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CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM
Background of the Study

Libraries are our heritage. They have all the knowledge that
a person has acquired. Libraries innovates the civilization. They
also have to evolve, and look into the future, not only in the
past. Contemporary libraries around the world are now shaping the
way we gain knowledge from them. They offer enjoyment to books in
digital age and giving access to books in every possible form and
format. They are heading into the future, creating for their
patrons a more dynamic and a multi-level environment for learning
and pleasure (Kowalczyk, 2015).
Closing libraries is the behavior of a debased culture.
Libraries are not just a source of books. Most of us feel that
they symbolize something more. And when part of our civilization
is being destroyed we stand up against the barbarians (Pullman,
2011).
A library is many things. It's a place to go, to get in out
of the rain. It's a place to go if you want to sit and think. But
particularly it is a place where books live, and where you can
get in touch with other people, and other thoughts, through
books. If you want to find out about something, the information
is in the reference books - the dictionaries, the encyclopedias,
1

the atlases. If you like to be told a story, the library is the


place to go. Books hold most of the secrets of the world, most of
the thoughts that men and women have had. And when you are
reading a book, you and the author are alone together just the
two of you. A library is a good place to go when you feel
unhappy, for there, in a book; you may find encouragement and
comfort. A library is a good place to go when you feel unhappy
and when you feel bewildered or undecided, for there, in a book;
you may find encouragement and comfort and you may have your
question answered. Books are good company, in sad times and happy
times, for books are people people who have managed to stay
alive by hiding between the covers of a book (White, 1971 and
Cayetano, 2014).
Education

is

the

key

factor

in

the

development

and

advancement of a society. Each individual in a country should be


considered

as

an

asset

because

it

is

due

to

the

overall

contribution of human resources that a nation can progress and


advance. The human need for information is unlimited. People seek
information from different sources and format for undertaking a
variety of jobs and tasks. They use information for decision
making, discovering new phenomena, developing new techniques and
technologies,

and

improving

existing

knowledge

and

theories.

Academic institutions play a key role in society by preparing


future generations to use the acquired knowledge to fulfill their
2

responsibilities

more

effectively.

The

libraries

of

these

institutions serve a variety of users such as students, faculty,


administrators and staff with diverse information needs. Todays
library is powerhouse where information is stored, generated and
transferred to fulfill the users need. Nowadays scenario more
students surf the internet for information than going through the
library

resources,

as

it

is

less

complicated

and

readily

available (Shrestha, 2008).


As e-books and gadgets multiply, the physical book would be
appear to be threatened and also seem to be in danger. By the
looks of things, however, the library is not only here to stay
-it is being continually reinvented. The book mountain library of
Rotterdam is one of the most modern libraries around the world
that represents not only a clever way to organize physical tomes
and

public

circulation

but

also

to

provide

readers

more

comfortable way of learning (Brownell, 2012).


In Rotterdam Neitherlands, the library is designed as an
advert for reading; its visible presence and invitation are very
significant for a community with 10 percent illiteracy. From
underneath the glass dome (Kuppel) the library is visible from
all sides, especially from the next door market square where the
library appears as one big book mountain. From NYdailynews: a
public library enclosed in a glass case with bookshelves lining
every possible wall space has been opened. This gives a whole new
3

meaning to inspired reading spaces. Located in the central market


square of Spijkenisse, the Netherlands, the structure spans 2.3
acres and is topped off by an enormous glass pyramid. Books are
packed onto shelves running over 10,500 feet long. The numerous
platforms winding around the mountain are connected by a network
of

spiraling

stairs

that

allow

extended between two floors.

visitors

to

access

bookracks

At the apex of the mountain is the

reading room, which is flooded by light during the day and offers
sweeping views of the town. The library currently holds 70,000
books, with room for an additional 80,000 (dailynews, 2012).
In the Philippines, the Learning Commons of De La Salle
University (DLSU) opened last December 17, 2012 to the Lasallian
community. It is likened to a Habitable Tree because of its
environmental sensitivity though it is in the midst of the very
congested Taft Avenue. The library building is the first academic
structure in the country that is green and eco-friendly. The
Learning

Commons

boast

of

green

roof,

solar

panels,

pocket

gardens, and open areas. The buildings concept also exemplifies


the important role of DLSU to Philippine education and to natural
resources (Balitang Aklatan, 2013).
Public libraries are the only institutions in the world
whose primary function is to provide the public with free access
to books and other services for both children and adults.
growing

number

(at

least

in

the
4

U.S.

and

other

developed

countries) now also offer free use of computers to access ebooks.

In addition, some of them organize regular storytelling

and other programs that promote reading, appreciation of the arts


and

culture,

etc.

Like

parks

or

many

other

government-run

facilities, entry to public libraries and use of their materials


and

services

residence

are

or

free

to

the

general

nationality. However,

public,

the

current

regardless

of

situation

of

public libraries are under-funded, understaffed, poorly equipped,


or in bad physical condition. Many libraries in the Philippines
are reportedly stopped functioning and continue to exist only by
name (Philippine Daily Inquirer, 2013).
According to the latest available data from the National
Library of the Philippines as cited by Dioso (2010), there are
currently 688 public libraries in the country. There should be
many

more:

the

relevant

Philippine

law

(Republic

Act

7743,

enacted June 17, 1994) mandates the creation and operation of a


public

library

in

every

congressional

municipality throughout the country.

district,

city

and

On this basis there should

be a total of 1,851 libraries in all, one for each of the


countrys

220

municipalities.

congressional
The

fact

districts,

that

the

136

country

cities,
has

and

1,163

1,495
public

libraries less than what the law requires is a big problem that
needs prompt resolution.

Their absence alone affects some 40% of

our entire population, nearly 40 million people.


5

Their continued

absence deprives our children of a resource that could spell the


difference between a lives doomed to failure or one that promises
a brighter future. To children of means, the lack of public
libraries may not present as big a problem as to others:

they

can afford to buy books, newspapers and other reading materials


of

their

own,

themselves

and

but

what

can

therefore

about

the

sustain

other

reading

children,

the

habit

by

countless

millions who are poor or, worse, the poorest of the poor, whose
families struggle daily merely to get some food on the table.
These children obviously cannot afford to buy their own reading
materials.

For them, regular access to such materials can only

come from the public libraries. Diosio insisted that the obvious
solution is to build public libraries where they dont exist,
repair and improvement of the old existing one.
Environment and development are inseparable. In fact, it has
posited

that

environmental
reinforcing

economic
protection

pillars

of

development,
are

the

social

development,

interdependent

sustainable

development

and

and

mutually

(Johannesburg,

2002).
The Urdaneta City Public Library envisions itself to be
Pangasinans prime source of quality information services and be
the

center

for

educational

technology

in

the

community.

To

realize this vision, the library commits itself, in the years to


come to acquire more extensive and well balanced collection, to
6

enhance

research

techniques

through

automated

access

to

sophisticated tools such as CDROM products and online databases.


And the last one is to learn community needs through community
study and design services that are responsive to those needs. The
mission of Urdaneta City Public Library is to commit itself to
support

the

promoting

to

information
the

literacy

community

program

knowledge

in

and

impacting

understanding

and
by

providing access to the sources of information necessary for its


activities, to inspire love for reading and encourage interest in
research, to preserve the heritage the City has gathered through
its

history

and

to

build

collection

of

quality

library

materials that will help the community enrich their lives.


According to Gravela (2015), the main purpose of a library
is to sustain and provide information to people. It should have
adequate books and references, and a wide space for the readers
to become a conducive place for learning. She claims that the
Urdaneta City Public Library is one of the most outstanding
libraries in Pangasinan because of the achievements and awards
that they have garnered the past and the present years such as
the

most

outstanding

childrens

library

services

in

the

Philippines and the most outstanding libraries with services to


persons with disabilities (PWDs).
The Public library of Urdaneta City is subdivided into three
(3)

parts:

electronic

library,
7

childrens

library

and

the

research

center

to

meet

the

growing

needs

of

growing

constituency which the fastidious people of this favored place


may keep pace with the march of progress (Perez, 2013). The books
in

the

library

are

arranged

according

to

general

works,

religious, social science, language, natural science, technology,


arts,

literatures,

biography

and

history,

philosophy

and

psychology.
With the current status of Urdaneta City Public Library, the
researchers observed that the location is not a conducive place
for effective learning. It is located in front of Urdaneta City
Cultural

Center

vehicles

passing

where
by

noise

and

pollution

events

held

is
in

prevalent
the

same

due

to

building.

Originally, the library building is an office before that is why


it is not intended to accommodate a large number of clienteles
and it is not well-designed for effective place for learning. The
interior and exterior design of the existing public library of
Urdaneta City cant encourage the people to go in and to read
books. Interview with the City Librarian, and the City Engineer
verified that the City Government of Urdaneta is planning to
relocate and construct the Public Library to a better location.
However, the City Engineer stated that there is no existing
project proposal for the library (Macario and Gravela, 2015).

Thus, the researchers conducted a study entitled EnergyEfficient and Book Mountain Public Library of Urdaneta City as a
plan proposal for the construction of the old library.
Specifically, the researchers aimed to:
1. Identify the significant features of a new library.
2. Identify all energy-efficient equipment suitable for the
library.
3. Identify

the

total

cost

of

the

construction

of

the

library.
4. Determine the benefits of the project to the clienteles of
the

library,

to

the

environment

and

to

the

economy

upliftment of Urdaneta City as well as in the Philippines.

The Research study is important as it sought to answer the


problems encountered by the clienteles of the library to help
guide

the

researchers

in

designing

the

library

for

the

encouragement of public use of books. It is important to have an


insight about the role of the library in ones life. And also try
to find out the various aspects or the significant features of
the institution that motivate the clienteles in coming to the
library.

Theoretical Framework

Library

has

always

been

described

as

the

heart

of

the

university or of the society. It has been called the brain of the


academic body. Library has become so important that renowned
scholars judge the quality of education by the quality of library
service in the university. But in todays scenario the position
of the library in the academic institution does not seem to be
the

same.

With

information

and

the

development

communication

of

technology,

technologies

in

more

particular

comprehensive

relevant and easily searchable subject directories and search


engine like (e.g. Yahoo and Google) and ubiquity of the web have
resulted

in

generation

of

students

who

now

perceive

the

internet as the most familiar, convenient and expedient source of


information (Shrestha, 2008).
As technology in the world progresses and digital media
begins to take a primary role in the way we receive and disperse
information, libraries are now faced with having to re-evaluate
their place in society and how they serve the public. The Council
of

Library

believe

Resources

that

the

has

library

pointed
is

an

out

that

even

unchangeable

though

many

establishment,

destined to fade into disuse as more people rely on technology


than in reality, the information structure of the future has not
yet taken shape. The Council Library Resources also calls upon
architects who are concerned with the future of the library to

10

work with the structure of the library before one is imposed by


default (Hannah and Harris, 1996).
The library is still largely seen as a repository for books,
giving people the opportunity to research in the building or take
the books home for a period of time. According to Troll (2001) as
cited by Boddy (2006), library is a populist building type which
serves all classes, all ages, and all education levels. Boddy
highlights the library as the continued great equalizer of the
masses. However, as an institution for the masses, use of the
library by the public is declining. Other sources of information
are becoming readily available at the touch of ones fingertips.
It has been cited that a rapidly growing percentage of the use of
electronic library resources occurs outside of the library.
According to Professor Otto (1961) as cited by Koch (2004),
he argued that buildings should not be viewed or designed as
fixed structures into which people can be squeezed into. He
further put forward his viewpoint that buildings should grow
along with us, and be renovated in such fashion. Otto stated that
the

minimal

structural

material

developed

through

extensive

research was also present in the natural environment, and that it


was possible to utilize properties present within organists to
produce aspects of the membrane.
According

to

the

article

posted

by

the

United

States

Environmental Protection Agency (2009), buildings are human-made


11

structures that serve essential purposes for humankind: shelter,


protection

and

convenience.

recognized

beneficial

Unfortunately,

purposes,

these

in

human

spite

of

the

shelters

also

simultaneously pose significant threats to the environment and


health.
Californias Energy Efficiency Standards for buildings was
designed to reduce Californias energy demands by emphasizing
energy efficiency measures. By improving the energy efficiency,
Title 24 ensures that new buildings will require less energy and
will therefore lead to the release of fewer greenhouse gases. One
major way the new building reduces energy consumption is through
the use of natural light and automated lighting controls (Energy
Efficiency, 2015).
The study of Chaszar (2004) as cited by Goldsmith (2011),
entitled The Development of the Diagonally Braced Tube dealing
with

complexity

flexible

attitude

is

required

from

both

engineer and architect. Cited that in order to create a visually


simple, yet complex object such as the thin double curved Heysel
canopy, it was necessary that the engineer would consider the
architectural

of

each

design

step

and

the

architect

the

structural. When the complexity is intended to be perceived as


evident,
aspects

thinking
would

be

of

architecture

dysfunctional.

and

structure

Structural

as

systems

separate
used

to

realize architectural designs can have such significant impact on


12

the

finished

building

appearance

and

spatial

qualities.

Structural systems used to realize architectural designs can have


such significant impact on the finished building appearance and
spatial qualities.
According to Cairney (2011), in the mix of literature and
digital media today, it is imperative that we avoid the folly of
extreme deconstructive postmodernism which is to argue that all
text are equal; to say that a facebook post, a poem, a newspaper
article, a blog, a bumper sticker, and a journal article are all
equal in value. On the other hand, it seems that a facet of this
idea must be used when designing a new library. In order to make
the building and institution relevant, it will be crucial to give
importance to all forms of information, whether they are paper
books, digital journals, e-books, or documentaries. These sources
of information have all become highly relevant in society, and
each person has a preference towards which type they enjoy to use
the most. In order for the library to flourish and in order for
paper copies of books to survive, the books must relinquish the
full spotlight as the main draw of the library and develop a
symbiotic

relationship

with

their

digital

counterparts,

as

opposed to fighting for dominance. For if this remains the case,


in what has been coined the digital age, it is possible that
books would eventually lose the fight.

13

The study by Lisa Christine Ostlund (2012), entitled The


New Modern Library is very similar to the researchers topic. It
focuses on the relationship between a building and its contents,
how this affects the layout and appearance of the building and
changing needs of a typology. The typology used in determining
this relationship is the library. She stated in her study that
buildings have the ability to focus the attention of the public.
Even when things such as books and the internet have different
values

in

todays

society,

well-designed

library

has

the

ability to sustain a balance and give equal importance to all of


its contents. The change from books to digital media in society
has affected the use of the library and its importance in the
public eye. The building must adapt to the new forms of media
taking precedence. A multi-level environment in libraries can
create a sense of balance between old and new media.
According to The US Department of Energy, their vision for
Energy Smart Schools is to form a national partnership to cut
energy bills in schools and reinvest the savings in educating the
nations most valuable resource the children. The plan is to
invest in books not BTUs. They become empowered to research their
school environment and make recommendations for changes. They
begin by focusing on the energy saving and pollution preventing
opportunities.

building

that

is

badly

designed

and

poorly

maintained wastes money. This is because the building components


14

are trying to heat and air-condition the outdoors as well as the


indoors.
In Asia, combining the modernized concept of a structure
with the use of energy-efficiency is a way to promote a peaceful
environment for the occupants and at the same for the investors.
Energy efficiency is the reducing of energy required for a given
level

of

activity-doing

more

with

less.

Energy

efficiency

measures are often cost-alternatives to increasing power supply


and energy availability. It measures optimizing the energy use of
technology, artificial light, and industrial production equipment
and machinery. It helps save energy input while maintaining the
same level of input (ADB, 2015).
The research study of Troll (2001) is similar to one of the
researchers objective that aimed to focus on understanding of
how the library might better serve its public. He insisted that
there were two (2) main problems that had been identified in
hindering increases in library use. One being used the strategy
that is still associated with libraries as being devoted as a
storage space for books, and therefore consisting of cramped,
dimly lit, musty spaces where one must navigate endless stacks of
shelves to find what they were looking for. Strategies in design
to be used will require a flexible floor plan and ample day
lighting among other things, to avoid the dark, cramped library
that is so often dreaded. The other problem that to library use
15

is the restricted budget which the libraries must operate under,


generally

only

institutions
budget,

making

having

educational
it

access

to

and

general

difficult

for

six

the

percent

operating
library

to

of

their

expenditures
continually

purchase the newest and most relevant technologies.


Diane

(2011)

said

that

libraries

shall

take

into

consideration the main clientele of the library, the students.


Libraries are after all not just about books. It should also
consider the welfare and preferences of the students. Surely, it
provides more than enough space for students to remain focused
and undistracted.
The study of Modernization of Library by Lackney (2013) as
cited

by

Bumatay

(2014),

suggested

that

designs,

facilities,

management, safety, personalization, security and privacy should


improve. Many communities recognize that in addition to library
facilities being cost effective, they should be learner-centered
and age appropriate, safe, comfortable, accessible, flexible,
diverse, and equitable.
The researchers conducted the study to make and propose a
new design of Urdaneta City Public Library on which it creates
harmony in the architecture and the user, and restore the library
as

the

cornerstone

of

the

community.

Aside

from

the

design

perspective, significant features of a new library were also


taken into account as it determined the success of the project.
16

The location of Urdaneta City Public Library is not in the right


place because the building is designed for an office only. That
is

why

library

staff

and

the

readers

encountered

poor

environment such as lack of space, poor ventilation, and direct


sunlight from the windows. These problems affect the number of
clienteles of the library; people are more preferred not to go to
library but rather to serve the internet.
The study determined the common problems encountered by the
public library and the readers. The researchers aimed to provide
suitable

solutions

and

propose

project

plan

for

the

construction of the newly designed public library of Urdaneta


City.

Synthesis and Justification

17

The study of Nina Shrestha stated that even though students


are drawn to information sources that allow them to complete
their research in the easiest least painful way the large percent
of students are still motivated to learn about accessing their
present

library

resources.

Her

study

tried

to

point

towards

aspect of the library where it could educate its users by giving


orientation so they can become an accurate searcher and make use
of

the

right

information

at

the

right

time.

The

New

Modern

Library of Lisa Ostlund focuses on the relationship between a


building

and

its

contents,

how

this

affects

the

layout

and

appearance of the building and changing needs of a library.


Ostlund and Cairney emphasized the importance of books and in
order

for

the

library

to

encourage

more

readers,

merging

technology with written literature in the library are effective.


In order for the library to flourish and to survive, it must
develop a symbiotic relationship with digital media as opposed to
fighting for dominance. Myron Goldsmith cited that to create a
visually simple yet complex object, it was necessary that the
engineer would consider the architectural of each design step and
the architect the structural. Furthermore, Bumatay, Troll and
Diane suggested that designs, facilities, management, safety,
personalization,

security

and

privacy

should

improve.

The

US

Department of Energy, Asian Development Bank (ADB) and Library


Energy

recommend

an

energy-efficient
18

building

that

is

more

comfortable than a wasteful building. It needs less fuel for heat


and less electricity for cooling and also pollution prevention by
changing

the

light

bulbs.

It

helps

save

energy

input

while

maintaining the same level of input. Also, through the use of


natural day lighting improves the energy efficiency of a new
building.

Rotterdam-based

architects

MVRDV

studied

all

significant features that can be used for a modern library and


finished the Book Mountain in Spijkenisse, the Netherlands. The
public library enclosed in a glass case with bookshelves lining
every possible wall space has been opened. The numerous platforms
winding

around

the

mountain

are

connected

by

network

of

spiraling stairs that allow visitors to access bookracks. At the


apex of the mountain is the reading room, which is flooded by
light during the day and offers sweeping views of the town. This
gives a whole new meaning that inspired reading spaces.
Thus,

the

researchers

conducted

the

study

to

make

and

propose a new design of Urdaneta City Public Library on which it


creates harmony in the architecture and the user, and restore the
library as the cornerstone of the community. Aside from the
design perspective, significant features of a new library were
also taken in to account as it determined the success of the
proposed project.
Conceptual Framework

19

INPUT

OUTPUT

PROCESS

Architectural
Design
Structural
Design
Energy
Efficient
Concept/Feat
ures
a. Photovoltai
c Array
Panels
b. Solar
Control
Glasses

Review of
Library
Standards and
Inspection,
Brainstorming,
Survey and
Interview
Computation of
loads and
Reviewing
Structural
Specifications
Materials/Featu
re Selection

EnergyEfficient and
Book Mountain
Public Library
Structural
Security and
Safety Library
Optimal
Environment
for Clients

Figure 1.1.Paradigm of the Study

The inputs of the research study were the architectural and


structural

design,

and

energy-efficient

features

that

are

suitable for the library. The library building was designed to be


strong and to be a secured place to dwell into.
The process that the researchers conducted was to review
library

standards

brainstorming

and

and

inspected

performed

an

neighborhood

interview

and

libraries,

survey

to

the

professionals regarding the researchers topic. In order for the


20

structure to be safe the researchers computed all the loadings


that were necessary and reviewed all structural specifications
and provisions given by NSCP to make the library secure and
safer.

Selecting

materials

and

determining

suitable

energy-

efficient features also put into consideration to obtain the


outputs.
After the successful step by step process, the output of the
study is an Energy-Efficient and Book Mountain Public Library of
Urdaneta

City

environment

and

that
a

is

safer

conducive

and

place

secured,
to

all

library.

Statement of the Problem

21

and

an

clienteles

optimal
of

the

With the current status of Urdaneta City Public Library, the


researchers observed that the location is not a conducive place
for effective learning. It is located in front of Urdaneta City
Cultural

Center

where

noise

pollution

is

prevalent

due

to

vehicles passing by and events held in the same building. The


library building cant accommodate large number of clienteles due
to its limited space. Additionally, the architectural design of
the existing public library is not well-designed to encourage
more clienteles to go in and to read books. Thus, the research
study proposed the construction of Urdaneta City Public Library.
Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:
1. What are the significant features of a new library that
might serve the public?
a.

Optimal reading environment in terms of:


i. space or ambiance
ii. proper ventilation
iii. inside illumination

b.

Additional facilities
i. Conference room
ii. Electronic library
iii. Art gallery

2. What

energy-efficient

equipment

library in terms of:


a. Fitness of purpose
22

are

suitable

for

new

b. Safety and reliability


c. Durability
d. Good value for money
3. What are the beneficial effects to the:
a. Clients of the library
b. Environment
c. Economic upliftment of Urdaneta City as well as in
the Philippines
4. How much is the total cost for the construction of the
proposed project in terms of:
a. contractor cost
b. material cost

Assumption

The researchers considered the following assumptions:


1. The City Government of Urdaneta will finance the proposed
project and the maintenance of the library.
2. The

structure

will

be

designed

to

be

stable

and

can

withstand strong earthquakes.


3. The new concept of the library will attract and encourage
more clients to come and spend their time reading books in a
comfortable and stress-free environment.

23

4. It

will

promote

conservation

of

electricity

as

it

uses

energy-efficient equipment.
5. This will be the first Book Mountain Public Library in
Region 1 as well as in the Philippines.

Scope and Delimitations


The scope of the research study was to provide solution
encountered by the public library to regain its use as a main
source of reliable information and to provide a project proposal
for the construction of the Public Library of Urdaneta City with
a new interior and exterior architectural concept and promotes
energy conservation. The researchers limited the study to civil
and

electrical

specifications.

engineering
The

features

researchers

also

such

as

considered

plans

the

study

and
to

architectural features in which it can help the researchers boost


ideas in designing a new library.

CHAPTER 2
DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

24

This chapter presents the research design, research locale,


respondents, and the data gathering tools and procedures used for
the collection of necessary data and information regarding the
researchers study.

Research Design and Methodology

This research used descriptive type of research and greatly


relied on interviews. The researchers sought the help of the
experts regarding the researchers topic.
the

mixed

collected
premise

approach

using

simultaneously
that

has

been

qualitative
and

will

studied

be
to

The researchers used

and

quantitative

guided
advance

by

data

theoretical

the

scope

of

information. Qualitative data consisted of following a concurrent


transformative strategy involving archival research, interviews,
and

visits

to

various

libraries.

Quantitative

data

involved

scientific data collected through archival research.


The researchers intended to identify significant features of
a new library like the potential use of photovoltaic array panels
to produce electricity from the sun and the use of solar control
glasses that traps ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun but emits
light that illuminates the inside of the building as a source of
natural

day

lighting

that

are

significant

to

lessen

power

consumption and impact in the environment. The researchers also


25

adapted the book mountain concept of Rotterdam as the interior


design

for

the

bookshelves

or

bookracks.

Additionally,

it

included the use of digital media in todays world and blended it


with tangible literature.

Research Locale

The project will be constructed at the Central Business


District (CBD) of Urdaneta City. It is located at Alexander
Street, on which is the main road running directly through the
city. It will be in front of the old Urdaneta City Hall and the
vacant lot beside Magic Mall Urdaneta City as shown in Fig. 2.1.
The written history of the location says that the community was
organized

and

formally

founded

on

January

08,

1858.

It

was

converted into a City from being a municipality by the Republic


Act of the Philippines 8480 on January 10, 1998 and proclaimed it
on March 21, 1998. Urdaneta City is a second class City in the
province of Pangasinan that has 34 barangays with an approximate
land area of 100.3 square kilometers that represents the 1.8
percent of the total land area of Pangasinan.

26

Figure 2.1 Location Map

Respondents of the Study

The respondents of the study were the City Engineer and City
Librarian of Urdaneta City and their staff who are knowledgeable
of

the

current

status

of

Urdaneta

City

Public

Library.

The

researchers also considered the Chief Librarians from various


libraries

around

Urdaneta

City
27

and

professionals

who

are

knowledgeable of the study as respondents to obtain pertinent


data.

Data Gathering Tools

The researchers greatly relied on internet sites as it is


sought

to

be

reliable

and

updated

information

regarding

the

researchers topic. The researchers also read books, journals,


articles, and other research studies that are related to the
topic to gather more accurate information. The researchers also
performed interviews with the experts in the field of engineering
and

architecture.

The

researchers

prepared

interview

guide

questions for the interviews with the professionals.

Data Gathering Procedures

The purpose of this study was to conduct research on how to


remodel the architectural design and to provide a propose plan of
Urdaneta

City

Public

Library

and,

determine

the

problems

encountered and provide solutions. In order to make the research


study successful the researchers undergone actions presented in
the methodology flowchart in Figure 2.2.

Start
28

Diligent search, Investigation,


Collecting of Information

YE
Further Information?

Analysis of Significant
Features

Final Analysis of all


Data

YE
Further Information?
Planning and designing
of the

Estimate the total cost of


the construction

Action Plan

3D Presentation of the
Interior and Exterior
Architectural design

End

Figure 2.2 Methodology Flowchart

29

The first step that was usually conducted in a research


study

is

to

search

diligently,

investigate,

and

conduct

an

interview to seek answers to the stated problems. The researchers


conducted an interview with the city librarian of Urdaneta City
Public Library to know about the current status and conditions of
the library. The researchers had also performed inspection of the
entire surroundings of the library.
After all the data have finalized, planning and designing of
the library put into consideration for further estimation of the
total cost needed for the construction.
The researchers provided an action plan, a three-dimensional
(3D) presentation and a scale model that shows the planning and
design of the library. If the procedure and collected data were
finalized, implementation will be conducted.

30

CHAPTER 3
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This
gathered.
theses,

chapter
The

books,

data
and

presents
was

the

data

retrieved

journals.

The

that

mostly

the

from

researchers

researchers
the

internet,

gathered

data

through interview with the library staff, engineers, architects,


and other professionals who are knowledgeable of the researchers
topic.
The research studys main objective was to present an action
plan for the construction of the old public library of Urdaneta
City with a new interior and exterior architectural design and as
well as with a new design features that might attract the public.
According to Asian Development Bank (ADB), combining the new
concept of a structure with the use of energy-efficiency is a way
to promote a peaceful environment for the occupants and at the
same time for the investors. Energy efficiency is the reducing of
energy required for a given level of activity-doing more with
less.
The old public library of Urdaneta City is designed to be
publicly and globally competitive. The new design of the public
library adapted new forms of media taking precedence and a multilevel environment that can create a sense of balance between old
and new media.
31

Table 3.1 Result of the Administered Interview for Technical


Personnel
STATEMENT
1. How to upgrade and modernized the public
library facilities to be globally competitive.
a. Acquire (modern) or up to date collection
b. Modernized library building
c. Technological advancement
d. Offer a wealth of excellent learning
resources
2. Are the following energy-efficient equipment or
fixtures suitable for a new library?Why?
A. Photovoltaic Array Panels or Solar Power
System to produce power from the sun.
a. Yes because it lowers utility bills and
it is simple and reliable.
b. This facility is suitable for a library
because it offers a lot of advantages
especially with the positive impact to
the environment.
B. Solar Control Glasses that traps UV rays
from
the
sun
but
emits
light
that
illuminates the inside of the building as a
source of natural day lighting.
a. Yes because it plays significant role not
only to reduce incoming heat but also it
help preserve the library collection from
deterioration.
3. What significant features or facilities of a
new public library that may serve the public in
terms of optimal reading environment? Cite
facilities that are needed in the library.
a. Welcoming Spaces
b. lights and temperature control
c. furniture engometric designs
4. What do you think are the beneficial effects of
having an Energy-Efficient and Book Mountain
Public Library of Urdaneta City to the:
A. Library users
a. motivated to read
b. stress free reading environment
B. Environment
a. save energy resources
b. reduce pollution
C. Economy upliftment of Urdaneta City at the

32

INTERVIEWEE

PROFESSION

Bernadine
Gravela,

City
Librarian
of Urdaneta
Architect
Library Staff

Ben Chan,
Girly Mae Sigot

Grejie

Library Staff

Bernadine
Gravela

City
Librarian
of Urdaneta

Girly Mae Sigot

Library Staff

Bernadine
Gravela

City
Librarian
of Urdaneta

Bernadine
Gravela

City
Librarian
of Urdaneta

Girly Mae Sigot

Library Staff

at the same time in the Philippines


a. Spuming innovations
b. It will be the first Book Mountain in
Region 1 as well as in the Philippines.

The table 3.1 shows that technical personnel agreed that


Urdaneta City Public Library facilities and equipment should be
modernized and upgraded to be globally competitive. They have
also

agreed

fixtures

are

that

the

suitable

proposed
for

the

energy-efficient
library.

There

equipment
are

lot

and
of

beneficial effects to the library users, to the environment and


to the economy upliftment of Urdaneta City and at the same in the
Philippines.

LIBRARY SECTION

No. of Resources

Childrens Library
Local History, Theses
Electronic Library
PWD Books
Filipiana
Reference
General Collection
Fiction
Braille
Other book collection

3675
1071
272
235
1129
1200
2386
2974
136
344
Total = 13422
Table 3.2 No. of Available Resources in Every Section of the
Public Library (Refer to Appendix P)
Table 3.2 shows the total number of available resources in
every section of the library. From the above data, the proposed

33

Book Mountain Public Library will be divided into three layers


with corresponding sections. The first layer will be composed of
the Childrens Library, General Collection, Fiction and PWD Books
with an approximate number of 9270 printed books. The second
layer will also composed of Local History and Theses, Electronic
Library,
number

Filipiana

of

3672

and

Reference

printed

books.

Section

And

the

with
third

an

approximate

layer

will

be

composed of the Braille, and other book collection of 480.


Management Aspect
Energy-Efficient Equipment Selection
The proposed energy-efficient equipment to be used in the
library is photovoltaic array panels, solar control glasses and
energy star labeled fixtures. The researchers have considered the
following important properties of this equipment.
Photovoltaic array panels or solar power panels have already
proven

worldwide

that

it

is

safe

and

reliable

to

use.

Installations are quite simple. The panels are mounted on the


roof or in the yard and connected to an inverter mounted near the
main panel in the library in which it converts DC to AC. Since
lighting is only the main target of this mini solar power plant,
a typical residential solar electric system can be installed in
about 100 to 500 square feet of roof space. A typical residential
solar electric system is between 1000 and 5000 watts and will

34

produce between 1000 and 6000 kilowatt-hours of electricity per


year. Solar electric systems are designed to last more than 20
years, and most systems will still be producing power in 30-50
years. This panels comes with up to 25-year warranty (Philippine
Power Adventure, 2016).
The proposed material for glass is the solar control glasses
instead

of

using

an

ordinary

glass.

The

researchers

have

considered the following important properties of solar control


glass (Pilkington Philippines, 2016).
1. Reflectance the proportion of solar radiation reflected
back into the atmosphere.
2. Direct transmittance the proportion of solar radiation
transmitted directly through the glass.
3. Absorbance the proportion of solar radiation absorbed
by the glass.
4. Safe and secure it is toughened or laminated form and
can be combined a noise control benefit.
5. Durable and saves energy it can minimize

or

even

eliminating the need of air conditioning system, reducing


running costs of the library.
The used of energy star labeled fixtures can also save much
energy and an effective cost saver. Besides meeting lighting
needs

efficiently,

they

create

sense

of

intimacy

and

add

interest to the library. Energy star labeled lights (CFLs) comes


with the following properties (Ian Todreas, 2016).

35

1. Long life it typically last at least 10,000 hours (as


opposed to most incandescent bulbs, which last about 500
hours)
2. Save energy and money by using 26-watt CFLs in the
Energy
light

Star
bulb.

which
The

equivalent

task

lighting

to

75-watt

uses

only

incandescent
one-third

of

electricity compared to conventional lighting sources.


3. Environmental friendly fixture fewer greenhouse gas
emission released into the atmosphere.

Library

Rules

and

Regulation

(As

adopted

from

the

current

Urdaneta City Public Library Rules and Regulations)


Main Library Rules
1. The use of the Urdaneta City Library is open to everybody.
2. Only bonafide members (resident of Urdaneta who availed a
library card) of Urdaneta City Library can load books and
other materials. No borrower is allowed to use the library
and its resources unless he/she has settled all accounts
due to the library. Lending library card for the purpose of
any library activity is strictly prohibited.
3. A library user may loan a maximum of 3 books at a time.
(Only the donated books can be borrowed)
Fiction may be borrowed for one week and may be renewed
for the same length of time if the book is not in demand.
General Collection books may be borrowed for a maximum of
three days. (Fine for overdue book is P2.00/day)

36

Filipiniana and other reserved books may be borrowed for


overnight use only. (Fine is P2.00/day)
4. The following materials are to be read only inside the
library.
a. General References(Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, Multi
volume collection, Atlases, Alamanacs, Yearbooks,
Handbooks, Manuals and Guidebooks).
b. Vertical File (Newspaper clippings and Pamphlets).
c. Current
Periodicals
(Magazines,
Newspaper

and

Journals).
Library materials to be photocopied should be issued out and
properly received.
5. A lost book should be reported at once to the library
personnel. It should be replaced with the same title and
author,

however

if

the

borrower

cannot

find

an

exact

replacement, he/she may pay the current amount of the lost


book and processing fee of P12.00.
6. Books and other materials should

be

handled

properly.

Library user should report damaged books to the Librarian.


Anyone

caught

vandalizing

any

library

material

and

facilities will be posted with corresponding disciplinary


action.
7. Anyone caught bringing out unissued books will be suspended
from using the library for a month.
8. Courtesy must be observed at all times, loitering, talking
aloud, smoking, eating, sleeping and littering are strictly
prohibited.

37

9. Cellphone must be in silent mode while inside the library.


The library is not responsible for any lost valuable items.

Childrens Library Rules


1. The use of the Urdaneta City Library is open to everybody.
2. Only bonafide members of Urdaneta City Library can loan
books and other materials. No borrower is allowed to use the
library and its resources he/she has settled all accounts
due to the library. Lending library card for the purpose of
any library activity is strictly prohibited.
3. Children below 6 years old should be accompanied by their
parents/guardian.
4. Schedule for borrowing of books is from Monday to Wednesday
only. A library user may loan a maximum of 2 books at a
time. Only donated books can be borrowed. Easy books are
good for overnight use only. Fiction may be borrowed for one
week and may be renewed for the same length of time if the
book is not in demand. General Collection books may be
borrowed for a maximum of three days. Fine for overdue boom
is P2.00/day. Filipiniana and other reserved books may be
borrowed for overnight use only.
5. The following materials are to be read only inside the
building.
a. General References(Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, Multi
volume collection, Atlases, Alamanacs, Yearbooks,
Handbooks, Manuals and Guidebooks).
b. Vertical File (Newspaper clippings and Pamphlets)
38

c. Current
6. A

Periodicals

Journals).
lost book should

be

(Magazines,

reported

at

Newspaper

once

to

the

and

library

personnel. It should be replaced with the same title and


author,

however

if

the

borrower

cannot

find

an

exact

replacement, he/she may pay the current amount of the lost


book and processing fee of P12.00.
7. Books and other materials should

be

handled

properly.

Library user should report damaged books to the Librarian.


Anyone

caught

vandalizing

any

library

material

and

facilities will be posted with corresponding disciplinary


action.
8. Anyone caught bringing out unissued books will be suspended
from using the library for a month.
9. Courtesy must be observed at all times, loitering, talking
aloud, smoking, eating, sleeping and littering are strictly
prohibited.
10.
Cellphone
library.

The

must

be

library

in
is

silent
not

mode

while

responsible

for

inside

the

any

lost

valuable items.
Electronic Library Rules
1. The use of the Electronic Library is open to all cardholder
members.
2. Use of the computer is first come first serve basis.
3. Researcher can use the computer for a maximum of 30 minutes;
3 person per computer.
4. Researcher who has little background in using computer may
ask further assistance to the library assistant.
39

5. Priority user is the one who cant locate, print materials


for his/her research in the printed collection.
6. The researcher is not allowed to open other files/programs
without

further

approval

of

the

library

assistant.

The

computer is use only for research, encoding is not allowed.


7. To facilitate downloading of file using diskette, ask the
library assistant.
8. To print, maximum of 3 pages maybe printed for free(text
only), more than the required researcher must save his/her
file to a diskette.
9. In using the internet,

checking

of

E-mail

is

allowed

provided that you will not consume your allotted time solely
for email. Chatting is not allowed except for educational
roundtables or discussion groups. Entering in obscene sites
is also prohibited.
10.
Courtesy must be
littering,

talking

observed

loud,

at

smoking,

all

times,

eating,

are

loitering,
strictly

prohibited. Cellphone must be in silent mode, while inside


the library
11.
Violating any library rules will result to suspension
of library privileges.

VICE - MAYOR

Bernadine M.
Gravela Librarian
40

Gina C.
Mequin

cco

Teresita P.
Daligdig
Library Clerk

Leticia T. Gerona
Library Clerk

Rosalie O.
Santos
Library Clerk

Figure 3.1 Urdaneta City Public Library Organizational Chart

41

42

Socio-economic Aspect
This

portion

presents

brief

discussion

of

the

socio-

economic contribution of the Energy-Efficient and Book Mountain


Public Library of Urdaneta City on the upliftment of the City as
well as in the Philippines. This portion also considers and
deliberates
importance

on
of

how
the

the

researchers

library

and

how

maximize
the

the

librarys

use

and

concept

exemplifies the important role of books to the clienteles with


the help of technology.
Thus, the researchers provided the following consideration
and deliberation:
The Energy-Efficient and Book Mountain Library of Urdaneta
City is optimistic which contributes to the concentration of
every

clienteles

of

the

library.

The

researchers

proposed

project will not only contribute to every clients but it will


also contribute to the economic upliftment of Urdaneta City and
even in the entire Philippines. This proposed project will be the
biggest asset of the city among other cities in the Philippines.
The library also adapted the book mountain concept of Rotterdam,
Neitherlands as the interior design of the bookshelves in which
it is already proven by MVRDV the architect of Rotterdam that it
will attract and encourage more clients to come and spend their
time reading printed books. To make the library more competitive,
the researchers also integrated the use of electronic library as
43

another way of finding books or e-books through the internet.


There are also information desks in every layer of the mountain
to help the clients from searching available books. This kind of
service can give satisfaction to every clients of the library.
The Energy-Efficient and Book Mountain Public Library of Urdaneta
City will be the first ever book mountain that utilizes the use
of energy efficiency in the entire Philippines.
This public library will be engage nearly to support global
program on climate change to protect the environment. To make it
more possible, the library will become a role model in protecting
the environment. The researchers also integrated some energyefficient features of a new library like the potential use of
photovoltaic array panels to produce enough electricity for the
bulbs and the use of solar control glasses that traps ultraviolet
(UV) rays coming from the sun but emits light that illuminates
the inside of the building as source of natural day lighting that
are significant to lessen the power consumption and the impact in
the

environment.

Moreover,

these

features

of

library

can

provide a comfortable and stress-free environment to all the


clients of the library. Thus, the proposed library has a lot of
good impacts and effects not only to the economy of Urdaneta City
but also to the clients and to the environment.

Technical Aspect
44

This portion presents the site development plan, perspective


views, elevations, cross-sectional view, book interior design
concept and finishing views.

Figure 3.4 Site Development Plan

45

Figure 3.4 Perspective View

46

Figure 3.5 Perspective View

47

Figure 3.6 Front Elevation

48

Figure 3.7 Left-Side

49

Figure 3.8 Right-Side Elevation

50

Figure 3.9 Rear Elevation

51

Figure 4.0 Interior Design Concept

52

Figure 4.1 Cross-Sectional View

53

Figure 4.2 Electronic Library

Figure 4.2 shows the finishing of the integrated electronic


library of Urdaneta City Public Library as another way of finding
books or e-books through the internet when printed books are not
available and to make the library more competitive.

54

Figure 4.3 Childrens Library

The Childrens Library of the proposed project as shown in


the figure will meet the needs and give satisfaction to the
children studying in the area. The interior design gives relaxing
views of the bookracks to encourage more children to come and to
read books in the library.

55

Figure 4.4 Study and Reading Areas

The proposed library has wide study and reading areas that
provides better illumination and ambience as opposed from the
current public library. Each layer of the Book Mountain consists
of reading areas so that clienteles of the library will easily
check other books from their respected seats. These stunning
areas will be one of the good requirements to the encouragement
of library users to come and to read books.
Financial Aspect
56

This portion is intended to determine the material cost


estimate,
proposed

the

labor

project

cost

that

and

will

the

serve

equipment
as

needed

conducive

for

the

place

for

effective learning and hopes to achieve its mission to support


the

institutions

instructional,

curricular,

research,

and

extension programs through the organized, relevant, and efficient


delivery of information services.

Recapitulation
Table 3.3 Detailed Estimates and Unit
Appendix N for the Computation)
DESCRIPTION
QTY.
1. EARTHWORKS
A. Earth fill

Derivation

(Refer

to

UNIT COST

TOTAL COST

1447cu.m.

800/cu.m.

P1,157,600

18400 bags

260/bag

4,784,000

1030cu.m.
1341cu.m.
40500 pcs.

1200/cu.m.
1000/cu.m
7/pc.

1,236,000
1,341,000
283,500

2. CONCRETE AND MASONRY


A. Portland Cement 40kg
B. Sand
Fine
Gravel
C. CHB (4in)
3.

SCHEDULE OF DOORS AND WINDOWS


(Using Direct Counting Method)
A. Double
Glass
Type
Swing
Door(2.10 x 1.50)
B. Single Glass Type Swing Door
(2.10 x 1.00)
C. Louvered PVC Type Swing Door
(2.10 x 0.80)
D. Fixed SC Glass Window
(1.0 x 0.80)
E. Sliding
SC
Glass
Window
w/
Analoc Frame (3.50 x 2.20)
F. Fixed SC Glass Window
(2.20 x 0.70)
G. Sliding
SC
Glass
Window
w/
Analoc Frame (2.20 x 2.50)
H. Sliding
SC
Glass
Window
w/
Analoc Frame (2.20 x 4.50)
I. Sliding
SC
Glass
Window
w/

57

10 sets

6800/set

68,000

4 sets

4800/set

19,200

4 sets

1950/set

7,800

9 sets
4 sets

1200/set
11550/set

10,800
46,200

6 sets

2310/set

13,860

2 sets

8250/set

16,500

8 sets

14850/set

118,800

Analoc Frame (1.80 x 1.50)


J. Sliding
SC
Glass
Window
w/
Analoc Frame (1.50 x 1.80)
K. Fixed SC Glass Window
(1.25 x 3.50)
L. Fixed SC Glass Window
(1.25 x 5.50)
M. SC Glass Roof
N. Roof Truss (Based on contract)

4. LUMBER/FORMWORKS
A. Marine Plywood (1/4)
B. Lumber (2 x 2)
5. HARDWARE
AND
MISCELLANEOUS
MATERIALS
A. 10mm dia. corrugated steel
bars (6m)
B. 12mm dia. corrugated steel
bars (6m)
C. 20mm dia. corrugated steel
bars (6m)
D. 35mm dia. corrugated steel
bars (6m)
E. #16 GI tie wire
F. Common wire nails
G. Finishing nails
H. Floor Tiles (unglazed tiles)
(60 cm x 60 cm)

6 sets

4050/set

24,300

10 sets

4050/set

40,500

4 sets

6600/set

26,400

6 sets
10153 sq.m.

10500/set
2000/sq.m.

63,000
2,030,000
1,250,000

1100 pcs.
625/pc.
687,500
19710 bd.ft.
100/pc.
1,971,000
(Using Direct Counting Method)
600 pcs.

150/pc

90,000

4450 pcs.

330/pc

1,468,500

1360 pcs.

400/pc

544,000

800 pcs.

750/pc

600,000

500
200
200
5400

70/kg
70/kg
70/kg
60/pc

35,000
14,000
14,000
324,000

6. PLUMBING WORKS
A.Water Closet
B.C.R. Lavatory + Faucet
C. Kitchen Lavatory + Faucet
D. P-traps (50mm)
E. Floor Drain, stainless
F. Clean out
G. Elbows
H. Waste Pipes (Lavatory, 50 mm
(2) pipe diameter 10)
I. PVC Solvent Cement
7. ELECTRICAL WORKS
A. Panel Board
B. 15 Ampere Circuit
C. 20 Ampere Circuit
D. 30 Ampere Circuit
E. 40 Ampere Circuit
F. Entrance Cap
G. Special Outlet
H. Electrical Tape
I. 1-Gang Switch
J. 2-Gang Switch

kgs.
kgs.
kgs.
pcs.

(Using Direct Counting Method)


12 sets
3500/set
42,000
12 sets
2000/set
24,000
2 sets
4500/set
9,000
2 pcs.
100/pc
200
25pcs.
200/pc
5,000
7 pcs.
200/pc
1,400
41 pcs.
22/pc
902
12 pcs
60/pc
720
75 pcs.
60/pc
4,500
(Using Direct Counting Method)
3 pcs.
850/pc
2,550
12 pair
650/pair
7,800
12 pair
650/pair
7,800
12 pair
650/pair
7,800
1 pc
680/pair
680
1 pc.
550/pc
550
92 pcs.
185/pc
17,020
50 rolls
30/roll
1,500

Breaker
Breaker
Breaker
Breaker

58

K.
L.
M.
N.
O.
P.
Q.
R.
S.

3-Gang Switch
Star labeled CFL
Receptacle
Junction Box
#12 THHN Wire
#10 THHN Wire
Moldex diameter
Utility Box
Solar Power System
(Residential type)

9 pcs
25 pcs.
27 pcs.
150 pcs.
150 pcs.
150 pcs.
6 rolls
2 rolls
7 rolls
100 pcs.
2 systems

8. PAINTING WORKS
A. Flat wall enamel
B. Paint Thinner
C. Paint brush (4)
D. Roller brush (12)

100
40
60
60

75/pc
110/pc
140/pc
180/pc
40/pc
30/pc
4000/roll
5000/roll
900/roll
30/pc
750,000/system

gal.
490/gal.
gal.
245/gal.
pcs.
60/pc.
pcs.
45/pc.
MATERIAL COST

675
2,750
3,780
27,000
6,000
4,500
24,000
10,000
6,300
3,000
1,500,000

49,000
9,800
3,600
2,700
P20,368,167

MATERIAL COST: 20,368,167


LABOR COST (45% OF MATERIAL COST): P9,165,675.15
TOTAL BUILDING COST: P29,533,842.15
CONTINGENCY COST (10% OF TOTAL BUILDING COST): P2,953,384.22
TOTAL PROJECT COST: P32,487,226.37
EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES: P3,666,270.06
TOTAL CAPITAL COST: P36,153,496.43
SAY: P40,000,000
NOTE: The 10% contingency cost comprises the planning and design
cost.
Table 3.4 Estimated Monthly Operating Expenses (Refer to Appendix
M for Detailed Computation)
Appliances/Fixtures
1. ACU(0.75HP)
2. Cash Register
3. Desk Fan (20)

Quantity

Watts

HRs/Day

KWHr Used
Monthly

10
1
8

727
45
175

4
2
6

756.08
2.34
218.4

59

4. Flat Screen TV
LCD 46
5. Vacuum Cleaner
(Standard)
6. Refrigerator
(12 cu.ft)
7. Range(2-burner)

110

5.72

200

3Hrs/week

7.2

185

20

4.81

3300

171.6

Quantity

Watts

HRs/Day

KWHr Used
Monthly

1
1
20
4
1
1

12
12
12
15
145
500

1.5
1.5
5
3
0.5
4

0.468
0.468
31.2
4.68
1.885
52

Table 3.4 Continued..

Appliances/Fixtures
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Scanner
Printer
Computer
Laptop
Mini Component
Water Dispenser
Hot and Cold

TOTAL
Amount Due (Php10 per KWHr)

1256.851
Php12,568.51
2,000
Php14,568.51

14. Water Bill


TOTAL Operating Cost

Table 3.4 shows the total estimated operating cost of the


library of 14,568.51 pesos monthly for electric and water bill.
According from Panelco III (2016), the standard rate per Kilowatt
Hour (KWHr) is 10 pesos.

Table 3.5 Operating Expenses for Lighting

Type of Bulb
1. CFLs
(26 Watts)
2. Chandelier

Quantity

Watts

HRs/Day

KWHr Used
Monthly

150
1

26
150

10
10

1170
45
1215

TOTAL
Amount Due (Php10 per KWHr)

60

Php12,150

Table 3.5 shows the total estimated operating cost of the


library for lighting purposes is 12,150 pesos monthly. Therefore,
it is the expected amount that the library conserves in a month
by using the solar power system for lighting.

Table 3.6 Maintenance Cost Once every Six Months


Work
Description

No. of
Working
Days/Month

No. of
Workers

1. Paint
Removal
2. Painting
Works
3. Bookracks
Termite
Disinfection
4. Electronic
Library
Maintenance
5. Landscaping
6. Solar Power
System
7. Others

Hrs/
Day

Labor
Cost/d

Material
Cost

Cost

280/d

2,000

4,800

280/d

17,975

26,375

300/d

12,450

14,250

300/d

2,000

3,800

280/d

5,000

9,480
2,000
5,000

TOTAL:

Php65,705

Table 3.6 shows the semi-annual maintenance cost of the


public

library

of

about

Php65,705.

As

stated

by

the

City

Librarian during interview that the public librarys maintenance


will

undergo

once

every

six

months.

Solar

Power

Systems

maintenance cost is Php2,000 (Gendiesel Philippines Inc., 2016)


after 5 years of free maintenance cost from the company. Other
maintenance

cost

is

estimated

to

be

Php5,000

for

book

inspections, furniture inspections and other library maintenance.

61

CHAPTER 4
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Conclusions
This study is conducted to provide solution to the primary
problems encountered in the current Urdaneta City Public Library.
The

researchers

are

able

to

come

up

with

the

following

conclusions:
1. Welcoming spaces, electronic library and art gallery are
integrated for the proposed public library as suggested
by the respondents especially by the city librarian of
Urdaneta.
2. Solar control glasses and Solar Power System are the best
energy-efficient equipment and fixture that are suitable
for the proposed public library. These are durable, safe
and reliable to use. Solar Power System has been proven
that 25% of the system will last for up to 30 years but
it will continue to produce power for up to 50 years with
proper maintenance of the system. Solar control glasses
are also proven to its durability and reliability for the

62

structure. It is laminated to trap ultraviolet (UV) rays


from the sun but emits light that illuminates the inside
of the building as a source of natural day lighting that
is significant to lessen the power consumption and the
impact in the environment.
3. The proposed public library adopted the Book Mountain
concept

of

Rotterdam

as

an

interior

design

as

an

encouragement and for the convenience of library users.


4. The structure is well-designed by computing all necessary
loads that it carries to make it stable and to be able to
withstand strong earthquakes.
5. The location of the proposed project is at the Central
Business District (CDB) of Urdaneta City near the City
Hall, Universities, and other establishments, so that it
will

be

easily

accessible

by

the

students,

and

other

clienteles of the current library.


6. This research study is feasible to implement because it
will help the environment and the City of Urdaneta to be
known as the first City to construct an Energy-Efficient
and Book Mountain Public Library in the entire Region 1
as well as in the Philippines.

Recommendations
63

The following recommendations are offered by the researchers


for further implementation of the proposed project.
1. For the benefit of library users who are using the public
library, the proposed project should be implemented as soon
as it has been approved by the City Government of Urdaneta.
2. Assessment, survey or interview must be conducted to know
all

the

remarks,

annotations

and

suggestions

of

library

users with regards to the management and facilities.


3. Conduct an analysis for the possible future development or
construction of new section which include other significant
features and sustainable source of the building.
4. Inspection, geotechnical and seismic analysis shall be done
before

the

construction.

Include

needed for actual implementations.


5. The researchers proposes that the

design
City

specifications
Government

of

Urdaneta should finance the proposed project and for its


maintenance.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books
Max B. Fajardo Jr. 2000. Simplified Construction Estimate,
5138 Merchandising Publisher, Manila; Philippines
64

R.C. Hibbeler 2012. Structural Analysis 8th Edition, Pearson


Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle
River; New Jersey 07458
Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines
(ASEP)
2010.
National
Structural
Code
of
the
th
Philippines (NSCP) 6
Edition Volume 1, Suite 713,
Future Point Plaza Condominium 1, 112 Panay Avenue,
Quezon City; Philippines 1100
DIT Gillesania 2010. Simplified Reinforced Concrete Design
NSCP 2010, DIT Gillesania Engineering Review and
Training Center
Sustainable Energy Regulation and Policy Making for Africa
(2015). Energy Efficiency in Buildings Module 18
Theses

Nina Shrestha 2008. A Study on Students Use of Library


Resources and Self-Efficacy, Central Department of
Library and Information Science Faculties of Humanities
and Social Sciences Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur,
Katmandu, Nepal
Di Tian 2011. Membrane Materials and Membrane Structures in
Architecture, School of Architecture, The University
Of Sheffield

Myron Goldsmith 2010. The Development of the Diagonally


Braced Tube, Taylor and Francis Group, California
Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA, USA

Agarwal, O.P. and Barkeshi Mandara (1997). Conservation of


Books, Manuscript and Paper documents, Lucknow: INTACH
ICCI., India
Lisa Christine Ostlund (2012). The New Modern Library,
Department of Architecture and Landscape Architecture
65

of North Dakota; Fargo, North Dakota


Bumatay and Rafanan (2013). The Green Learning Commons,
College of Engineering, Civil Engineering Department,
Panpacific University North Philippines; Philippines
Journals
Harris, M.H., & Hannah, S.A.(1996). The treason of the
Librarians: Core Communication Technologies and
Opportunity Costs in the information Era: Journal of
Academic Librarianship; 122,3
Boddy, T. (2006). Civic Locus: From Galleries to Libraries.
Architectural Review; 219
Cairney, T.H. (2011). The Place of Literature in an
Increasingly Virtual World. Publishing Research
Quarterly
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (2015).
Lighting in the Library: A Student Energy Audit.
Building Technology, State and Community Programs
Electronic Sources
Troll, A.D. (2001). How and Why are Libraries Changing?
Digital Library Federation. Retrieved from:
http://old:diglib.org/use/whitepaper.html#top
Piotr Kowalczyk (2015). Libraries around the World.
Retrieved from: www.ebookfriendly.com
E.B. White (1971). Good Reads. Retrieved from:
www.goodreads.com/quotes/383616-a-library-is-a-goodplace-to-go-when-you
Philippine Online Chronicles POC (2014). Best Public
Libraries in the Philippines. Retrieved from:
thepoc.net/index.php/metro-manilas-10-best-public
66

libraries/
Dailynews (2012). Book Mountain of Rotterdam. Retrieved
from: www.nydailynews.com/blogs/pagevie
Philippine Daily Inquirer (2013). Public Libraries.
Retrieved from: ladiosolibrary.org?p=318
Energy Efficiency (2015). Californias Energy Efficiency
Standards for Buildings. Retrieved from:
www.scu.edu/newlibrary
Letters of Note (2015). Retrieved from:
(lettersofnote.com/2011/05/library-is-many-thingshtml)
Rotterdam Book Mountain (2013). Retrieved from:
www.WS/2012/10/%E2%80%98book-mountain%E2%80%99libraryopens-in-rotterdam
Balitang Aklatan and De la Salle University (2013).
Learning Commons. Retrived from: www.Dlsu.edu.ph
City Government of Urdaneta (2015). Urdaneta City Public
Library Vision and Mission. Retrieved from:
www.Urdaneta-city.gov.ph
MVRDVS Book Tower to the Sky (2013). Retrieved from:
Architectmagazine.com/technology/mvrdvs-book-tower-tothe-sky_O

Solar Control Glasses (2015). Retrieved from:


https://www.pilkington.com/en-gb/uk/architects/typesof-glass/solar-control-glass
http://www.aguilaautoglass.com/architectural-glass
Solar Power System (2016). Retrieved from:
www.imgur.com/cMJ51x3
www.solarpanelscostguide.com
Material and Equipment Prices (2016). Retrieved from:
www.fdpp.blgs.gov.ph
67

www.pinoyexchange.com
www.easywoodproducts.com
www.magkano.com
www.pinoyhandyman.com
www.steelroundbars.businessyo.com.ph
Gendiesel Philippines Inc. (2015). Solar Energy, Metro
Manila, Philippines Retrieved from:
www.gendieselph.com
Maintenance in a Library (2016). Retrieved from:
https://www.google.com.ph/#q=maintenance+cost+in+librar
y
http://www.slideshare.net/AbhikRathod/types-ofmaintenance 33037550
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3257475/
Panelco III (2016). Billing Services, Retrieved from:
www.panelco3.com/billing-services/
Department of Labor and Employment 2016. Manual on Labor
Standards, Retrieved from:
http://www.bwc.dole.gov.ph/userfiles/file/manual%20on
%20labor%20standards.pdf

APPENDIX A
Floor Plans

68

69

70

APPENDIX B
Roof Plan

71

APPENDIX C

72

APPENDIX D
Schedule of Doors and Windows

73

74

75

76

77

APPENDIX E
Structural Plans and Details

78

79

80

81

82

APPENDIX F
Electrical Layouts

83

84

85

86

87

88

89

90

APPENDIX G
Schedule of Loads and Computations

91

92

93

94

95

96

APPENDIX H
Electrical Symbols, Notes and Specifications

ALL ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS HEREIN SHALL BE DONE IN


ACCORDANCE WITH THE PROVISION OF THE LATEST EDITION OF THE
PHILIPPINE ELECTRICAL CODE WITH THE RULES AND REGULATIONS
97

AND REQUIREMENTS OF THE POWER COMPANY, LAWS, AND


ORDINACES OF ENFORCING AUTHORITIES.
THE TYPE OF POWER SERVICE ENTRANCE TO BE SUPPLIED
SHALL BE 230 VOLTS, 1 PHASE, 2 WIRES.
ALL ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS HEREIN SHALL BE SUPERVISED
BY THE DULY LICENSED ELECTRICAL ENGINEER OR REGISTERED
MASTER ELECTRICIAN.
ALL MATERIALS TO BE USED SHALL NEW AND APPROVED TYPE
QUALITY AS TO THEIR LOCATION AND PROPOSED MUST BE COMFORME
TO THE STANDARD SET BY ELECTRICAL CODE.
IN CASE OF DOUBT, CONSULT THE RESISTERED MASTER
ELECTRICIAN ENGINEER FOR PROPER VERIFICATIONS AND DECISIONS.

ELECTRICAL NOTE AND SPECIFICATIONS

98

APPENDIX I
Fire Suppression System Layouts

99

100

101

102

APPENDIX J
Plumbing and Water Line Layout Plans and Details

103

104

105

106

107

APPENDIX K
Summary of Formulas

Computation of Loads
Dead Load = Wt. of Slab + Wt. of Beam + Wt. of Column +
Wt. of Wall + Wt

108

Eqn. 1

Live Load = (2.9KN/ m

)(Tributary Area of Slab)

Eqn. 2

Seismic Analysis
Vt=

CvI
RT

(1.2EQx)(Wt.)

Eqn.

3
Where:

Vt = Base Shear
Cv = Seismic Coefficient
I = Seismic Importance Factor
R = Numerical Coefficient
T = Elastic Fundamental Period of Vibration
H = Total Height of the Structure

Fx = (Vt-Ft)(HW)/HW
Where:

Eqn. 4

Fx = Horizontal Force
Vt = Base shear
Ft = 0 if T is less than 0.7 sec.
HW = Product of Height and Wt. per level

Beam Design
W L2

+ EQx
Mu
16
Where:

Eqn. 5
Mu = Ultimate Factored Moment

W = Weight
L = Span
109

EQx = Earthquake load


'
2
Mu fc wb d (10.59 w)

Where:

Eqn. 6

= strength reduction factor

fc ' = specified compressive stress of


concrete
fc'

w
fy

Eqn.

7
b = width of compression face of member,mm
d = distance from extreme compression fiber
to centroid of tension reinforcement,mm
=

wfy
fc'
Where:

b=

Eqn. 8
=

ratio of tension reinforcement

0.85 fc ' 1 600


fy (600+ fy)

Where:

Eqn. 9
b

= balanced steel ratio

= factor defined in Section 5.10.2

max =0.75 b
Where:

Eqn. 10
max

= Maximum steel ratio

110

min =

1.4
fy

Eqn. 11

Where:

min

= Minimum steel ratio

M2 = Mu M1
'

Eqn. 12
'

M2 = As2 fc ( dd
Where:

Eqn. 13

M2 = Factored Moment for Compression


As2 = Area of steel for compression
d = effective depth
d ' =

concrete covering

As
No. of Bars =

2
(dia )
4

Eqn.

14
Where:

As = Area of Steel
dia. = diameter of rebar

Ast = As1 + As2

Eqn. 15

Column Design
Concentrated load (U) = 1.4(Dead Load) + 1.7(Live Load)
Eqn. 16

111

Pu

(0.85)fc

(0.80) )

Eqn. 17

=strengthreduction ( 0.7 )

Where:

for square tied column

Ag = Area gross (0.02Ast)


Ast = Total Area of Steel
Slab Design
2
Mu = W L /8

Eqn.

18
Mu =

Rub d

Eqn. 19

Where:

L = Span
Ru =Coefficient of Resistance
W = Weight
Mu = Ultimate Factored Moment

req =

0.85 fc'
2 Ru
1 1
Eqn . 20
fy
0.85 fc '

min =

L
fy
0.4+
Eqn.21
20
700

Where:

min = Minimum Slab Thickness

112

L = Span of Slab
Spacing of Temperature Bars (Use the smallest)
a. S2
b. 5 x h
c. 450 mm

Eqn. 22
Eqn. 23
Eqn. 24

Spacing of Lateral Ties for Column


a. 16(dia. Of rebar)

Eqn. 25

b. 48(dia. Of lateral tie)


c. least dimension

Eqn. 26
Eqn. 27

Operating Expenses
KWHr consumption monthly=Quantity x Wattage x HRs/Day x 26d
Amount Due = KWHr x Rate/KWHr
APPENDIX L
Seismic Analysis and Structural
Design Computations

113

Eqn. 28

FOR BEAM DESIGN


LOAD ANALYSIS CONSIDERING THE LINE BOUNDED BY THE BEAM
Dead Load:

Live Load:

Dead Load:

Live Load:

114

115

CONSIDER THE LONGEST SPAN OF BEAM


Given:
d = 400mm

L = 6m

b = 300mm

concrete covering = 40mm

fy= 276 MPa using grade 40


'

fc = 20.7 MPa < 30; 0.85


Effective depth = 360mm
2
Mu = Wu L /16 +

EQ load

Mu = 192.70 KN.m + 374.04 KN.m = 566.74 KN.m


Mu =

fc' wb d 2(10.59 w)

116

6
566.74 x 10

mm
N.mm = 0.9(20.7)(w)(300 2 (360mm)(1-0.59w)

w = 0.369
=

0.369(20.7)/276

0.028

b=

0.85(0.85)(20.7)(600)/276(600+276)

b= 0.037
max= 0.75(0.037) = 0.027

max=
Since;

1.4/276 = 0.00507
b>

' = 0.9 max

but

> max

; doubly reinforced

= 0.9(0.0278) = 0.0243

w = 0.0243(276)/20.7
w = 0.324
2
M1 = 0.9(20.7)(0.324)(300) (360) [1-0.59(0.324)]

M1 = 189.82 KN.m
M2 = Mu M1 = 566.74 189.82 = 376.92 KN.m
376.92

x 106

As2 = 4267.66

N.mm = As2(276)(360-40)
mm2

No. of Compression Bars =

35

4
4267.66

No. of Compression Bars = 4.44 say 5-35mm dia.


117

As1 = 0.02502(300mm)(360mm) = 2702.16

mm

Total Ast = 2702.16 + 4267.66 = 6969.82

mm2

35

4
6969.82

No. of Tension Bars =

No. of Tension Bars = 7.24 say 8-35mm dia.


CONSIDER THE CRITICAL COLUMN
COLUMN D AND E

ROOF SLAB
@ 6 Meter Span
Dead Load
Beam = (23.5 KN/ m

Slab = (23.5 KN/ m

Live Load = (2.9 KN/ m

)(0.1m)(0.3m)(6m) = 4.23 KN
)(0.3m)(6m)(3m) = 126.9 KN
)(3m)(6m) = 52.2 KN

Concentrated Load @ midspan of beam


=1.4(4.23+126.9)+1.7(52.2) = 272.32 KN
Reaction @ support = 136.161 KN
Total Pu @ Roof = 136.161(4) = 544.64 KN

118

SECOND FLOOR
@6 Meter Span
Dead Load
Beam = (23.5 KN/ m

)(0.1m)(0.3m)(6m) = 4.23 KN

3
Slab = (23.5 KN/ m )(0.3m)(6m)(3m) = 126.9 KN
2
Wall = (16.5 KN/ m )(0.15m)(4m)(6m) = 59.4 KN

Assume Dead Load of 2nd Floor


=(23.5KN/ m

)(0.5m)(0.5m)(4m) = 23.5 KN

Total DL = 214.03 KN
3
Live Load = (2.9KN/ m )(3m)(6m)= 52.2 KN

Concentrated Load @ midspan of beam =1.4(214.03KN)+1.7(52.2)


= 272.32 KN
Reaction @ support = 194.191 KN
Total Pu @ Second Floor = 544.64 + 4(194.191) = 1321.40 KN
Given:
Pu = 1321.40 KN

concrete covering = 40mm

fy= 276 MPa using grade 40


fc ' = 20.7 MPa < 30; 0.85
=

0.7 for square tied column

Use 2% of Ag for Ast

Pu =

'
0.80[(0.85) fc (Ag Ast) + fyAst]

119

1321.40 x

10

= (0.70)(0.80)[(0.85)(20.7)(Ag 0.02Ag) +

20.7(0.02Ag)]
Ag = 103,660.87

mm2

Dimension of Column = 321.96 mm say 400mm


Ast = 0.02(103,660.87) = 2073.22

No. of Main Rebars =

mm

20 mm

4
2073.22

No. of Main Rebars = 6.60 say 7-20mm dia.


Lateral ties = 10mm dia.
Spacing :

a. 16(20) = 320mm
b. 48(10) = 480mm
c. 400mm

Note: Use the smallest value:


Therefore, lateral ties spacing is 320mm

The load carried by the critical column is 1337.52 KN


(factored load) to be transferred to footing. The soil
bearing capacity used in the design footing is 108.8 KPa.
The soil above the footing is 15.6 KN/m^3
Effective Bearing Pressure
= 108.8 KPa [15.6KN/m^3)(2)+23.5KN/m^3(0.4)
= 68.2 KPa
120

Required width of Footing


= 1337.52 / 68.2
= 19.62 sq.m.
L = 4.5m x 4.5m
d = 400mm
Required Steel Rebars using 20mm dia.
n = 24 20mm dia. rebars

APPENDIX M
Computation of Monthly Operating Expenses
And Maintenance Costs

Note: Assume 26 operating days in a month (Sundays not included)


The standard rate/KWHr is Php 10.00 (Panelco III, 2016)
Formula: Quantity x Wattage x HRs/Day x 26 = KWHr Consumption
Amount Due = KWHr x Rate/KWHr
Appliances/Fixtures
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

ACU (0.75HP) = 10 x 727 x 4 x 26 = 756.08 KWHr


Cash Register = 1 x 45 x 2 x 26 = 2.34 KWHr
Desk Fan (20) = 8 x 175 x 6 x 26 = 218.4 KWHr
Flat Screen TV (LCD 46) = 1 x 110 x 2 x 26 = 5.72 KWHr
Vacuum Cleaner (Standard) = 1 x 200 x 3Hrs/W x 4 = 7.2 KWHr
Refrigerator(12 cu.ft) = 1 x 185 x 20 x 4.81 x 26=4.81 KWHr
Range (2-burner) = 1 x 3300 x 2 x 26 = 171.6 KWHr
Scanner = 1 x 12 x 1.5 x 26 = 0.468 KWHr
Printer = 1 x 12 x 1.5 x 26 = 0.468 KWHr

121

10. Computer = 20 x 12 x 5 x 26 = 31.2 KWHr


11. Laptop = 4 x 15 x 3 x 26 = 4.68 KWHr
12. Mini Component = 1 x 145 x 0.5 x 26 = 1.885 KWHr
13. Water Dispenser (Hot&Cold) = 1 x 500 x 4 x 26

= 52 KWHr

Total = 1256.851 KWHrs


Amount Due = 1256.851 x Php 10 = Php 12,568.51
Computation of Maintenance Cost in the Library
Painting
Painting Removal = 1000 square meters x 2/gal = 2,000
(Factors from Fajardo, 2000)
Painting Works
Flat wall enamel = 1000 square meters/40/gal x 490 =12,250
Paint Thinner = 50 gal x 40% = 20 gal x 245 = 4900
Paint brush (4) = 10 x 60 = 600
Roller brush (12) = 5 x 45 = 225
Bookracks Termite Disinfection
Insecticide = 8 gal x 1250 = 10,000
Others = 2450
Maintenance of Electronic Library depends on contracts
Landscaping (budget)
Plants = 3,000; Others = 2,000
Solar Power System Maintenance
Note: According to Gendiesel Philippines Inc. 2016, general

122

maintenance of the system should be at least once every


six months to make it sure if the system works properly.
The company will provide 5 years of free maintenance cost
and a 30 years of full warranty. After 5 years, the library
should pay the required cost of Php2,000 for general
inspections
APPENDIX N
Construction Materials Estimate

Earthworks

Total Vol. of excavation for footings= 3x4.5x4.5


= 40.5 cu.m. x 62pcs= 2511 cu.m.
Backfill
Elevated for about 0.8m; S.A.=35m x 38m= 1330 sq.m.
Vol. of earth fill= 0.8x1330= 1064 cu.m.
Net Earth Fill= 2511cu.m. 1064 cu.m.= 1447 cu.m.

Concrete and Masonry

Concrete Proportion Factors (Class A)


Cement in Bag (40kg)= 9.0; Sand= 0.50; Gravel= 1.0
@FOOTING
L x W= 4.5m x 4.5m; d= 400mm; No. of footings = 62
V= (4.5)(4.5)(0.4)=8.1 cu.m. x 62 pcs.
V= 502.2 cu.m.
@COLUMN
L= 11.5m (from above to footing)
123

L x W= 0.4m x 0.4m; No. of columns= 62


V= 11.5m(0.4m x 0.4m)= 1.84 cu.m. x 62 pcs.
V= 114.08 cu.m.
@BEAM
b x W= 0.3m x 0.4m; L= 585 m; No. of Floors= 3

V= (0.3m x 0.4m)(585m)= 70.2 cu.m. x 3= 210.6 cu.m.


@SLAB
Roof S.A. = 853 sq.m.; thickness= 300mm
V= 0.3m x 853 sq.m. = 255.9 cu.m.
2nd Floor S.A.= 858 sq.m.; thickness= 200mm
V= 0.2m x 858 sq.m. = 171.6 cu.m.
1st Floor S.A.= 858 sq.m.; thickness= 100mm
V= 858 sq.m. x 0.1m= 85.8 cu.m.
Total Vol. of Slab= 513.3 cu.m.
Total Vol. of Concrete= Footing+Column+Beam+Slab
Total Vol. of Concrete= 1340.18 cu.m.
No. of Cement bags(40kg)= 1340.18(9.0)= 12061.62 say 12,062 bags
Vol. of Sand= 1340.18(0.50)= 670.09 cu.m.
Vol. of Gravel= 1340.18(1.0)= 1340.18 cu.m.

124

CHB Factors (15x20x40)


Using Class A
No. per Sq.m.= 12.5 ; Bags of cement(40kg)= 1.526; Sand= 0.0844
@3rd Floor
L=77m; H=3m; A= 77m x 3m= 231 sq.m.
@2nd Floor

L=216 m; H=4m; A=216m x 4m= 864 sq.m.


@1st Floor
L=476m; H=4.5m; A=476m x 4.5m= 2142 sq.m.
Total= 3237 sq.m.
No. of CHB= 3237 x 12.5= 40,462.5 say 40,500 pcs.
Bags of Cement= 3237 x 1.526= 4,939.66 say 4,940 bags
Sand= 3237 x 0.0844= 273.20 cu.m.
Plastering (Using 8mm thickness)
Factors: Cement= 0.144; Sand= 0.008
A= 2 x 3237sq.m.= 6474sq.m. (Two sides)
Bags of Cement= 6474 x 0.144= 932.26 say 930 bags
Sand= 6474 x 0.008= 51.79 say 50 cu.m.
Floor Tiles (Using unglazed tiles 60cm x 60cm)
Area of Flooring= (35m x 38m)+(15m x 35m)+(18m x 6m)= 1963 sq.m
No. of Tiles= 1963/(0.6x0.6)= 5377.78 say 5,400 pcs.
Class B Factors: cement= 0.225; sand= 0.018; brass divider= 3.4
125

Bags of Cement= 1963 x 0.225= 441.68 sa 440 bags


Sand= 1963 sq.m. x 0.018= 35.33 cu.m.
Brass divider = 1963 x 3.4= 6674.2 m
Total Bags of Cement(40kg) = 18,400 bags
Sand= 1028.62 say 1030 cu.m. (Fine)
= 1340.18 say 1341 cu.m. (Gravel)

Lumber and Formworks

Factors:
Marine Plywood (1/4) = 0.347
No. of Plywood= (38m x 35m)(0.347)= 461.51 say 460 pcs.
Formworks for Column (400mx400mm)
P=2(a+b)+0.20
P=2(0.4+0.4)+0.20= 1.8 x 8.5= 15.3sq.m. x 62 col.
A= 948.6 sq.m.
No. of Plywood= 948.6 x 0.347= 329.16 say 330 pcs.
Formworks for Beam (400mm x 300mm)
P=2(b+d)+0.10
P=2(0.3+0.4)+0.10= 877.5m x 585m
A= 877.5 sq.m.
No. of Plywoods= 877.5 x 0.347= 304.49 say 305 pcs.
Total No. of Marine Plywood = 1095 say 1100 pcs.
Scaffolding and Staging (Using 2 x 2 lumber)
126

No. of Col. = 62 pcs.


H= 8.5m
Factors: Vert. Support=4.70; Hor. Support= 21.00; Brace= 11.70
Total Height= 8.5 x 62= 527 m

Vertical support= 527 x 4.70= 2476.9 board foot

Horizontal support= 527 x 21.00= 11067 board foot


Brace support= 6165.9 board foot
Total Lumber in board foot= 19,710 board foot
Note:

Scaffoldings

and

Staging

that

have

been

used

for

the

columns are also to be used for the beams and slabs.

Painting Works

Note: From the previous data, the total square area of wall side
by side is 6,474 square meters but assume it to be 4,000 square
meters.
Flat wall enamel= 4000sq.m./40 sq.m./gal.
Flat wall enamel= 100 gal.
Paint thinner= 100 gal x 40% = 40 gals.
Paint brush (4) = 60 pcs.
Roller brush (12) = 60 pcs.

Glass Roofing

(Using Triangle Area Method)


127

L= 26.50m
W= 26.50m
Total Area of Glass Roof = 10,152.68 say 10,253 square meters

APPENDIX O
PANPACIFIC UNIVERSITY NORTH PHILIPPINES
Urdaneta City, Pangasinan

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
INTERVIEW GUIDE QUESTIONS FOR TECHNICAL PERSONNEL
Name :_________________________________________________
Profession:_________________
Gender
: _Male _Female
:_________________

Date

1. How to upgrade and modernized the Public Library facilities to be globally


competitive?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
2. Are the following energy-efficient equipment or fixtures suitable for a new
library? Why?
A. Photovoltaic Array Panels or Solar Power System to produce power from
the sun.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
B. Solar Control Glasses that traps ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun but
emits light that illuminates the inside of the building as a source of natural
day lighting.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
3. What significant features or facilities of a new public library that may serve
the public in terms of optimal reading environment? Please cite facilities that
are needed in a library.
128

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
4. What do you think are the benefits of having an Energy-Efficient and Book
Mountain Public Library of Urdaneta City to the:
A. Library users
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
B. Environment
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
C. Economy upliftment of Urdaneta City at the same time in the Philippines
_______________________________________________________________________

APPENDIX P
Urdaneta City Public Library Data

No. of Visitors
2013 37,044
2014 21,567
2015 27,427

Statistics on the Use of Library Resources


2013 128,304
2014 170,371
2015 155,877

No. of Resources Available in Every Section


Childrens Library 3,675
Local History/Theses 1,071
Electronic Library 272
129

PWD (Persons with Disabilities) Books 235


Filipiniana 1,129
References 1,200
General Collection 2,386
Fiction 2,974
Book Collection 344
Braille 136
APPENDIX Q
Interview Letters

130

131

132

133

134

135

APPENDIX R
Recommendation Letter from the City Librarians Office

136

Jayrold N. Lozano was born on the


24th day of December 1992 on a Christian
Season in Urdaneta City, Pangasinan.
This baby boy came out from the woman
who named Marivic Natnat Lozano and her
husband Catalino C. Lozano Jr.
He belongs to a simple family. His fathers occupation
is a farmer and a driver and her mothers occupation is a
housekeeper and an owner of a sari sari store.
He has 3 siblings compose of 2 brothers and a sister.
His brothers names are Jumar and Jeffrey who are both
seamans and his sister Marjorie who is a graduating student
of physical therapy.
Jayrold finished his primary education in the year 2005
at Nancalobasaan Elementary School, and secondary education
in the year 2009 at International Colleges for Excellence.
Currently, he is studying college at Panpacific University
137

North Philippines, with a degree of Bachelor of Science in


Civil Engineering.

___________________
Jayrold N. Lozano

Darwin R. Palado was born on the


9th day of December in the year 1994
and raised by his beloved parents in
Ariston West, Asingan, Pangasinan.
He is the second child and the oldest
among his brothers.
Since

his

childhood

in

Asingan,

he

spent

years

to

finish his elementary education at Ariston-Bantog Elementary


School in the year 2007. He attended Ariston-Bantog National
High School and graduated as one of the outstanding students
of batch 2011-2012. He has made it a point to strive for his
goals, which were nothing less than his grandest dreams. One
of his dreams is to become a registered civil engineer in
order to help raise his parents from poverty. Another one is
to explore the world with his family.
As

for

imagination

now,
become

he

is

his

taking
reality.
138

strides
Darwins

in

making

specialty

his
is

solving
enter

mathematical
Panpacific

problems

University

that

gave

North

him

interest

Philippines

to

seeking

Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering.


While at PUNP, he continuously establishes himself as a
self-starter and a leader in the class. Currently, he is
serving as the Governor of Philippine Institute of Civil
Engineers-PUNP Student Chapter 2015-2016 and at the same
time the Vice-Governor in the College of Engineering.
In his spare hours, he enjoys spending time with his
family and hanging out with friends. Also, he loves reading
books

that

might

give

him

additional

knowledge

and

motivation to pursue his goals in life.


As part of being a Christian, he always believes that
With God All Things are Possible.

________________
Darwin R. Palado

139

Nikki E. Remoblas was born on the


27th day of November in the year 1988
and raised by his beloved parents in
PMa. Sison St. Extension,Urdaneta City,
Pangasinan. He is the fourth child and
the youngest among his siblings.
Since his childhood in Urdaneta, he spent years to
finish his elementary education at Immaculate Heart Learning
Center. He attended Panpacific University North Philippines
during his high school education and graduated 2003-2005.
As for now he is studying at Panpacific University
North Philippines taking-up BS Civil Engineering and now he
is currently a fourth year student. Nikkis specialty is
analyzing

critical

figures,

AutoCAD,

and

structural

designing. He is good at sketching that he acquired way back


during his childhood. At his spare time he spends his time
with his family and friends. He likes going to places or
trips with his friends.

140

With his past experiences, he had made a belief that


whatever what one may encounter in his life he/she must
strive to go forward and never give-up.
_________________
Nikki E. Remoblas
Ricardo De leon Selga Jr. was born
on the 23rd day of December 1994 on a
Christmas season in Poblacion West,
Rosario, La Union. This boy came out
from the woman who named Vilma De Leon
Selga and her husband Mr. Ricardo O. Selga
Sr.
He belongs to a simple family. His fathers occupation
is a carpenter and her mother is a housekeeper and sometimes
a vegetable vendor. His parents got marriage at a young age,
they dont even finish their studies, and thats why his
aunty

Cresencia

V.

Florendo,

his

fathers

cousin

provide

their needs to take up college.


Ricardo Jr. has eight brothers and he dont have a
sister. His brothers names was Rojohn, Rommel, Roderick,
Roland, Rolly, Reynner, Rogie and the youngest is Ronald.
Ricardo Jr. finished his primary education in the year
2008, and graduated his secondary education in the year 2012
at Rosario Integrated School in Rosario La Union. Currently,
141

he

is

studying

college

at

Panpacific

University

North

Philippines taking up a degree of Bachelor of Science in


Civil Engineering.
___________________________
Ricardo De leon Selga Jr.

Once You Learn to Read


You will be Forever Free

142