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LEGAL CITATION Devilleres, Lim, Medina, Novelero, and Tupas LLB-1 Sanchez Roman
LEGAL CITATION Devilleres, Lim, Medina, Novelero, and Tupas LLB-1 Sanchez Roman

LEGAL

CITATION

Devilleres, Lim, Medina, Novelero, and Tupas

OUTLINE OF REPORT  Introduction  Definition  Importance  Types of Citation Principles
OUTLINE OF REPORT  Introduction  Definition  Importance  Types of Citation Principles

OUTLINE OF REPORT

Introduction

Definition

Importance

Types of Citation Principles

Norms/Sources

How to Cite Sources

The Blue Book

US Context

Philippine Context

Philippine Manual of Legal Citations

Basic Rules on Legal Citation

Abbreviations

Spacing

References

DEFINITION OF CITATION  It is a reference to legal authorities or precedents such as
DEFINITION OF CITATION  It is a reference to legal authorities or precedents such as

DEFINITION OF CITATION

It is a reference to legal authorities or

precedents such as statutes, cases, regulations

and law review articles (Martin, 2012).

A reference to legal precedent or authority, such as case, statute, or treatise, that either substantiates or contradicts a given position

(Black’s Law Dictionary).

IMPORTANCE OF LEGAL CITATION  It is used in arguments to courts, legal textbooks, law
IMPORTANCE OF LEGAL CITATION  It is used in arguments to courts, legal textbooks, law

IMPORTANCE OF LEGAL CITATION

It is used in arguments to courts, legal textbooks, law review articles and

the like to establish or fortify the propositions argued.

Citations to legal materials follow a standard format which makes it possible for anyone using a law library to find cited cases, statutes,

regulations, and law review articles.

The task of "legal citation" in short is to provide sufficient information to the reader of a brief or memorandum to aid a decision about which authorities to check as well as in what order to consult

them and to permit efficient and precise retrieval all of that, without consuming any more space or

creating any more distraction than is absolutely necessary.

IMPORTANCE OF LEGAL CITATION  A reference properly written in "legal citation" strives to do
IMPORTANCE OF LEGAL CITATION  A reference properly written in "legal citation" strives to do

IMPORTANCE OF LEGAL CITATION

A reference properly written in "legal citation" strives to do at least three things, within limited space:

identify the document and document part to which the writer is referring

provide the reader with sufficient information to find the document or document part in the sources the reader has available (which may or may not be the same sources as those used by the writer), and

furnish important additional information about the referenced material and its connection to the writer's argument to assist readers in deciding whether or not to pursue the reference.

TYPES OF CITATION PRINCIPLES  Full Address Principles  Principles that specify completeness of the
TYPES OF CITATION PRINCIPLES  Full Address Principles  Principles that specify completeness of the

TYPES OF CITATION PRINCIPLES

Full Address Principles

Principles that specify completeness of the

address or identification of a cited document or

document portion in terms that will allow the

reader to retrieve it.

TYPES OF CITATION PRINCIPLES  Other Minimum Content Principles  Principles that call for the
TYPES OF CITATION PRINCIPLES  Other Minimum Content Principles  Principles that call for the

TYPES OF CITATION PRINCIPLES

Other Minimum Content Principles

Principles that call for the inclusion in a citation of additional

information items beyond a retrieval address the full name of

the author of a journal article, the year a decision was

rendered or a statutory codification last updated.

Compacting Principles

Principles that reduce the space taken up by the information

items included in a citation.

Format Principles

Principles about punctuation, typography, order of items within a citation, and the like.

WHO SETS CITATION NORMS?  There is no national citation standard-setting authority.  For most
WHO SETS CITATION NORMS?  There is no national citation standard-setting authority.  For most

WHO SETS CITATION NORMS?

There is no national citation standard-setting authority.

For most law writing, the relevant citations norms are set by widely accepted professional usage.

BLUE BOOK  A uniform system of citation  It is widely used in the
BLUE BOOK  A uniform system of citation  It is widely used in the

BLUE BOOK

A uniform system of citation

It is widely used in the United States

Nineteenth edition

compiled by:

Columbia Law Review

Harvard Law Review

The University of Pennsylvania

Law Review

The Yale Law Journal

 Columbia Law Review  Harvard Law Review  The University of Pennsylvania Law Review 
ALWD CITATION MANUAL  professional system of citation  consistent with Blue Book  filled
ALWD CITATION MANUAL  professional system of citation  consistent with Blue Book  filled

ALWD CITATION MANUAL

professional system of citation

consistent with Blue

Book

filled with examples of citation forms

MANUAL  professional system of citation  consistent with Blue Book  filled with examples of
CHICAGO MANUAL STYLE  “Maroon Book”  offered a distinctly different and less rigid set
CHICAGO MANUAL STYLE  “Maroon Book”  offered a distinctly different and less rigid set

CHICAGO MANUAL STYLE

CHICAGO MANUAL STYLE  “Maroon Book”  offered a distinctly different and less rigid set of

“Maroon Book”

offered a distinctly

different and less rigid

set of rules.

WHO SETS CITATION NORMS?  Supreme Court and court systems  The norms set out
WHO SETS CITATION NORMS?  Supreme Court and court systems  The norms set out

WHO SETS CITATION NORMS?

Supreme Court and court systems

The norms set out in national manuals are supplemented or overridden by court rules

the content, composition, and format of legal memoranda and briefs.

In the end, most of "legal citation," like most of any language, is

established by evolving usage, reinforced in some cases, altered

in others, by the members of distinct communities.

BASIC PARTS OF LEGAL CITATION: 1. the name of the case, statute, or article 2.
BASIC PARTS OF LEGAL CITATION: 1. the name of the case, statute, or article 2.

BASIC PARTS OF LEGAL CITATION:

1. the name of the case, statute, or article

2. a statement of where the item can be found

in a multi-volume set of legal materials

written as:

volume number

3. a date

name of publication(or set) page number

HOW TO CITE? Following BLUE BOOK on PRIMARY and SECONDARY Sources ( US CONTEXT)
HOW TO CITE? Following BLUE BOOK on PRIMARY and SECONDARY Sources ( US CONTEXT)

HOW TO CITE?

Following BLUE BOOK on PRIMARY and SECONDARY Sources ( US

CONTEXT)

CASE DOCUMENTS
CASE DOCUMENTS

CASE DOCUMENTS

LAW JOURNAL WRITING
LAW JOURNAL WRITING

LAW JOURNAL WRITING

BOOKS
BOOKS

BOOKS

COURT RULES
COURT RULES

COURT RULES

ARBITRATIONS
ARBITRATIONS

ARBITRATIONS

AGENCY AND EXECUTIVE MATERIAL
AGENCY AND EXECUTIVE MATERIAL

AGENCY AND EXECUTIVE MATERIAL

CONSTITUTION AND STATUTES
CONSTITUTION AND STATUTES

CONSTITUTION AND STATUTES

JUDICIAL OPINIONS
JUDICIAL OPINIONS

JUDICIAL OPINIONS

ELECTRONIC SOURCES
ELECTRONIC SOURCES

ELECTRONIC SOURCES

HOW TO CITE? THE PHILIPPINE CONTEXT BLUE BOOK :APPLIED IN
HOW TO CITE? THE PHILIPPINE CONTEXT BLUE BOOK :APPLIED IN

HOW TO CITE?

THE

PHILIPPINE CONTEXT

BLUE

BOOK

:APPLIED

IN

ORDER OF AUTHORITIES – PRIMARY  Constitution  Statutes, treaties and other international instruments 
ORDER OF AUTHORITIES – PRIMARY  Constitution  Statutes, treaties and other international instruments 

ORDER OF AUTHORITIES PRIMARY

Constitution

Statutes, treaties and other international instruments

Cases

Legislative Documents other than statutes

Administrative or executive documents

Implementing Rules and Regulations

Court Documents including Rules of Court

Documents of intergovernmental

organizations

ORDER OF AUTHORITIES – SECONDARY  Books, Annotations and Treatises  Journal Articles  Periodical
ORDER OF AUTHORITIES – SECONDARY  Books, Annotations and Treatises  Journal Articles  Periodical

ORDER OF AUTHORITIES SECONDARY

Books, Annotations and Treatises

Journal Articles

Periodical Articles

Internet Sources

Interviews

Papers and Theses

Miscellaneous

CONSTITUTION  Current Constitution: {STATE OR COUNTRY} CONST. {subdivisions} PHIL. CONST. art. VI, § 11,
CONSTITUTION  Current Constitution: {STATE OR COUNTRY} CONST. {subdivisions} PHIL. CONST. art. VI, § 11,
CONSTITUTION
 Current Constitution:
{STATE OR COUNTRY} CONST.
{subdivisions}
PHIL. CONST. art. VI, § 11, ¶ 2.
 Repealed Constitution:
{Year of adoption} {STATE OR COUNTRY}
CONST. {subdivisions} ({year superseded}).
1935 Phil. Const. art. 1, § 1 (superseded
1971).
CODES AND STATUTES  Codes {full title} {SHORT TITLE}, {statute number, {subdivisions} ({year}). An Act
CODES AND STATUTES  Codes {full title} {SHORT TITLE}, {statute number, {subdivisions} ({year}). An Act
CODES AND STATUTES
 Codes
{full title} {SHORT TITLE}, {statute number,
{subdivisions} ({year}).
An Act Revising the Penal Code and Other Penal
Law {REVISED PENAL CODE], Act No. 3815, art.
2
(1932).
 Short citation and subsequent citations:
{SHORT TITLE}, {subdivisions}.
 REVISED PENAL CODE, arts. 171-173.
 Id.
 Id. Art. 180, ¶ 2.
CODES AND STATUTES  Statutes {full title} [{Short title, if any}], {statute number}, {subdivisions} ({year}).
CODES AND STATUTES  Statutes {full title} [{Short title, if any}], {statute number}, {subdivisions} ({year}).
CODES AND STATUTES
 Statutes
{full title} [{Short title, if any}], {statute
number}, {subdivisions} ({year}).
 An Act Penalizing the Making or Drawing and
Issuance of a Check Without Sufficient Funds or Credit
and for Other Purposes, Batas Pambansa Blg. 22, § 6
(1978).
 Short citation and subsequent citations:
{Short Title or abbreviated statute number}, {subd.}.
 B.P. Blg. 22, § 5.
 Id.
 Id. § 2.
CODES AND STATUTES  Statutes  An Act Providing for the Recognition and Use of
CODES AND STATUTES  Statutes  An Act Providing for the Recognition and Use of
CODES AND STATUTES
 Statutes
 An Act Providing for the Recognition and Use of
Electronic Commercial and Non-commercial
Transactions and Documents, Penalties for Unlawful
Use Thereof and For Other Purposes [e-Commerce
Act of 2008], Republic Act. No. 8792, § 33 (2000).
 Short citation and subsequent citations:
 E-Commerce Act of 2008, §§ 33-34.
 Id.
 Id. § 10.
CASES (JUDICIAL DECISIONS)  Supreme Court Decisions  Reported Cases – General Rule {case name},
CASES (JUDICIAL DECISIONS)  Supreme Court Decisions  Reported Cases – General Rule {case name},

CASES (JUDICIAL DECISIONS)

Supreme Court Decisions

Reported Cases General Rule

{case name}, {volume number} {Reporter} {first

page}, {cited page} ({year}).

Laurel v. Abrogar, 483 SCRA 243, 245 (2006).

Unreported Cases Exception

{case name}, {G.R. Number} {Reporter}, {cited

page} {date}.

People v. Ramos, G.R. No. 172470, Apr. 8, 2008.

CASES (JUDICIAL DECISIONS)  Short citation and subsequent citations:  Laurel, 483 SCRA at 269.
CASES (JUDICIAL DECISIONS)  Short citation and subsequent citations:  Laurel, 483 SCRA at 269.
CASES (JUDICIAL
DECISIONS)
 Short citation and subsequent citations:
Laurel, 483 SCRA at 269.
 Id. at 255.
 Id.
 People v. Ramos, G.R. No. 172470, Apr. 8,
2008.
 Id.
CASES (JUDICIAL DECISIONS)  Decisions of other Philippine courts {case name}, {volume number} {Reporter} {first
CASES (JUDICIAL DECISIONS)  Decisions of other Philippine courts {case name}, {volume number} {Reporter} {first
CASES (JUDICIAL
DECISIONS)
 Decisions of other Philippine courts
{case name}, {volume number} {Reporter}
{first page}, {cited page} ({Court} {year}).
People v. Collantes, 37 O.G. 1804, 1805
(Court of Appeals 1926).
If unreported, follow the same format as
that of the Supreme Court’s unreported
cases.
(Exception)
LEGISLATIVE MATERIALS  Bills {title}, {legislature}, {session}, in {publication, if any} {subdivision} ({date}). H.B.
LEGISLATIVE MATERIALS  Bills {title}, {legislature}, {session}, in {publication, if any} {subdivision} ({date}). H.B.

LEGISLATIVE MATERIALS

Bills {title}, {legislature}, {session}, in {publication, if any} {subdivision} ({date}).

H.B. 604, 13th Cong., 2d Sess. (May 12,

2007, in 128 Cong. Rec. S. 7091 (May 19,

2007).

LEGISLATIVE MATERIALS  Bills with hearings held {title of hearing, including the bill number and
LEGISLATIVE MATERIALS  Bills with hearings held {title of hearing, including the bill number and
LEGISLATIVE MATERIALS
 Bills
with hearings held
{title of hearing, including the bill number and
committee which held the hearing},
{legislature}
{page number} ({year of
hearing}) ({parenthetical
information about person testifying}).
Benefits for U.S. Victims of International
Terrorism:
Hearing on S. 1275 Before
the Senate Foreign
Relations
Committee, 108th Cong. 2-5 (2003) (statement
of William H. Taft, IV, Legal
Advisor, Dept. of State).
LEGISLATIVE MATERIALS  Congressional Reports {title and author, if any} {H.R. or S. to indicate
LEGISLATIVE MATERIALS  Congressional Reports {title and author, if any} {H.R. or S. to indicate
LEGISLATIVE MATERIALS
 Congressional Reports
{title and author, if any} {H.R. or S. to indicate House of
Representatives or Senate} REP. NO. {Number of Congress}-
{Number of Report}, at
{page number} ({year}).
H.R. REP. NO. 99-226, at 8 (1985).
 Congressional Journals
{volume, if any} {JOURNAL OF CHAMBER OF CONGRESS} {journal
number}, {legislature}, {session} ({date}).
 SENATE JOURNAL 722, 13th Cong. 1 st Reg. Sess., Senate Sess. No.
67 (Mar. 7, 2005).
 68 JOURNAL OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 14, 13th
Cong., 1 st Reg. Sess. (May 10-11, 2005).
EXECUTIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE MATERIALS {issuing agency}, {title, if any}, {issuance or series number, if any},
EXECUTIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE MATERIALS {issuing agency}, {title, if any}, {issuance or series number, if any},
EXECUTIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE
MATERIALS
{issuing agency}, {title, if any}, {issuance or series number, if any},
{volume} {official source, if any} {page or section number}
({date}).
 Bureau of Internal Revenue, Revenue Memorandum Circular No. 37-
93, 89 O.G. 4476 (Aug. 9, 1993).
 Bureau of Internal Revenue, Rev. Reg. No. 16, 2005, Effectivity Clause
(Sep. 1, 2005).
 Office of the President, Instituting the Presidential Award for Heroism
in Times of Disaster, Executive Order No. 421 (Sep. 7, 1990).
 Securities and Exchange Commission, Code of Corporate
Governance, SEC Memorandum Circular No. 2, Series of 2002 (Apr.
5, 2002).
IMPLEMENTING RULES AND REGULATIONS {title of statute}, {subdivisions} ({year}).  Rules and Regulations Implementing
IMPLEMENTING RULES AND REGULATIONS {title of statute}, {subdivisions} ({year}).  Rules and Regulations Implementing
IMPLEMENTING RULES AND
REGULATIONS
{title of statute}, {subdivisions} ({year}).
 Rules and Regulations Implementing the
Anti-Violence against Women and Their
Children Act of 2004, § 14 (a) (2004).
 Id.
 Rules and Regulations Implementing the e-
Commerce Act of 2000, § 1 (2000).
 Id. § 5.
RULES OF COURT {TITLE OF RULES}, {rule}, {subdivisions}.  2000 REVISED RULES OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE,
RULES OF COURT {TITLE OF RULES}, {rule}, {subdivisions}.  2000 REVISED RULES OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE,
RULES OF COURT
{TITLE OF RULES}, {rule}, {subdivisions}.
2000 REVISED RULES OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE,
rule 110, § 4.
Id.
 1997 RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE, rule 41, § 2 (a).
Id.
 1991 Revised Rules on Summary Procedure, § 10.
 Id.
BOOKS, ANNOTATIONS, TREATISES  Books and Treatises – General Rule: {AUTHOR}, {TITLE} {cited page} ({year}
BOOKS, ANNOTATIONS, TREATISES  Books and Treatises – General Rule: {AUTHOR}, {TITLE} {cited page} ({year}
BOOKS, ANNOTATIONS,
TREATISES
 Books and Treatises – General Rule:
{AUTHOR}, {TITLE} {cited page} ({year} or
{edition number} {year} or {year of edition}).
 RUBEN F. BALANE, JOTTINGS IN CIVIL LAW:
SUCCESSION 53 (2d ed. 2002).
 JOAQUIN G. BERNAS, S.J., THE 1987
CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE
PHILIPPINES: A COMMENTARY 1195 (2003 ed.)
 SAMUEL WILLISTON, A TREATISE ON THE LAW
OF CONTRACTS, ADMINISTRATIVE LAW
TREATISE 120-21 (1990).
BOOKS, ANNOTATIONS, TREATISES  Books and Treatises – Multi-Volume Work {volume number} { AUTHOR },
BOOKS, ANNOTATIONS, TREATISES  Books and Treatises – Multi-Volume Work {volume number} { AUTHOR },

BOOKS, ANNOTATIONS, TREATISES

Books and Treatises Multi-Volume Work

{volume number} {AUTHOR}, {TITLE} {cited page}

({year} or {edition number} {year} or {year of

edition}).

4 OSCAR B. HERRERA, REMEDIAL LAW 150 (2001

ed.)

Books and Treatises With Editor or Translator {AUTHOR}, {TITLE} {cited page} ({Editor or

translator} {ed(s). or trans.}, {year}).

ADAM SMITH, THE WEALTH OF NATIONS 30-31

(Edwin Cannan ed., 2000).

WOMEN AND LANGUAGE IN LITERATURE AND SOCIETY 284-99 (Ruth Broker, et al., eds., 1980).

BOOKS, ANNOTATIONS, TREATISES  Books and Treatises – 2 Authors { AUTHOR 1 } &
BOOKS, ANNOTATIONS, TREATISES  Books and Treatises – 2 Authors { AUTHOR 1 } &

BOOKS, ANNOTATIONS, TREATISES

Books and Treatises 2 Authors

{AUTHOR 1} & {AUTHOR 2}, {TITLE} {cited

page} ({year} or {edition number} {year} or

{year of edition}).

JUSTICE JOSE C. VITUG & JUDGE ERNESTO D. ACOSTA, TAX LAW AND JURISPRUDENCE 150

(2d ed. 2000).

Books and Treatises More than 2 authors

{AUTHOR 1} ET AL., {TITLE} {cited page}

({year} or {edition number} {year} or {year of

edition}).

JOSUE N. BELLOSILLO, ET AL., OMNIBUS ELECTION CODE 181 (2007).

  BOOKS, ANNOTATIONS, TREATISES        Books and Treatises – Short citation and
  BOOKS, ANNOTATIONS, TREATISES
 

BOOKS, ANNOTATIONS, TREATISES

     

Books and Treatises Short citation and subsequent citations:

BALANE, supra note 50, at 104.

Id.

 

VITUG & ACOSTA, supra note 52, at 205.

Cruz, et al., supra note 68, at 305.

Id.

 

Id. at 288.

3 REGALADO, supra note 80, at 206.

Id. at 299.

BOOKS, ANNOTATIONS, TREATISES  Annotations  {Author}, Annotation, { Title }, {volume number} {Reporter} {first
BOOKS, ANNOTATIONS, TREATISES  Annotations  {Author}, Annotation, { Title }, {volume number} {Reporter} {first

BOOKS, ANNOTATIONS, TREATISES

Annotations {Author}, Annotation, {Title}, {volume number} {Reporter} {first page}, {cited

page} ({year}).

Jorge R. Coquia, Annotation, The National Computerized Identification Reference

System as Violation of the Right to Privacy: A

Review of the Principles and Jurisprudence on

Privacy as Human Rights, 293 SCRA 201, 203

(1998).

      JOURNAL ARTICLES      {Author}, { Title }, {volume number} {
      JOURNAL ARTICLES
     

JOURNAL ARTICLES

   

{Author}, {Title}, {volume number} {JOURNAL} {first page, {cited page} ({year}).

Patrick Simon S. Perillo, Transporting the

Concept of Creeping Expropriation from de Lege Ferenda to de Lege Lata: Concretizing the

Nebulous under International Law 53 ATENEO

L.J. 434, 488 (2008).

Short citation and subsequent citations:

Perillo, supra note 43, at 489-90.

Id.

 

Id. at 488.

PERIODICALS  Magazine {Author}, { Title }, { NAME OF MAGAZINE }, {date}, at {first
PERIODICALS  Magazine {Author}, { Title }, { NAME OF MAGAZINE }, {date}, at {first

PERIODICALS

Magazine

{Author}, {Title}, {NAME OF MAGAZINE},

{date}, at {first page of article}.

Usha Tankha, Transforming Misfortune into

Opportunity, ADB REV., Apr.-May 2006, at 30.

Newspaper Article

{Author}, {Headline}, {ABBREVIATION OF

NEWSPAPER}, {date of article}, at {page on

which article appears}.

John M. Broder, Clinton Adamant on 3D World

Role in Climate Accord, N.Y. TIMES, Dec. 12,

1997, at A1.

INTERNET SOURCES {Author if available}, {title}, available at {internet address/website} (last accessed {date}). 
INTERNET SOURCES {Author if available}, {title}, available at {internet address/website} (last accessed {date}). 

INTERNET SOURCES

{Author if available}, {title}, available at

{internet address/website} (last accessed

{date}).

Barry M. Leiner, et al., A Brief History of the Internet, available at

http://www.isoc.org/internet/history/brief.shtm

l#Introduction (last accessed Apr. 26, 2007).

Protected Area and Wildlife Bureau, Tamaraw Conservation Project, available at

http://www.pawb.gov.ph/progs/tamaraw.htm

(last accessed Dec. 27, 2002).

Note: Remove hyperlink.

INTERVIEWS  In-person Interview  {Name}, {Title}, {Institutional Affiliation, if any, of the interviewee}, in
INTERVIEWS  In-person Interview  {Name}, {Title}, {Institutional Affiliation, if any, of the interviewee}, in
INTERVIEWS
 In-person Interview
 {Name}, {Title}, {Institutional Affiliation, if any, of
the interviewee}, in {location of the interview}
({date of the interview}).
 Interview with Dick Cheney, Vice-President,
United States of America, in Washington, D.C.
(Oct. 24, 2006).
 Telephone Interview
 {Name}, {Title}, {Institutional Affiliation, if any, of
the interviewee}, in {location of the interview}
({date of the interview}).
 Telephone Interview with Orhan Pamuk, in
Stockholm (Oct. 12, 2006).
INTERVIEWS  Interview not personally conducted by the author  {Name of interviewer}, {Name of
INTERVIEWS  Interview not personally conducted by the author  {Name of interviewer}, {Name of
INTERVIEWS
 Interview not personally conducted by the
author
 {Name of interviewer}, {Name of
interviewee}, {Title}, {Institutional Affiliation,
if any, of the interviewee}, in {location of the
interview} ({date of the interview}).
 Interview by Harry Keisler with Kofi Annan,
Secretary General, United Nations, in
University of California, Berkeley (Apr. 19,
1998).
THESES {Author}, {Title} ({date}) ({indicate type of work}, {institution that awarded the degree}) ({where it
THESES {Author}, {Title} ({date}) ({indicate type of work}, {institution that awarded the degree}) ({where it

THESES

{Author}, {Title} ({date}) ({indicate type of work},

{institution that awarded the degree}) ({where it can

be found}).

Archie E. Blake, Daubert and Reality: A Survey of

Nevada Judges (1996) (unpublished thesis, University of

Nevada) (on file with Reno Library, University of

Nevada).

Rosalyn C. Rayco, Cyber-Prostitution at a Click of a

Button: Evaluating the Applicability of Prostitution

Statutes in Criminalizing Paid Video-based Cybersex

(2006) (unpublished J.D. thesis, Ateneo de Manila

University) (on file with the Professional Schools Library,

Ateneo de Manila University).

BASIC FOREIGN MATERIALS  United Nations  General Assembly Resolutions  {Resolution number}, {at page
BASIC FOREIGN MATERIALS  United Nations  General Assembly Resolutions  {Resolution number}, {at page
BASIC FOREIGN MATERIALS
 United Nations
 General Assembly Resolutions
 {Resolution number}, {at page number, if if possible,
paragraph number}, U.N. GAOR, {session or volume
number}, {supplement or annex number}, {designation}
({year}).
 G.A. Res. 2131, at 107-08, U.N. GAOR, 20 th Sess., Supp. No.
12, U.N. Doc. A/6012 (1965).
 G.A. Res. 57/377, ¶ 3, U.N. Doc. A/Res/57/377 (July 3,
2003).
 G.A. Res. 2131, supra note 34, at 2.
BASIC FOREIGN MATERIALS  United Nations  Reports  {name of issuing body}, [{abbreviation}], {sub-committee
BASIC FOREIGN MATERIALS  United Nations  Reports  {name of issuing body}, [{abbreviation}], {sub-committee
BASIC FOREIGN MATERIALS
 United Nations
 Reports
 {name of issuing body}, [{abbreviation}], {sub-committee
that prepared the report}, {title of the report}, {paragraph
number or the pinpoint cite}, U.N. Doc. {document
number} ({date}) ({author included, if available}).
 U.N. Econ. & Soc. Council [ECOSOC], United Nations
Forum on Forests, Report of the Seventh Session, Chapt. I,
A.1.1. at 1, U.N. Doc. E/CN.18/2007/8 (Feb. 24, 2006 and
Apr. 16-27, 2007).
BASIC FOREIGN MATERIALS  Treaties, Conventions, Protocols  {name of agreement}, {subdivision, if cited only
BASIC FOREIGN MATERIALS  Treaties, Conventions, Protocols  {name of agreement}, {subdivision, if cited only
BASIC FOREIGN MATERIALS
 Treaties, Conventions, Protocols
 {name of agreement}, {subdivision, if cited
only in part}, {full date of signing},
{international treaty sources}.
 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Dec. 10,
1982, Preamble, 1983 U.N.T.S. 3 [hereinafter UNCLOS].
 Convention on the Rights of the Child, Nov. 20, 1989, art.
19, 1577 U.N.T.S. 3 [hereinafter CRC].
 Id. art. 23.
 UNCLOS, supra note 93, at art. 192.
 Treaty of Amity and Economic Relations, U.S.-Thail., June
8, 1968, 652 U.N.T.S. 253 [hereinafter T.E.A.R.].
Exception: U.N. CHARTER, art. 43, ¶ 1.
BASIC FOREIGN MATERIALS  Cases  {Case name}, ({parties’ name, except if it is an
BASIC FOREIGN MATERIALS  Cases  {Case name}, ({parties’ name, except if it is an
BASIC FOREIGN MATERIALS
 Cases
 {Case name}, ({parties’ name, except if it is
an advisory opinion}), {volume number and
name of publication} {case number}, {page
number} ({date}).
 Asylum (Colom. v. Peru), 1950 I.C.J. 266,
277-78 (Nov. 20, 1950).
 Legal Status of Eastern Greenland Case,
1933 P.C.I.J. Ser. A/B No. 53, Ser. C., vol. 62,
43, 109, vol. 63, 858 (Apr. 5, 1933).
 Asylum, 1950 I.C.J. at 278.
PHILIPPINE MANUAL ON LEGAL CITATIONS Primary and Secondary Sources
PHILIPPINE MANUAL ON LEGAL CITATIONS Primary and Secondary Sources

PHILIPPINE MANUAL ON LEGAL CITATIONS

Primary and Secondary Sources

COURT DECISIONS – CASE NAMES General Rule : Cite cases by giving the surname of
COURT DECISIONS – CASE NAMES General Rule : Cite cases by giving the surname of

COURT DECISIONS CASE NAMES

General Rule :

Cite cases by giving the surname of the parties, the volume, the title

and page of reports, and the year of promulgation in

parenthesis. Abbreviate versus or contra as “v.” When used in the

text, underscore the title of the case. If printed, italicize. Place the

source or citation in the footnote.

Example:

Ariaga v. Javellana, 92 Phil. 330 (1952)

If two or more actions are consolidated in one decision, cite only the first listed

Exceptions : COURT DECISIONS – CASE NAMES 1. Cite Islamic and Chinese names in full.
Exceptions : COURT DECISIONS – CASE NAMES 1. Cite Islamic and Chinese names in full.

Exceptions :

COURT DECISIONS CASE NAMES

1. Cite Islamic and Chinese names in full. As to those with Christian full names,

follow the general rule.

Examples:

Lim Sian Tek v. Ladislao Una Kibad v. Commission on Elections

(Note: The reason why Chinese and Islamic names are spelled out in full is that there are many similar

names in Chinese aggravated by the absence of a middle name or middle initial, to distinguish one person from the other.)

2. Cite Compound names in full.

Examples:

People v. De la Cruz

Abad Santos v. Auditor General

Galeos-Valdehuesa v. Republic

Always cite names of Corporations, associations, business firms and partnership in full. Words forming such
Always cite names of Corporations, associations, business firms and partnership in full. Words forming such

Always cite names of Corporations, associations, business firms and partnership in full. Words forming such parts may be abbreviated,

except the first word.

Examples:

Mata v. Rita Legarda, Inc. Allied Workers Ass’n of the Phil. V. Republic Trading Corp.

However, if one of the parties is a partnership, do not omit any portion of the partnership name.

WRONG:

Cruz v. Merill, Lynch.

RIGHT:

Cruz v. Merill, Lynch, Pierce, Fenner, & Smith, Inc.

Likewise, omit alternative names given for any party such as a trade name under which
Likewise, omit alternative names given for any party such as a trade name under which

Likewise, omit alternative names given for any party such as a trade

name under which the party conducts business.

WRONG:

Wilson U. Ng doing business and style as Compact Blockbuster Video, Inc. v. Juan de la Cruz RIGHT:

Ng v. De la Cruz

In special proceedings, “Estate of,” “Intestate of” and “Will of” are not considered procedural phrases, but are part of the case name. Do not omit

these terms.

WRONG:

In re Le Liong RIGHT:

Intestate Estate of Le Liong v. Ang Chia, L-3342, April 18,1951

Cite cases involving the Government of the Philippines and criminal cases as follows: Government Commonwealth
Cite cases involving the Government of the Philippines and criminal cases as follows: Government Commonwealth

Cite cases involving the Government of the Philippines and

criminal cases as follows:

Government

Commonwealth

;

;

Republic

;

U.S.

;

People

;

D epending upon the title of the case.

Examples:

Government v. Abadinas Republic v. Carpin Commonwealth v. Corominas U.S. v. Jaranilla

People v. Santos

Cite cases involving public offices or officers as follows: a.Where the person is named in
Cite cases involving public offices or officers as follows: a.Where the person is named in

Cite cases involving public offices or officers as follows:

a.Where the person is named in his official capacity, give the name of the

person only.

Examples:

City of Manila v. Subido not City of Manila v. Subido, in his capacity as Civil Service Commisioner

Gonzales v. Hechanova not Gonzales v. Executive Secretary

b. Where the office is named, give the complete name of the office.

Examples:

Collector of Internal Revenue v. Tan Eng Hong

Chief of Phil. Constabulary v. Sabungan Bagong Silangan

Always cite Municipality of the decisions. , City of Examples: Province of Rizal v. R.T.C
Always cite Municipality of the decisions. , City of Examples: Province of Rizal v. R.T.C

Always cite Municipality of

the decisions.

,

City of

Examples:

Province of Rizal v. R.T.C 7.

,

Province of

as they appear in

Cite case names beginning with procedural terms like Ex parte, Ex rel and In re as

they appear in the decision. Use In re instead of In the matter of.

Examples:

Ex parte Milligan

U.S. ex rel Great house v. Smith

CASE REPORTS Supreme Court Decisions Supreme Court decisions are printed in an official report and
CASE REPORTS Supreme Court Decisions Supreme Court decisions are printed in an official report and

CASE REPORTS

Supreme Court Decisions

Supreme Court decisions are printed in an official report and in at least two unofficial reports.

Official Reports

Official reports are printed by the court issuing the case, out of funds provided by the legislature. For example, the official site for Supreme Court cases is the Philippine Reports. This is published by the Supreme Court.

Unofficial Reports

All commercially published reporters such as the Supreme Court Reports Annotated (SCRA) and the Supreme Court Advanced decisions (SCAD) contain unofficial reports.

When the decision is already found in the Philippine Reports, indicate only the

Philippine Reports citation.

PHILIPPINE REPORTS Cite as: volume Phil. page (year) Example: Diaz v. Estrera, 106 Phil. 637
PHILIPPINE REPORTS Cite as: volume Phil. page (year) Example: Diaz v. Estrera, 106 Phil. 637

PHILIPPINE REPORTS

Cite as: volume Phil. page (year)

Example:

Diaz v. Estrera, 106 Phil. 637 (1947)

If the case is not yet published either in the Philippine Reports

or in the SCRA or SCAD, or it is a very recent decision, cite the

title of the case, the G.R. number, then the date.

Example:

People v. Nubia, G.R. No. 137164, June 19, 2001

OFFICIAL GAZETTE Cite G.T. docket number and date of promulgation before the O.G. citation. Cite
OFFICIAL GAZETTE Cite G.T. docket number and date of promulgation before the O.G. citation. Cite

OFFICIAL GAZETTE

Cite G.T. docket number and date of promulgation before the O.G.

citation. Cite as: G.R. year of issue).

, date promulgated, volume O.G. page(Month and

Example:

Espiritu v. Rivera, G.R. No. 17092, September 30, 1963, 62 O.G.7226 (Oct. 1966).

If the decision is found in a supplement, indicate the supplement number,

page, and date of issue.

Example:

46 O.G. Supp. No. 11, 22 (Nov. 1950).

GENERAL REGISTER (G.R.) – Advance decision of the Supreme Court. Cite as: G.R. , date
GENERAL REGISTER (G.R.) – Advance decision of the Supreme Court. Cite as: G.R. , date

GENERAL REGISTER (G.R.) Advance decision of the Supreme

Court.

Cite as: G.R.

, date of promulgation, omitting the L-which

refers to post liberation decisions.

Example:

Estapa v. Diansay, G.R. No. 14733, September 30, 1960

For disciplinary cases against attorney-at-law, cite as: G. R. Adm. Case , date of promulgation.
For disciplinary cases against attorney-at-law, cite as: G. R. Adm. Case , date of promulgation.

For disciplinary cases against attorney-at-law, cite as: G. R. Adm.

Case

, date of promulgation.

Example: In re

Mallare, G.R. Adm. Case No. 533, April 29, 1968.

For disciplinary cases against judges, cite as: G.R. Adm.

Case/Matter

, date of promulgation.

Example:

Secretary of Justice v. Catolico, G.R. Adm. Case no. 203-J& Adm. Matter No. 625-CFI, November 18, 1975.

COURT OF APPEALS DECISIONS, 1936 1. APPELATE COURT REPORTS (v. 21, 1937 and V. 8,
COURT OF APPEALS DECISIONS, 1936 1. APPELATE COURT REPORTS (v. 21, 1937 and V. 8,

COURT OF APPEALS DECISIONS, 1936

1. APPELATE COURT REPORTS (v. 21, 1937 and V. 8, 1947 are the only ones

published)

Cite as: volume C.A. Rep. page(year)

Example:

Chunaco v. Singh, 8 C.A. Rep. 488 (1947)

2. COURT OF APPEALS REPORTS, Second Series

Cite as: volume C.A. Rep. 2d page(year)

Example:

Flores v. Valpena, 2 C.A. Rep. 2d 64 (1962)

3. COURT OF APPEALS GENERAL REGISTRAR (C.A. G.R.) Advance decisions of the Court of Appeals.

Cite as: C.A.-G.R.

-R,

CV, CR, or SP, date of promulgation.

Example

: Caliboso v. Bueno, C.A-G.R. No. 20401-R, April 8, 1960.

OFFICIAL GAZETTE Cite as: Sandiganbayan Crim. Case , date of promulgation, volume O.G. page (month
OFFICIAL GAZETTE Cite as: Sandiganbayan Crim. Case , date of promulgation, volume O.G. page (month

OFFICIAL GAZETTE

Cite as: Sandiganbayan Crim. Case

, date

of promulgation, volume O.G. page (month and year of

issue).

Example:

Manila Electric Co. v. Allarde, C.A. Sp No. 11850, May 15,

1987,86 O.G. 3447 (May, 1990)

Other Courts 1. SANDIGANBAYAN DECISIONS Cite as: Sandiganbayan Crim. Case , date of promulgation, volume
Other Courts 1. SANDIGANBAYAN DECISIONS Cite as: Sandiganbayan Crim. Case , date of promulgation, volume

Other Courts

1. SANDIGANBAYAN DECISIONS

Cite as: Sandiganbayan Crim. Case

, date of promulgation,

volume Sandiganbayan Rep. page (year of issue).

Example:

People v. Sabarre, Sandiganbayan Crim. Case No. 001,December 12, 1979, 1 Sandiganbayan Rep. 305 (1979).

2. COURT OF TAX APPEALS DECISIONS Cite as: CTA Case No.

, date of promulgation.

Example:

Abad. V. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, CTA CaseNo. 717, June 4, 1963

OTHER COURTS 3. REGIONAL TRIAL COURT DECISION Cite as: RTC (Place and Brance No. )
OTHER COURTS 3. REGIONAL TRIAL COURT DECISION Cite as: RTC (Place and Brance No. )

OTHER COURTS

3. REGIONAL TRIAL COURT DECISION Cite as: RTC (Place and Brance No.

) Crim. Case or S.P. No. R-

,

date of promulgation.

Example:

People v. Johnson, RTC (San Jose, Occidental Mindoro,Br. 45) Crim. Case No. R-

1681, August 6, 1984

4. METROPOLITAN TRIAL COURT Cite as: MeTC (Place and Branch No.) Civil or

CriminalCase

, date of promulgation.

Example:

Skell Distribution Co., Inc. v. Balmaceda, MeTC (Manila,Branch X) Civil Case No. 59563, July 20,

1982.

5. MUNICIPAL TRIAL COURTS AND MUNICIPAL CIRCUITTRIAL COURT

DECISIONS Cite as: MCTC or MTC (Place) Crim. Case promulgation.

Example:

, dateof

Administrative Decisions Cite by the name of the agency (when there is an abbreviatedform, use
Administrative Decisions Cite by the name of the agency (when there is an abbreviatedform, use

Administrative Decisions

Cite by the name of the agency (when there is an abbreviatedform,

use abbreviation or acronym) case number and date

of promulgation.

Example:

Tinio v. Dizon, DANR Case No. 2734, April 24, 1967. In re Colocado, CSC Adm. Case No. R-27182, September 26,1964.

BASIC RULES ON LEGAL CITATION
BASIC RULES ON LEGAL CITATION

BASIC RULES ON LEGAL CITATION

UNDERLINING  There are different rules for academic writing and practitioner writing  Publication names
UNDERLINING  There are different rules for academic writing and practitioner writing  Publication names

UNDERLINING

There are different rules for academic writing and

practitioner writing

Publication names can be underlined OR set in italics.

Underlining is the more common convention

If underlining is used instead of italics it should continue under successive words that are part of the same phrase

but break between items.

When "e.g." appears with another signal the two

together are treated as a single item. Punctuation that is

part of any of the above elements is italicized along with

it, but punctuation that separates that element from other parts of the citation should not be.

UNDERLINING IN CITATIONS DO UNDERLINE  Case names (including the "v." and procedural phrases, such
UNDERLINING IN CITATIONS DO UNDERLINE  Case names (including the "v." and procedural phrases, such

UNDERLINING IN CITATIONS

DO UNDERLINE

Case names (including the "v." and procedural phrases, such as

"In re")

Publication titles

Article titles

Legislative history titles

Explanatory phrase that explain prior or subsequent history (such as "cert. denied")

Cross reference (such as "Id.")

DO NOT UNDERLINE

Statutes

Constitutions

Restatements

Reporter names

Procedural rules

Names of journals

UNDERLINING IN TEXT  The following words or phrases should be italicized when they appear
UNDERLINING IN TEXT  The following words or phrases should be italicized when they appear

UNDERLINING IN TEXT

The following words or phrases should be italicized when they appear in the text of a brief or legal

memorandum:

references to titles or case names in the text without full citation

(even those which would, in full citation, not be underlined)

foreign words that have not been assimilated into lawyer jargon

quoted words that were italicized in the original

emphasized words

ABBREVIATIONS USED IN CITATIONS
ABBREVIATIONS USED IN CITATIONS

ABBREVIATIONS USED IN CITATIONS

IN CASE NAMES  Abbreviate the listed words wherever they appear in a party's name
IN CASE NAMES  Abbreviate the listed words wherever they appear in a party's name

IN CASE NAMES

Abbreviate the listed words wherever they appear in a party's name that is part of a citation.

Abbreviate any state that is included in a party name

For a number of words, but following no consistent pattern, The

Bluebook uses contractions (e.g., Eng'r and Int'l, though curiously

Envtl.). Prior to the fourth edition, the ALWD Citation Manual

abbreviations used no apostrophes; all ended with periods (e.g.,

Engr. and Intl.).

Except when the abbreviation list explicitly provides for the plural,

the plural of a listed word is abbreviated by adding an "s" to the abbreviation of the singular.

Eng'r - Eng'rs

Enter. - Enters.

Mfr. - Mfrs.

IN CASE HISTORIES acquiescing acq. nonacquiescing nonacq. affirmed aff'd probable prob.
IN CASE HISTORIES acquiescing acq. nonacquiescing nonacq. affirmed aff'd probable prob.

IN CASE HISTORIES

acquiescing

acq.

nonacquiescing

nonacq.

affirmed

aff'd

probable

prob.

affirming

aff'g

rehearing

reh'g

certiorari

cert.

reversed

rev'd

jurisdiction

juris.

reversing

rev'g

memorandum

mem.

ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES AND BOARDS EXERCISING REGULATORY AND QUASI- JUDICIAL FUNCTIONS Bureau of Bureau of Food
ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES AND BOARDS EXERCISING REGULATORY AND QUASI- JUDICIAL FUNCTIONS Bureau of Bureau of Food

ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES AND BOARDS EXERCISING REGULATORY AND QUASI- JUDICIAL FUNCTIONS

Bureau of

Bureau of

Food and Drugs

BFAD

Lands

BL

Central Board of Assessment Appeals

CBAA

Civil Aeronautics Board

CAB

Civil Service Commission

CSC

Commission on Audit

COA

Commission on Elections

COMELEC

Commission on Higher Education

CHED

Commission on Human Rights

CHR

Department of

Agriculture

DA

Department of

Energy

DE

Department of

Environment and Natural Resources

DENR

Department of

Finance

DOF

Department of

Foreign Affairs

DFA

Department of

Interior and Local Government

DILG

Department of

Justice

DOJ

Department of

Labor and Employment

DOLE

Department of

National Defense

DND

Department of

Public Works and Highways

DPWH

Department of

Science and Technology

DOST

ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES AND BOARDS EXERCISING REGULATORY AND QUASI- JUDICIAL FUNCTIONS Franchising and Regulatory Board
ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES AND BOARDS EXERCISING REGULATORY AND QUASI- JUDICIAL FUNCTIONS Franchising and Regulatory Board

ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES AND BOARDS EXERCISING REGULATORY AND QUASI- JUDICIAL FUNCTIONS

Franchising and Regulatory Board Administration

LTFRB

LWUA

MARINA

MSB

MWSS

MB

MTRCB

NBI

NCMB

NEDA

NFA

NHA

NIA

NLRC

NL

NTC

OSG

OMBUDSMAN

OGCC

OWWA

PCG

PCA

PEZA

PNR

Land Transportation Local Water Utilities

Maritime Industry Authority

Merit Systems Board

Metropolitan Waterworks & Sewerage System

Monetary Board Movie and Television Review and Classification Board National Bureau of Investigation

National Conciliation and Mediation Board

National Economic Development Authority National Food Authority National Housing Authority National Irrigation Administration National Labor Relations Commission National Library

National Telecommunications Commission

Office of the Solicitor General Office of the Ombudsman Office of Government Corporate Counsel

Overseas Workers Welfare Administration

Philippine Coast Guard

Philippine Coconut Authority

Philippine Export Zone Authority

Philippine National Railways

ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES AND BOARDS EXERCISING REGULATORY AND QUASI- JUDICIAL FUNCTIONS Philippine Overseas Employment
ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES AND BOARDS EXERCISING REGULATORY AND QUASI- JUDICIAL FUNCTIONS Philippine Overseas Employment

ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES AND BOARDS EXERCISING REGULATORY AND QUASI- JUDICIAL FUNCTIONS

Philippine Overseas Employment Administration

POEA

Philippine Sports Commission

PSC

Philippine Veterans Administration

PVA

Professional Regulation Commission

PRC

Securities and Exchange Commission

SEC

Social Security System

SSS

Employees Compensation Commission

ECC

Government Service Insurance System

GSIS

Housing Land Use Regulatory Board

HLURB

Laguna Lake Development Authority

LLDA

Land Registration Authority

LRA

Laws Republic Act R.A. Batas Pambansa B.P. Presidential Decree P.D. Commonwealth Act C.A. Act
Laws Republic Act R.A. Batas Pambansa B.P. Presidential Decree P.D. Commonwealth Act C.A. Act

Laws

Republic Act

R.A.

Batas Pambansa

B.P.

Presidential Decree

P.D.

Commonwealth Act

C.A.

Act

Act

Executive Issuances

Executive Order

E.O.

Administrative Order

A.O.

Letter of Instruction

LOI

Bills, Resolutions and Committee Reports Senate or House Bill S. No. H. No. Senate or
Bills, Resolutions and Committee Reports Senate or House Bill S. No. H. No. Senate or

Bills, Resolutions and Committee Reports

Senate

or House Bill

S. No.

H. No.

Senate

or House Resolution

S. Res.

H. Res.

Senate or House of Representatives Concurrent Resolutions Senate or House or Representatives Joint Resolution

S. Con Res. S. J. Res.

Senate

or House Committee Reports

H. Rpt.

S. Rpt.

Resolution of both Houses when sitting together but voting separately

R.B.H.

Philippine Reports

 

Philippine Reports

 

Phil.

Supreme Court Reports Annotated

SCRA

Supreme Court Advance Decisions

SCAD

Court of Appeals Reports Annotated

CARA

NITAFAN’S Supreme Court Unpublished Decisions

SCUD

PHILIPPINE LEGAL PERIODICALS Ateneo Law Journal ATENEO L.J. Baguio Colleges Foundation Law Journal B.C.F.L. J.
PHILIPPINE LEGAL PERIODICALS Ateneo Law Journal ATENEO L.J. Baguio Colleges Foundation Law Journal B.C.F.L. J.

PHILIPPINE LEGAL

PERIODICALS

Ateneo Law Journal

ATENEO L.J.

Baguio Colleges Foundation Law Journal

B.C.F.L. J.

Commission on Audit Journal

C.O.A.J.

Court Systems Journal Diplomats Review Far Eastern Law Review

Ct. Systems J. DIPLOMATS REV. FAR EAST. L. REV.

Filipino Lawyer

FILIPINO LAW

Foreign Relations Journal Foundation Law Review

Francisco

Journal of the Constitutional Convention of the Philippines Journal of the Integrated Bar of the Philippines Judges Journal

College Law Journal

FOR. REL. J. FOUNDATION L. REV. FRANCISCO C.L.J. J.C.C. PHIL. J. INTEG. BAR PHIL. JUDGES J.

Jurisprudence

JUR.

Labor Review

LAB. REV.

Law Journal and Magazine of the Integrated Bar of the Philippines

IBP L.J. & Mag.

Lawyers Review

LAW. REV.

Lyceum of the Philippines Law Review

LY. PHIL. L. REV.

M.L.Q. University Law Quarterly Mindanao Law Journal Monthly Business & Tax Bulletin PHILCONSA Journal Philippine
M.L.Q. University Law Quarterly Mindanao Law Journal Monthly Business & Tax Bulletin PHILCONSA Journal Philippine

M.L.Q. University Law Quarterly Mindanao Law Journal Monthly Business & Tax Bulletin PHILCONSA Journal

Philippine Journal of Industrial Relations Philippine Journal of Librarians Philippine Journal of Public Administration Philippine Labor Relations Journal

MLQU L.Q. MINDANAO L.J. MON. BUS & TAX BULL PHILCONSA J.

PHIL J. INDUS. REL. P.J.L.L. PHIL. J. PUB. ADM. PHIL. LAB. REL. J.

Philippine Law

Gazette

PHIL. L. GAZ.

Philippine Law Journal Philippine Law Report Philippine Yearbook of International Law

PHIL. L.J. PHIL L. REP. PHIL. YRBK. INT’L. L.

Philippines Judicial Weekly

PHIL. JUD. WEEK.

San Beda Law Journal S.E.C. Bulletin Silliman Law Journal

SAN BEDA L.J. S.E.C. BULL. SILLIMAN L.J.

Studies on Philippine Labor

STUD. PHIL. LAB.

Tala Industrial Relations Bulletin

TALA INDUS. REL. BULL.

Tax Monthly

TAX MON.

University of

San Carlos Law Review

U.S.C. L. REV.

University of Santo Tomas Law Review

U.S.T. L. REV.

University of

the East Law Journal

U.E.L.J.

University of

Manila Law Gazette

U.M. L. GAZ.

World Bulletin

WORLD BULL.

SPACING AND PERIODS
SPACING AND PERIODS

SPACING AND PERIODS

SPACING BETWEEN ABBREVIATED WORDS  Principle 1: Successive words abbreviated with a single capital letter
SPACING BETWEEN ABBREVIATED WORDS  Principle 1: Successive words abbreviated with a single capital letter

SPACING BETWEEN ABBREVIATED WORDS

Principle 1: Successive words abbreviated with a single capital letter are normally not

separated from one another with a space. Principle 2: Longer abbreviations are separated from one another and from single letter abbreviations with a space.

SPACING BETWEEN ABBREVIATED WORDS  Principle 3: In journal titles, successive single letters that refer
SPACING BETWEEN ABBREVIATED WORDS  Principle 3: In journal titles, successive single letters that refer

SPACING BETWEEN ABBREVIATED WORDS

Principle 3: In journal titles, successive single letters that refer to an entity are separated from

other single letter abbreviations with a space. Principle 4: Numbers, including ordinal numbers (2d, 4th), are treated as single letters.

PERIODS IN ABBREVATIONS  Principle 1: In general abbreviations should end in a period. 
PERIODS IN ABBREVATIONS  Principle 1: In general abbreviations should end in a period. 

PERIODS IN ABBREVATIONS

Principle 1: In general abbreviations should end in a period.

Principle 2: However, abbreviations that are contractions ending

with an apostrophe and the last letter of the word should not be

followed by a period.

Principle 3: In addition, entities that are commonly referred to by

their initials may be abbreviated using those initials without

periods.

REFERENCES  http://www.law.cornell.edu/citation/ INTRODUCTION TO BASIC LEGAL CITATION by PETER W. MARTIN 
REFERENCES  http://www.law.cornell.edu/citation/ INTRODUCTION TO BASIC LEGAL CITATION by PETER W. MARTIN 

REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION TO BASIC LEGAL CITATION by PETER W. MARTIN

THE BLUEBOOK: A UNIFORM SYSTEM OF CITATION. 15 th Edition

GEORGETOWN LAW LIBRARY

PHILIPPINE MANUAL OF LEGAL CITATIONS BY CORTES,

MAGALLONA, AND FELICIANO