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ME 6301- Engineering Thermodynamics

Mechanical Engineering

2016-2017

UNIT II SECOND LAW AND AVAILABILITY ANALYSIS


PART A
1. List the limitations of First law of Thermodynamics.
First law does not indicate whether a process is possible or not. It does not give any information regarding
the extent of conversion of heat into work.
2. What is Perpetual motion machine of the second kind?
Perpetual motion machine of second kind draws heat continuously from single reservoir and converts it
into equivalent amount of work. Thus it gives 100% efficiency
3. Define Kelvin Planck Statement.
[APR/MAY 2014]
Kelvin Plank states that it is impossible to construct an engine, which while operating in a cycle
produces no other effect except to extract heat from a single reservoir and do equivalent amount of work.
4. Define Clausius state
It states that it is impossible to construct a device which operating in a cycle will produce no effect other
than the transfer of heat from a lower temperature region to higher temperature region.
5. State Carnot theorem.
[APR/MAY 2014]
No heat engine operating in a cyclic process between two fixed temperature, can be more efficient than a
reversible engine operating between the same temperature limits.
6. What are the Corollaries of Carnot theorem.
[APR/MAY 2014]
In all the reversible engine operating between the two given thermal reservoirs with fixed temperature,
have the same efficiency.
The efficiency of any reversible heat engine operating between two reservoirs is independent of the
nature of the working fluid and depends only on the temperature of the reservoirs.
7. What is meant by reversible process?
A reversible process is one, which is performed in such a way that at the end of the process, both system
and surroundings are restored to its initial state, without producing any changes in the universe.
8. Define Heat engine.
A heat engine is a device which is used to convert the thermal energy into mechanical energy.
9. What are the assumptions made on heat engine?
The source and sink are maintained at constant temperature.
The source and sink has infinite heat capacity.
10. Explain the term source and sink.
Source is a thermal reservoir, which supplies heat to the system and sink is a thermal reservoir, which
takes the heat from the system.
11. Draw a schematic of a heat engine and expression of efficiency

Efficiency:
=

12. What is a cyclic heat engine?


A cyclic heat engine is a thermodynamic system working on a cycle having net heat input and net work
output.
13. Define Heat pump.
A heat pump is a device, which is working in a cycle and transfers heat from a lower temperature region
to higher temperature region.
14. Define the term COP?
Co-efficient of performance is defined as the ratio of heat extracted or rejected to work input.
Heat extracted or rejected
COP = -------------------------------Work input
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ME 6301- Engineering Thermodynamics


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15. Draw a schematic of a heat pump and expression of COP.

2016-2017
[NOV/DEC 2013]

COP of Heat Pump:

16. Define refrigerator


A refrigerator is a device which operating in a cyclic process, maintains the temperature of a cold body at
a temperature lower than the temperature of the surroundings.
17. Draw a schematic of a heat pump and expression of COP.

COP of Refrigerator:

18. Write the expression for COP of a reversible heat pump and a refrigerator?
Reversible Heat Pump
Reversible Refrigerator
T2
T1
COPHP =
COPRef =
T2 T1
T2 T1
19. What is the relation between COPHP and COP ref?
COP of Heat Pump = COP of Refrigeration + 1=
(COPHP = COPref+1)
20. Why the COP of a heat pump is higher than that of a refrigerator, if they both operate between
the same temperature limits?
The heat supplied by the heat pump into the space includes the work input required whereas the heat
extracted by a refrigerator from a space does not include the work input
21. What are the processes involved in Carnot cycle
Reversible isothermal compression
Isentropic compression
Reversible isothermal expansion
Isentropic expansion
22. Write the expression for efficiency of the Carnot cycle.
T2 T1
=
T2
23. Why a heat engine cannot have 100% efficiency?
For all the heat engines there will be a heat loss between system and surroundings. Therefore we cant
convert all the heat input into useful work.
24. When will be the Carnot cycle efficiency is maximum?
Carnot cycle efficiency is maximum when the initial temperature is 0 K.
25. Name two alternative methods by which the efficiency of a Carnot cycle can be increased.
Efficiency can be increased as the higher temperature T2 increases.
Efficiency can be increased as the lower temperature T1 decreases.
26. What is reversed Carnot heat engine?
The cycle consists of two isothermal and two isentropic process but this cycle is used to extract heat from
cold body and reject it into hot body. Therefore , the same cycle is performed in the reverse direction.
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ME 6301- Engineering Thermodynamics


Mechanical Engineering
2016-2017
27. What are the limitations of Carnot cycle?
No friction is considered for moving parts of the engine.
There should not be any heat loss.
28. Why Carnot cycle cannot be realized in practical?
In a Carnot cycle all the four process are reversible but in actual practice there is no process is
reversible.
There are two processes to be carried out during compression and expansion. For isothermal process
the piston moves very slowly and for adiabatic process the piston moves as fast as possible. This
speed variation during the same stroke of the piston is not possible.
It is not possible to avoid friction moving parts completely.
29. Why Carnot cycle on T-s plot is a rectangle?
Because it consists of two reversible isothermal processes (horizontal line in T-s plot) and two reversible
adiabatic processes (vertical line in T-s diagram).
30. What is meant by irreversible process?
A reversible process is one, which is performed in such a way that at the end of the process, system and
surroundings are not restored to its initial state and produces changes in the universe.
31. List the causes of Irreversibility
Lack of equilibrium during the process (ex: Heat transfer through a finite temperature difference)
Involvement of dissipative effects. (ex: Free Expansion)
32. Explain the throttling process.
When a gas or vapour expands and flows through an aperture of small size, the process is called as
throttling process.
33. How is the absolute scale independent of the working substance?
Two temperatures in absolute scale (Kelvins scale) bear the same relationship as do the heats absorbed
and rejected by a Carnot engine operating between these temperature limits. Therefore absolute scale is
independent of the working substance.
34. What do you understand by dissipative effects? When work is said to be dissipated?
When energy is degraded in a process, it is referred to as dissipative effect. Work is dissipated in the form
of heat.
35. Why the second law is called directional law of nature?
It specifies the direction in which heat transfer takes place in a process.
36. Give the criteria of reversibility, irreversibility impossibility of a thermodynamic cycle.

dQ
0
T
<

dQ
0
T
for reversible cycle

0 for irreversible cycle; = 0 for reversible cycle and if > 0, the cycle is impossible.
37. State Clausius theorem.

38. Explain entropy?


Entropy is a function of a quantity of heat which shows the possibility of conversion of that heat into
work. The increase in entropy is small when heat is added at a high temperature and is greater when heat
addition is made at a lower temperature. Thus for maximum entropy, there is minimum availability for
conversion into work and for minimum entropy there is maximum availability for conversion into work.
39. What is absolute entropy?
The entropy measured for all perfect crystalline solids at absolute zero temperature.
40. What do you understand by the entropy principle?
The entropy of an isolated system can never decrease. It always increases and remains constant only when
the process is reversible. This is known as principle of increase in entropy or entropy principle.
41. How is entropy related to molecular disorder of the system?
As molecular disorderliness increases entropy increases.
42. What are the causes of entropy increase?
by external heat addition, by internal irreversibility
43. What are the important characteristics of entropy?
If the heat is supplied to the system then the entropy will increase.
If the heat is rejected to the system then the entropy will decrease.
The entropy is constant for all adiabatic frictionless process.
The entropy increases if temperature of heat is lowered without work being done as in throttling
process.
If the entropy is maximum then there is a minimum availability for conversion in to work.
If the entropy is minimum then there is a maximum availability for conversion into work.
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ME 6301- Engineering Thermodynamics


Mechanical Engineering
2016-2017
44. Define availability.
The maximum useful work obtained during a process in which the final condition of the system is the
same as that of the surrounding is called availability of the system.
45. Energy is always conserved but its quality is always degraded. Explain
Energy is never destructed but whenever energy is transformed from one form to another, its availability
decreases as a result of increase in entropy.
46. What do you understand by the dead state.
The state at which the system will be incapable of delivering a work output.
47. Define available energy and unavailable energy.
Available energy is the maximum thermal useful work under ideal condition. The remaining part,
Which cannot be converted into work, is known as unavailable energy
48. Express Clausius inequality for various processes
[NOV/DEC 2015]
When the system performs reversible cycle, then
Q
( )=0
T
Cycle

When the cycle not reversible, then


Q
( )<0
T
Cycle

49. Define Second law efficiency


[NOV/DEC 2015]
Availability recoverd
=
Availability supplied
50. A domestic food freezer maintains a temperature of -15C. The ambient air temperature is 30C. If
the heat leaks into the freezer at the rate of 1.75 kJ/s continuously, what is the least power
necessary to pump this heat out continuously?
[APR/MAY 2015]
The rate of heat leakage into the freezer must be equal to the rate of heat removal Q2 from it. For least
power requirement, the COP is to be maximum, ie. The refrigerator is to be reversible.
COP of a reversible refrigerator
T2
258
COPRef,rev = T T
= 45 = 5.733
1

Therefore,
COP of refrigerator
Q
COPRef = W2
W = 1.75 / 5.733 = 0. 3052 kW
51. Carnot refrigerator requires 1.25 kW per ton of refrigeration to maintain the temperature of 243
K. Find the COP of Carnot refrigerator.
[APR/MAY 2015]
COP = Q2/W , here Q2= 1 Ton of Refrigeration, which is equal to 3.5 kW
Therefore COP = 3.5/1.25 = 2.8
52. Ice is formed at 0C from water at 20C. The temperature of the brine is -10C. Find the ice formed
per kW hour. Assume that the refrigeration cycle used is perfect reversed Carnot cycle. Latent
heat of ice = 80 kcal/kg.
[APR/MAY 2015]
The heat removed from one kg of water at 20C to convert it into ice at 0C,
Q = 1 4.186 (20-0) + 1 804.186 = 418.6 kJ/kg
Mass of ice formed per kW hour = 3600 /418.6 = 8.6 kg.
53. A heat engine is supplied with 2512 kJ/min of heat at 650C. Heat rejection takes place at 100C.
Specify which of the following heat rejection represents a reversible, irreversible or impossible
result. (a) 867 kJ/min (b) 1015 kJ/min
[APR/MAY 2015]
Maximum thermal efficiency of his engine possible
T
373
= 1 T2
= 1 923
= 54.68%
1

867

(a) = 1 Q2 = 1 2512 = 65.48 % max , it is impossible


Q

1015

(b) = 1 Q2 = 1 2512 = 59.59 % max , it is impossible


1

54. An inventor claims to have developed an engine which absorbs 100 kW of heat from a reservoir at
1000 K produces 60 kW of work and rejects heat to a reservoir at 500 K. Will you advise
investment in its development?
[NOV/DEC 2014]
Maximum thermal efficiency of his engine possible
T
500
= 1 T2
= 1 1000
= 50%
1

Also, thermal efficiency of the engine,


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ME 6301- Engineering Thermodynamics


Work done
60
= Heat Supplied
= 100

Mechanical Engineering
= 60%

2016-2017

Which is not feasible as no engine can be more efficient than that working on Carnot cycle.
Hence claims of the inventor is not true
55. What is meant by dead state?
[APR/MAY 2013]
The state at which the system will be incapable of delivering a work output.
56. What is the difference between a heat pump and a refrigerator?
[APR/MAY 2012]
Heat pump is a device which operating in cyclic A refrigerator is a device which operating in a
process, maintains the temperature of a hot body at cyclic process, maintains the temperature of a cold
a temperature higher than the temperature of body at a temperature lower than the temperature of
surroundings.
the surroundings.
PART B
1. A cyclic heat engine operates between a source temperature of 1000C and a sink temperature of
40C. what is the least rate of heat rejection per kW net output of the engine? 9962673398,
Given:
T1=1000C+273=1273K, T2=40C+273=313K,
Find: (i) Rate of heat rejection per kW
Solution:
For a reversible heat engine, the rate of heat rejection will
be minimum
T

= 1 T2
1

WHE
Q1

313

= 1 1273
W

= 75.4%

Q1 = HE = 0.754

= .

The Rate of heat rejection:


Q2 = Q1 WHE
Q2 = 1.33 1

= .

2. Two reversible heat engines A and B are arranged in series, A rejecting heat directly to B. Engine A
receives 200 kJ at a temperature of 421C from a hot source, while engine B is in communication
with a cold sink at a temperature of 4.4C. If the work output of A is twice that of B, find (a) The
intermediate temperature between A and B, (b) The efficiency of each engine (c) The heat rejected
to the cold sink
Given:
T1=421C+273=694K, T3=4.4C+273=277.4K, Q1 = 200kJ
Find: (i) Rate of heat rejection per kW
Solution:

(a) The intermediate temperature between A and B


As the work output of A is twice that of B

W1 = 2W2

Q1 Q2 = 2 (Q2 Q3 )

694 T = 2 (T 277.4)

T1 T = 2 (T T3 )

694 T = 2 T 554.8)

= .

(b) The efficiency of each engine


T

1 = 1 T
2 = 1

T3
T

416.27
694
277.4
416.27

1 = 1

= . %

2 = 1

= . %

(c) The heat rejected to the cold sink


Q3
Q1

= T3
1

Q3 = T3 Q1
1

Q3 =

277.4
694

200

= .

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ME 6301- Engineering Thermodynamics


Mechanical Engineering
2016-2017
3. A reversible engine operates between temperatures T1 and T (T1 > T). The energy rejected from
this engine is received by a second reversible engine at the same temperature T. The second engine
rejects energy at temperature T2 (T2 < T). Show that. (a) Temperature T is the arithmetic mean of
temperatures T1 and T2 if the engines produce the same amount of work output (b) Temperature T
is the geometric mean of temperatures T1 and T2 if the engines have the same cycle efficiencies.
Solution:

(a) Temperature T is the arithmetic mean of temperatures T1 and


T2 if the engines produce the same amount of work output
W1 = W2
T

(1 T )
1

1 Q1 = 2 Q2

T1
Q
T 2

1 = 1

T
,
T1 2

=1

T 2 Q2
,
T Q1

=T

= (1 T2) Q2

T1
T2
1=1
T
T
T1 + T2
2=
T
+
=

(b) Temperature T is the geometric mean of temperatures T1 and


T2 if the engines have the same cycle efficiencies.
T

1 = 2

1T = 1
1

T2
T

T
T1

T2
T

4. Two Carnot engines A and B are connected in series between two thermal reservoirs maintained at
1000 K and 100 K respectively. Engine A receives 1680 kJ of heat from the high-temperature
reservoir and rejects heat to the Carnot engine B. Engine B takes in heat rejected by engine A and
rejects heat to the low-temperature reservoir. If engines A and B have equal thermal efficiencies,
determine (a) The heat rejected by engine B , (b) The temperature at which heat is rejected by
engine, A (c) The work done during the process by engines, A and B respectively. If engines A and
B deliver equal work, determine, (d) The amount of heat taken in by engine B, (e) The efficiencies
of engines A and B
Given:
T1=1000K, T3=100K, Q1 = 1680kJ
Find: (a) Q3 (b) T (c) WA , WB (d) T if WA = WB (e) 1 , 2
Solution:

Engines A and B have equal thermal efficiencies:


(a) The heat rejected by engine B
Q3
Q1

= T3
1

Q3 = T3 Q1
1

100

Q3 = 1000 1680

(b) The temperature at which heat is rejected by engine, A


T

1 = 2

1T = 1
1

T3
T

T
1000

100
T

= .

As the work output of A is twice that of B

(c) The work done during the process by engines, A and B


Q2
Q1

=T

Q 2 = T Q1
1

Q2 =

316.3
1000

1680

= .

WA = Q1 Q2

WA = 1680 531.26

= .

WB = Q2 Q3

WB = 531.26 168

= .

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ME 6301- Engineering Thermodynamics

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2016-2017

Engines A and B deliver equal work:


(d) The amount of heat taken in by engine B
T=

T1 +T2
2

T=
T

1 = 1 T
2 = 1

1000+100
2

=
550

1 = 1 1000

T3
T

= %

100

2 = 1 550

= . %

5. A heat engine is used to drive a heat pump. The heat transfers from the heat engine and from the
heat pump are used to heat the water circulating through the radiators of a building. The efficiency
of the heat engine is 27% and the COP of the heat pump is 4. Evaluate the ratio of the heat transfer
to the circulating water to the heat transfer to the heat engine.
Given: 1 = 27% , COP=4
Find: (i) The ratio of the heat transfer
Solution:
The Heat Engine:
Q

1 = 1 Q2
1

1 =

Q2

0.27 = 1 Q2

Q1

WHE
Q1

0.27 =

WHE
Q1

= 0.73

= .

= .

The Heat Pump:


Q

COPHP = W 4

HE

4 = W4

HE

Q4 = 4WHE

= .

Heat transfer to the circulating water:


Q2 + Q4
=

0.73Q1 = 1.08Q1

+ = .

The heat transfer to the circulating water


The heat transfer to the heat engine

= .

6. A heat pump is run by a reversible heat engine operating between reservoirs at 800C and 50C.
The heat pump working on Carnot cycle picks up 15 kW heat from reservoir at 10C and delivers it
to a reservoir at 50C. The reversible engine also runs a machine that needs 25 kW. Determine the
heat received from highest temperature reservoir and heat rejected to reservoir at 50C.
Given:
T1=1073K, T2= T4=323K, T3=283K, Q3 = 15kW
Find: (a) Q1 (b) Q2 + Q4
Solution:

Heat Pump:
COPHP = T

T4
4 T3

COPHP = Q

Q4
4 Q3

323

COPHP = 323283
8.075 =

Q4
Q4 15

= .
8.075Q4 121.13 = Q4
= .

WHP = Q4 Q3

WHP = 17.12 15

= .

WHE = 2.12 + 25

= .

Heat Engine:
WHE = WHP + 25
T

HE = 1 T2
1

323

HE = 1 1073

= . %

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ME 6301- Engineering Thermodynamics


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WHE
27.12
1 =
0.699 =
= .
Q1

2016-2017

Q1

WHE = Q1 Q2

27.12 = 38.8 Q2

= .

Heat rejected to reservoir at 50 C


= Q2 + Q4

= 11.68 + 17.12

+ = .

7. A heat pump working on the Carnot cycle takes in heat from a reservoir at 5C and delivers heat to
a reservoir at 60C. The heat pump is driven by a reversible heat engine which takes in heat from a
reservoir at 840C and rejects heat to a reservoir at 60C. The reversible heat engine also drives a
machine that absorbs 30 kW. If the heat pump extracts 17 kJ/s from the 5C reservoir, determine
(a) The rate of heat supply from the 840C source (b) The rate of heat rejection to the 60C sink.
Given:
T1=1113K, T2= T4=333K, T3=278K, Q3 = 17kW
Find: (a) Q1 (b) Q2 + Q4
Solution:

Heat Pump:
COPHP = T

T4

333

COPHP = 333278

4 T3

COPHP = Q

Q4

6.055 =

4 Q3

Q4

= .
6.055Q4 102.94 = Q4

Q4 17

= .

WHP = Q4 Q3

WHP = 20.36 17

= .

WHE = 3.36 + 30

= .

Heat Engine:
WHE = WHP + 30
HE = 1
1 =

T
2
T1

WHE
Q1

HE = 1
0.708 =

WHE = Q1 Q2

33.36

Q1

333
1113

= . %

= .

33.36 = 47.12 Q2

= .

Heat rejected to reservoir at 60 C


= Q2 + Q4

= 13.76 + 20.36

+ = .

8. An ice-making plant produces ice at atmospheric pressure and at 0C from water. The mean
temperature of the cooling water circulating through the condenser of the refrigerating machine is
18C. Evaluate the minimum electrical work in kWh required to produce 1 tonne of ice (The
enthalpy of fusion of ice at atmospheric pressure is 333.5 kJ/kg).
Given:
T1=273K, T2= 291K, Q1 = 333.5 1000
Find: (a) Wmin
Solution:

COPmax = T

T1
2 T1

COPmin = W

min

273

COPmax = 291273
15.2 =

1000333.5
Wmin

= .
= .

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ME 6301- Engineering Thermodynamics


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2016-2017
9. A heat pump is to be used to heat a house in winter and then reversed to cool the house in summer.
The interior temperature is to be maintained at 20C. Heat transfer through the walls and roof is
estimated to be 0.525 kJ/s per degree temperature difference between the inside and outside.
(a) If the outside temperature in winter is 5C, what is the minimum power required to drive the
heat pump? (b) If the power output is the same as in part (a), what is the maximum outer
temperature for which the inside can be maintained at 20C?
Given: T1=293K, q=0.525kJ/sC
Find: (a) Wmin for heat pump if outside temperature in winter is 5C

(b) The maximum outer temperature for which the inside can be
maintained at 20C (if power output is same for part a &b)
Solution:
Heat pump:
Estimated Heat Rate: Q = q (T2 T1 )

COPHP = T

T1

293

2 T1

COPHP = W

Q = 0.525 (20 5) = . /

min

COPHp = 293278
19.53 =

= .

7.875

Wmin

Refrigerator:
Heat Rate: Q1 = q (T T1 )
T

COPHP = TT1

293

COPHP = W

Q1 = 0.525 (T 293)

min

COPHp = T293
293
T293

0.525(T293)
0.403

10. A reversible heat engine operates between two reservoirs at temperatures 700C and 50C. The
engine drives a reversible refrigerator which operates between reservoirs at temperatures of 50C
and 25C. The heat transfer to the engine is 2500 kJ and the net work output of the combined
engine refrigerator plant is 400 kJ.(i) Determine the heat transfer to the refrigerant and the net
heat transfer to the reservoir at 50C (ii) Reconsider (i) given that the efficiency of the heat engine
and the C.O.P. of the refrigerator are each 45 per cent of their maximum possible values.
Given:
T1=973K, T2= T4=323K, T3=248K, Q1 = 2500kJ
Find: (a) Q1 (b) Q2 + Q4
Solution:

Heat Engine:
T

323

HE = 1 T2

HE = 1 973

1 =

WHE
Q1

HE
0.668 = 2500

WHE = Q1 Q2

= . %

1670 = 2500 Q2

1670 = 400 + Wref

Refrigerator:
WHE = W + Wref

COPref = T

T3
4 T3

COPref = W 4

ref

248

COPref = 323248
Q

4
3.306 = 1270

= .
= .

Wref = Q3 Q4 1270 = Q3 4198.6

= .

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ME 6301- Engineering Thermodynamics

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2016-2017

Heat rejected to reservoir at 50 C


= Q2 + Q3

= 830 + 5468.6

+ =

If the efficiency of the actual heat engine and COP is 45%


HE = 45% max
1 =

WHE
Q1

HE = 0.45 0.668
W

HE
0.3 = 2500

WHE = Q1 Q2

= %

750 = 2500 Q2

Refrigerator:
WHE = W + Wref
750 = 400 + Wref
COPref = 3.306 0.45
= .
Q

COPref = W 4

4
1.48 = 350

ref

Wref = Q3 Q4 350 = Q3 518


Heat rejected to reservoir at 50 C
= Q2 + Q3

= 1750 + 868

+ =

11. A reversible heat engine operates between two reservoirs at 827C and 27C. Engine drives a
Carnot refrigerator maintaining 13C and rejecting heat to reservoir at 27C. Heat input to the
engine is 2000 kJ and the net work available is 300 kJ. How much heat is transferred to refrigerant
and total heat rejected to reservoir at 27C.
Given: T1=827C, T2= T4=27C, T3= 13C, Q1 = 2000kJ
Find: (a) Q4 (b) Q2 + Q 4
Solution:

Heat Engine:
Q1
Q2

= T1
2

300

Q2 = T2 Q1 = 1100 2000

= .

WHE = Q1 Q2

WHE = 2000 545.45 WHE = .

Refrigerator:
WHE = W + Wref

COPref = T

T3

1454.55 = 300 + Wref


260

4 T3

COPref = 300260
Q

COPref = W 3

3
6.5 = 1154.55

ref

Wref = Q4 Q3

= .

=6.5
= .

1154.55 = Q 4 7504.58 = .

Heat rejected to reservoir


= Q2 + Q4

= 545.45 + 8659.13

+ = .

12. (a) A reversible heat pump is used to maintain a temperature of 0C in a refrigerator when it
rejects the heat to the surroundings at 25C. If the heat removal rate from the refrigerator is 1440
kJ/min, determine the C.O.P. of the machine and work input required.
Given:
T1=25C+273=298K,T2=0C+273=273K,

Q1 = 1440kJ/min= 24kJ/s
Find: (a) COP & WHP Find: (a) Q4 (b) Q2 + Q4
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ME 6301- Engineering Thermodynamics

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2016-2017

Solution:
T1

COPHP =

COPHP = W

298

COPHp =

T2 T1

= .

298273

24

11.92 = W

HP

WHP = Q2 Q1

= .

HP

2.2 = Q 2 24

= . /

(b) If the required input to run the pump is developed by a reversible engine which receives heat at
380C and rejects heat to atmosphere, then determine the overall C.O.P. of the system.
Heat Engine: WHE = WHP
Q3
Q4

Q4 +WHE

= T3

Q4

Q4 +2.2

= T3

Q4

WHE = Q3 Q4

653

= 298

2.2 = Q3 1.847

= . /
= . /

Heat Pump
Q

24

COPHP = Q1

COPHP = 1154.55

COPHP = .

The overall COP


=

Q2 +Q4
Q3

26.2+1.847
4.047

= 6.98

13. An ice plant working on a reversed Carnot cycle heat pump produces 15 tonnes of ice per day. The
ice is formed from water at 0C and the formed ice is maintained at 0C. The heat is rejected to the
atmosphere at 25C. The heat pump used to run the ice plant is coupled to a Carnot engine which
absorbs heat from a source which is maintained at 220C by burning liquid fuel of 44500 kJ/kg
calorific value and rejects the heat to the atmosphere. Determine :(i) Power developed by the engine
(ii) Fuel consumed per hour.Take enthalpy of fusion of ice = 334.5 kJ/kg.
Given: T1=493K, T2= T3=298K, T4=273K,
Find: (a) W (b) Fuel consumed per hour
Solution:

Heat Pump:
COPHP = T
Q4 =

T3

298

3 T4

151000334.5
2460

COPHP = Q

Q3
3 Q4

COPHP = 298273

= .

= . /

11.92 =

Q3
Q3 58.07

11.92Q3 692.23 = Q3
= . /

WHP = Q3 Q4

WHP = 63.39 58.07

= .

Heat Engine:
HE = 1
1 =

WHE
Q1

T2
T1

HE = 1
0.3955 =

5.32

Q1 = 13.45 60 60

Q1

298
493

= . %

= .
= /

Quantity of fuel consumed/hour


=

Heat Supplied to engine


CV

48168

= 44500

= . /

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14. Explain Carnot cycle with neat sketches.
Any fluid may be used to operate the Carnot
cycle which is performed in an engine
cylinder the head of which is supposed
alternatively to be perfect conductor or a
perfect insulator of a heat.
Heat is caused to flow into the cylinder by
the application of high temperature energy
source to the cylinder head during
expansion, and to flow from the cylinder by
the application of a lower temperature
energy source to the head during
compression.

2016-2017

The assumptions made for describing the working of the Carnot engine are as follows:
i. The piston moving in a cylinder does not develop any friction during motion.
ii. The walls of piston and cylinder are considered as perfect insulators of heat.
iii. The cylinder head is so arranged that it can be a perfect heat conductor or perfect heat insulator.
iv. The transfer of heat does not affect the temperature of source or sink.
v. Working medium is a perfect gas and has constant specific heat.
vi. Compression and expansion are reversible.
Following are the four stages of Carnot cycle :
Process 1-2: Hot energy source is applied. Heat Q1 is taken in whilst the fluid expands isothermally and
reversibly at constant high temperature T1.
Process 2-3: The cylinder becomes a perfect insulator so that no heat flow takes place. The fluid expands
adiabatically and reversibly whilst temperature falls from T1 to T2.
Process 3-4: Cold energy source is applied. Heat Q2 flows from the fluid whilst it is compressed
isothermally and reversibly at constant lower temperature T2.
Process 4-1: Cylinder head becomes a perfect insulator so that no heat flow occurs. The compression is
continued adiabatically and reversibly during which temperature is raised from T2 to T1.
The work delivered from the system during the cycle is represented by the enclosed area of the cycle.
Again for a closed cycle, according to first law of the thermodynamics the work obtained is equal to the
difference between the heat supplied by the source (Q1) and the heat rejected to the sink (Q2).
W = Q1 Q2
Work done

Also, thermal efficiency, th = Heat supplied by the source =

Q1 Q2
Q1

= 1 T2
1

Such an engine since it consists entirely of reversible processes, can operate in the reverse direction so
that it follows the cycle shown in Fig and operates as a heat pump. Q2 is being taken in at the lower
temperature T2 during the isothermal expansion (process 4-3) and heat Q1 is being rejected at the upper
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temperature T1 (process 2-1). Work W will be needed to drive the pump. Again, the enclosed area
represents this work which is exactly equal to that flowing from it when used as engine.
The Carnot cycle cannot be performed in practice because of the following reasons :
1. It is impossible to perform a frictionless process.
2. It is impossible to transfer the heat without temperature potential.
3. Isothermal process can be achieved only if the piston moves very slowly to allow heat transfer so that
the temperature remains constant. Adiabatic process can be achieved only if the piston moves as fast as
possible so that the heat transfer is negligible due to very short time available. The isothermal and
adiabatic processes take place during the same stroke therefore the piston has to move very slowly for
part of the stroke and it has to move very fast during remaining stroke. This variation of motion of the
piston during the same stroke is not possible.
15. 300 kJ/s of heat is supplied at a constant fixed temperature of 290C to a heat engine. The heat
rejection takes place at 8.5C. The following results were obtained : (i) 215 kJ/s are rejected. (ii) 150
kJ/s are rejected. (iii) 75 kJ/s are rejected. Classify which of the result report a reversible cycle or
irreversible cycle or impossible results.
Given: Heat supplied at 290C= 300 kJ/s , Heat rejected at 8.5C
Find: (i) 215kJ/s, (ii) 150 kJ/s, (iii) 75 kJ/s
Solution:
Applying clausius inequality to the cycle
Cycle

Q
T

Q1
T1

(ii) Cycle

Q
T

Q1
T1

T2

(iii) Cycle

Q
T

Q1
T1

T2

(i)

Q2
T2

Cycle

Q
T

Cycle

Q
T

= 563 281.5

Cycle

Q
T

= 563 281.5

300
215

563
281.5

= < , Cycle is irreversible

300

150

= , Cycle is reversible

300

75

= . < , Cycle is impossible

16. Air at 20C and 1.05 bar occupies 0.025 m3. The air is heated at constant volume until the pressure
is 4.5 bar, and then cooled at constant pressure back to original temperature.
Calculate :(i) The net heat flow from the air.(ii) The net entropy change.

Given:
Temperature, T1 = 20 + 273 = 293 K
Volume,
V1 = V3 = 0.025 m3
Pressure,
p1 = 1.05 bar = 1.05 105
N/m2
Pressure,
p2 = 4.5 bar = 4.5 105 N/m2.
Find: (i) Net heat flow (ii) Net entropy change
Solution:`

The mass of gas :


m=

P1 V1
RT1

m=

(1.05 105 ) 0.025


287 293

= .

Process1-2:Constant Volume Process


At

p
T

=C

p1 T2 = p2 T1

= mCv (T2 T1 )
T

= mCv ln (T2 )
1

4.5

T2 = P2 T1 = 1.05 293

= .

= 0.0312 0.718(1255.7 293)


1255.7

= 0.0312 0.718 ln (

293

= .

= . /

Process 2-3: Constant pressure process


Q23 = mCp (T3 T2 )

Q23 = 0.0312 1.005 (293 1255.7) = .

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T2

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1255.7

= mCv ln (T )

= 0.0312 1.005 ln (

293

2016-2017

= . /

(i) The net heat flow


Q = Q12 + Q23

Q = 21.56 30.18

= .

(ii) The Net decrease in entropy


S = S12 + S23

S = 0.0326 0.0456

= . /

17. An insulated cylinder of volume capacity 4 m3 contains 20 kg of nitrogen. Paddle work is done on
the gas by stirring it till the pressure in the vessel gets increased from 4 bar to 8 bar. Determine :(i)
Change in internal energy,(ii) Work done,(iii) Heat transferred, and (iv) Change in entropy
Given: P1 = 4 bar = 4 105 N/m2 , P2 = 8 bar = 8 105 N/m2, V1 = V2 = 4 m3
Cp=1.04 kJ/kgK , CV=0.7432 kJ/kgK
Find: (i) U (ii) W (iii) Q (iv) S
Solution:
R = CP CV

R = 1.04 0.7432

= . .

(i) Change in internal energy


U = U2 U1

p2 V2

U = mCv (T2 T1 ) = mCv (mT2 mT1 )


8105 4
4105 4
296.8 )
296.8

U = 0.7432(

U = Cv (

p1 V1
)

= .

(ii) Work done, W


There is no change in system boundary or pdv work is absent. No heat is transferred to the system
Q12 = (U2 U1 ) + W12

0 = (U2 U1 ) + W12

W12 = (U2 U1 )

= .

(iii) Heat transferred, =


(iv) Change in entropy
T

= mCv ln (T2 )

= 20 0.7432 ln(2)

= . /

18. Find the change in entropy of steam generated at 400C from 5 kg of water at 27C and
atmospheric pressure. Take specific heat of water to be 4.2 kJ/kg.K, heat of vaporization at 100C
as 2260 kJ/kg and specific heat for steam given by; cp = R (3.5 + 1.2T + 0.14T2) J/kgK.

Given: T1=400C, m=5 kg, T2=27C, CP=4.2kJ/kgK, hfg=2260kJ/kg


Solution:
Total entropy change = Entropy change during water temperature rise (S1) + Entropy change
during water to steam change (S2) + Entropy change during steam
temperature rise (S3)
Entropy change during water temperature rise (S1):
S 1 =

Q1
T1

S 1 =

mCp (T2 T1 )
T1

S 1 =

54.2(373300)
300

= . /

Entropy change during water to steam change (S2):


S2 =

Q2
T2

S2 =

m
T2

S2 =

52260
373.13

= . /

Entropy change during steam temperature rise (S3):


For steam

R=

8.314
18

= 0.462 kJ/kg.K

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2

Therefore,

Cp for steam = 0.462 (3.5 + 1.2 T + 0.14T ) 10

2016-2017

= (1.617 + 0.5544 T + 0.065 T2) 103


673.15 dQ

S3 = 373.15

673.15

1.617

S3 = 373.15 5 X 103 X (

+ 0.5544 + 0.065T) dT

= . /
Total entropy change = 5.11 + 30.28 + 51.84= 87.23 kJ/K
19. Determine the change in entropy of universe if a copper block of 1 kg at 150C is placed in a sea
water at 25C. Take heat capacity of copper as 0.393 kJ/kg K.
Given: m=1 kg, T1=150 C+273=423 K, T2=25C+273=298 K, CP=0.393 kJ/kgK
Find: Change in entropy of universe
Solution:

Suniverse = Sblock + Swater


Here hot block is put into sea water, so block shall cool down upto sea water at 25C as sea may
be treated as sink.
T

= mCv ln (T2 )
1

S =

Q1
T1

298

= 1 0.393 ln (423)

S =

mCp (T2 T1 )

Thus, Suniverse = 0.1376 + 0.165

T1

= . /

10.393(423298)
298

= . /

Suniverse = 0.0274 kJ/k or 27.4 J/K

20. 1 kg of ice at 5C is exposed to the atmosphere which is at 25C. The ice melts and comes into
thermal equilibrium. (i) Determine the entropy increase of the universe (ii) What is the minimum
amount of work necessary to convert the water back into ice at 5C ? Take : cp of ice = 2.093
kJ/kgC, Latent heat of fusion of ice = 333.33 kJ/kg

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21. Two tanks A and B are connected through a pipe with valve in between. Initially valve is closed and
tanks A and B contain 0.6 kg of air at 90C, 1 bar and 1 kg of air at 45C, 2 bar respectively.
Subsequently valve is opened and air is allowed to mix until equilibrium. Considering the complete
system to be insulated determine the final temperature, final pressure and entropy change.

Given: PA = 1 bar, TA = 363 K, mA = 0.6 kg; TB = 318K, mB = 1kg, pB = 2 bar


Find: Final temperature, Final pressure and Entropy change
Solution:
In this case due to perfectly insulated system, Q = 0, Also W = 0
Q = W + U
0 = 0 + {(mA + mB) Cv.Tf (mA.CvTA) (mB.Cv.TB)}
Tf =

(mA Cv TA + mB Cv TB )
(mA + mB ) Cv

Tf =

(0.6 X 363+1X318)
(0.6+1)

= .

Using gas law for combined system after attainment of equilibrium,

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pf =

(mA + mB ) RTf

pf =

(VA + VB )

Mechanical Engineering

(1+0.6) X 0.287 X 334.88


(0.625+0.456)

2016-2017

= .

VA =

mA R TA
pA

VA = 0.625 m3

Entropy change
S = {((mA + mB).sf) (mA.sA + mBsB)}

VB =

= {mA(sf sA) + mB (sf sB)}


T

mB R TB
pB

VB = 0.456 m3

= {mA (cp ln f R ln f ) + mB (cp ln f R ln f )}


T
p
T
p
A

334.88

142.25

S = {0.6 (1.005 ln 363 0.287 ln 100 ) + 1 (1.005 ln


S = { 0.1093 + 014977}
S = 0.04047 kJ/K

334.88
318

0.287 ln

22. State the Carnot principles and prove the first principle with relevant sketches.

142.25
200

)}

[NOV/DEC 2015]

The Carnot principles are the two conclusions pertaining to the thermal efficiency of reversible
and irreversible heat engine. Drawn from the Kelvin-Plank and clausius statement of the second
law of thermodynamics.
The carnot principles are
1. The efficiency of an irreversible heat engine is always less than the efficiency of a
reversible one operating between the same two thermal reservoirs
2. The efficiencies of all reversible heat engine operating between the same two thermal
reservoir are the same.

The first principle is called the Carnot theorem and the second the corollary of the Carnot
theorem. These principles can be proved by demonstrating that the violation of either one, results
in a violation of the second law of thermodynamics
Proof of the first principle:
Consider the two heat engines operating between the same two thermal reservoirs, let one engine
be reversible, and the other irreversible.
We assume that the thermal efficiency of the
irreversible engine is more than that of the
reversible engine. The assumption is in
violation of the first principle of Carnot.
>
The above inequality results in


[
]
>[
]

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= , , Therefore, the above relation becomes


,
,
[
]
>[
]

But, ( ) = ( )
(WACT,OUT )irrev > (WACT,OUT )rev
Now let the reversible heat engine be reversed and operated as a refrigerator. This refrigerator
will receive a work input of Wrev and reject heat to the high-temperature reservoir. Since the
refrigerator is rejecting heat QH to the high temperature reservoir and the irreversible heat
engine is receiving the same amount of heat from the same high temperature reservoir, the net
heat exchange for this reservoir is zero. Thus the reservoir can be eliminated by having the
refrigerator discharge QH directly into the irreversible heat engine, without the high-temperature
reservoir. The combination of the refrigerator and the irreversible engine produces a net work of
(Wirrev Wrev) while exchanging heat with a single reservoir- a violation of the Kelvin-Plank
statement of the second law.
irreversible > reversible is not correct. Hence we
could that no heat engine can be more efficient than a
reversible heat engine operating between tha same
thermal reservoirs. The second principle of Carnot
can also be proved in a simple manner and shown
that the efficiency of a reversible engine is
independent of the nature or amount of the working
substance undergoing the cycle as long as the engine
is operating between the same thermal reservoir. The
second principle of Carnot is called the corollary of
Carnot theorm.
23. One kilogram of water at 273 K is brought into contact with a heat reservoir at 373 K. (i) When the
water has reached 373 K, find the change in entropy of the water, of the heat reservoir, and of the
universe. (ii) If the water had been heated from 273 K to 373K by first bringing it in contact with a
reservoir at 323K and then with a reservoir at 373K, what would have been the change in entropy
of the universe?
[NOV/DEC 2015]

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24. Three Carnot engines A, B and C working between the temperature of 1000 K and 300 K are in a
series combination. The work produced by these engines are in the ratio of 5:4:3. Make calculations
of temperature for the intermediate temperatures.
[APR/MAY 2015]

Ans:Refer Question no:4


25. A reversible engine operates between temperatures T1 and T (T1>T). The energy rejected by this
engine is received by a second reversible engine at the same temperature T. The second engine
rejects the heat at temperature T2(T2< T). Prove that T=(T1+T2)/2 if the engines produce the same
output.
[APR/MAY 2015]
Solution:

(a) Temperature T is the arithmetic mean of temperatures T1 and


T2 if the engines produce the same amount of work output
W1 = W2
(1

T T1
) Q
T1 T 2

1 Q1 = 2 Q2

1 = 1 T , 2 = 1
1

T 2 Q2
,
T Q1

=T

= (1 T2) Q2

T1
T2
1=1
T
T
T1 + T2
2=
T
+
=

(b) Temperature T is the geometric mean of temperatures T1 and


T2 if the engines have the same cycle efficiencies.
1 = 2

1T = 1
1

T2
T

T
T1

T2
T

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26. Two heat engines operating in series are giving out equal amount of work. The total work is 50
kJ/cycle. If the reservoirs are at 1000K and 250K. Find the intermediate temperature and the
efficiency of each engine. Also, find the heat extracted from the source.
[NOV/DEC 2014]
Given:
T1=1000K, T2=250K, W = 50 kJ
Find: (i) T (ii) Efficiency of each engine (iii) Q1
Solution:

(a) The intermediate temperature between A and B


As the work output of A is twice that of B

W1 = W2

Q1 Q2 = (Q2 Q3 )

1000 T = (T 250)

T1 T = (T T3 )

(b) The efficiency of each engine


T

1 = 1 T
2 = 1

T3
T

625

1 = 1 1000
250

2 = 1 625

= . %
= %

(c) The heat received from source


1 =

1
1

25

0.375 =

= . /

27. 5 kg of air at 550K and 4 bar is enclosed in a closed vessel


(a) Determine the availability of the system if the surrounding pressure and temperature are 1
bar and 290K.

(b) If the air is cooled at constant pressure to the atmospheric temperature, determine the
availability and effectiveness.
[NOV/DEC 2014]

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28. (a) A reversible heat pump is used to maintain a temperature of 0 C


in a refrigerator when it
rejects the heat to the surrounding at 25 C. If the heat removal rate from the refrigerator is
1440 kJ/min, determine the COP of the machine and work input required.
Given:
T1=25C+273=298K,T2=0C+273=273K,

Q1 = 1440kJ/min= 24kJ/s
Find: (a) COP & WHP Find: (a) Q4 (b) Q2 + Q4
Solution:
T2

COPHP =

COPHp =

T2 T1

COPref = T

T1

298273
273

2 T1

COPHP = W

298

COPHp = 298273

= .

24

= .

10.92 = W

HP

WHP = Q2 Q1

= .

HP

2.2 = Q 2 24

= . /

(b) If the required input to run the pump is developed by a reversible engine which receives heat
at 380C and rejects heat to atmosphere, then determine the overall COP of the system.
[APR/MAY 2014]
Heat Engine: WHE = WHP
Q3
Q4

= T3

Q4 +WHE
Q4

= T3
4

WHE = Q3 Q4

Q4 +2.2
Q4

653

= 298

2.2 = Q3 1.847

= . /
= . /

Heat Pump
Q

24

COPHP = Q1

COPHP = 1154.55

COPHP = .

The overall COP


=

Q2 +Q4
Q3

26.2+1.847
4.047

= 6.98

29. 5 m3 of air at 2 bar, 27 C is compressed up to 6 bar pressure following .= C. It is subsequently


expanded adiabatically to 2 bar. considering the two process to be reversible, determine the
network, net heat transfer, change in entropy. Also plot the processes on T-S and P-V diagrams
[APR/MAY 2014]

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30. (a) Two Carnot engines A and B are operated in series. The first one receives heat at 870 K and
rejects heat to a reservoir at T. B receives heat rejected by the first engine and in turn rejects to a
sink at 300K. Find the temperature T for (i) Equal work outputs of both engines (ii) Same
efficiencies

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(b) Mention the Clasius inequality for open, closed and isolated systems.
Q
Cycle < 0, Cycle is irreversible
i.
ii.
iii.

T
Q
Cycle
T

Cycle

Q
T

2016-2017

[NOV/DEC 2013]

= 0, Cycle is reversible
< 0, Cycle is impossible

31. (a) 3 kg of air at 500 kPa, 90C expands adiabatically in a closed system until its volume is
doubled and its temperature becomes equal to that of surroundings at 100 kPa and 10C. Find
maximum work, change in availability and irreversibility.

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(b) Briefly discuss about the concept of entropy.


[NOV/DEC 2013]
Entropy can be defined as the measure of the degree of molecular disorder existing in the system.
When heat is added to the system molecular disorder increases so entropy increases. The entropy of
the isolated system either increases on remains constant
() 0
The combination of system and surrounding is known as universe

Suniverse = Ssystem + Ssurrounding


32. (a) Prove that increase in entropy in a polytropic process is =

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(b) An irreversible heat engine with 66% efficiency of the maximum possible is operating between
1000K and 300K. If it delivers 3 kW of work, determine the heat extracted from the high
temperature reservoir and heat rejected to low temperature reservoir.
[APR/MAY2013]

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33. (a) Helium enters an actual turbine at 300 kPa, 300C and expands to 100 kPa, 150C. Heat
transfer to atmosphere at 101.325 kPa, 25C amounts to 7 kJ/kg. Calculate the entering stream
availability, leaving stream availability and the maximum work. For helium, Cp=5.2kJ/kg and
molecular wt=4.003kg/kg-mol

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(b) List out and explain various causes of irreversibility.
[APR/MAY2013]
Lack of equilibrium
Heat transfer through a finite temperature difference
Lack of pressure equilibrium within the interior of the system
Free expansion
Dissipative effect
34. (a) Define the terms Irreversible process and Reversible process. Give an e.g. of each.
Irreversible process
Processes that are not reversible are called irreversible processes. Once having taken place, these
processes cannot reverse themselves spontaneously and restore the system to its initial state. For
this reason, they are classified as irreversible processes.
Example for irreversible process: Once a cup of hot coffee cools, it will not heat up by retrieving
the heat it lost from the surroundings.
Reversible process
A reversible process is defined as a process that can be reversed without leaving any trace on the
surroundings. That is, both the system and the surroundings are returned to their initial states at
the end of the reverse process. This is possible only if the net heat and net work exchange
between the system and the surroundings is zero for the combined (original and reverse)
process.
Examples for reversible process are
i) Quasi equilibrium expansion and compression of gas
ii) Frictionless pendulum
(b) In a Carnot cycle the maximum pressure and temperature are limited to 18 bar and 410C.
The volume ratio of isentropic compression is 6 and isothermal expansion is 1.5. Assume the
volume of the air at the beginning of isothermal expansion as 0.18 m 3. Show the cycle on p-V
and T-s diagrams and determine (i) The pressure and temperature at main points (ii) Thermal
efficiency of the cycle
[NOV/DEC 2012]

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35. (a) State and prove Clausius inequality.
The Clausius Inequality applies to any real engine cycle and implies a negative change in entropy on
the cycle. That is, the entropy given to the environment during the cycle is larger than the entropy
transferred to the engine by heat from the hot reservoir

(b) A metal block with m=5 kg, c=0.4 kJ/kgK at 40C is kept in a room at 20C. It is cooled in the
following two ways: (i) Using a Carnot engine (executing internal number of cycles) with the
room itself as the cold reservoir; (ii) Naturally. In each case, calculate the change in entropy of
the block, of the air of the room and of the universe. Assume that the metal block has constant
specific heat
[NOV/DEC 2012]
Given: m=5 kg, cp=0.4 kJ/kgK, T1=40C, T2=20C
Solution:
(i) Cooling naturally
Heat absorbed by air, Q=Heat released by the metal block
Q = mc(T1 T2 ) = 5 0.4 (40 20)
=
293

(Q) = 313

293

= 5 0.4 ln 313

() = . /

Entropy change of atm, Q =

40

= 293

= . /
Entropy of universe:
Quniverse = Qblock + Qair
Quniverse = 0.132 + 0.1365
= . /
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(ii) Cooling using a Carnot Engine:


Entropy of Carnot engine,SCarnot=0
For Carnot engine, efficiency
Carnot =

T1 T2
T1
W

Carnot =

313293
313
W

Carnot = Q

0.0639 = 40

Entropy of air, S =

Q+W

= . %
= .

40+2.556
293

= . /
= S +S +S
= . /
36. (a)

State and prove Carnot theorem.


Ans: refer Question No:22
(b) Two reversible heat engines A and B are arranged in series. Engine A rejecting heat directly
to engine B, receives 200 kJ at a temperature of 421C from a hot source, while engine B is in
communication with a cold sink at a temperature of 4.4C. If the work output of A is twice that
of B, find (i) The intermediate temperature between A and B (ii) The efficiency of each engine
and (iii) The heat rejected to the cold sink.
[APR/MAY 2012]
Given:
T1=421C+273=694K, T3=4.4C+273=277.4K, Q1 = 200kJ
Find: (i) Rate of heat rejection per kW
Solution:

(a) The intermediate temperature between A and B


As the work output of A is twice that of B

W1 = 2W2

Q1 Q2 = 2 (Q2 Q3 )

694 T = 2 (T 277.4)

T1 T = 2 (T T3 )

694 T = 2 T 554.8)

= .

(b) The efficiency of each engine


T

1 = 1 T
2 = 1

T3
T

416.27
694
277.4
1 416.27

1 = 1

= . %

2 =

= . %

(c) The heat rejected to the cold sink


Q3
Q1

= T3
1

Q3 = T3 Q1
1

Q3 =

277.4
694

200

= .

37. (a) 2 kg of water at 90C is mixed with 3 kg of water at 10C in an isolated system. Calculated the
change of entropy due to the mixing process.

2 4.18 90 T f 3 4.18 T f 10

Tf = 42 C

T f
S 1 m1C p ln 1.1857kJ / K
T1
T f
S 2 m1C p ln 1.3433kJ / K
T2
S mixing S 1 S 2 157 J / K
(b) Derive an expression for the change in entropy of a perfect gas during polytropic process in
terms of T1 and T2.
[APR/MAY 2012]
Refer Engineering Thermodynamics by P K Nag Fourth edition, page No. 332 333.
St. Josephs College of Engineering / St. Josephs Institute of Technology

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