constants,
Character constants, String constants and Boolean constants.
Constants are treated just like regular variables except that their values cannot be modified after
their definition.

You can use const prefix to declare constants with a specific type as follows:
Syntax: <const type> variable = value;
Following example explains it in detail:

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result:

Conditional Structures

If Statement

If .. Else Statement

If .. Elseif .. else statement

Nested if statement

Switch .. case statement

If Statement
If statement can be use to evaluate conditional statements. Based on the result of evaluation one of
more statements can be executed
syntax of the if statement
statement(s) if condition evaluates to true;
Statements are executed if the condition is true. No output if the condition false.
if .. else statement
To perform some action in either of the situation based on the conditional evaluation if.. else
construct can be used.
syntax of the if..else statement
statement(s) if condition evaluates to true;

statement(s) if condition evaluates to false;
Note: If only one statement is there after the condition, {} are not required
if (condition)
If .. elseif ..else statement
Using if...elseif...else multiple condition can be evaluated.
syntax of the if statement
statement(s) if condition evaluates to true;
else if (condition2)
statement(s) if condition2 evaluates to true;

statement(s) if none of the above conditions are true;
Note: If only one statement is there after the condition, {} are not required
Consider the following example:
using namespace std;
int main()
int Size;
char Type;
cout<<Enter TV Size [20/30] :;
cout<< Discount = 10% <<endl;
cout<< Enter TV Type [ C:CRT / L:LED] : ;
cout<< Discount= 15 % <<endl;
cout<< Discount= 20 % <<endl;

return 0;
Nested If statements
To evaluate multilevel conditional statements, If statements can be placed within another if/else
Consider the following example:
using namespace std;
int main()
int Age;
cout<<Enter Age ;
cout<< Child <<endl;
else if(Age<18)
cout<< Teen <<endl;
else if(Age<40)
cout<< Young <<endl;
else if(Age<55)
cout<< Middle Aged<<endl;
cout<< Old<<endl;
return 0;
Switch-case statements
The other way conditional evaluation can be performed using switch statement which permits
multiple branching:
The syntax of switch statement is:
switch (var / expression)
case constant1 :
statement 1;
case constant2 :
statement 2;
statement n;
The execution of switch statement begins with the evaluation of expression. If the value of
expression matches with the constant then the statements following this statement execute
sequentially till it reaches the break statement. The break statement transfers control to the end of
the switch statement. If the value of expression does not match with any constant, the statement
with default is executed.

Some important points about switch statement

The expression of switch statement must be of type integer or character type.

The default case need not to be used at last case. It can be placed at any place.

The case values need not to be in specific order.

Consider the following example:

using namespace std;
int main()
char Grade;
cout<< Enter Grade :;
case 'A':
cout<< Excellent <<endl;
case 'B':
cout<< Good <<endl;
case 'C':
cout<< Fair <<endl;
case 'D':
cout<< Satisfactory <<endl;
case 'E':
cout<< Poor <<endl;
cout<< Invalid Grade <<endl;
return 0;

1.2. C++ Iterations and Operations


Understanding iterative statements

while iterative statement

do.. while iterative statement

for iterative statement

Understand break and continue conditions

Understanding iterative statements

A iterative construct is a structure which allows a block of statements to be executed repeatedly.
The iterative constructs provided in C++ are:

while iterative construct

do..while iterative construct

for iterative construct

while iterative Construct

The while iterative construct is called a entry-controlled (pre-testing) looping. It evaluates the
logical expression for exit of the loop at the beginning.

If the logical expression in the while loop evaluates to true, then the statements associated
with the loop are executed. If the logical expression evaluates to false, then the statements
associated with the loop are not executed.

Since the test for exit of the loop is performed before the first instruction in the loop, based
on the condition it may not execute for a single time.

The variables appearing in the logical expression are initialized (assigned a value) prior to
the beginning of the while loop. This is necessary since the logical expression in the while
loop is tested before the actual loop is executed.

The typical while loop syntax will be:

while (logical expression)
statement(s) if the expression returns true;
The counter-controlled while loop uses a loop control variable in the logical expression. The loop
control variable initialized before entering the while loop, and a statement in the body of the while
loop should increment/decrement the control variable.
The following example prints the serise of odd number upto 10:
using namespace std;

int main()
int Counter;
// initialization of counter
// Test Expression
cout<<Counter<< ;
Counter = Counter + 2; // increment of counter
return 0;
Output : 1 3 5 7 9
do..While iterative construct

The do ... while iterative construct is called a exit-controlled (post-testing) loop. It evaluates
the logical expression for exit of the loop at the end.

First, the statements associated with the loop are executed, at the end of first execution the
logical expression is evaluated if the expression evaluates to true, then it re-executes, else
the statements associated with the loop are not executed.

Since the test for exit of the loop is performed end of the loop body, whatever the condition is
the loop body will executed at least once

The variables appearing in the logical expression are initialized (assigned a value) prior to
the beginning of the while loop. This is necessary since the logical expression in the while
loop is tested before the actual loop is executed.

Consider the following example:

using namespace std;
int main()
int Num;
char Choice;
cout<< Enter a number : ;
if(Num%2==0) cout<< Even Number<<endl;
cout<< Odd Number <<endl;
Cout<<Wish to continue[Y/N]: ;
} while(Choice=='Y');
// Test Expression
return 0;
for Iterative Construct

For looping construct is known for its neat and clean syntax. Unlike other loop in for loop all three
loop controlling statements (initialization, test condition and increment/decrement) are clearly
mentioned in the first line of it.
The general syntax is:
for( initialization; test condition; increment/decrement)
// statements to be executed in the body of the loop
The following example accepts a number and prints the table of that number
using namespace std;
int main()
int Ctr,Num;
cout<< Enter a number : ;
cout<< Num << * <<Ctr<< = <<Num*Ctr <<endl;
return 0;
Output :
Enter a Number : 9
9*1 = 9
9 * 2 = 18
9 * 3 = 27
9 * 4 = 36
9 * 5 = 45
9 * 6 = 54
9 * 7 = 63
9 * 8 = 72
9 * 9 = 81
9 * 10 = 90
Break Keyword
In the program flow when break statement encountered it terminate a loop or an switch block,
skipping the following statements in the block.
Continue Keyword
In the program flow when continue statement encountered it re-starts a loop, skipping the following
statements in the block.
The following program prints even numbers upto 8
using namespace std;

int main()
int Ctr;
if(Ctr%2!=0) continue;
if(Ctr==10) break;
cout<< Ctr <<endl;
return 0;
The output of the code is :


Understand operator

Different types of operators in C++

Type Of Operators
An operator is a symbol that tells the compiler to perform specific mathematical or logical
manipulations on variables or values. C++ is rich in built-in operators and provides the following
types of operators:

Arithmetic Operators

Comparison or Relational Operators

Arithmetic Assignment Operators

Logical Operators

Unary, binary and Ternary Operators

Arithmetic Operators
Arithmetical operators are used to perform an arithmetic (numeric) operation on variables and
Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20, then:

using namespace std;
int main()
int a=10,b=20;
return 0;
Comparison Operators
The comparison or relational operators are used to test the relation between two values. All
comparison operators are binary operators and therefore require two operands. A relational
expression returns zero when the relation is false and a non-zero when it is true.
Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20, then:

using namespace std;
int main()
int a=10;
int b=20;
bool c= a < b;
cout<<"Result is"<<c;
return 0;
Result is 1
Arithmetic Assignment Operators
Arithmetic Assignment operators are combination of both Arithmetic and Assignment Operators. It
assigns value to variable after arithmetic operation.

using namespace std;
int main()
int a=10;
cout<<"Value of a:"<<a;
return 0;
Value of a:11
Logical Operators
The logical operators are used to combine one or more relational expression.
Assume variable A holds 1 and variable B holds 0, then:

using namespace std;
int main()
int a=10;
int b=20;
int c=30;
bool x= (a < b) && (a < c);
cout<<"C is Largest Number:"<<x;
return 0;
Output :
C is Largest Number: 1
Unary Operators
Operators that operates on single operand are named as unary operators.
C++ provides unary operators like ++ ( increment) and (decrement) .
Increment(++) operator increments the value present in a variable by 1.
Decrement(- -) operator decrements the value present in a variable by 1.
Unary operators an operate from two different position
>> pre-fix when operator placed before a variable. For example (++Count)
>> post-fix when operator placed after a variable. For example(Count++)
The difference in result is explained in the following example.
using namespace std;
int main()
int a=10;

// prints 11
// prints 10;

//pre-fix , so a incremented first
cout<<a<<endl // prints 11;
cout<<b<<endl // b gets the incremented value
// prints 11.
// a value reset to 10
// post-fix, so assignment first
cout<<a<<endl; // prints 11
cout<<b<<endl; // prints 10;
return 0;
Sometimes, binary operators can act as unary operator.

Here plus sign (+) and minus sign (-) are unary because they are not used between two variables.
Ternary Operator
The C++ programming language provides another Boolean operator that can be
extremely useful in certain situations: the ?: operator.
The ?: operator is written in two parts and requires three operands. The general form of the
operation is
(condition) ? exp1 : exp2
When a C++ program encounters the ?: operator, it first evaluates the condition. If the condition
turns out to be true, exp1 is evaluated and used as the value of the entire expression if the condition
is false, the value is the result of evaluating exp2.
For example, we can use the ?: operator to assign to max either the value of x or the value of y,
whichever is greater, as follows:
max = (x > y) ? x : y;
Operator precedence and associativity
Operator precedence determines which operator will be performed first in a group of operators with
different precedences.
For example , the expression , 5 + 3 * 2 is calculated as 5 + (3 * 2), giving 11, and not as (5 + 3) * 2,
giving 16.
The operator associativity rules define the order in which adjacent operators with the same
precedence level are evaluated.
For example , the expression 8 - 3 - 2 is calculated as (8 - 3) - 2, giving 3, and and not as 8 - (3 - 2),
giving 7. In this case we say that subtraction is left associative meaning that the left most subtraction
must be done first.
Following table shows the operator precedence and associativity:

1.3. Pointers and Functions


Understanding Functions

Function Prototyping

Function Definition

Function Calling

Function call by value and call by reference

Pre-Defined Functions

String Handling Functions

Understanding Functions
The function is a self contained block of statements which performs a coherent task of same kind.
It is required to invoke or call functions. When a function is called in a program, the program control
goes to the function body. Then, it executes the statements which are involved in a function body.
Therefore, it is possible to call function whenever we want to pro cess the statements in the
Types of Functions
There are two types of functions as:

Built in Functions

User Defined Functions

Built in Functions also called as 'library functions' are the functions are the functions provided by
system. These functions are stored in library files.
e.g. cout, cin, maths functions, power()
User defined functioons are the functions defined by the user.
The advantage of creating functions are
>> To make the program more understandable
>> To modularize the tasks of the program
>> Write a module once use several time
Function Prototype
Functions should be declared before they are used. The declaration of a function is called function
prototype. Function prototype gives compiler information about function name, type of arguments to
be passed and return type.
The typical syntax for function prototyping is:
return_type function_name(datatype1 [,datatype2...] );
For example,
int add(int, int);

is a function prototype which provides following information to the compiler:

>> Name of the function is add()
>> return type of the function is int.
>> Two arguments of type int are passed to function.
Function prototype are not required if the definition of the function is written before main() function.
Function Definition
Function definition contains programming codes to perform specific task.
Syntax of function definition
return_type function_name(datatype1 argument1 [,datatype2 argument2)
//body of function
Function Calling
Function call is the statement which triggers the code in function body to execute.
The following code illustrates function Prototyping, definition and calling.
using namespace std;
Int Max(int,int);
// Function Prototyping
int main()
int Num1,Num2,Res;
cout<< Enter 1st Number :;
cout<< Enter 2nd Number :;
// Function Calling
cout<< Bigger one is <<Ras<<endl;
return 0;
int Max(int x,int y)
// Function Definition
return ( (x>y) ? x : y ) ;
Call by Value ,Call by Reference and Call by Pointer
By default, C++ uses call by value method to pass arguments to functions. In this method the value
of arguments are copied into the formal parameter of the called function.
If any changes made to the parameter inside the called function, the changes are not reflected in
calling function argument.
Consider the following programs demonstrating call by value and call by references .
using namespace std;
void Swap(int,int);
int main()
int Num1,Num2;
cout<< Enter two Numbers :;

cout<< After swap in main;
cout<< 1st Num= <<Num1<< ; 2nd Num=<<Num2;
return 0;
void Swap(int a,int b)
int c=a;
cout<< After swap in swap;
cout<< 1st Num= <<a<< ; 2nd Num=<<b;
Output :
Enter two Numbers: 20 30
After swap in swap 1st Num= 30; 2nd Num=20;
After swap in main 1st Num= 20; 2nd Num=30;
Call by reference means to pass the reference of an argument in the calling function to the
corresponding formal parameter of the called function. The called function can modify the value of
the argument by using its reference passed in. The arguments in the function are declared as a
reference variable, hence when the function is called, the value of the arguments are not copied to
the formal parameter. Formal parameters are used as a reference.
For example,
using namespace std;
void Swap(int &,int &);
int main()
int Num1,Num2;
cout<< Enter two Numbers :;
cout<< After swap in main;
cout<< 1st Num= <<Num1<< ; 2nd Num=<<Num2;
return 0;
void Swap(int &a,int &b)
int c=a;
cout<< After swap in swap;
cout<< 1st Num= <<a<< ; 2nd Num=<<b;
Output :
Enter two Numbers: 20 30
After swap in swap 1st Num= 30; 2nd Num=20;
After swap in main 1st Num= 30; 2nd Num=20;

The call by pointer method of passing arguments to a function copies the address of an argument
into the formal parameter. Inside the function, the address is used to access the actual argument
used in the call. This means that changes made to the parameter affect the passed argument.
For example the function definition to swap the values.
void swap(int *x, int *y)
int temp;
temp = *x; /* save the value at address x */
*x = *y; /* put y into x */
*y = temp; /* put x into y */
Pre-Defined Functions
In C++ language there are many pre-defined functions available which are grouped in different
libraries that can be included in the C++ program, e.g.
>> Math functions are declared in <math.h>
>> Character-manipulation functions are declared in <ctype.h>
>> The string function are declared in <cstring.h>
Some of the math and character functions are listed below:

String Handling Functions

C++ provides rich set of string handling functions

Pointers in C++

Concept of Pointers

Declaration of Pointer

Relation between pointer and array.

Pointer Arithmetic

Difference between pointer and reference

Using Pointer in function call

Concept of Pointers
When we declare a variable such as
char Grade='A';
A memory location is allocated to the program which is reffered by a name Grade, and value stored
in the memory location is the charecter A.
The value of the variable can be accessed by some other way, with the help of the address of the
variable, using pointer.
A pointer is a special type of variable that can store other variable's address. An address of a
variable can be extracted by ampersand (&) operator
Declaration of Pointers
char *Ptr; // A pointer declared that can store
// address of a char type variable
Ptr = &Grade; // Pointer Ptr is now
//pointing (storing the address of ) variable Grade
cout<< Grade; // Prints A, accessing value of variable Grade

cout<<*Ptr; // Prints A, accessing value of variable Grade

// through Pointer Ptr.
*Ptr='B'; // Updates the value of variable Grade to B;
Relation between Pointer and Array
The name of the array is a pointer and it points to the first element of the array.
Lets check the array declaration
int Arr[5]={20,50,3,578,88};
The name of the array Arr is a (constant)pointer which stores the address of Arr[0]
Now, consider the declaration of an integer pointer
int *Ptr;
So, the following line will be valid because both are of same type, pointer to integer
cout<<*Ptr; // Prints 20, the first element of the array.
cout<<*Ptr; // Prints 50, Arrays are contiguous memory location
Arr++ ;

// Generates error, array's are constant pointers.

Pointer Arithmetic
It is possible to perform certain arithmetic operations on pointers.
Consider a pointer declaration:
char *Ptr=&x;
It is possible to add and subtract numbers from the pointer as below:
Ptr = Ptr + 1 ; // Ptr now pointing
//value present in next address

// Ptr pointing value present in previous addr.


// same as *(Ptr++): increment pointer,

// and dereference address


// Same as ++(*Ptr): dereference pointer,

// and increment the value it points to

Operations not allowed on Pointers

The list of operations not allowed on pointers are

Addition of two addresses.

int var=10,var2=90;
int *ptr1=&var;
int *ptr2=&var2;
int sum=ptr1+ptr2 , will produce compilation error.

Multiplying two addresses.

Example :
int var=10,var2=90;
int *ptr1=&var;

int *ptr2=&var2;
int sum=ptr1* ptr2 , will produce compilation error.

Division of two addresses.

int var=10,var2=90;
int *ptr1=&var;
int *ptr2=&var2;
int sum=ptr1 / ptr2 , will produce compilation error.

Modulo operation on pointer.

int var=10,var2=90;
int *ptr1=&var;
int *ptr2=&var2;
int sum=ptr1 % ptr2 , will produce compilation error.

Bitwise AND,OR,XOR operations .

NOT operation.

Difference between Pointer and References

It is very easy to get confused with Pointer and reference variable in c++. They both uses the
ampersand(&) operator slightly different way.
A reference is an alias, or an alternate name to an existing variable. They are declared as :
int Num=50;
int &Ref=Num;
After created and initialized pointers can point to other variable, but Reference are once initialized
cannot be re-referenced.
To extract the value from pointer de-reference(*) operator is used, value from reference variable can
be extracted just like any other variable
Using pointer in function call
By default C++ performs only call by value, however, if a called function is to change the value of an
object defined in the calling function, it can be passed a value which is a pointer to the object. The
called function can then dereference the pointer to access the variable indirectly.
A function can return one value only to the calling program, another utility of using pointers as return
value from a function is, a called function can effectively return several values.
Dangling Pointer
A pointer pointing to non existing memory location is called dangling pointer.
Dangling pointers are created when an object is deleted or deallocated, without modifying the value
of the pointer, so that the pointer still points to the memory location of deallocated memory.
For example,
char *ptr= new char[10];
free(ptr); // ptr now becomes dangling
To ensure pointer will not becom dangling, after deallocationg memory, pointer needs to be
initialised to NULL.

Pointer To Pointer
We can create a pointer for any variable we define. We can create a pointer to an int,to a char, or to
any structure we create. Similarly. We can create a pointer to a pointer.
Pointer is a variable which holds the address of some other variable .A pointer to a pointer is a form
of multiple indirection or a chain of pointers.
When we define a pointer to a pointer, the first pointer contains the address of the second pointer,
which points to the location that contains the actual value as shown below.
Declaration of a pointer to pointer
int **ptr;
int *ptr1, int var1;

1.4. Good Programming Practises


To understand what is good programming practise and what is the use of practising the

To understand the attributes of good programming

1.2 Introduction
Good programming practices are techniques that a programmer can follow to create the best code
or program. Some rules need be followed to facilitate both initial development and subsequent
maintenance and enhancement of a software by people other than the original authors.
Good programming practices are programming practices, that cover everything from making a code
more readable, modification in code becomes easy.
In industries, software engineering teams often follow a style guide to maintain a consistency among
software projects to enforce a discipline which improves the quality of software, reusability , fewer
bugs and easier to use and maintain.
The attributes associated with good software are:





To achieve these attributes, following good programming practices is important.

1.3 Good Programming Practices
Good Programming Practices Includes the following:
1.3.1 Documentation

Comment your code such that it is clear what the code does.

You should be able to figure out your code years after its written.

A good programmer should be able to figure out what your code does from your comments.

Documenting a function or procedure includes:

A description of what the procedure does

Type of arguments -> type of return value

Constraints that need to be satisfied by arguments (requires clause)

Expected state of computation at key states

You should also include notes on what a particular chunk of code does if it may be confusing
to a reader.
To implement this GPP, we should include contract, purpose, example and assumptions and
test cases in functions or procedures.

For example:
/* Contract:summationOfThreeNumbers:number number number----->number
Purpose : To find the summation of three numbers.
Example : summationoOfThreeNumbers(20,10,30)---->expected output is 60
Assumption: The input numbers should be positive and less than equal to 100.
In case of invalid input, the function will return -1.
Header : summationOfThreeNumbers(int number1,int number2,int number3)....
Test cases: summationOfThreeNumbers(10,20,30)------>expected output 60
summationOfThreeNumbers(-10,20,30)------>expected output -1
summationOfThreeNumbers(200,10,20) ----->expected output -1

Developing a case convention for the code

Naming convention
While naming an identifier (variable,function, constsnt etc...).
Use a consistent style regarding lower and upper case letters.
1) In case of variables ,functions and procedures , the name should be in lower case and in case a
variable name has more than one word, the first letter of the second word should be in upper case.
For example: score. personAge, employeeBasicSalary
2) Class name should start with a upper case letter and should be a noun phrase
Example : Person, Student, StudentRegister
3) Function or procedure name and the names of methods in a class should be a verb phrase.
Example: findSum,calculateSalary,registerEmployee etc..
4) In case of OOP, the file name having a class declaration or definition should reflect the class
name. While the class name typically starts with a capital letter, the header file and source files
typically begin with lower case letters.
For example, file classBase.h will contain the declaration of the class ClassBase{} and
classBase.cpp will contain the definition to it's functions.
5) Initialize variables at the time of declaration.
6) Remove any unused variables in the program.
Use variable names that have substantive meaning.
Should select a variable name so that it communicate the named object's purpose to the reader.
Should avoid one character identifier.
For Example, to store the age of a person, personAge instead of a or ag .
To enhance the readability of the code proper indentation is must.
For clarity,
Indent each level of code.
Use appropriate white-space in programs, and do so in a consistent fashion to make them easy to
Use proper indentation for loops so that reader can easily read it.
Where ever required, use paranthesis.
For Example:

1.3.4 Portability and Modularity

Program code should never contain "hard-coded",i.e.literal, values referring to environmental

parameters, such as absolute file paths, file names, user names, host names etc . Otherwise
the application will not run on a host that has a different design than anticipated. Such
variables should be parametrized, and configured for the hosting environment outside of the
application, may be in a configuration file.

When referring to an include file within either another include file or source file, do not nclude
the full path to avoids portability problems created by operating system dependent methods
of referencing directory paths. Use compiler command line flags to include the path. (i.e.

Split classes into a header file(.h) and source file(.cpp). Header file contains the class
declaration, along with the declarations of its member functions, without the implementations
of those functions. Put the implementations into a separate .cpp file which can be compiled
and linked separately. .

Should not use global variables.

Divide the program into sub programs or functions and each sub program should perform
only one task.

Function should not be longer than 60 lines.

1.3.5 Simplicity
The code that a programmer writes should be simple. Complicated logic for achieving a simple thing
should be kept to a minimum since the code might be modified by another programmer in the future.
The logic one programmer implemented may not make perfect sense to another. So, always keep
the code as simple as possible.

1.5. User Defined Datatypes

1.1 Objective
To have a understanding of user defined data types
To understand the use of user defined datatypes in C++
To be able to understand how to declare and use user defined datatypes in C++
1.2 Introduction
C++ has a set of primitive data types , but these are not sufficient to handle real world problems . C+
+ allows programmers to create and use data types defined by them . These types are called userdefined data types.
Programmers can create or define user defined data types by using simple, derived , user defined
data types as per the user requirement. The user has to decide the functionality and behavior of
these data types.
The user defined datatypes we can create are:
1.3 Structures
A structure is a set of values that can be referenced collectively through a variable name. The
components of a structure are referred to as members of a structure. A structure is a template for a
new data type whose format is defined by the programmer.
Structures allow :
To group data items of dissimilar data types
For the storage, in contiguous areas of memory, of associated data items.
The general form of a structure template is:
struct [tag]
tag is the name of the structure and is optional and only needs to be present if no variable is
members are variables declared as any C supported data type or composed data type. Each
member-declaration has the form data-type member-declaration.
A structure template does not occupy any memory space and does not have an address, it is simply
a description of a new data type. Storage is allocated for the structure when a variable of that
structure type is declared .
For example , to create a structure to represent student related informations the definition will be as:
struct Student
{ int rollNumber;
char * name;
float score;
Now Student is a data type and we can declare a variable of this type as follows:
Student myStudent;
To access individual members of a structure, the dot operator is used to connect a variable name

with an element in the structure. For example to represent the name of the student.
Structures can be initialised while declaring the variable.
Student myStudent={35,Rajendra,90};
Values are assigned to individual members of the structure by using the structure variable name
connected with the structure member name .
1.4 Union
Union is a user defined data type like structure. Unions are conceptually similar to structures. They
also allow us to group together dissimilar type elements in a single unit. But there is a significant
difference between the two.
The size of a structure is equal to the sum of the sizes of individual member types. But the size of a
union is the size of its largest data member .
In union , at most one data member can be active at a time as same memory space is used for
representing different member elements.
A union can be declared as:
union Student
{ int rollNumber;
char * name;
float score;
1.5 Enumerated Data Types
Enumerated types are types that are defined with a set of custom identifiers, known as enumerators,
as possible values. Objects of these enumerated types can take any of these enumerators as value.
The key word enum is used to create a enumerated data type.
Syntax is enum tagname {value1,value2,...};
For example,
enum shape{triangle,circle,square,rectangle};
enum colour{red,blue,green};
The tag names shape and colour has become data types. The possible values that variables of this
new type shape or color may take are the enumerators listed within braces.
Values of enumerated types declared with enum are implicitly convertible to the integer type int, and
vice versa. In fact, the elements of such an enum are always assigned an integer numerical
equivalent internally, of which they become an alias. If it is not specified otherwise, the integer value
equivalent to the first possible value is 0, the equivalent to the second is 1, to the third is 2, and so
on... Therefore, in the data type colors defined above,red would be equivalent to 0, blue would be
equivalent to 1 and green to 2 .
We can declare variables of these types as :
shape myShape;
colour myColor;
1.6 Class
In object-oriented programming language C++, a class is used to club together the data and
functions , the procedures to manipulate the data. A class is an extended concept similar to that of
structure. A class describes both the properties (data) and behaviors (functions) of objects.Classes
are not objects, but they are used to instantiate objects.

1.6. Storage Classes

1.1 Objective
To have a fundamental understanding of storage classes
To understand what are their usages
To be able to understand the storage class specifiers in C++
1.2 Introduction
When we write a program we create multiple files and in these files we use different variables. We
may have normal variables, array, functions, structures, unions, classes etc. These variables and
objects declared must have the visibility, the lifetime and the storage, when values assigned to them.
The storage classes are used to specify
The lifetime or the longivity of the variableand scope of variables.
The scope or accessibility of the variable.
The lifetime or longevity of the variable refers to the length of time the variable exists within the
The scope or accessibility of the variable relates to the portion of the program that has access to the
Thus the storage cIass tells the compiler the duration and visibility of the variables or objects
declared, as well as, where the variables or objects should be stored.
1.2.1 Types Of Storage Class
There are five different types of storage classes that can be used in C++.
Automatic : The variables we declare or define within the function body are called automatic
variables. The scope of these variables are only within the function they are declared. The keyword
auto is used to declare automatic variables. By default, the variables defined inside a function are
automatic variables. Since the variables declared in functions are automatic by default, this keyword
may be dropped in the declaration.
For example: auto int x, y, z = 30;
int x, y, z = 30;
External : These are the variables that are recognized globally while declared locally. That is the
variable is declared in a function or file but can be accessed by a code in another file. Using the
keyword extern an external variable can be declared within a function but can be accessed by other
code in other files.
The external storage class is most commonly used when there are two or more files sharing the
same global variables or functions as explained below.

Register : When we need variables for quick access , this storage class is used. Register storage
class is used to define local variables that should be stored in a register instead of RAM. As registers
are faster than RAM, the access to these variables will be as fast as possible. The keyword register
is used to declare a register variable and these variables are like automatic variables, local to the
function in which they are declared. Defining certain variables to be register variables does not,
however, guarantee that they will actually be treated as register variables. Registers will be assigned
to these variables by compiler so long as they are available. If a register declaration cannot be
fulfilled, the variables will be treated as automatic variables.
For example: register int counter=0;
Static : If we want to declare a variable whose lifetime schould be the lifetime of the program, we
should use static storage class. static is the keyword used to declare a static variable.
The static storage class instructs the compiler to keep a local variable in existence during the lifetime
of the program instead of creating and destroying it each time it comes into and goes out of scope.
Therefore, making local variables static allows them to maintain their values between function calls.
Static variables are local variables that retain their values throughout the lifetime of the program. In
other words, their same (or the latest) values are still available when the function is re-invoked later.
Their values can be utilized within the function in the same manner as other variables, but they
cannot be accessed from outside of their defined function. If the static modifier is be applied to global
variables, it causes that variables scope to be restricted to the file in which it is declared.In C++,
when static is used on a class data member, it causes only one copy of that member to be shared by
all objects of its class.
For example:
Let us consider a code snippet as follows:
#include <iostream.h>
void addOne();
void main()
void addOne ()
static int number= 0;

cout << number is << number<<endl;

The output is :
number is 1
number is 2
number is 3

1.7. Exception Handling

To understand what is exception and how to handle it

the try block

the catch block

An error typically refers to a problem that exists in a program when it is written and compiled. It could
be a logic error that will result in incorrect results. In this case, the code is correct but the algorithm
has an error.
Exceptions are errors or anomalies that occur during the execution of a program. They can be the
result of unavailability of system resources, such as memory, file space, channels or from data
dependent conditions such as a divide by zero, or numerical overflow. Exceptions tend to be rare
events but are predicable.
Exception Handling
Given that exceptions are somewhat predicable, next question is how should our programs handle
Broadly, there are three types of responses we can take

Not handle the exception. Allow the program to die or core dump.

Issue a warning. Print out some type of error message, probably at the spot in the code
where the exception occurred and then exit.

Handle the exception gracefully and continue executing.

Next question we may have is should the same section of code be raising the exception and
handling the exception?
Suppose an exception occurs in allocating memory. Possibilities can be,

Should the function or method that attempted the allocation be the one to handle it? Can it?

Probably some other, higher level, section of code will have the information necessary to
decide how to handle the exception.

May be different programs using the same classes and methods will handle exceptions

This points to a separation of the creation of an exception and its handling. The method in which an
exception occurs could just alert its caller. This allows code that raises exceptions to be developed
separately from code that handles them. If we pass exceptions up to calling routines, it is necessary
to have a way to bundle information.
The C++ exception mechanism handles both these features.

Exceptions may be raised and handled in different sections of code.

Any object, including class objects may be passed back to the handler of an exception.
These objects can contain data and methods to assist in handling the exception.

The section of code that causes or detects a run-time abnormality (divide by zero, out of
memory) will "throw" an exception. The exception is the object that is thrown.

The exception is "caught" by another section of code. The exception object, itself, is used to
convey information from the section of code that throws the object to the section of code that
catches the object.

This separation of exception creation and exception handling is very significant.

Suppose an exception occurs in a library routine. That routine cannot know how to respond in a way
that is appropriate for your program.

In some cases the appropriate response might be to terminate the program.

In other cases, the appropriate response might be a warning message.

In others, maybe the exception can be caught and disregarded

Exception Handling In C++

C++ exception handling is built upon three keywords: try, catch, and throw.

throw: A program throws an exception when a problem shows up.This is done using a

catch: A program catches an exception with an exception handler at the place in a program
where you want to handle the problem. The catch keyword indicates the catching of an

try: A try block identifies a block of code for which particular exceptions will be activated. It's
followed by one or more catch blocks.

Assuming a block will raise an exception, a method catches an exception using a combination of
thetry and catch keywords. A try/catch block is placed around the code that might generate an
exception. Code within a try/catch block is referred to as protected code, and the syntax for using
try/catch looks like the following:
For example :

The exception thrown in this example is of type int and the catch block contains logic to decode this
value and print an appropriate error message.
This is bad design because it requires the catch block and its programmer to implement possibly
complex logic and to be aware of possible exception codes.
An exception can be any type of object. Since we can throw any type of object, let's try throwing the
error message string itself, rather than an exception code.
For Example,

This is a better approach . The catch block no longer needs detailed knowledge about the
exception. The piece of code that throws the exception is passing details of the exception also, in
this case an error message. Now suppose that we need to bundle a message, and exception code,
and the values of some of the variables within the exception. A user-defined exception class can be
used in this case.
Using a class object as an exception is standard for C++. Let's see how it's done.
#include <iostream>
#include <string>
using namespace std;
//Exception class
class DivideByZero {
DivideByZero(int n, int d) : num(n), denom(d), message("Divide by zero") {}
~DivideByZero() {}
int getNumerator() {return num;}
int getDenominator() {return denom;}
string getMessage() {return message;}
int num;
int denom;

string message;
//main () from where exception is thrown
int main()
int x = 5;
int y = 0;
int result;
try {
if (y == 0) {
throw DivideByZero(x, y);
result = x/y;
catch (DivideByZero e) {
cout << e.getMessage() << endl;
cout << "Numerator: " << e.getNumerator() << endl;
cout << "Denominator: " << e.getDenominator() << endl;
cout << "Goodbye" << endl;
return 0;
int main()
int x = 5; int y = 0;
int result;
try {
if (y == 0) {
throw DivideByZero(x, y);
result = x/y;
catch (DivideByZero e) {
cout << e.getMessage() << endl;
cout << "Numerator: " << e.getNumerator() << endl;
cout << "Denominator: " << e.getDenominator() << endl;
cout << "Goodbye" << endl;
return 0;
Another Example Stack Class
In order to further demonstrate the use of exceptions in C++, we will develop and use a simple stack
class. Data is "pushed" onto the stack and "popped" off.
Our stack will have the following limitations.
It will be of fixed size.
It will throw a stack overflow exception if an attempt is made to push data onto a
full stack.
It will throw a stack empty exception if an attempt is made to pop data off an empty stack.
#include <iostream>
#include <string>

using namespace std;

class DivideByZero {
DivideByZero(int n, int d) : num(n), denom(d), message("Divide by zero") {}
~DivideByZero() {}
void getMessage()
cout << message << endl;
cout << "Numerator:" << num << endl;
cout << "Denominator: " << denom << endl;
int num;
int denom;
string message;
class StackOverflowException {
StackOverflowException() {}
~StackOverflowException() {}
void getMessage()
cout << "Exception: Stack Full" << endl;
class StackEmptyException {
StackEmptyException() {}
~StackEmptyException() {}
void getMessage()
cout << "Exception: Stack Empty" << endl;
// A very crude stack class intended only to illustrate exceptions.
class CrudeStack {
CrudeStack() : index(-1) {}
~CrudeStack() {}
void push(int val)
if (index >= 20)
throw StackOverflowException();
data[index] = val;
17 September 2008 TCS Internal 106

int pop()
if (index < 0)
throw StackEmptyException();
int val = data[index];
return val;
int data[20];
int index;
int divide(int num, int den)
if (den == 0)
throw DivideByZero(num,den);
return num/den;
int main()
CrudeStack stack;
int num; int den; int val;
cout << "Enter num: ";
cin >> num;
cout << "Enter den: ";
cin >> den;
try {
divide(num, den);
val = stack.pop();
cout << "popped " << val << endl;
val = stack.pop();
cout << "popped " << val << endl;
val = stack.pop();
cout << "popped " << val << endl;
catch (StackOverflowException e) {
catch (StackEmptyException e) {
catch (DivideByZero e) {
catch (...) {

cout << "An exception of unknown type occurred" << endl;

cout << "Goodbye" << endl;
return 0;
Stack Unwinding
When you enter any method (or function) all statically allocated local variables are created on the
When you exit a method, these variables are popped from the stack.
For example following is a code snippet.

In the code main calls functionA and that functionA calls functionB.
FunctionB will throw two exceptions, ExceptionType1 and ExceptionType2.
The flow is as follows

main calls functionA, which calls functionB.

Since functionB is passed a value less that zero, an exception of type ExceptionType1 is

Since no exceptions are caught in functionB, execution jumps out of functionB back to

FunctionB's variables are removed from the stack and any destructors for local objects are
called. This is unwinding the stack.

We are now in functionA. Again, it does not catch the exception, so its variables are removed
from the program stack.Any destructors for local objects are called.

The stack is further unwound. Now, we have reached main. Here, the exception is caught
and handled.

What would happen if main didn't catch the exception? This is the case with ExceptionType2.
Main's variables would be removed from the stack and any destructors would be called.

Since no handler is found, the terminate() system function is called and the program aborts.

This default is undesirable. Attempts should be made to catch and handle all exceptions.

C++ Standard Exceptions

C++ provides a list of standard exceptions defined in <exception> which can be used in programs.
These are arranged in a parent-child class hierarchy shown below:

Following table provides a brief description of the standard sexceptions in C++:

1.8. Introduction to Data Structures

Sorting and Searching
1.1 Objective
To have a fundamental understanding of sorting
To have a fundamental understanding of searching
To be able to implement bubble sort .selection sort, and insertion sort
To be able to implement sequential search and binary search.
1.2 Chapter Content
1.2.1 Overview of Sorting
Sorting is the process of arranging a list of values or records in a file or database in an order. For
example, a list of words could be sorted alphabetically or by length. A list of cities could be sorted by
population, by area, or by zip code.
Sorting is one of the most important operations performed by computers.
Sorting a large number of items can take a substantial amount of computing resources. A sorting
algorithm is related to the number of values being processed. For small collections, a complex
sorting method may not be effective, the overhead may be too high. On the other hand, for larger
collections, we want to take advantage of as many improvements as possible.
The generalised approach of a sorting process is
to compare two values to see which is smaller (or larger) for which have to have some systematic
way to compare values to see if they are out of order.
when values are not in the correct position with respect to one another, it may be necessary to
exchange them. This exchange is a costly operation and the total number of exchanges will also be
important for evaluating the overall efficiency of the algorithm.
the total number of comparisons is the most common way to measure a sort procedure. Bubble Sort
Compare 1st two elements and exchange them if they are out of order.
Move down one element and compare 2nd and 3rd elements. Exchange if necessary. Continue
until end of array.
Pass through array again, repeating process and exchanging as necessary.
Repeat until a pass is made with no exchanges.
For example , we have to sort the list of 5 numbers is given as follows in ascending order.

Advantage: Easy to understand and implement.

Disadvantage: Inefficiency makes it slow for large arrays Selection Sort
Selection sort
Locate smallest element in array and exchange it with element in position 0.
Locate next smallest element in array and exchange it with element in position 1.
Continue until all elements are in order.

A list is given as

Advantage : More efficient than Bubble Sort, due to fewer exchanges.

Disadvantage : Considered complex than Bubble Sort to understand. Insertion Sort
Insertion sort

Sorts the elements in place

Divides the data into a sorted and unsorted region.

Initially, the entire list is unsorted.

Then, at each step, the insertion sort takes the first item of the unsorted region and places
it into its correct position in the sorted region.

While some elements are unsorted:

Using linear search, find the location in the sorted portion where the 1st element of the
unsorted portion should be inserted .

Move all the elements after the insertion location up one position to make space for the
new element

A list is given as

5 2 4 6 1 3
At each iteration, the list is divided in two sub-lists:

1.2.2 Overview Of Searching

The process of looking up or finding a particular item or data from a large collection of items is
called searching. For example, consider the task of finding the phone number in the phone book of
someone whose name you know.

Two methods of searching are:

Sequential or Linear search

Binary search Introduction To Sequential Or Linear Search

When data items are stored in a collection such as a list, each data item is stored in a position
relative to the others and we say that they have a linear or sequential relationship. These relative
positions are the index values of the individual items. Since these index values are ordered, it is
possible for us to visit them in sequence. This process gives rise to the searching technique, the
sequential search.
Sequential search or linear search is the method for finding a particular value in a list, by checking
every one of its elements, one at a time and in sequence, until the desired valu or element is found.

The approach is
Start at first item
Check if it is the item looked for
If not go to next item
Repeat until found or all items checked
For example, When you pick-up a telephone directory to find the name "Vijay", open it to the first
page of names, then look at the first name. Is it "Vijay"? Probably not (it's probably a name that
begins with 'A'). Now look at the next name. Is it "Vijay"? Probably not. Keep looking at the next
name until you find "Vijay".
Note : If the list of items is not sorted or is not sortable this approach is necessary.
The advantage of linear search is
Easy to understand.
Easy to implement.
Does not require the list to be in order.
Disadvantage: Inefficient (slow), for a list of N elements, examines N/2 elements on average for
value that is found in the list, N elements for value that is not in the array.
To analyse the efficiency of any algorithms, we need to decide on a basic unit of computation, that
is , the common step that must be repeated in order to solve the problem. For searching, it is the
count of comparisons performed. Each comparison may or may not discover the item looked for. In
addition, another assumption is, the list of items is not ordered in any way. The items have been
placed randomly into the list. In other words, the probability that the item looked for , is in any
particular position, is exactly the same for each position of the list. Introduction To Binary Search
Binary search or half-interval search algorithm locates the position of an item in a sorted list of
items .
Binary search works as follows:
It requires the list to be in order .
The algorithm starts searching with the middle element.
If the item searched for is less than the middle element, it starts over searching the first half of the
If the item searched for is greater than the middle element, the search starts over starting in the
second half of the list.
It then continues halving the list until the item is found.

Advantage : Much more efficient than linear search. For list of N elements, performs at most log2N
Disadvantage : Requires that list of elements be sorted

1.9. Linked List, Stack and Queue

Overview of Data Structures
1.1 Objective

To have an understanding of data structures and its need

To have an understanding of stack and its implementation

To have an understanding of queue and its implementation

To have an understanding of linked list and its implementation

To have an understanding of binary tree and its implementation

1.2 Course Content

1.2.1 Introduction to Data structure
General query of the users of computer system are :

What to do when we have a large amount of data to deal with?

How to organize it in ways that are easy to understand?

How to be space efficient?

How to be time efficient?

Hardware Gives, just a bunch of uniform, individually addressable storage elements. How to bridge
the gap between the abstractions? Answer is ,use Data Structure.
Data structure is an agreement about:

How to store a collection of data or objects in memory.

What operations can be performed on those data or objects.

What algorithms can be used for those operations .

How time and space efficient those algorithms are.

Thus , data structure is the way how your data will be organized and arranged in your computer's
There are many data structure techniques that can be used such as
Linked Lists,
graphs etc.
However,all the above data structure techniques have different reasons of use. Some common
example of applications of Data Structure are:

How does Google quickly find web pages that contain a search term?

Whats the fastest way to broadcast a message to a network of computers?

How can a sub sequence of DNA be quickly found within the genome?

How does your operating system track which memory (disk or RAM) is free?

In the game Half-Life, how can the computer determine which parts of the scene are

1.2.2 Array
Array represents a

Homogeneous collection of values.

Store values sequentially in memory.
Associate index with each value.
Use array name and index to quickly access kth element for any k.

Arrays are used when the amount of memory to be allocated is already known in advance as arrays
are always statically allocated and also contagiously allocated in memory.
Advantages of using array are:

Concise and efficient method for large collection of homogeneous data.

Can get to each item quickly.
Index carries implicit information and takes no space.

Limitations of array are:

need to know size ahead of time of use.

usage up space for unused items.

1.2.4 Linked List Introduction
Linked list is a data structure consisting of a group of nodes which together represents a sequence
and can be used to implement abstract data types like
lists,stacks,queues,associative arrays etc.
Each node in a list contains two fields. A "data" field to store whatever element type the list holds
for its client, and a "next" field which is a pointer used to link one node to the next node. In special
cases(complex) a node can have more than one links.

The last node of a list points to NULL.

The front of the list is a pointer to the first node generally called head.
A list can grow or shrink in size during execution of a program.

Pictorial Representation Of a list containing elements 1,2 and 3 is :

A list with zero nodes is an empty list and the head pointer points to NULL.
Advantages of a linked list are :
Dynamic structure.
Insertion deletion is easy.
Allocates memory dynamically.
Limitations of a linked list are:
Accessing node is difficult.
Extra space is required for references or links.
Representation of Linked list in memory
consists of memory blocks (representing nodes) that are located at random memory blocks.
blocks/nodes are connected through pointers.
a block/node is represented through structure.
nodes are created by allocating memory to structures
Representation Of A Node:
a) As a structure :
structure Node { data type data;
struct Node *next;
e.g struct Student{ int rollNumber;
char name[10];
struct Student *next;
b) As a class : class Node{ data type data/element;
Node next;
e.g class Student{ int rollNumber;
string name;
Student nextStudent ;
Real Example of Use of Linked list

In C or C++ , to represent the polynomial X9+3x5+7 , a structure can be declared as follows:

struct node
{ int coefficient;
int exponent;
node *link;

Types of Linked Lists:

Singly linked list

Doubly linked list
Circular linked list

Basic Operations On Linked List :

- Creating a list
- Traversing the list.
- Inserting an item in the list.
- Deleting an item from the list.
- Concatenating two lists into one.
Creating A List:
To create a linked list , two data types are required:
: The type for the nodes which will make up the body of the list
Node Pointer: The type for pointers to nodes. This will be the type of the head pointer and the .next
fields inside each node.
Create a node (the first node) and make head point to it.
Assign NULL to the field next of the node. So, we get a list with one node only and this list is
pointed by head

Create another node and the address of this node is assigned to the next field of the previously
created node. Assign NULL to the field next of the new node.

Consider the structure of a node as follows:

Struct stud {
int roll;
char name[25];
int age;
structstud *next;
/* A user-defined data type called node */
Typedef struct stud node;
node *head;
head = (node *) malloc(sizeof(node));
/* To create the first node, and make head point to it.*/

If there are n number of nodes in the initial linked list:

Allocate n records, one by one.
Read in the fields of the records.
Modify the links of the records so that the chain is formed

Object Oriented Representation Of a linked List

Node as a classKnowing Responsibilities :
- Knows elements.
- Knows the link to the next node
Doing Responsibilities :
- getters
- setters

List As a Class:
Knowing responsibilities:
- Knows the head
- Knows the size
Doing responsibilities:
- Insert node
- Find node
- Delete node
- Find list size
Check list is empty or not
class LinkedList
Node head;
// head node of the list
long size;
// number of nodes in the list
// Default constructor that creates an empty list
public :
head = NULL;
size = 0;

// Other Methods
Traversing A List
head points to the first node of the list.
- follow the pointers.
- display the contents of the nodes as they are traversed.
- stop when the next pointer points to NULL.
Inserting a node
To insert at the beginning

create a new node.

made head point to the new node.

make new node point to the previously first element.

To insert in the middle

create a new node

make the previous node point to the new node.

make the new node point to the next node.

To insert at the end

create a new node

make the last node point to the new node.

make new node point to NULL.

Deleting an item from the list.

Traverse the list and find the item to be deleted.

The next pointer of the item immediately preceding the one to be deleted is altered, and
made to point to the item following the deleted item.

Time Complexity For Different

Single-linked lists support insertions and deletions at head in O(1) time

Insertions and deletion at the tail can be supported in O(size) time

Insertions at tail can be supported in O(1) if keep track of tail.

Doubly Linked List

A doubly linked list is a list that contains links to next and previous node.
Purpose of Doubly linked list
----------------------------There is a limitation of single linked list. The example is, let's assume we have total 25 nodes in
single linked list and currently we are at 23th node. If I want to see the value of 22th node, We can't
back traverse in single linked list as we have the pointer of next node only and must have to start
from 1st node.
Where as in case of doubly linked list, as we have previous pointer, we can traverse backward also.
In a doubly linked list

Each node keeps both a frontwards and a backwards reference.

Every node contains address of next node . Except the last node
Every node contains address of previous node. Except the first node
The list can be traversed either forward or backward.
Usually two pointers are maintained to keep track of the list, head and tail.

We can create a node of a doubly linked list of integers as follows in C++

class Node
int element; //element stored by a node
Node next, prev; // Pointers to next and previous nodes
/** Constructor that creates a node with given fields */
public :
Node(int e, DNode p, DNode n)
element = e;
prev = p;
next = n;
/*Returns the element of this node */
int getElement() { return element; }
/** Returns the previous node of this node */
Node getPrev() { return prev; }
/** Returns the next node of this node */
Node getNext() { return next; }
/** Sets the element of this node */ void setElement(Int newElem)
{ element = newElem; }
/** Sets the previous node of this node */
void setPrev(Node newPrev)
{ prev = newPrev; }
/** Sets the next node of this node */
void setNext(Node newNext)
{ next = newNext; }

};//end of class
A doubly linked list with nodes to store strings. can be defined as:
class DList
int size;// number of elements
Node head, tail;
void addFirst(Node n);
void addLast(Node n);
Node deleteFirst();
Node deleteLast();
void delete(Node n);
Effeciency of different operations on a doubly linked list :
O(1) time
O(1) time
deleteFirst() O(1) time
deleteLast() O(1) time
O(1) time
O(i) time Traversal In a Doubly Linked List
When traversing a doubly-linked list to prepare for insertion or deletion, there is no need to use both
a current and previous reference, each node has a built-in reference to the previous element. Insertion Of a Node in a Doubly Linked list Insert at the head
Original Doubly linked list:

After inserting a new node (E) at the head i.e. before A node:

As seen above, highlighted arrow between Head and A show the original
i.e. before adding E node.

Set next of new node point to what head s next points to

Set previous of node that heads next point to, to new node
Set previous of new node point to head
Set heads next point to new node.

link between A and Head Insert in the middle

Original doubly linked list:

After adding new node o in between i.e. between B and C.

As seen above, highlighted arrow between B and C shows the original link between B and C (i.e.
before adding O node).


Set next of new node point to what the node after which new node is to be insert eds next points
Set previous of the node that will be next to the new node to new node
Set previous of new node point to the node after which it I to be inserted
Set next of the node which precedes the new node point to new node. Insert at the end

Original doubly linked list:

Inserting new node o at the end end of doubly linked list:

As seen above, highlighted arrow between B and tail shows the original link between B and tail (i.e.
before adding O node).

Set next of new node point to tail.

Set previous of the new node to what tails previous points to.
Set next of the node which tails previous points to , to new node.
Set tails previous to new node. Delete a node from a doubly linked list Delete in the beginning
Original linked list and new doubly linked list after deleting A node:

As seen above, highlighted arrow between Head and A and A and B shows the original link
between head, A and B (i.e. before deleting A).

Set the next of the head to the node, the next of the node heads next points to.
Set the previous of the node which point to the node heads next points to, to the head Delete at the end

Original doubly linked list:

New doubly linked list after removing last node i.e. B

Set next of the node which is pointed by the previous of the node tails previous points to .
Set previous of the tail to the node , previous of the node tails previous points to.

Note: No longer need to traverse the list Deletion of the node in the middle
Original doubly linked list-based :

New doubly linked list i.e. after deleting B node

As seen above, highlighted arrow between A and B and B and C shows the original link between
A,B and C (i.e. before adding B node).
Set next of the node pointed by the previous of the node to be deleted to the node the next of the
node to be deleted points to.
Set the previous of the node which point the node to be deleted to the node pointed by the
previous of the node to be deleted. Circular linked list
In a circular linked list the pointer from the last node in the list points back to the first node.

Circular linked lists can be used to help the traverse the same list again and again if required.
The definition of the structure or class to represent a node is same as linear list. Primitive functions
in circular lists like insert , delete are are almost the same as linear list.
Basic operations in a circular linked list are:
Initialize list (to an empty state)
Find if list is empty
Destroy list,
Print list
Find the list length
Search for a given element
Insert item
Delete item,
Copy the list

Stack is a specialized data storage structure of Abstract data type.
In stack data is added and removed at only one end called the top.
It has two functions push ,to add an item to the stack and pop, to remove an item from the stack.
The last element that is pushed into the stack, is the first element to be popped out of the stack.
i.e., Last In First Out (LIFO).
Capacity of a stack stands for the maximum number of elements stack can hold.
Size of a stack stands for the current size of the stack .
Elements in the array / list of elements.

Application Of Stack
a) Real life applications
Pile of books, pile of plates etc.

b) Application related to computer science

Web browsers store the addresses of recently visited sites on a stack. Each time the user visits a
new site ==> pushed on the stack. Browsers allow to pop back to previously visited site.
The undo-mechanism in an editor. The changes are kept in a stack. When the user presses the
undo the stack of changes is popped.
The function-call mechanism. The active (called but not completed) functions are kept on a stack.
Each time a function is called, a new frame describing its context is pushed onto the stack. The
context of a method, its parameters, local variables, what needs to be returned, and where to return
(the instruction to be executed upon return).When the function returns, its frame is popped, the
context is reset to the previous method (now on top of the stack) and then program continues by
executing the previously suspended method .
In operating systems, for controlling access to shared system resources such as printers, files,
communication lines, disks and tapes.
Buffers on MP3 players and portable CD players, iPod playlist.
Programming a real-time system.
Representation Of Stack
a) Array Representation
In an array-based implementation the following fields are maintained
an array A of a default size ( 1),
the variable stackTop that refers to the top element in the stack
the maxStackSize that refers to the array size.

The variable stackTop starts from -1 to maxStackSize - 1.

a stack is empty when stackTop = -1,and the stack is full when top = maxStackSize-1.

b) Linked List Representation

Linked List-based implementation provides the dynamic stack implementation. From the efficiency
point of view , this is the best approach. It dynamically allocate memory using reference variable and
implement the stack dynamically.
StackTop is used to locate the top element. This is a reference variable.

A queue is an ordered list in which all insertions take place at one end, the rear, while all deletions
take place at the other end, the front.

Applications Of Queue
a) Real-world Applications:
Check-out lines.
Coin dispensers.
Vending machines.
Call center phone systems.
b) Application in Computer Science:
In operating systems, for controlling access to shared system resources such as printers, files,
communication lines, disks and tapes.
Buffers on MP3 players and portable CD players, iPod playlist.
Programming a real-time system.
Representation of Queue
a) Array representation of Queue
An array to store the queue elements
queueFront: keeps track of the first element
queueRear: keeps track of the last element
maxQueueSize: specifies the maximum size of the queues

Differences between Stack and Queue


Queue is a ordered collection of items.

Items are deleted at one end called front end of the queue.

Items are inserted at other end called rear of the queue.

The first item inserted is the first to be removed (FIFO).


Stack is a collection of items.

It allows access to only one data item: the last item inserted.

Items are inserted & deleted at one end called Top of the stack.

It is a dynamic & constantly changing object.

All the data items are put on top of the stack and taken off the top

This structure of accessing is known as Last in First out structure (LIFO)

b) Linked List representation of Queue

in a singly linked-list ,can delete at front and insert at end in O(1).
Note : A queue can be implemented efficiently with a circular array if we know the maximum number
of elements in the queue at any time.
1.2.4 Binary Tree
A tree is a data structure that is made of nodes and pointers, much like a linked list. The
difference between them lies in how they are organized:

The top node in the tree is called the root and all other nodes branch off from this one.
Every node in the tree can have some number of children. Each child node can in turn be the
parent node to its children and so on.
Child nodes can have links only from a single parent.
Any node higher up than the parent is called an ancestor node.
Nodes having no children are called leaves.
Any node which is neither a root, nor a leaf is called an interior node.
The height of a tree is defined to be the length of the longest path from the root to a leaf in that
tree ( including the path to root)
A common example of a tree structure is the binary tree.
Binary tree : A binary tree is a tree in which each node can have maximum two children. Thus
each node can have no child, one child or two children. The pointers help us to identify whether it is
a left child or a right child.
A binary tree consists of
a node (called the root node) and
left and right sub-trees . Both the trees are themselves binary trees.