Sie sind auf Seite 1von 16

The Digestive System

Robby Ackles, Jalen Chuang, Miles Goodman

Primary Question:

How do our nutritional habits affect the way in which our digestive system works (and how we perform as a result?)

Write down your thoughts in your notebooks!

What is the Digestive System? The digestive system is one of the main systems of the
What is the Digestive System?
The digestive system is one of the main systems of the human
body and serves to perform the process of digestion, where food
is broken down into substances that can be used by the body.
Some of the primary organs it contains are as follows:
● Mouth
● Esophagus
● Small Intestine
● Liver
● Stomach
● Large Intestine
Some of the accessory organs it contains include the teeth,
tongue, salivary glands, pharynx, gallbladder, and pancreas.
What is the Digestive System? The digestive system is one of the main systems of the
What is the Digestive System? The digestive system is one of the main systems of the
What does Digestion do? (Step-By-Step) ● Starts with mouth when food ingested at beginning of digestive
What does Digestion do? (Step-By-Step)
● Starts with mouth when food ingested at beginning of
digestive tract
● Solid food broken down through chewing
● Saliva then helps food transform to more digestible
substance
● Substance travels down throat to esophagus
● Stomach mixes, grinds substance to liquid or paste
● Small intestine takes nutrients from liquid, inserts into
blood
● Large intestine (colon) takes leftovers from digestive
system and turns it into feces
What does Digestion do? (Step-By-Step) ● Starts with mouth when food ingested at beginning of digestive
What does Digestion do? (Step-By-Step) ● Starts with mouth when food ingested at beginning of digestive

Endurance and the Digestive System

There are all kinds of aspects of the digestive system that are extremely significant and delicate.
There are all kinds of aspects of the digestive system that are extremely significant
and delicate. Under stress, the digestive system has much more trouble processing
nutrients and can also require more nutrients overall. Therefore, it is very important
to incorporate a nutritious diet into your everyday life. Genetic and non-genetic
diseases can also cause the digestive system to act similarly to as if it is under stress.
Focus: Celiac Disease & Endurance Celiac disease is a significant example of a way in which
Focus: Celiac Disease & Endurance
Celiac disease is a significant example of a way in which a disease in
the digestive system can affect endurance. Celiac disease stems from
lactose intolerance.
The importance of diagnosing Celiac disease is becoming increasingly prevalent in
our society, as the symptoms from it make it difficult for anyone who has it to be
active – and especially for athletes – significantly affects their everyday lives.

Celiac Disease

Negative reaction by body to consuming gluten (protein in wheat, barley, etc.) Cannot be cured – chronic Symptoms include diarrhea, bloating, gas, fatigue, anemia (lack of red blood cells) and/or osteoporosis (reduced bone mass) While it cannot be treated, a strict gluten-free diet can help to alleviate pain and other symptoms

Celiac Disease ● Negative reaction by body to consuming gluten (protein in wheat, barley, etc.) ●
Celiac Disease ● Negative reaction by body to consuming gluten (protein in wheat, barley, etc.) ●
Celiac Disease ● Negative reaction by body to consuming gluten (protein in wheat, barley, etc.) ●
Genetics ● Hereditary ○ how we inherit properties from our parents ● Possible properties include things
Genetics
● Hereditary
○ how we inherit properties from our parents
● Possible properties include things about our
digestive system
○ strength of system
● Controlled by many genes in cells
● Mutations in genes related to digestive system
can cause diseases
Celiac disease
■ DQ2 & DQ8 genes
○ Gluten intolerance
Genetics ● Hereditary ○ how we inherit properties from our parents ● Possible properties include things
Genetics ● Hereditary ○ how we inherit properties from our parents ● Possible properties include things

The 6 Primary Digestive Processes

Ingestion ● Process in which food is (in this order) ... ○ ○ ○ ○ Taken
Ingestion
● Process in which food is (in this order)
...
Taken into mouth
Chewed
Salivated
Swallowed
● Consists of mouth, teeth, saliva, etc.
● Serves to break up food and other substances into smaller pieces,
and lubricate for easier passage down GI tract
Secretion ● Release of fluids and particles (i.e., water, acid, buffers, enzymes) into area of digestive
Secretion
● Release of fluids and particles (i.e., water, acid, buffers, enzymes) into area of
digestive tract after being swallowed
● Process takes place within walls of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and accessory
organs, during other processes
● Involves secretion of substances essential for digestion, hence the name
Mixture/Propulsion of Fluids ● Swallowing of food – example of food movement being dependent on peristalsis
Mixture/Propulsion of Fluids
● Swallowing of food – example of food movement being dependent on peristalsis
● Peristalsis - series of wave-like muscle contractions that moves food to different
processing stations in the digestive tract
● Propulsion/movement of food relies heavily (if not completely) on the digestive
tract
Digestion ● Process that most organs contribute to, from mouth to stomach ● Mechanical digestion ○
Digestion
● Process that most organs contribute to, from mouth to stomach
● Mechanical digestion
○ Process of food preparation for food to endure further degradation by enzymes
○ Enzyme - catalyst that helps chemical reactions occur
○ Examples include:
■ mixing of food in mouth by tongue
■ churning of food in stomach
■ segmentation in small intestine
● Chemical digestion
○ Sequence of steps where large food molecules are broken down by enzymes
■ Process occurs in stomach
Nutrient Absorption ● Process in which nutrients and energy is absorbed into the bloodstream or cells
Nutrient Absorption
● Process in which nutrients and energy is absorbed into the bloodstream or cells
● Active during many parts of the digestive system
● Including nutrients (molecules) like:
Fats
○ Carbohydrates
Sugar
Starch
Fiber
Proteins
Amino acids
● Cannot digest some molecules
○ Cellulose - lack appropriate enzymes for breakdown
Excretion of Wastes ● Removal of indigestible particles from GI tract ○ takes form of urine
Excretion of Wastes
● Removal of indigestible particles from GI tract
○ takes form of urine (filtered from the blood) or feces
● Takes place on a periodical/consistent basis to maintain
normal levels in the body
○ Timing of defecation controlled by conscious part of brain
● Similar to other processes, excretion is essential to health of
all organisms

Thank you!

Information Sources:

Mesa Community College

University of Babylon

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney

Diseases - National Institute of Health

Video Contributions:

A special thanks to our interviewees ...

Dr. Jason Ken Hou, M.D., M.S. (Baylor College of Medicine) Jesse Fritsch (Professional Skater) Talia Hassid, MPH (Celiac Disease Foundation

Image Sources: ● ● KidsHealth Google Images (Clip Art)
Image Sources:
KidsHealth
Google Images (Clip Art)
Time for the activity!
Time for the
activity!