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2014 Power and Energy Systems: Towards Sustainable Energy (PESTSE 2014)

Power Quality Improvement Using DVR in Power System

Mr.Y.Prakash

Research scholar Dept.of EEE ST peters's University, Chennai

prakash772007@rediffinail.com

Abstract-- The dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) is one of the modern devices used in distribution systems to protect consumers against sudden changes in voltage amplitude. In this paper, emergency control in distribution systems is analyzed by using the proposed multifunctional DVR control strategy. Also, the multiloop controller using the Posicast and P+Resonant controllers is proposed in order to improve the transient response and eliminate the steady-state error in DVR response, respectively. The proposed algorithm is applied to some disturbances in load voltage caused by induction motors starting, and a three-phase short circuit fault. Also, the capability of the proposed DVR has been tested to limit the downstream fault current. The current limitation will restore the point of common coupling (peC) (the bus to which all feeders under study are connected) voltage and protect the DVR itself. The idea here is that the DVR acts as a virtual impedance with the main aim of protecting the pee voltage during downstream fault without any problem in real power injection into the DVR. Simulation results obtained using MATLAB software show the capability of the DVR to control the emergency conditions of the distribution systems.

Index terms-- D VR, Power System, PCC, Resonant controllers, closed loop control.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Modern power systems are complex networks, where hundreds of generating stations and thousands of load centers are interconnected through long power transmission and distribution networks [1]. The main concern of consumers is the quality and reliability of power supply at various load centers where they are located. Even though power generation in most of the developed countries is fairly reliable, the quality of the supply is not so reliable. Power distribution systems, ideally should provide their customers with an uninterrupted flow of energy at smooth sinusoidal voltage at the contracted magnitude level and frequency. However in practice, power systems, especially the distribution systems have numerous nonlinear loads, which significantly affect the quality of power supply [2,3]. As a

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Dr.S.Sankar

Professor of of EEE Dept.of EEE Panimalar Institute of Technology, Chennai ssankarphd@yahoo.com

result of the nonlinear loads, the purity of the waveform of supply is lost. This ends up producing many power quality problems. Apart from nonlinear loads some system events; both capacitor switching, motor starting and unusual faults could also inflict power quality problems [4]. A power quality problem is defined as any manifested problem in voltage/current leading to frequency deviations that result in failure or mis-operation of customer equipment. Depending on the electrical distance related to impedance, the type of grounding and connection of transformers between the faulted/ load location and the node, there can be a temporary loss of voltage or temporary voltage reduction (sag) or voltage rise(swell) at different nodes of the system [5]. Among the several novel custom power devices, the DVR is the most technically advanced and economical device for voltage sag mitigation in distribution systems [6, 7]. The DVR functions by injecting AC voltages in series with the incoming three phase network, the purpose of which is to improve the voltage quality by an adjustment in the voltage magnitude, wave shape and phase shift. The voltage sag compensation involves the injection of real and reactive power in to the distribution system [8]. The reactive power requirement can be generated electronically within the voltage source inverter of the DVR. Reduces the transient response and steady error due to the inclusion of posicast controller. In this paper the DVR system acts as a virtual impedance. This system can be used to protect a group of consumers when the cause of disturbance is in the DVR's feeder and the large fault current passes through the DVR itself. The equipment can limit the fault current and protect the loads in parallel feeders until the breaker works and disconnects the faulted feeder. In this system, the DVR acts like a pure virtual inductance which does not take any real power from the external system and, therefore, protects the dc-link capacitor and battery. There may be some defects when absorption of real power is done. This may be harmful to

the battery and dc-link capacitor. Hence impedance including a resistance and an inductance will be connected in parallel with the dc-link capacitor. This may protect the system. Eliminates Steady State error and it protects the PCC Voltage during downstream. IT. PERFORMANCE OF DVR SYSTEM

The power quality problems (sags, swells, harmonics etc.)can be overcome by using the concept of custom power devices which is introduced recently. One of those devices is the Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR), which is the most efficient and effective modern custom power device used in power distribution networks. The location of DVR is as shown in the Fig.I. DVR is a recently proposed series connected solid state device that injects voltage into the system in order to regulate the load side voltage. It is normally installed in a distribution system between the supply and the critical load feeder at the point of common coupling (PCC). Other than voltage sags and swells compensation, DVR can be also added to other features like: line voltage harmonics compensation, reduction of transients in voltage and fault current limitations.

Stf1l-down Tr:ul.lill'lnl'l.' Step-down T!il.nsf(l.'m�l'
Stf1l-down Tr:ul.lill'lnl'l.'
Step-down T!il.nsf(l.'m�l'

AC SOW'fl'

Traunissi.(li Linl'

Dimibulilll Lille

Fig.l. Location of DVR

As soon as the fault occurs the action of DVR starts. On event of fault which results in voltage sag, the magnitude reduction is accompanied by phase angle shift and the remaining voltage magnitude with respective phase angle shift is provided by the DVR. Employing minimum active voltage injection mode in the DVR with some phase angle shift in the post fault voltage can result in miraculous use of DVR. If active voltage is less prominent in DVR then it can be delivered to the load for maintaining stability. Considering this, a transition process is proposed such that voltage restoration is achieved by injecting the voltage difference between the pre sag and the in sag (source side) voltages during the initial first cycle or so the sag. When the sag voltage phasor is available, the injection voltage is controlled to move progressively from the in phase injection point to the corresponding minimum active voltage injection point.

2.1 Configuration ofDVR

A

Schematic

diagram

of

a

conventional

DVR

incorporated into a distribution network is shown in fIg.2.

By-pass swilcl1 V, r--------------- I I DVK I I I I I L
By-pass swilcl1
V,
r---------------
I
I
DVK
I
I
I
I
I
L

Fig.2. Representation of DVR system Injection! booster transformer

The Injection / Booster transformer is a specially designed transformer that attempts to limit the coupling of noise and transient energy from the primary side to the secondary side. Its mainly connects the DVR to the distribution network via the HV-windings and transforms and couples the injected compensating voltages generated by the voltage source converters to the incoming supply voltage. In addition, the Injection / Booster transformer serves the purpose of isolating the load from the system (VSC and control mechanism).The MVA rating is determined by using power calculation equation by considering safety margin denoted as Ks. Vpris the primary voltage of the injection transformer and Ipris the current rating of injection transformer.

P

= Ks VprIpr

(1)

The primary (high voltage) side voltage rating of series injection transformer is related with the maximum voltage sag depth, energy storage scheme, fIltering unit and voltage sag characteristics. The rating of the injection transformer

can be calculated by using equation 2. Vinj = DVr

(2)

Vs

= (1- D)Vr

(3) Vr

is the rated rms voltage of the primary feeder; D is the maximum single phase voltage sag to be compensated (D <I); Vinj is the injection voltage. The sources of voltage sags are typically lighting strikes or short circuit faults. The faults can cause the phase and amplitude shift of the supply voltage

The most common sources of harmonics are power electronic loads and switch mode power supplies. Due to the tremendous advantages in efficiency and controllability, power electronic loads are proliferating and can be found at all power levels. Harmonic currents generate harmonic voltages as they pass through the system impedance. These harmonic components can cause input voltage distortions, additional heating, over voltages in distribution and transmission systems, errors in metering and the malfunction of protective relays. DVR uses diodes, power

transistors and other electronic devices for correcting load voltage, controlling power flow, converting DC voltage to AC voltage and protecting itself from faults. During operation, the PWM inverter produces harmonics. These harmonics must be reduced to an acceptable limit causing negligible impact to the load and utility supply. In order to overcome this harmonic filters are used in the power system.

THD=

W 2 K
W
2
K

C,

.100%

(4)

C, is the magnitude of the fundamental component; Ckis the

The

voltage THD value should be below than 5% for sensitive loads. The passive LC filters can be used for harmonic compensation if the produced hannonics have constant frequency but the passive filters can create low frequency resonances with the power system. The active filters can compensate the harmonics of different frequencies even if the hannonics are not constant. However, high switching frequency is necessary for the active filters. The equivalent circuit diagram of DVR is as shown in the Fig.3.

magnitude of the hannonic components (k= 2, 3, 4

).

vtb

Ftb

Xtb

VDVR

O+-VV\I'-=fOIW��
O+-VV\I'-=fOIW��

Fig.3. Equivalent circuit diagram of DVR

The system impedance

Zth depends on the fault level of

the load bus. When the system voltage ( h ) drops, the

DVR injects a series voltage

Vdvr

through the injection

transfonner so that the desired load voltage magnitude VL

can be maintained. The series injected voltage of the DVR can be written as

Vdvr + �h = VL + ZthIL·

Vdvr

=

VL

+

ZthIL

Zth = Rth + }Xth .

I , = [P, �:Q , ]

+ ZthIL Zth = Rth + }Xth . I , = [ P, �:Q , ]

- �h

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

III. THE ANALYTICAL MODEL OF POSICAST CONTROLLER Block diagram interpretation of the half-cycle Posicast controller is shown in Fig.4. The model has two forward paths. The upper path is that of the original, uncompensated command input. In the lower path, a portion of the original command is initially subtracted, so that the peak of the response will not overshoot the desired final value.

of the response will not overshoot the desired final value. Fig.4. Transfer function form The open

Fig.4. Transfer function form

The open loop control using the Posicast controller is shown in the figure

5.

using the Posicast controller is shown in the figure 5. Fig.5. Open loop control using the

Fig.5. Open loop control using the Posicast Controller

The input voltages V I and V2 is replaced by VLand Vpee. In this fig.5, the voltage on the source side of the DVR (Vped is compared with a load-side reference voltage (VL * ) so that the necessary injection voltage V inv * is derived. To improve the damping, as shown in Fig.5 .The Posicast controller can be used just before transferring the signal to the PWM inverter of the DVR. This is then given to the Posicast controller. It has high-frequency gain and hence low sensitivity to noise. To eliminate the steady-state voltage tracking error, a computationally less intensive P+Resonant compensator is added to the outer voltage loop. The ideal P+Resonant compensator can be mathematically expressed as

P+Resonant compensator can be mathematically expressed as (9) where kp =100 and k,=1 and are gain

(9)

where kp =100 and k,=1 and are gain constants and (00 is the controller resonant frequency. The ideal resonant controller, however, acts like a network with an infmite quality factor, which is not realizable in practice. In Fig.6 shows the closed loop control of the system. Here the circuit consists of the three phase source which produces a voltage of 240 rms phase-to-phase voltage. It is approximately 340V is given at the input side. There are two transformers in the transmission line out of which first one is step down transformer (240V/240e3V) and the second transfonner steps up the voltage.

The DVR system is connected to the transmission line through the injection transformer. The pulses to the PWM inverter are got from the PIC microcontroller in the hardware circuit whereas here in the simulation the pulse is got from the error signal obtained by comparing Vref and Vpcc voltage. The PWM produces the pulses and it is amplified by the driver circuit. This voltage is then injected by the

When the load is

transformer to the transmission line

connected and disconnected there occurs a sag and swell in

the system.

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,
,--
,
--
(i)o
CI.-.'
'
,
_u.·u.
(�_�.'
,
l
,1
r��.,�,.,
r"�---.!!�
,,,_,,,
,,,,,,,
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Fig.6. Simulation with feedback

The second load when connected from time 0.3s to 0.7s there occurs a sag in the voltage which is when the DVR comes into action. The DVR injects voltage into the system and the voltage sag gets compensated. During normal operation of the system the DVR gets charged and the charge is stored in the battery which is then used under voltage sag conditions. The real and reactive power of the system can be compensated with the help of this system.

system can be compensated with the help of this system. Fig.7. Control circuit of DVR system

Fig.7.

Control circuit of DVR system

The VI and Vpee voltages are compared and the error voltage is integrated using an integral controller to reduce the settling time of the system. Vdvr voltage is also integrated and then this is compared with the error voltage obtained. This is in three phase as abc which is then converted into a voltage in the d-q axis. This is done

because small variations cannot be found in abc plane. The output of this posicast controller is multiplied with gain. The output of this posicast controller is then multiplexed with the dq axis output. This output is then converted into a three phase signal in the abc plane. The output of this block is then compared with the filter output and then after multiplying with a gain is given to the discrete PWM generator. The simulation results of sag and swell is as shown in the Fig.8 and Fig.9.

of sag and swell is as shown in the Fig.8 and Fig.9. Fig.8. Simulation showing the

Fig.8. Simulation showing the sag in the closed loop system

The DVR is disconnected from the system here. The second load is connected during the transient time 0.3 to 0.7. And so there is a sag that occurs in the system.

to 0.7. And so there is a sag that occurs in the system. Fig.9. Simulation showing

Fig.9. Simulation showing the swell in closed loop system

The DVR is disconnected from the system here. The second load is disconnected during the transient time 0.3 to 0.7. And so there is a swell that occurs in the system.

to 0.7. And so there is a swell that occurs in the system. Fig .10. Simulation

Fig .10. Simulation showing the output after DVR is connected

To mitigate the sag and swell the DVR is then connected to the system. The compensated voltage is shown in the Fig.IO. The circuit in Fig.ll shows the real and reactive power compensation of the DVR system. The DVR compensates for the voltage as well as the reactive power at the load side. This circuit uses a display to show the values of the voltage at the load side. The compensated voltage at

the load side is displayed as 238 when the simulation is made to run.

DISTlUBUTlON SYSn:M
DISTlUBUTlON SYSn:M

Fig.ll. Circuit for real and reactive power control

The output shows that the real power increases in the interval 0.3 to 0.7 whereas the reactive power goes down in this interval. The real and reactive power comes back to normal after this transient time is as shown in

Fig.12.

to normal after this transient time is as shown in Fig.12. Fig.12. Output for real and

Fig.12. Output for real and reactive power control

IV. CIRCUIT FOR FAULT ANALYSIS The faults that occur in a circuit may be a variation in the voltage or a single line to ground faults on the input or output side. In the absence of the DVR the transmission line severely suffers from the faults and interruptions and the voltage drops to a very low value and the load will not get the sufficient rated voltage for its operation. This circuit consists of a three phase voltage measurement unit after the source and before the second load is as shown in Fig.13. The voltage waveform produced at the source and the waveform that is got at the load side is given as two inputs of the scope and the waveforms are generated. Thus waveform represents both the occurrence of the sag and swell.

represents both the occurrence of the sag and swell. Fig .13. Simulation for fault analysis Fig.14.

Fig .13. Simulation for fault analysis

the sag and swell. Fig .13. Simulation for fault analysis Fig.14. Waveform for the fault analysis

Fig.14. Waveform for the fault analysis

The waveform here in Fig.I4 illustrates the sag condition that may occur in a system due to the inclusion of

a load. This may practically occur in an ordinary

transmission line during peak load conditions like the morning hours when many appliances are used and it will shown the incorporation of controller for power quality improvement. The output of FFT analysis for inputl is as shown in the Fig.I5.

SoIodod •. tllC)dHffi_"fOdI:1c)<In
SoIodod •. tllC)dHffi_"fOdI:1c)<In

Fig.lS. output of FFT analysis for input!

V. CONCLUSION The main purpose of using DVR in industries is to maximize efficiency in production. We choose the proposed

an improved progressive phase changing scheme of post

fault voltage. For any fault situation of voltage sag this

method is effective which is proved from the analysis and MATLAB simulation results. We chose MATLAB programming because it is easy and can be easily fed in any microprocessor chip. The sag transients can be easily mitigated and pre fault voltage can be established. For real time applications, this may necessitate the application of the microcontroller/processor with fast speed. The analysis done in this paper is detection and compensation of the voltage sag with DVR active power injection.

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