69 views

Uploaded by amdeva

63960

- 2 the 1st 2nd Laws of Thermodynamics
- Heat Pac
- Second Law of Thermodynamics
- ierrsuso22q4j
- Updated Physics 2017
- Mod-02 Problem Formulation 2009
- AniswanderHW1
- ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS
- Case Study Thermo
- Prigogine 1972
- BAB 22
- 4 second law of thermodynamics
- Thermodynamic Optimization Principle for Open Inverse Brayton
- Thermodynamics
- A New Interpretation of Legendre’s Transformation And
- Entropy Part 2 (4)
- 209_2017 Regulation Syllabus (1)
- Craig Callender - What is the Problem of the Direction of Time
- White Paper XI
- Big Brain Theory

You are on page 1of 31

Mechanical Engineering

2016-2017

PART A

1. List the limitations of First law of Thermodynamics.

First law does not indicate whether a process is possible or not. It does not give any information regarding

the extent of conversion of heat into work.

2. What is Perpetual motion machine of the second kind?

Perpetual motion machine of second kind draws heat continuously from single reservoir and converts it

into equivalent amount of work. Thus it gives 100% efficiency

3. Define Kelvin Planck Statement.

[APR/MAY 2014]

Kelvin Plank states that it is impossible to construct an engine, which while operating in a cycle

produces no other effect except to extract heat from a single reservoir and do equivalent amount of work.

4. Define Clausius state

It states that it is impossible to construct a device which operating in a cycle will produce no effect other

than the transfer of heat from a lower temperature region to higher temperature region.

5. State Carnot theorem.

[APR/MAY 2014]

No heat engine operating in a cyclic process between two fixed temperature, can be more efficient than a

reversible engine operating between the same temperature limits.

6. What are the Corollaries of Carnot theorem.

[APR/MAY 2014]

In all the reversible engine operating between the two given thermal reservoirs with fixed temperature,

have the same efficiency.

The efficiency of any reversible heat engine operating between two reservoirs is independent of the

nature of the working fluid and depends only on the temperature of the reservoirs.

7. What is meant by reversible process?

A reversible process is one, which is performed in such a way that at the end of the process, both system

and surroundings are restored to its initial state, without producing any changes in the universe.

8. Define Heat engine.

A heat engine is a device which is used to convert the thermal energy into mechanical energy.

9. What are the assumptions made on heat engine?

The source and sink are maintained at constant temperature.

The source and sink has infinite heat capacity.

10. Explain the term source and sink.

Source is a thermal reservoir, which supplies heat to the system and sink is a thermal reservoir, which

takes the heat from the system.

11. Draw a schematic of a heat engine and expression of efficiency

Efficiency:

=

A cyclic heat engine is a thermodynamic system working on a cycle having net heat input and net work

output.

13. Define Heat pump.

A heat pump is a device, which is working in a cycle and transfers heat from a lower temperature region

to higher temperature region.

14. Define the term COP?

Co-efficient of performance is defined as the ratio of heat extracted or rejected to work input.

Heat extracted or rejected

COP = -------------------------------Work input

St. Josephs College of Engineering / St. Josephs Institute of Technology

1

Mechanical Engineering

15. Draw a schematic of a heat pump and expression of COP.

2016-2017

[NOV/DEC 2013]

A refrigerator is a device which operating in a cyclic process, maintains the temperature of a cold body at

a temperature lower than the temperature of the surroundings.

17. Draw a schematic of a heat pump and expression of COP.

COP of Refrigerator:

18. Write the expression for COP of a reversible heat pump and a refrigerator?

Reversible Heat Pump

Reversible Refrigerator

T2

T1

COPHP =

COPRef =

T2 T1

T2 T1

19. What is the relation between COPHP and COP ref?

COP of Heat Pump = COP of Refrigeration + 1=

(COPHP = COPref+1)

20. Why the COP of a heat pump is higher than that of a refrigerator, if they both operate between

the same temperature limits?

The heat supplied by the heat pump into the space includes the work input required whereas the heat

extracted by a refrigerator from a space does not include the work input

21. What are the processes involved in Carnot cycle

Reversible isothermal compression

Isentropic compression

Reversible isothermal expansion

Isentropic expansion

22. Write the expression for efficiency of the Carnot cycle.

T2 T1

=

T2

23. Why a heat engine cannot have 100% efficiency?

For all the heat engines there will be a heat loss between system and surroundings. Therefore we cant

convert all the heat input into useful work.

24. When will be the Carnot cycle efficiency is maximum?

Carnot cycle efficiency is maximum when the initial temperature is 0 K.

25. Name two alternative methods by which the efficiency of a Carnot cycle can be increased.

Efficiency can be increased as the higher temperature T2 increases.

Efficiency can be increased as the lower temperature T1 decreases.

26. What is reversed Carnot heat engine?

The cycle consists of two isothermal and two isentropic process but this cycle is used to extract heat from

cold body and reject it into hot body. Therefore , the same cycle is performed in the reverse direction.

St. Josephs College of Engineering / St. Josephs Institute of Technology

Mechanical Engineering

2016-2017

27. What are the limitations of Carnot cycle?

No friction is considered for moving parts of the engine.

There should not be any heat loss.

28. Why Carnot cycle cannot be realized in practical?

In a Carnot cycle all the four process are reversible but in actual practice there is no process is

reversible.

There are two processes to be carried out during compression and expansion. For isothermal process

the piston moves very slowly and for adiabatic process the piston moves as fast as possible. This

speed variation during the same stroke of the piston is not possible.

It is not possible to avoid friction moving parts completely.

29. Why Carnot cycle on T-s plot is a rectangle?

Because it consists of two reversible isothermal processes (horizontal line in T-s plot) and two reversible

adiabatic processes (vertical line in T-s diagram).

30. What is meant by irreversible process?

A reversible process is one, which is performed in such a way that at the end of the process, system and

surroundings are not restored to its initial state and produces changes in the universe.

31. List the causes of Irreversibility

Lack of equilibrium during the process (ex: Heat transfer through a finite temperature difference)

Involvement of dissipative effects. (ex: Free Expansion)

32. Explain the throttling process.

When a gas or vapour expands and flows through an aperture of small size, the process is called as

throttling process.

33. How is the absolute scale independent of the working substance?

Two temperatures in absolute scale (Kelvins scale) bear the same relationship as do the heats absorbed

and rejected by a Carnot engine operating between these temperature limits. Therefore absolute scale is

independent of the working substance.

34. What do you understand by dissipative effects? When work is said to be dissipated?

When energy is degraded in a process, it is referred to as dissipative effect. Work is dissipated in the form

of heat.

35. Why the second law is called directional law of nature?

It specifies the direction in which heat transfer takes place in a process.

36. Give the criteria of reversibility, irreversibility impossibility of a thermodynamic cycle.

dQ

0

T

<

dQ

0

T

for reversible cycle

0 for irreversible cycle; = 0 for reversible cycle and if > 0, the cycle is impossible.

37. State Clausius theorem.

Entropy is a function of a quantity of heat which shows the possibility of conversion of that heat into

work. The increase in entropy is small when heat is added at a high temperature and is greater when heat

addition is made at a lower temperature. Thus for maximum entropy, there is minimum availability for

conversion into work and for minimum entropy there is maximum availability for conversion into work.

39. What is absolute entropy?

The entropy measured for all perfect crystalline solids at absolute zero temperature.

40. What do you understand by the entropy principle?

The entropy of an isolated system can never decrease. It always increases and remains constant only when

the process is reversible. This is known as principle of increase in entropy or entropy principle.

41. How is entropy related to molecular disorder of the system?

As molecular disorderliness increases entropy increases.

42. What are the causes of entropy increase?

by external heat addition, by internal irreversibility

43. What are the important characteristics of entropy?

If the heat is supplied to the system then the entropy will increase.

If the heat is rejected to the system then the entropy will decrease.

The entropy is constant for all adiabatic frictionless process.

The entropy increases if temperature of heat is lowered without work being done as in throttling

process.

If the entropy is maximum then there is a minimum availability for conversion in to work.

If the entropy is minimum then there is a maximum availability for conversion into work.

St. Josephs College of Engineering / St. Josephs Institute of Technology

Mechanical Engineering

2016-2017

44. Define availability.

The maximum useful work obtained during a process in which the final condition of the system is the

same as that of the surrounding is called availability of the system.

45. Energy is always conserved but its quality is always degraded. Explain

Energy is never destructed but whenever energy is transformed from one form to another, its availability

decreases as a result of increase in entropy.

46. What do you understand by the dead state.

The state at which the system will be incapable of delivering a work output.

47. Define available energy and unavailable energy.

Available energy is the maximum thermal useful work under ideal condition. The remaining part,

Which cannot be converted into work, is known as unavailable energy

48. Express Clausius inequality for various processes

[NOV/DEC 2015]

When the system performs reversible cycle, then

Q

( )=0

T

Cycle

Q

( )<0

T

Cycle

[NOV/DEC 2015]

Availability recoverd

=

Availability supplied

50. A domestic food freezer maintains a temperature of -15C. The ambient air temperature is 30C. If

the heat leaks into the freezer at the rate of 1.75 kJ/s continuously, what is the least power

necessary to pump this heat out continuously?

[APR/MAY 2015]

The rate of heat leakage into the freezer must be equal to the rate of heat removal Q2 from it. For least

power requirement, the COP is to be maximum, ie. The refrigerator is to be reversible.

COP of a reversible refrigerator

T2

258

COPRef,rev = T T

= 45 = 5.733

1

Therefore,

COP of refrigerator

Q

COPRef = W2

W = 1.75 / 5.733 = 0. 3052 kW

51. Carnot refrigerator requires 1.25 kW per ton of refrigeration to maintain the temperature of 243

K. Find the COP of Carnot refrigerator.

[APR/MAY 2015]

COP = Q2/W , here Q2= 1 Ton of Refrigeration, which is equal to 3.5 kW

Therefore COP = 3.5/1.25 = 2.8

52. Ice is formed at 0C from water at 20C. The temperature of the brine is -10C. Find the ice formed

per kW hour. Assume that the refrigeration cycle used is perfect reversed Carnot cycle. Latent

heat of ice = 80 kcal/kg.

[APR/MAY 2015]

The heat removed from one kg of water at 20C to convert it into ice at 0C,

Q = 1 4.186 (20-0) + 1 804.186 = 418.6 kJ/kg

Mass of ice formed per kW hour = 3600 /418.6 = 8.6 kg.

53. A heat engine is supplied with 2512 kJ/min of heat at 650C. Heat rejection takes place at 100C.

Specify which of the following heat rejection represents a reversible, irreversible or impossible

result. (a) 867 kJ/min (b) 1015 kJ/min

[APR/MAY 2015]

Maximum thermal efficiency of his engine possible

T

373

= 1 T2

= 1 923

= 54.68%

1

867

Q

1015

1

54. An inventor claims to have developed an engine which absorbs 100 kW of heat from a reservoir at

1000 K produces 60 kW of work and rejects heat to a reservoir at 500 K. Will you advise

investment in its development?

[NOV/DEC 2014]

Maximum thermal efficiency of his engine possible

T

500

= 1 T2

= 1 1000

= 50%

1

St. Josephs College of Engineering / St. Josephs Institute of Technology

Work done

60

= Heat Supplied

= 100

Mechanical Engineering

= 60%

2016-2017

Which is not feasible as no engine can be more efficient than that working on Carnot cycle.

Hence claims of the inventor is not true

55. What is meant by dead state?

[APR/MAY 2013]

The state at which the system will be incapable of delivering a work output.

56. What is the difference between a heat pump and a refrigerator?

[APR/MAY 2012]

Heat pump is a device which operating in cyclic A refrigerator is a device which operating in a

process, maintains the temperature of a hot body at cyclic process, maintains the temperature of a cold

a temperature higher than the temperature of body at a temperature lower than the temperature of

surroundings.

the surroundings.

PART B

1. A cyclic heat engine operates between a source temperature of 1000C and a sink temperature of

40C. what is the least rate of heat rejection per kW net output of the engine? 9962673398,

Given:

T1=1000C+273=1273K, T2=40C+273=313K,

Find: (i) Rate of heat rejection per kW

Solution:

For a reversible heat engine, the rate of heat rejection will

be minimum

T

= 1 T2

1

WHE

Q1

313

= 1 1273

W

= 75.4%

Q1 = HE = 0.754

= .

Q2 = Q1 WHE

Q2 = 1.33 1

= .

2. Two reversible heat engines A and B are arranged in series, A rejecting heat directly to B. Engine A

receives 200 kJ at a temperature of 421C from a hot source, while engine B is in communication

with a cold sink at a temperature of 4.4C. If the work output of A is twice that of B, find (a) The

intermediate temperature between A and B, (b) The efficiency of each engine (c) The heat rejected

to the cold sink

Given:

T1=421C+273=694K, T3=4.4C+273=277.4K, Q1 = 200kJ

Find: (i) Rate of heat rejection per kW

Solution:

As the work output of A is twice that of B

W1 = 2W2

Q1 Q2 = 2 (Q2 Q3 )

694 T = 2 (T 277.4)

T1 T = 2 (T T3 )

694 T = 2 T 554.8)

= .

T

1 = 1 T

2 = 1

T3

T

416.27

694

277.4

416.27

1 = 1

= . %

2 = 1

= . %

Q3

Q1

= T3

1

Q3 = T3 Q1

1

Q3 =

277.4

694

200

= .

Mechanical Engineering

2016-2017

3. A reversible engine operates between temperatures T1 and T (T1 > T). The energy rejected from

this engine is received by a second reversible engine at the same temperature T. The second engine

rejects energy at temperature T2 (T2 < T). Show that. (a) Temperature T is the arithmetic mean of

temperatures T1 and T2 if the engines produce the same amount of work output (b) Temperature T

is the geometric mean of temperatures T1 and T2 if the engines have the same cycle efficiencies.

Solution:

T2 if the engines produce the same amount of work output

W1 = W2

T

(1 T )

1

1 Q1 = 2 Q2

T1

Q

T 2

1 = 1

T

,

T1 2

=1

T 2 Q2

,

T Q1

=T

= (1 T2) Q2

T1

T2

1=1

T

T

T1 + T2

2=

T

+

=

T2 if the engines have the same cycle efficiencies.

T

1 = 2

1T = 1

1

T2

T

T

T1

T2

T

4. Two Carnot engines A and B are connected in series between two thermal reservoirs maintained at

1000 K and 100 K respectively. Engine A receives 1680 kJ of heat from the high-temperature

reservoir and rejects heat to the Carnot engine B. Engine B takes in heat rejected by engine A and

rejects heat to the low-temperature reservoir. If engines A and B have equal thermal efficiencies,

determine (a) The heat rejected by engine B , (b) The temperature at which heat is rejected by

engine, A (c) The work done during the process by engines, A and B respectively. If engines A and

B deliver equal work, determine, (d) The amount of heat taken in by engine B, (e) The efficiencies

of engines A and B

Given:

T1=1000K, T3=100K, Q1 = 1680kJ

Find: (a) Q3 (b) T (c) WA , WB (d) T if WA = WB (e) 1 , 2

Solution:

(a) The heat rejected by engine B

Q3

Q1

= T3

1

Q3 = T3 Q1

1

100

Q3 = 1000 1680

T

1 = 2

1T = 1

1

T3

T

T

1000

100

T

= .

Q2

Q1

=T

Q 2 = T Q1

1

Q2 =

316.3

1000

1680

= .

WA = Q1 Q2

WA = 1680 531.26

= .

WB = Q2 Q3

WB = 531.26 168

= .

Mechanical Engineering

2016-2017

(d) The amount of heat taken in by engine B

T=

T1 +T2

2

T=

T

1 = 1 T

2 = 1

1000+100

2

=

550

1 = 1 1000

T3

T

= %

100

2 = 1 550

= . %

5. A heat engine is used to drive a heat pump. The heat transfers from the heat engine and from the

heat pump are used to heat the water circulating through the radiators of a building. The efficiency

of the heat engine is 27% and the COP of the heat pump is 4. Evaluate the ratio of the heat transfer

to the circulating water to the heat transfer to the heat engine.

Given: 1 = 27% , COP=4

Find: (i) The ratio of the heat transfer

Solution:

The Heat Engine:

Q

1 = 1 Q2

1

1 =

Q2

0.27 = 1 Q2

Q1

WHE

Q1

0.27 =

WHE

Q1

= 0.73

= .

= .

Q

COPHP = W 4

HE

4 = W4

HE

Q4 = 4WHE

= .

Q2 + Q4

=

0.73Q1 = 1.08Q1

+ = .

The heat transfer to the heat engine

= .

6. A heat pump is run by a reversible heat engine operating between reservoirs at 800C and 50C.

The heat pump working on Carnot cycle picks up 15 kW heat from reservoir at 10C and delivers it

to a reservoir at 50C. The reversible engine also runs a machine that needs 25 kW. Determine the

heat received from highest temperature reservoir and heat rejected to reservoir at 50C.

Given:

T1=1073K, T2= T4=323K, T3=283K, Q3 = 15kW

Find: (a) Q1 (b) Q2 + Q4

Solution:

Heat Pump:

COPHP = T

T4

4 T3

COPHP = Q

Q4

4 Q3

323

COPHP = 323283

8.075 =

Q4

Q4 15

= .

8.075Q4 121.13 = Q4

= .

WHP = Q4 Q3

WHP = 17.12 15

= .

WHE = 2.12 + 25

= .

Heat Engine:

WHE = WHP + 25

T

HE = 1 T2

1

323

HE = 1 1073

= . %

Mechanical Engineering

WHE

27.12

1 =

0.699 =

= .

Q1

2016-2017

Q1

WHE = Q1 Q2

27.12 = 38.8 Q2

= .

= Q2 + Q4

= 11.68 + 17.12

+ = .

7. A heat pump working on the Carnot cycle takes in heat from a reservoir at 5C and delivers heat to

a reservoir at 60C. The heat pump is driven by a reversible heat engine which takes in heat from a

reservoir at 840C and rejects heat to a reservoir at 60C. The reversible heat engine also drives a

machine that absorbs 30 kW. If the heat pump extracts 17 kJ/s from the 5C reservoir, determine

(a) The rate of heat supply from the 840C source (b) The rate of heat rejection to the 60C sink.

Given:

T1=1113K, T2= T4=333K, T3=278K, Q3 = 17kW

Find: (a) Q1 (b) Q2 + Q4

Solution:

Heat Pump:

COPHP = T

T4

333

COPHP = 333278

4 T3

COPHP = Q

Q4

6.055 =

4 Q3

Q4

= .

6.055Q4 102.94 = Q4

Q4 17

= .

WHP = Q4 Q3

WHP = 20.36 17

= .

WHE = 3.36 + 30

= .

Heat Engine:

WHE = WHP + 30

HE = 1

1 =

T

2

T1

WHE

Q1

HE = 1

0.708 =

WHE = Q1 Q2

33.36

Q1

333

1113

= . %

= .

33.36 = 47.12 Q2

= .

= Q2 + Q4

= 13.76 + 20.36

+ = .

8. An ice-making plant produces ice at atmospheric pressure and at 0C from water. The mean

temperature of the cooling water circulating through the condenser of the refrigerating machine is

18C. Evaluate the minimum electrical work in kWh required to produce 1 tonne of ice (The

enthalpy of fusion of ice at atmospheric pressure is 333.5 kJ/kg).

Given:

T1=273K, T2= 291K, Q1 = 333.5 1000

Find: (a) Wmin

Solution:

COPmax = T

T1

2 T1

COPmin = W

min

273

COPmax = 291273

15.2 =

1000333.5

Wmin

= .

= .

Mechanical Engineering

2016-2017

9. A heat pump is to be used to heat a house in winter and then reversed to cool the house in summer.

The interior temperature is to be maintained at 20C. Heat transfer through the walls and roof is

estimated to be 0.525 kJ/s per degree temperature difference between the inside and outside.

(a) If the outside temperature in winter is 5C, what is the minimum power required to drive the

heat pump? (b) If the power output is the same as in part (a), what is the maximum outer

temperature for which the inside can be maintained at 20C?

Given: T1=293K, q=0.525kJ/sC

Find: (a) Wmin for heat pump if outside temperature in winter is 5C

(b) The maximum outer temperature for which the inside can be

maintained at 20C (if power output is same for part a &b)

Solution:

Heat pump:

Estimated Heat Rate: Q = q (T2 T1 )

COPHP = T

T1

293

2 T1

COPHP = W

Q = 0.525 (20 5) = . /

min

COPHp = 293278

19.53 =

= .

7.875

Wmin

Refrigerator:

Heat Rate: Q1 = q (T T1 )

T

COPHP = TT1

293

COPHP = W

Q1 = 0.525 (T 293)

min

COPHp = T293

293

T293

0.525(T293)

0.403

10. A reversible heat engine operates between two reservoirs at temperatures 700C and 50C. The

engine drives a reversible refrigerator which operates between reservoirs at temperatures of 50C

and 25C. The heat transfer to the engine is 2500 kJ and the net work output of the combined

engine refrigerator plant is 400 kJ.(i) Determine the heat transfer to the refrigerant and the net

heat transfer to the reservoir at 50C (ii) Reconsider (i) given that the efficiency of the heat engine

and the C.O.P. of the refrigerator are each 45 per cent of their maximum possible values.

Given:

T1=973K, T2= T4=323K, T3=248K, Q1 = 2500kJ

Find: (a) Q1 (b) Q2 + Q4

Solution:

Heat Engine:

T

323

HE = 1 T2

HE = 1 973

1 =

WHE

Q1

HE

0.668 = 2500

WHE = Q1 Q2

= . %

1670 = 2500 Q2

Refrigerator:

WHE = W + Wref

COPref = T

T3

4 T3

COPref = W 4

ref

248

COPref = 323248

Q

4

3.306 = 1270

= .

= .

= .

Mechanical Engineering

2016-2017

= Q2 + Q3

= 830 + 5468.6

+ =

HE = 45% max

1 =

WHE

Q1

HE = 0.45 0.668

W

HE

0.3 = 2500

WHE = Q1 Q2

= %

750 = 2500 Q2

Refrigerator:

WHE = W + Wref

750 = 400 + Wref

COPref = 3.306 0.45

= .

Q

COPref = W 4

4

1.48 = 350

ref

Heat rejected to reservoir at 50 C

= Q2 + Q3

= 1750 + 868

+ =

11. A reversible heat engine operates between two reservoirs at 827C and 27C. Engine drives a

Carnot refrigerator maintaining 13C and rejecting heat to reservoir at 27C. Heat input to the

engine is 2000 kJ and the net work available is 300 kJ. How much heat is transferred to refrigerant

and total heat rejected to reservoir at 27C.

Given: T1=827C, T2= T4=27C, T3= 13C, Q1 = 2000kJ

Find: (a) Q4 (b) Q2 + Q 4

Solution:

Heat Engine:

Q1

Q2

= T1

2

300

Q2 = T2 Q1 = 1100 2000

= .

WHE = Q1 Q2

Refrigerator:

WHE = W + Wref

COPref = T

T3

260

4 T3

COPref = 300260

Q

COPref = W 3

3

6.5 = 1154.55

ref

Wref = Q4 Q3

= .

=6.5

= .

1154.55 = Q 4 7504.58 = .

= Q2 + Q4

= 545.45 + 8659.13

+ = .

12. (a) A reversible heat pump is used to maintain a temperature of 0C in a refrigerator when it

rejects the heat to the surroundings at 25C. If the heat removal rate from the refrigerator is 1440

kJ/min, determine the C.O.P. of the machine and work input required.

Given:

T1=25C+273=298K,T2=0C+273=273K,

Q1 = 1440kJ/min= 24kJ/s

Find: (a) COP & WHP Find: (a) Q4 (b) Q2 + Q4

St. Josephs College of Engineering / St. Josephs Institute of Technology

10

Mechanical Engineering

2016-2017

Solution:

T1

COPHP =

COPHP = W

298

COPHp =

T2 T1

= .

298273

24

11.92 = W

HP

WHP = Q2 Q1

= .

HP

2.2 = Q 2 24

= . /

(b) If the required input to run the pump is developed by a reversible engine which receives heat at

380C and rejects heat to atmosphere, then determine the overall C.O.P. of the system.

Heat Engine: WHE = WHP

Q3

Q4

Q4 +WHE

= T3

Q4

Q4 +2.2

= T3

Q4

WHE = Q3 Q4

653

= 298

2.2 = Q3 1.847

= . /

= . /

Heat Pump

Q

24

COPHP = Q1

COPHP = 1154.55

COPHP = .

=

Q2 +Q4

Q3

26.2+1.847

4.047

= 6.98

13. An ice plant working on a reversed Carnot cycle heat pump produces 15 tonnes of ice per day. The

ice is formed from water at 0C and the formed ice is maintained at 0C. The heat is rejected to the

atmosphere at 25C. The heat pump used to run the ice plant is coupled to a Carnot engine which

absorbs heat from a source which is maintained at 220C by burning liquid fuel of 44500 kJ/kg

calorific value and rejects the heat to the atmosphere. Determine :(i) Power developed by the engine

(ii) Fuel consumed per hour.Take enthalpy of fusion of ice = 334.5 kJ/kg.

Given: T1=493K, T2= T3=298K, T4=273K,

Find: (a) W (b) Fuel consumed per hour

Solution:

Heat Pump:

COPHP = T

Q4 =

T3

298

3 T4

151000334.5

2460

COPHP = Q

Q3

3 Q4

COPHP = 298273

= .

= . /

11.92 =

Q3

Q3 58.07

11.92Q3 692.23 = Q3

= . /

WHP = Q3 Q4

= .

Heat Engine:

HE = 1

1 =

WHE

Q1

T2

T1

HE = 1

0.3955 =

5.32

Q1 = 13.45 60 60

Q1

298

493

= . %

= .

= /

=

CV

48168

= 44500

= . /

11

Mechanical Engineering

14. Explain Carnot cycle with neat sketches.

Any fluid may be used to operate the Carnot

cycle which is performed in an engine

cylinder the head of which is supposed

alternatively to be perfect conductor or a

perfect insulator of a heat.

Heat is caused to flow into the cylinder by

the application of high temperature energy

source to the cylinder head during

expansion, and to flow from the cylinder by

the application of a lower temperature

energy source to the head during

compression.

2016-2017

The assumptions made for describing the working of the Carnot engine are as follows:

i. The piston moving in a cylinder does not develop any friction during motion.

ii. The walls of piston and cylinder are considered as perfect insulators of heat.

iii. The cylinder head is so arranged that it can be a perfect heat conductor or perfect heat insulator.

iv. The transfer of heat does not affect the temperature of source or sink.

v. Working medium is a perfect gas and has constant specific heat.

vi. Compression and expansion are reversible.

Following are the four stages of Carnot cycle :

Process 1-2: Hot energy source is applied. Heat Q1 is taken in whilst the fluid expands isothermally and

reversibly at constant high temperature T1.

Process 2-3: The cylinder becomes a perfect insulator so that no heat flow takes place. The fluid expands

adiabatically and reversibly whilst temperature falls from T1 to T2.

Process 3-4: Cold energy source is applied. Heat Q2 flows from the fluid whilst it is compressed

isothermally and reversibly at constant lower temperature T2.

Process 4-1: Cylinder head becomes a perfect insulator so that no heat flow occurs. The compression is

continued adiabatically and reversibly during which temperature is raised from T2 to T1.

The work delivered from the system during the cycle is represented by the enclosed area of the cycle.

Again for a closed cycle, according to first law of the thermodynamics the work obtained is equal to the

difference between the heat supplied by the source (Q1) and the heat rejected to the sink (Q2).

W = Q1 Q2

Work done

Q1 Q2

Q1

= 1 T2

1

Such an engine since it consists entirely of reversible processes, can operate in the reverse direction so

that it follows the cycle shown in Fig and operates as a heat pump. Q2 is being taken in at the lower

temperature T2 during the isothermal expansion (process 4-3) and heat Q1 is being rejected at the upper

St. Josephs College of Engineering / St. Josephs Institute of Technology

12

Mechanical Engineering

2016-2017

temperature T1 (process 2-1). Work W will be needed to drive the pump. Again, the enclosed area

represents this work which is exactly equal to that flowing from it when used as engine.

The Carnot cycle cannot be performed in practice because of the following reasons :

1. It is impossible to perform a frictionless process.

2. It is impossible to transfer the heat without temperature potential.

3. Isothermal process can be achieved only if the piston moves very slowly to allow heat transfer so that

the temperature remains constant. Adiabatic process can be achieved only if the piston moves as fast as

possible so that the heat transfer is negligible due to very short time available. The isothermal and

adiabatic processes take place during the same stroke therefore the piston has to move very slowly for

part of the stroke and it has to move very fast during remaining stroke. This variation of motion of the

piston during the same stroke is not possible.

15. 300 kJ/s of heat is supplied at a constant fixed temperature of 290C to a heat engine. The heat

rejection takes place at 8.5C. The following results were obtained : (i) 215 kJ/s are rejected. (ii) 150

kJ/s are rejected. (iii) 75 kJ/s are rejected. Classify which of the result report a reversible cycle or

irreversible cycle or impossible results.

Given: Heat supplied at 290C= 300 kJ/s , Heat rejected at 8.5C

Find: (i) 215kJ/s, (ii) 150 kJ/s, (iii) 75 kJ/s

Solution:

Applying clausius inequality to the cycle

Cycle

Q

T

Q1

T1

(ii) Cycle

Q

T

Q1

T1

T2

(iii) Cycle

Q

T

Q1

T1

T2

(i)

Q2

T2

Cycle

Q

T

Cycle

Q

T

= 563 281.5

Cycle

Q

T

= 563 281.5

300

215

563

281.5

300

150

= , Cycle is reversible

300

75

16. Air at 20C and 1.05 bar occupies 0.025 m3. The air is heated at constant volume until the pressure

is 4.5 bar, and then cooled at constant pressure back to original temperature.

Calculate :(i) The net heat flow from the air.(ii) The net entropy change.

Given:

Temperature, T1 = 20 + 273 = 293 K

Volume,

V1 = V3 = 0.025 m3

Pressure,

p1 = 1.05 bar = 1.05 105

N/m2

Pressure,

p2 = 4.5 bar = 4.5 105 N/m2.

Find: (i) Net heat flow (ii) Net entropy change

Solution:`

m=

P1 V1

RT1

m=

287 293

= .

At

p

T

=C

p1 T2 = p2 T1

= mCv (T2 T1 )

T

= mCv ln (T2 )

1

4.5

T2 = P2 T1 = 1.05 293

= .

1255.7

= 0.0312 0.718 ln (

293

= .

= . /

Q23 = mCp (T3 T2 )

13

T2

Mechanical Engineering

1255.7

= mCv ln (T )

= 0.0312 1.005 ln (

293

2016-2017

= . /

Q = Q12 + Q23

Q = 21.56 30.18

= .

S = S12 + S23

S = 0.0326 0.0456

= . /

17. An insulated cylinder of volume capacity 4 m3 contains 20 kg of nitrogen. Paddle work is done on

the gas by stirring it till the pressure in the vessel gets increased from 4 bar to 8 bar. Determine :(i)

Change in internal energy,(ii) Work done,(iii) Heat transferred, and (iv) Change in entropy

Given: P1 = 4 bar = 4 105 N/m2 , P2 = 8 bar = 8 105 N/m2, V1 = V2 = 4 m3

Cp=1.04 kJ/kgK , CV=0.7432 kJ/kgK

Find: (i) U (ii) W (iii) Q (iv) S

Solution:

R = CP CV

R = 1.04 0.7432

= . .

U = U2 U1

p2 V2

8105 4

4105 4

296.8 )

296.8

U = 0.7432(

U = Cv (

p1 V1

)

= .

There is no change in system boundary or pdv work is absent. No heat is transferred to the system

Q12 = (U2 U1 ) + W12

0 = (U2 U1 ) + W12

W12 = (U2 U1 )

= .

(iv) Change in entropy

T

= mCv ln (T2 )

= 20 0.7432 ln(2)

= . /

18. Find the change in entropy of steam generated at 400C from 5 kg of water at 27C and

atmospheric pressure. Take specific heat of water to be 4.2 kJ/kg.K, heat of vaporization at 100C

as 2260 kJ/kg and specific heat for steam given by; cp = R (3.5 + 1.2T + 0.14T2) J/kgK.

Solution:

Total entropy change = Entropy change during water temperature rise (S1) + Entropy change

during water to steam change (S2) + Entropy change during steam

temperature rise (S3)

Entropy change during water temperature rise (S1):

S 1 =

Q1

T1

S 1 =

mCp (T2 T1 )

T1

S 1 =

54.2(373300)

300

= . /

S2 =

Q2

T2

S2 =

m

T2

S2 =

52260

373.13

= . /

For steam

R=

8.314

18

= 0.462 kJ/kg.K

14

Mechanical Engineering

2

Therefore,

2016-2017

673.15 dQ

S3 = 373.15

673.15

1.617

S3 = 373.15 5 X 103 X (

+ 0.5544 + 0.065T) dT

= . /

Total entropy change = 5.11 + 30.28 + 51.84= 87.23 kJ/K

19. Determine the change in entropy of universe if a copper block of 1 kg at 150C is placed in a sea

water at 25C. Take heat capacity of copper as 0.393 kJ/kg K.

Given: m=1 kg, T1=150 C+273=423 K, T2=25C+273=298 K, CP=0.393 kJ/kgK

Find: Change in entropy of universe

Solution:

Here hot block is put into sea water, so block shall cool down upto sea water at 25C as sea may

be treated as sink.

T

= mCv ln (T2 )

1

S =

Q1

T1

298

= 1 0.393 ln (423)

S =

mCp (T2 T1 )

T1

= . /

10.393(423298)

298

= . /

20. 1 kg of ice at 5C is exposed to the atmosphere which is at 25C. The ice melts and comes into

thermal equilibrium. (i) Determine the entropy increase of the universe (ii) What is the minimum

amount of work necessary to convert the water back into ice at 5C ? Take : cp of ice = 2.093

kJ/kgC, Latent heat of fusion of ice = 333.33 kJ/kg

15

Mechanical Engineering

2016-2017

21. Two tanks A and B are connected through a pipe with valve in between. Initially valve is closed and

tanks A and B contain 0.6 kg of air at 90C, 1 bar and 1 kg of air at 45C, 2 bar respectively.

Subsequently valve is opened and air is allowed to mix until equilibrium. Considering the complete

system to be insulated determine the final temperature, final pressure and entropy change.

Find: Final temperature, Final pressure and Entropy change

Solution:

In this case due to perfectly insulated system, Q = 0, Also W = 0

Q = W + U

0 = 0 + {(mA + mB) Cv.Tf (mA.CvTA) (mB.Cv.TB)}

Tf =

(mA Cv TA + mB Cv TB )

(mA + mB ) Cv

Tf =

(0.6 X 363+1X318)

(0.6+1)

= .

16

pf =

(mA + mB ) RTf

pf =

(VA + VB )

Mechanical Engineering

(0.625+0.456)

2016-2017

= .

VA =

mA R TA

pA

VA = 0.625 m3

Entropy change

S = {((mA + mB).sf) (mA.sA + mBsB)}

VB =

T

mB R TB

pB

VB = 0.456 m3

T

p

T

p

A

334.88

142.25

S = { 0.1093 + 014977}

S = 0.04047 kJ/K

334.88

318

0.287 ln

22. State the Carnot principles and prove the first principle with relevant sketches.

142.25

200

)}

[NOV/DEC 2015]

The Carnot principles are the two conclusions pertaining to the thermal efficiency of reversible

and irreversible heat engine. Drawn from the Kelvin-Plank and clausius statement of the second

law of thermodynamics.

The carnot principles are

1. The efficiency of an irreversible heat engine is always less than the efficiency of a

reversible one operating between the same two thermal reservoirs

2. The efficiencies of all reversible heat engine operating between the same two thermal

reservoir are the same.

The first principle is called the Carnot theorem and the second the corollary of the Carnot

theorem. These principles can be proved by demonstrating that the violation of either one, results

in a violation of the second law of thermodynamics

Proof of the first principle:

Consider the two heat engines operating between the same two thermal reservoirs, let one engine

be reversible, and the other irreversible.

We assume that the thermal efficiency of the

irreversible engine is more than that of the

reversible engine. The assumption is in

violation of the first principle of Carnot.

>

The above inequality results in

[

]

>[

]

17

Mechanical Engineering

2016-2017

,

,

[

]

>[

]

But, ( ) = ( )

(WACT,OUT )irrev > (WACT,OUT )rev

Now let the reversible heat engine be reversed and operated as a refrigerator. This refrigerator

will receive a work input of Wrev and reject heat to the high-temperature reservoir. Since the

refrigerator is rejecting heat QH to the high temperature reservoir and the irreversible heat

engine is receiving the same amount of heat from the same high temperature reservoir, the net

heat exchange for this reservoir is zero. Thus the reservoir can be eliminated by having the

refrigerator discharge QH directly into the irreversible heat engine, without the high-temperature

reservoir. The combination of the refrigerator and the irreversible engine produces a net work of

(Wirrev Wrev) while exchanging heat with a single reservoir- a violation of the Kelvin-Plank

statement of the second law.

irreversible > reversible is not correct. Hence we

could that no heat engine can be more efficient than a

reversible heat engine operating between tha same

thermal reservoirs. The second principle of Carnot

can also be proved in a simple manner and shown

that the efficiency of a reversible engine is

independent of the nature or amount of the working

substance undergoing the cycle as long as the engine

is operating between the same thermal reservoir. The

second principle of Carnot is called the corollary of

Carnot theorm.

23. One kilogram of water at 273 K is brought into contact with a heat reservoir at 373 K. (i) When the

water has reached 373 K, find the change in entropy of the water, of the heat reservoir, and of the

universe. (ii) If the water had been heated from 273 K to 373K by first bringing it in contact with a

reservoir at 323K and then with a reservoir at 373K, what would have been the change in entropy

of the universe?

[NOV/DEC 2015]

18

Mechanical Engineering

2016-2017

24. Three Carnot engines A, B and C working between the temperature of 1000 K and 300 K are in a

series combination. The work produced by these engines are in the ratio of 5:4:3. Make calculations

of temperature for the intermediate temperatures.

[APR/MAY 2015]

25. A reversible engine operates between temperatures T1 and T (T1>T). The energy rejected by this

engine is received by a second reversible engine at the same temperature T. The second engine

rejects the heat at temperature T2(T2< T). Prove that T=(T1+T2)/2 if the engines produce the same

output.

[APR/MAY 2015]

Solution:

T2 if the engines produce the same amount of work output

W1 = W2

(1

T T1

) Q

T1 T 2

1 Q1 = 2 Q2

1 = 1 T , 2 = 1

1

T 2 Q2

,

T Q1

=T

= (1 T2) Q2

T1

T2

1=1

T

T

T1 + T2

2=

T

+

=

T2 if the engines have the same cycle efficiencies.

1 = 2

1T = 1

1

T2

T

T

T1

T2

T

19

Mechanical Engineering

2016-2017

26. Two heat engines operating in series are giving out equal amount of work. The total work is 50

kJ/cycle. If the reservoirs are at 1000K and 250K. Find the intermediate temperature and the

efficiency of each engine. Also, find the heat extracted from the source.

[NOV/DEC 2014]

Given:

T1=1000K, T2=250K, W = 50 kJ

Find: (i) T (ii) Efficiency of each engine (iii) Q1

Solution:

As the work output of A is twice that of B

W1 = W2

Q1 Q2 = (Q2 Q3 )

1000 T = (T 250)

T1 T = (T T3 )

T

1 = 1 T

2 = 1

T3

T

625

1 = 1 1000

250

2 = 1 625

= . %

= %

1 =

1

1

25

0.375 =

= . /

(a) Determine the availability of the system if the surrounding pressure and temperature are 1

bar and 290K.

(b) If the air is cooled at constant pressure to the atmospheric temperature, determine the

availability and effectiveness.

[NOV/DEC 2014]

20

Mechanical Engineering

2016-2017

in a refrigerator when it

rejects the heat to the surrounding at 25 C. If the heat removal rate from the refrigerator is

1440 kJ/min, determine the COP of the machine and work input required.

Given:

T1=25C+273=298K,T2=0C+273=273K,

Q1 = 1440kJ/min= 24kJ/s

Find: (a) COP & WHP Find: (a) Q4 (b) Q2 + Q4

Solution:

T2

COPHP =

COPHp =

T2 T1

COPref = T

T1

298273

273

2 T1

COPHP = W

298

COPHp = 298273

= .

24

= .

10.92 = W

HP

WHP = Q2 Q1

= .

HP

2.2 = Q 2 24

= . /

(b) If the required input to run the pump is developed by a reversible engine which receives heat

at 380C and rejects heat to atmosphere, then determine the overall COP of the system.

[APR/MAY 2014]

Heat Engine: WHE = WHP

Q3

Q4

= T3

Q4 +WHE

Q4

= T3

4

WHE = Q3 Q4

Q4 +2.2

Q4

653

= 298

2.2 = Q3 1.847

= . /

= . /

Heat Pump

Q

24

COPHP = Q1

COPHP = 1154.55

COPHP = .

=

Q2 +Q4

Q3

26.2+1.847

4.047

= 6.98

expanded adiabatically to 2 bar. considering the two process to be reversible, determine the

network, net heat transfer, change in entropy. Also plot the processes on T-S and P-V diagrams

[APR/MAY 2014]

21

Mechanical Engineering

2016-2017

30. (a) Two Carnot engines A and B are operated in series. The first one receives heat at 870 K and

rejects heat to a reservoir at T. B receives heat rejected by the first engine and in turn rejects to a

sink at 300K. Find the temperature T for (i) Equal work outputs of both engines (ii) Same

efficiencies

22

Mechanical Engineering

(b) Mention the Clasius inequality for open, closed and isolated systems.

Q

Cycle < 0, Cycle is irreversible

i.

ii.

iii.

T

Q

Cycle

T

Cycle

Q

T

2016-2017

[NOV/DEC 2013]

= 0, Cycle is reversible

< 0, Cycle is impossible

31. (a) 3 kg of air at 500 kPa, 90C expands adiabatically in a closed system until its volume is

doubled and its temperature becomes equal to that of surroundings at 100 kPa and 10C. Find

maximum work, change in availability and irreversibility.

23

Mechanical Engineering

2016-2017

24

Mechanical Engineering

2016-2017

[NOV/DEC 2013]

Entropy can be defined as the measure of the degree of molecular disorder existing in the system.

When heat is added to the system molecular disorder increases so entropy increases. The entropy of

the isolated system either increases on remains constant

() 0

The combination of system and surrounding is known as universe

32. (a) Prove that increase in entropy in a polytropic process is =

( )

25

Mechanical Engineering

2016-2017

(b) An irreversible heat engine with 66% efficiency of the maximum possible is operating between

1000K and 300K. If it delivers 3 kW of work, determine the heat extracted from the high

temperature reservoir and heat rejected to low temperature reservoir.

[APR/MAY2013]

26

Mechanical Engineering

2016-2017

33. (a) Helium enters an actual turbine at 300 kPa, 300C and expands to 100 kPa, 150C. Heat

transfer to atmosphere at 101.325 kPa, 25C amounts to 7 kJ/kg. Calculate the entering stream

availability, leaving stream availability and the maximum work. For helium, Cp=5.2kJ/kg and

molecular wt=4.003kg/kg-mol

27

Mechanical Engineering

2016-2017

(b) List out and explain various causes of irreversibility.

[APR/MAY2013]

Lack of equilibrium

Heat transfer through a finite temperature difference

Lack of pressure equilibrium within the interior of the system

Free expansion

Dissipative effect

34. (a) Define the terms Irreversible process and Reversible process. Give an e.g. of each.

Irreversible process

Processes that are not reversible are called irreversible processes. Once having taken place, these

processes cannot reverse themselves spontaneously and restore the system to its initial state. For

this reason, they are classified as irreversible processes.

Example for irreversible process: Once a cup of hot coffee cools, it will not heat up by retrieving

the heat it lost from the surroundings.

Reversible process

A reversible process is defined as a process that can be reversed without leaving any trace on the

surroundings. That is, both the system and the surroundings are returned to their initial states at

the end of the reverse process. This is possible only if the net heat and net work exchange

between the system and the surroundings is zero for the combined (original and reverse)

process.

Examples for reversible process are

i) Quasi equilibrium expansion and compression of gas

ii) Frictionless pendulum

(b) In a Carnot cycle the maximum pressure and temperature are limited to 18 bar and 410C.

The volume ratio of isentropic compression is 6 and isothermal expansion is 1.5. Assume the

volume of the air at the beginning of isothermal expansion as 0.18 m 3. Show the cycle on p-V

and T-s diagrams and determine (i) The pressure and temperature at main points (ii) Thermal

efficiency of the cycle

[NOV/DEC 2012]

28

Mechanical Engineering

2016-2017

29

Mechanical Engineering

2016-2017

35. (a) State and prove Clausius inequality.

The Clausius Inequality applies to any real engine cycle and implies a negative change in entropy on

the cycle. That is, the entropy given to the environment during the cycle is larger than the entropy

transferred to the engine by heat from the hot reservoir

(b) A metal block with m=5 kg, c=0.4 kJ/kgK at 40C is kept in a room at 20C. It is cooled in the

following two ways: (i) Using a Carnot engine (executing internal number of cycles) with the

room itself as the cold reservoir; (ii) Naturally. In each case, calculate the change in entropy of

the block, of the air of the room and of the universe. Assume that the metal block has constant

specific heat

[NOV/DEC 2012]

Given: m=5 kg, cp=0.4 kJ/kgK, T1=40C, T2=20C

Solution:

(i) Cooling naturally

Heat absorbed by air, Q=Heat released by the metal block

Q = mc(T1 T2 ) = 5 0.4 (40 20)

=

293

(Q) = 313

293

= 5 0.4 ln 313

() = . /

40

= 293

= . /

Entropy of universe:

Quniverse = Qblock + Qair

Quniverse = 0.132 + 0.1365

= . /

St. Josephs College of Engineering / St. Josephs Institute of Technology

30

Mechanical Engineering

2016-2017

Entropy of Carnot engine,SCarnot=0

For Carnot engine, efficiency

Carnot =

T1 T2

T1

W

Carnot =

313293

313

W

Carnot = Q

0.0639 = 40

Entropy of air, S =

Q+W

= . %

= .

40+2.556

293

= . /

= S +S +S

= . /

36. (a)

Ans: refer Question No:22

(b) Two reversible heat engines A and B are arranged in series. Engine A rejecting heat directly

to engine B, receives 200 kJ at a temperature of 421C from a hot source, while engine B is in

communication with a cold sink at a temperature of 4.4C. If the work output of A is twice that

of B, find (i) The intermediate temperature between A and B (ii) The efficiency of each engine

and (iii) The heat rejected to the cold sink.

[APR/MAY 2012]

Given:

T1=421C+273=694K, T3=4.4C+273=277.4K, Q1 = 200kJ

Find: (i) Rate of heat rejection per kW

Solution:

As the work output of A is twice that of B

W1 = 2W2

Q1 Q2 = 2 (Q2 Q3 )

694 T = 2 (T 277.4)

T1 T = 2 (T T3 )

694 T = 2 T 554.8)

= .

T

1 = 1 T

2 = 1

T3

T

416.27

694

277.4

1 416.27

1 = 1

= . %

2 =

= . %

Q3

Q1

= T3

1

Q3 = T3 Q1

1

Q3 =

277.4

694

200

= .

37. (a) 2 kg of water at 90C is mixed with 3 kg of water at 10C in an isolated system. Calculated the

change of entropy due to the mixing process.

2 4.18 90 T f 3 4.18 T f 10

Tf = 42 C

T f

S 1 m1C p ln 1.1857kJ / K

T1

T f

S 2 m1C p ln 1.3433kJ / K

T2

S mixing S 1 S 2 157 J / K

(b) Derive an expression for the change in entropy of a perfect gas during polytropic process in

terms of T1 and T2.

[APR/MAY 2012]

Refer Engineering Thermodynamics by P K Nag Fourth edition, page No. 332 333.

St. Josephs College of Engineering / St. Josephs Institute of Technology

31

- 2 the 1st 2nd Laws of ThermodynamicsUploaded byFahim Uddin
- Heat PacUploaded byTasha Gutierrez
- Second Law of ThermodynamicsUploaded byJignesh Boricha
- ierrsuso22q4jUploaded byBasant Kumar K.C.
- Updated Physics 2017Uploaded bySandeep Gupta
- Mod-02 Problem Formulation 2009Uploaded bysilamparuthi
- AniswanderHW1Uploaded byVikas Kumar
- ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICSUploaded byKA VE
- Case Study ThermoUploaded byNurul'Ain Haniyun Mohamad Fodzi
- Prigogine 1972Uploaded byAleestra
- BAB 22Uploaded byNurulWardhani11
- 4 second law of thermodynamicsUploaded byapi-294538209
- Thermodynamic Optimization Principle for Open Inverse BraytonUploaded bybudiharyatno
- ThermodynamicsUploaded bybharath
- A New Interpretation of Legendre’s Transformation AndUploaded byFaisal Amir
- Entropy Part 2 (4)Uploaded byAndy Ngo
- 209_2017 Regulation Syllabus (1)Uploaded bysivakumar
- Craig Callender - What is the Problem of the Direction of TimeUploaded byOfir Asher Ammar
- White Paper XIUploaded byhola123456789jg
- Big Brain TheoryUploaded byေအာင္ ေက်ာ္ စြာ
- FAQsUploaded bynitintripathi2222
- Lecture22 ThermoUploaded byHerthya Np
- Chemical ThermodynamicsUploaded byBilal Kazmi
- b Tech First Year Syl Lab Us 201314Uploaded bySharmiladevy Prasanna
- D4651 _ 08Uploaded byPOSSD
- 4 Laws of Black HolesUploaded byneotonian
- 1-s2.0-S2211381911000208-main.pdfUploaded byJafar
- Car Not ViiiUploaded bysdmahajan
- 17.3rd Law of ThermoUploaded byBabu Aravind
- 1489556229_Sales Catalogue_Optimax Heat Pump_English.pdfUploaded byAmr Kamel

- Success Criteria Grade 7thUploaded byamdeva
- Chap2.Uploaded byamdeva
- 49514Uploaded byamdeva
- 48631Uploaded byamdeva
- 74311Uploaded byamdeva
- 76623Uploaded byamdeva
- Thermo QuestionUploaded byamdeva
- 71005Uploaded byamdeva
- 72474Uploaded byamdeva
- fibre + weather worksheetUploaded byamdeva
- 77246.pdfUploaded byamdeva
- 77246.pdfUploaded byamdeva
- 75599Uploaded byamdeva
- 75599Uploaded byamdeva
- 75599Uploaded byamdeva
- 70868.pdfUploaded byamdeva
- 70868.pdfUploaded byamdeva
- 72077.docUploaded byamdeva
- 72077.docUploaded byamdeva
- DrillingUploaded byamdeva
- Doc5Uploaded byamdeva
- CarltonDevore SSMUploaded byamdeva
- 285 ProcessUploaded byamdeva
- File StreamsUploaded bySadiq Sarfaraz
- ProgramsUploaded byDeepankar Shukla
- 63309Uploaded byamdeva
- 63996.docxUploaded byamdeva
- 77246.pdfUploaded byamdeva
- Unit 5Uploaded byRavi Rajan
- 12365Uploaded byamdeva

- Vapor Compression Refrigeration CycleUploaded byNisha Kuttan
- 50751354756500Uploaded byAnonymous yorzHjDBd
- Concepts_of_Thermodynamics-256.pdfUploaded byAbhishek Aryan
- Chapter 1Uploaded byDavid Alejandro Lopez
- Otto CycleUploaded bySaraju Nandi
- 1 IntroductionUploaded bycaptainhass
- Complete Syllabus EEEUploaded byHill Hermit
- Physics for You January 2018Uploaded byshubham sonkar
- thermodynamic notes.pdfUploaded byRajeev Kaushik
- air-standard-cycle.pptxUploaded byPramod mishra
- chap3firstlawthermodynamics-130703012634-phpapp02Uploaded byShakil Malik
- CH20Uploaded byReema Hloh
- 02-Thermodynamic Process (Practice Problem)Uploaded byAditya Gupta
- All Papers of Thermodyanmics and heat transferUploaded byvismayluhadiya
- Unit-2 ATDUploaded bySamrudh Manjunath
- Thermo 2-Chapter 9Uploaded byizzazack
- HW 4 3.12Uploaded byAnonymous U3DpVvqVWx
- NUCLEAR POWER PLANTSUploaded byChrisanka Nimhari Fernando
- Mech BatchUploaded byJames Ortega
- lectut-CYN-008-pdf-Summary_Lec1and2.pdfUploaded bysdoubj
- Vapor Compression Refrigeration CycleUploaded byArpit Thakur
- 210 CourseUploaded byJesse Kuo
- Td Lesson Plan for Me II-iUploaded byCheemaRavinder
- Thermodynamic CyclesUploaded byBubai111
- Thermo 2Uploaded byRochie Cabrito Diez
- 63960Uploaded byamdeva
- NNSA Mechanical Systems WordUploaded byM J Rhoades
- Basic Thermodynamics nptel video to text lec23Uploaded byKart01
- Carnot CycleUploaded byMaey Akim
- Problem set 1 + solutionsUploaded byAkansha Dahiya