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idiot suerte ea GEOMETRY Higher Education Journal P. Abbott BAL First printed in this form March 1948 Revised edition 1970 Third impression 1973 Fourth inpresion 1976 Fifth impression 1677 PREFACE The primary object of this book is to provide an intro- duction to the fundamental principles of Geometry suitable for a private student, whether he be one who is desirous of beginning the study of the subject or one who, after a com- Capp © 1970 edition pulsory gap in his education, wishes to refresh his memory Hodier and Stoughton Lint of previous studies. The general plan of the book, modified in accordance with its special purpose, follows, in the main, recommenda~ tions made some years ago by the Teaching Committee of ‘the Mathematical Association, of which committee the Al rights reserved. No part of this publication may be writer was at the time the Hon. Secretary. Accordingly reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, there isa frst part which is intended to lead the student to electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, a realization of basic geometric truths by appealing to or any information storage and retzieval system, without common sense reasoning and intuition. The usual proofs, permission in writing from the publisher, when introduced are considerably modified, the formal proofs in logical sequence being postponed to Part IT, The use of geometry in our everyday life is constantly indicated so that the student does not feel that the subject is merely one of academic interest. ‘Very little “practical geometry,” involving drawing and meastirements, is employed, as it is thought to be hardly suitable to the kind of stndent for whom the book is written. When, however, the theorems enunciated are suitable for the purpose, a considerable number of numerical exercises fare included, their main purpose being to impress the ‘theorems on the memory. Also such elementary mensura- ttion as arises naturally from the geometry is introduced ~ am 0 390 05505 9 and the student thus acquires a knowledge of the ordinary rules for the calculation of areas and volumes. Printed in Great Britain 'No previous knowledge of Mathematics, beyond ordinary. Jor Hodder ond Siglo Papas, dso Hodde ndSghn Lt, Rod, Dein Gre, Sea, Ket (Carl Oe; 47 Bf Su, Loon Wer DP) Richard Ce (The Cher Pres) Lay Dang, Sale Arithmetic, is required by a student who proposes to use of PREFACE the book. It is desirable, however, from every point of view that the student who possesses but litle knowledge of algebra should begin his study of that subject concurrently. At a later stage, Trigonometry should be started when the student will begin to find himsolf weaving together threads from all three subjects and realising their interdependence. NOTE ON THE 1970 EDITION This edition has been revised to cover the introduction into Britain of SI (Systeme Internationale), the internation Ally agreed metric gystem two respects the book ignores SI. First, for various reasons the centimetre is officially excluded from the units available, but many eminent people have already objected to this decision, and it is certainly true that it is more con- yenient to handle centimetres when making constructions. Secondly, we have completely ignored the use ofthe radian, ‘unt of angular mencure. Its sdvantages arenot apparent {nthe earlier stages of mathematics and there are'ney many Drotractors available marked in radians, and as with the centimetre, it is more convenient in practice, If the student does come across radians before being introduced to them, he can convert them to degrees by multiplying by 300/37. CONTENTS Introduction, What isGeametry? 5 ss PART | PRACTICAL AND THEORETICAL GEOMETRY CHAPTER | SOLIDS, LINES, POINTS AND SURFACES Geometric figures. Solids, lines, points, plane 18 10 CHAPTER 2. ANGLES Adjacent, vertically opposite, rghit, cate, obtuse ‘Angles formed by rotation. "Geometric theorems, feoaverse theorems, Angles ata point Ea CHAPTER 3 MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES The cisco. Degrees, protractars, complementary fand supplementary angles CConservetion No. Bxercise 1. 21-26, 38 CHAPTER 4 SIMPLE GEOMETRY OF PLANES Planes. Angle between two planes, Vertical and horizontal planes. Angles between a straight line Gaal a plane) fe gee See 26-20. sist. 2849, 50-07. 5-01. I os CONTENTS. CHAPTER 5 DIRECTION Standard difections, Magnetic compass, Points of the compan Beatty. Ale of ovation, Altitade of the sum. . ae abies Esorcise 2 CHAPTER 6 TRIANGLES Rectilinoal Sgures. Perimeter. Triangles. Ex- ‘rior angles, Kinds of triangles. Altitude, Medians, "Congruent triangles, Conditions of compres 6 iy beg Esorcise 8. CHAPTER 7 PARALLEL STRAIGHT LINES Distance betwoon parallel straight lines, Anglos formed by ‘ransverals, Propertioe of parallel straight lines. Conditions of parallelism Construction No. 2. ‘To draw a parallel straight line, Esorcise 4. CHAPTER 8 ANGLES OF A TRIANGLE Sam of angles of a triangle, Exterior and interior MEE ORG sha eae Baercise 6. CHAPTER 9 ISOSCELES TRIANGLES ‘Relations between sides and angies . .« Eserciee 6, » 55 a n a 66-73. 187. 98-08, 90-108, 104-109. 0-119. CONTENTS CHAPTER 10 FUNDAMENTAL CONSTRUCTIONS Nos. 3-8, Equilateral triangle; bisection of angle andstraightline. Perpendicularstoa straightline ‘Exercise 7. CHAPTER II QUADRILATERALS. PARALLELOGRAMS ‘Propartios of parallelograms. Diagonala of quadsi- laterals, Trapeslum, Intercept theorem, Construction No, 9. Division of a straight line, Esorcise 8, CHAPTER 12 ‘AREAS OF RECTILINEAL FIGURES Meatuement of asa, Rectangle, progr, ‘langle, traperiam. Exercise 9 CHAPTER 13, THEOREM OF PYTHAGORAS ‘Connection between squares on sides of right-angled ‘aiangles. Application to square and equilateral Riad atl POE ene ‘Exercise 10, CHAPTER 14 POLYGONS Angles of regular polygons. Circumseribing circles ‘Construction of palygoa « oe ‘Construction No. 10.” Regolar polygon. ‘Exercise 1h CHAPTER 15 Loct Construction of loci from given conditions, Loci ‘by plotting points; parabola; hyperbola eycloid, Intersction of leds es ‘Exercise 12, 10 ne ae 128 120-135 120-101. 132-136, 145-161. CONTENTS: CHAPTER 16 THE CIRCLE ‘Arcs, sectors; length of circumference; area. Exorise 13, CHAPTER 17 THE CIRCLE (contd) Chonis and segments. : Construction No. II. Contre of «cil, Exercise 1. CHAPTER 18 THE CIRCLE (cont.) Angles in sogments, Inscribed quadilaterals Bxereie 1. CHAPTER 19 CIRCLE. TANGENTS ‘Tangents to circles. Angles in alternate segments. Constructions Nos. 12,13, 14. Drawing tangents Exec 16, CHAPTER 20 RATIO IN GEOMETRY. SIMILAR FIGURES Similar triangles; ratios of sidos; fixed ration connected with angles; tangeats, sins, cosines. ‘Areas of similar figures : Construction No. 15, Division ofa straight tine Exercise 17, CHAPTER 21 EXTENSION OF THE THEOREM OF PYTHAGORAS 162-165, ‘olatons between the sides of any triangle. + Exercise 18, a as. 156 10 169 10 161-104. 105-176. 176-184, 195-193, CONTENTS CHAPTER 22 SYMMETRY Symmetry in geometrical Sgures. Axis of sym- metry. Symmetry incurves see Exercise 19, CHAPTER 23, SOLID GEOMETRY CHAPTER 24 PRISMS ‘Regular prisms; cross sections, Cylinder; area of ‘urface of eylinder.' Volumes of prisms; volume ofeyliader” « Since ascot Esercise 20, CHAPTER 25 PYRAMIDS Construction of a pyramid. Regular pyramids. Cones. Arca of surface of pyramids and cone Volumics of pyramid and cone. Frusta. Esercice 21 CHAPTER 26 SOLIDS OF REVOLUTION Cylinder, cone, sphere as formed by rotation. The farth ata sphere, Determination of postion on he carth’s surface, Latitude and longitude Surface and volume of aaphers ss Esrcise 22. 188 190 183 2 an hn 2, 13, 4. CONTENTS PART I Introduction —Nature of formal geometry Subject. Theorem. Angles at a point. Lae Exercise 29 CCongruent triangles and exterior angles, 4, 6 Exercise 26, Parallels oo Exercise 2 Angles ofa triangle and regular polygon 10-12, Exercise 2, ‘Triangles 17 (Congruent and isosceles) ‘Exercise 2 Inequalities. isa Eserise 28, Parallelograms, 22-26 (Gatereepts on parallel straight lines) ‘Exercise 29, ‘Areas of parallelograms. 20-32 ‘Construction No. 16 Exercise 90. Right-angled elanles. 20-36 Exercise 31. Extensions of Theorem of Pythagoras, 35-26, “Esercise 32, Chords of creas s130 Esercise 23, Angle propartes of circles. oar Evercse 34, Tangents to 8 cicl oo (Constructions Nos. 17-19, “Beercise 95, ‘Concurrencies connected with a rangle. 62-65 (lnseribed, circumscribed and escribed triangles) Esercie 38. 235, 228 238 24 a9 258 263 208 260 a 276 285 205 Section, 6, 16. CONTENTS ‘Subject. Theorems. Ratio In Geomecry. coos. Exercie 31 Constructions Nos. 20-22. ‘ (Proportional division of straight line) Arrvone A Geom ropreentation of algy ‘balcal deatites : Apraxore B. Sections of cones and cylinders. ‘Ampruss ie Pei scare ee fe 300 338 ‘ABBREVIATIONS The following abbreviations are used occasionally ‘throughout this book. Sign. > = 4 a 4 sq. ‘gram rect. rt Meaning. is equal to. is greater than. is less than. is parallel to. angle, triangle. square, parallelogram. rectangle. right. therefore, INTRODUCTION WHAT IS GEOMETRY? 1. The Practical Origin of Geometry. The word “geometry” is derived from two Greek words, and means "earth measurement.” This suggests that in its beginnings the subject had a practical basis, with which the Greeks were familiar, Tt is known that the Greeks did not originate geometry, but became acquainted with the subject iron tha niece, with, the tians, who, by tradition, were sie. ‘i ints ahd eorda nat ht hs ited race employed some of the principles of geomet {tin surveying, tgetor with snp development, a ae now includ in the subject of Trigonometry. is practical application of geometry appears to have originated tn the animal rcurreke of widespread foods in tthe Nile valley. - These resulted in the obliteration of many of the boundaries of private lands. Hence the necessity of restoring them after the subsidence of the waters of the ‘er, "Originally the work was undertaken by the priests; {o accomplish it they applied certain geometrical princ tiany of whi thoy aSoubt dicots eis also a fair assumption that the construction of their massive temples, tombs and pyramids could scarcely have ‘been accomplished without a considerable knowledge of geometry and mechanical principles. 2. The Development of Abstract Geometry by the Greeks. It was, however, the abstract. conceptions and. logical reasoning of geometry which made a special appeal to the Greeks: to them, abstract reasoning of any Kind was con- rial. _ Consequently, when philosophers geomet ser sub et fol aud cai, ny te Sot saa fied with the knowledge of some geometrical truth; they sought for logical and incontrovertible proof of it. a INTRODUCTION Gradually there came into being a considerable body of geometric theorems, the proofs of which were known and rere parts ofa chan of logical reasoning, ‘The proot of any particular theorem was found to be dependent on some other theorem or theorems, and logically could not be based fn them unless the truth of these, in their turn, had been established. Nothing was to be assumed, or taken for granted, except certain fundamental self-evident truth termed ‘axioms, which from their nature were usuall Incapable of proof Thus there gradually was established a body of geo- ‘metrical knowledge forming a chain of geometrical reasoning in a logical sequence. 3. Euclid’s Sequence. De etd ae ferme gan cat Se Sot mating erate cee see oe ee Sy rere oa tee creed wa fie et eel ute a See ee eee ot peel Dt ieee rn ean fxt oak on slenettan geoey ete anata Zam exten to out oe Hc cu tas ora Snr 3 ray of ot ethene ounce ts abet or in dere Thou ranches hoks is raring dep, Sa ange ees detest: opens renee octet creel ne oe Sis ne tienen lant daa Se nse emir fomeey Pisin i caine al oa 4. The Practical Aspects of Geometry. We have seen that in its origins geometry was essentially @ practical subject. This aspect of it las of necessity continued to be of increasing importance throughout the centuries, since it is essential in all. dratghtsmanship necescary in the work of engineers, architects, surveyors, INTRODUCTION xi Practical geometry, in this sense is mainly concerned with the construction of what may be termed geometrical Fyures, Some of the simpler of thee constrvetions have always been included in the abstract logical treatment of {he Subject, the accuracy of the methods employed being proved thereialiy. Forexampl, i prctiel geomet {fc may leam the mechanieal method of bsecting wstraighit Tne, and go no farther. Bt the method is made evident by theoretical geometry, and has been proved locally and ‘inclusively to produ the desired rest ‘knowledge of the fundamental principles of geometry is aso necessary for the study of otfer branches of matho- matics, such 26 trigonometry and. mechanics-subjects ric are of vita importance to engineers of all ki Yrellas fo those who are proceeding to more advanced work in mathematics, 5. The Treatment of Geometry inthis Book. Geometry may ths be treated from two aspects: 1) The practical applications of the subject, and {3} Ae‘aPictbod OP trating in masher and logical reasoning. ‘These are reflected inthe plan ofthis ook, which consists of two parts: Part 1, This will be concermed with the investigation and sy of te salient fact of lementary gener, practical methods, intuition and deduction being’ trely Enployed to demonstrate their truth. It is designed t0 enable the student more easily, and with more understand ing, to proceed toa full and logical treatment of the subject, Part Il consists of a short course of formal abstract geometry, Limitations of space do not allow of a full treatment, but it is hoped that it will be sufficient to enable ‘the student to realise the meaning, and perhaps to feel something of the satisfaction to be derived from the logical ‘completeness of mathematical reasoning, from which vague, unsupported statements and loose thinking are excluded. PART I PRACTICAL AND THEORETICAL GEOMETRY CHAPTER | SOLIDS, LINES AND POINTS 1. Geometric Forms and Figures. 1 is seldom realised to what an extent the terms and facts of geometry are woven into the fabric of our daily life, and how important is the part they play in our environ. tne Such getmetrefermy as square rectangle erage line, circle and triangle are familiar to everybody. Most people realise what they signify, though ideas about them Inay occasionally be vague and lacking in precision. je are familiar also with the pictorial representation of ‘Oblong or Triangl Circle Rectangle ge. : Ret these terms by means of drawings such as are shown in Fig. 1. ‘These drawings we may call geometric figures. They will be found very useful when examining and dis- cussing the properties of the particular forms represented. 2. Geometric Figures and Solids. Many ofthe geometric gures which we se aroand us are sorfaecs of what are termed sold bodies, As an example Cxamine the outside cover of an onfinary box of matches 2 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY This bo ag sh sles or faces, each of which isan oblong ot rectangle ‘This box may be represented by a drawing in two ways, In Fig 2, it raw sowesee Owing the woot Which the Box is composed, three faces only ofthe box are Visible, "But for the examination of the fgure from the int of view of geometry, it is usually drawh as shown in Fig. 2().- There it is represented 26 though the solid wero a kind of skeleton, constructed with fine wires, sp that Bl the faces ean be seen. Thove which are actually hidden, in realty, are represented by dotted lines, Ta this form we ae better able to examine the construc- tion of the body and to develop elations which exist between parts of i Por example, attaching leters to the comers (a) © (b) Fw 2 Fete feetilo aoa a ans tes ic BEE a ra aa it ee ee a ce ee BigP Least We spoke shove ofthis asa solid body, and we must dwell tr ment oth an whch te er Hed emetry. Tn the ordinary way we mean by the term Feat onebing which ctepat wh matin Bain metry we are concerned only with. portion of txcosed or bounded by surfaces, and are nat concerned with She matter or material which at might oF might not contain We think only of the abstract shape of the sli, Thus 4 slid tay om he fot st onc ceived a occupying space, and the amound of tis space i ‘dlled ts volume, = SOLIDS, LINES AND POINTS os 3. Surfaces, Lines, Points. ‘Examining in more detail the box represented in Fig. 2, wwe note the following points: e (1) The box i bounded or enclosed by sx faces or sides, which we call surfaces (2) Two adjacent faces meet in straight line, which is called an edge. Thos the faces BED and’ FBCG meetin the straight ine BC.” In the whole slid there tre, tvelve of these {@) The Intersection of ewo edges Is @ point. For example, the edges AB and BC mect in a point which is indicated by B ‘There are ‘eight ‘such. points, commonly referred to as comers. ‘Each of thee also ines he ering ito res edge The 8 marks the intersection of the edge BF with the edges ‘AB and BC. 4, Definitions. In the preceding section three geometric terms occur: surface, straight line, point. Tt is very important, when geometric terms are employed, that we should be quite clear as to the precise meanings which are attached to them, Itis therefore, that such terms should be clearly and accurately defined. Before proceeding to deal with definitions of the terms above, it is desirable that we should consider for a moment what should constitute a clear and accurate definition. At gate atage this wil be dealt with more flly, but it may be stated now that definitions should employ no wor which themselves require definition. Bucther, they should contain no more words or statements than are'necessary for ‘accurate description. There are terms in geometry, however, which describe fundamental notions, for which no satisfactory definitions have been framed, or are possible. They are terms for which no simpler words can be found, and at the same time ate so clearly understood by everybody that definitions are not really necessary; there is no misconception as to their ee Ps TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY meaning. Among such terms are those employed above— vviz., points, straight lines and surfaces. ‘In the same category as these, are many other words outside geometry in everyday use, such as colour, sweet, noise and shape, which we cannot define by the use of simpler words, but we know exactly what they mean, In geometry, though we may not be able to define certain terms, such as those employed above, it is necessary to examine further the sense in which they are employed, ‘when they occur in the subject, 5. Points. Tt was stated in §3 that the edges AB and BC of the box meet in the point B. This means that the point B marks the position in space where the straight lines AB and BC meek Telstar act with allows io maria poston on a piece of paper, or a map, or on a picture by maki ‘small dot, and we speak of that as showing some particular position which we wish to indicate, Thus we may say that A point indicates position in space. Attoogh we make a sal dot, which x vibe to mask 4 particular position, in theory a point ha no size oF magn tude. Sometimes, for various Teasons, we make’ siall : 4 a sn ai ae es © (a) (b) Pa) Fie. a cross instead of a dot to indicate position, and in that case the point lies at the intersection of the two lines forming ‘the cross. In Fig. $ is shown the position of a point as marked by : (a) The intersection of two straight lines, AB and €D, at 0. oval SOLIDS, LINES AND POINTS oy (@) The meeting of two straight lines, AB and OC, ato. (0) The meeting of two straight lines, 04 and OB, at 0. (d) The intersection of two curved lines, AB and D. ‘The student should note the differentiation in the above between a straight line and a curved line. 6. A Straight Line. Teas stated inf that when two fags of thes inter sected a straight line was formed, We were thus using the term “straight line” before defining it. No confusion ‘or misunderstanding {s caused thereby, because everybody Knows what is meant. by. aight fine, though no sate factory definition of it has been formulated. " However, itis necessary to investigate further the term asi fs used in geome D aay Bre. & Straight lines occur inv: many other ways besides the intersection of two faces of a solid. They were employed, for example, in the construc- tion of two of the geometric figures of Fig. 1. They enter into the constructions of the majority of geometric ‘There is a further way in which the formation of a line sngy be imagined, spose point to move along the surface of the paper, inspace, Te wil mark outa lie, which may be staig or iregular, according to the manaer in which it Tn Fig. let A and B be two points on the surface ofthe per, Imagine a point at a to move to the postion B. ere isan innumerable numberof paths which Ht may take, such as those indicated by ACB and ADB.” These vary in length, Dat we know itoitively that the most direct way will’be along the straight line 4B, which joins the points. Just as, if we wish to cross a field from one side » TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY to the other, the nearest and quickest way, other things being equal, is along a straight path. ‘Thus we arrive at a description of a straight line as “the shortest distance between te0 fonts.” Te will be noted that this idea of a line being formed as the path of a moving point is illustrated in drawing, when the poine ofthe penell moves along the paper, either along aa ruler or straight edge to produce stralght line, or guid by the eompass to form a circle. Tt was stated in § 6 that a point has no size or magnitude. Consequently the sraight ne which marks the pal of @ moving foinl can have no wid, though, when draving.& Tepresentation of it on paper a slight width is given to it, {Ronde to make it vb to the eye z Ie an, however; be measured tn ane way only Its length. "Hence a line is said to be of one dimension only; Ie has length without breadth. ‘Axioms about Straight Lines and Points. ‘The following axioms, or self-evident truths, will now be clear to the student: (1) One straight line only can be drawn to pass through fe points. (2) Teo straight lines cam intersect in one point only. (3) Two straight lines cannot encase a space," Othe wise, they must meetin more than one point 7. Surace. Twas pointed out in §3 that the box which we were considering-asalid--was mated of, or bounded, from the Surrounding space by sx faces ot surfaces. This is true forall sold; the space which they oospy is bounded by ‘Ac stated previously, “surface is another geometric term which cannot be’ satisfactorily defined: but every sent wil understand the meaning of You wate ob Surface of a sheet of paper, you polish the surface of a tabi you may observe the rate of the water in tumbler SOLIDS, LINES AND POINTS 25 Area of a Surface. If it is required to find the size or ‘magnitude of a given surface, as for example the page you are reading, we must know both the length and breadth’ of it, since the size of it evidently depends on both of these, This will be found to be true of the surfaces covered by all regular geometricfigures; two measurements are necessary. Hence a surface Is of two dimensions. Evidently thickness of depth does not enter into the conception of a surface, ‘Theamount of surface covered by afigure such asa rectangle or circle is called Its area. 8. Plane Surfaces. Some saraes are pvety fat or Jee, auch as the surface of the paper of which this s printed, or the top o a polished table or the surface of stil water. D ch surfaces are called plane surfaces, or, more briey, planes, "No foal denim of «plane srace can Even, but the meaning of a flat or level surface is perfect clear to everybody. ne Le sg is races ay be eve, sh a hat of the siden ‘jam jar, 2 biliatd ball ete, but for the present we are hot onceraed with these. “Test ofa Plane Surface. A plane surface could be tested as follows: Tf any boo points ar taken on the surface, th straight i ore Acting on this principle, a carpenter tests a surface, such as that ofa plece of wood, which heis™ planeing "to produce “level erties for able ete ee oP ‘This is clearly not the case with curved surfaces. Tf, for example, you take a rubber ball and make two dots ofits Surface some distance apart, iis obvious that the straight line joining them would not le on the surface of the ball, ‘They can be joined by a curved line on the surface of the ball ut that wil be discussed ina later chapter. ‘We shall rum t9 plane surface or planes later, but for the present we shall proceed to diseusé figures which Ie ia a plane. Such figures are called plane figures. CHAPTER 2 ANGLES. 8. When two straight lines meet they are said to form an we may say that they include an angle. This is «-saeement ofthe manner my which an angle is formed; itis not a definition, and, indeed, no satistagtory definition is possible. It is in- B fia pace bet ren twa into ingest wwe have seen that two Stioight nes counot cacaae 8 ‘A Space. stralzht tines whieh meet t0 form an angle are called the" arms” of the angle, Vertex. The point where the two arms meet is called fhe verter of the two arms OA and O#, and O is the vertex. Te fs evident that the sizeof the angle doesnot depend ca: ha Log th eras thar wil ee soa thes A, OB in Fig. 6 are produced. In making a drawing to Ternain te same in size Naming an Angle. When letters are employed to denote an angle, itis usual to use three, as the (OB in Fig. 5, the mile etter beng that which is paced at the vertex” angle. correct to say that the angle is Fro. 6. ‘Arms of an Angle. The In Fig. 5 AOB represents the angle formed by the meeting scale, whether the drawing is reduced or enlarged, all angles ‘Then OA and OB represent the arms of the angle, When there can be no doubt as to the angle referred to, the letter at the vertex—0 in Fig, 5—is often used by itself to denote the angle; thus, we may speak of the angle 0. ‘The phrase “the angle AB” may be abbreviated to ZAOB or AOB. 6 ANGLES Bs 10, Adjacent Angles When a straight line mets two other straight lines, ax 40 meets CO and DO in Fig 6, two angles ae ove ‘itn a common vertex O, Those anges 40D, 40G ae galled aipcene angles I CO be profuced ty B, then Zs ; BOA are adjteent angles. "Soako are 2s 40D, and the 2s COD, BOD. 38 oe Defrition. Aigiss which have a common seer, one > A ee 8 Lo, Pat Fie, 6. common arm and are on opposite sides of the common arm, ‘Se called adjacent angles, i ‘When two lines intersect, as in Fig. 7, four pairs of adjacent angles are formed. 11. Vertically Opposite Angles. ‘When two straight lines cut one another, as AB and CD, which intersect at 0, in Fig. 7, the two angles AOD, BOC are called vertically’ oppo siteangles. Theother two angles rr whihare formed—viz, AOC, D ID—are also vertically oppo” site angles, Such angles have a common vertex. 5 0 12. Right Anges. Boe When a straight line such as AO meets another straight line BOC (Fig. 8) then, if the ‘adjacent angles are equal, cach ofthese Ys called a right angie AO is then said to be perpendicular to BC, and BC is perpendicular t0-40. + { j 3 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY 13, Acute and Obtuse Angles. In Fig. 8 the straight line OD is drawn to meet the straight line BOC at 0, thus forming the angles DOC and DOB with BC. Itis evident that of these two angles: 206 js less than aright angle, Tt is called an acute angle. ZDOB is greater than a right angle, and is called an obtuse angle. Hence the definition ‘An acute angle is less than aright angle. An obtuse angle is greater than a right angle. 14, Angles Formed by Rotation. ‘There is another conception of the formation of an angle shih eof grt importance in practical appitions of tathematies “Take a pair of compasses, and Keeping one arm fixed, as Od in Fig. 9, rotate the other arm, OB, lowly. As the moving arm rotates it forms with the xed arm a uooession of angles which increase in magnitude. In Fig. aro shown ANGLES 9 four of these angles, AOB,, AOBy, AOB, and AOBy. Con- sidering these angles, it is'noted that: In (a) the angle AOB, is an acute angle; In (®) the angle 40B, is an obtuse angle, and Tn (¢) the rotating afm is in the same straight line with the fixed arm 04. Although this seems to be inconsistent with the idea of an angle in §, neverthe- less it is formed in the same way as the acute and obtuse angles, and so AOB, must be regarded as an angle, formed by rotation." This is sometimes called a straight angle, and it will be considered again later. (@) Continuing the rotation beyond the straight angle a position such as 0B, is reached. Such an angle, {greater than a straight angle, is called a reflex angle. Te must not be confused with the acute angle which is also formed with G4. "Cleary he angle which is meant when we speak of ZA0B, fon the direction of the rotation. This i indicated by ‘an arrow on the dotted curve. Ttis therefore important to know the direction of the rotation before we can be sure which angle is referred to. 15. Clockwise and Anti-clockwise Rotation. ‘The formation of by rotation may be illustrated by the familiar example of the hands of a clock, If the rotation of the minute hand be observed, starting from twelve o'clock, all the above angles, acute, obtuse, straight and reflex, will be formed in turn. For example, a straight angle has’been formed with the original position at half past twelve. __ Iewill be noted, however, that the direction of the rotation is opposite to that indicated in Fig. 9. This movement is from left to right, wheres the minute hand moves right 9 When the direction of the rotation is the same as that of the hands of a clock itis called clockwise, but when in the opposite direction, anti-clockwise. Thus if the angle 40 ig (2 sored iy cocorse rotation tf an acute angle, if by anti-clockwise, refiex. . > TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY ‘Mathematically, anti-clockwise rotation is conventionally regarded as a standard direction and considered to be positive, while clockwise rotation is considered as negative. 16, Rotating Straight Lines. ‘We must now proceed to examine the idea of rotation {in the abstract by imagining the rotation of a straight line, ‘Suppose a straight line G4 (Fig. 10) to start from a fixed position to rotate in the plane of the paper about a fixed B 8 & oO (@) (8) nt O on the line, the rotation being in an anti-clockwise rection, ‘When it has reached any position such as OB (Fig. 10 (a)), an angle AOB has been formed by it with the original position 04. ‘Thus we have the conception of am angle as Bing formed ‘by the rotation of a straight line athout a fixed point on ib, which & 8 Becomes the vertex of the angio (x CY niacin conti to (xx ctu poraisaciaa DC ip Al JA 10 (6)), an obtuse le, AOC, is Cay feel a eeneceatee ie ad tinued, the positionOA ‘is reached, in which 4, 0, A” are in the same 5 straight lin, Fee, 11. ‘A “Complete Rotation. Con- Suing te rotten, a slows in Fig. 11, the straight line passes Urough a postion such OD, ani finaly returns to Od, Uh postion rom which iE started. The feraight line has chus made a complete ANGLES * rotation or revolution about the fixed point O whieh is the centre of rotation. ‘A Half Rotation. It is evident that when the position 0A” is reached the rotating line has moved through half a complete rotation. OA and OA” are now in the same straight line. | Hence the name straight angle (14). Reflex or Re-entrant Angle. When the rotating line reaches a position such as OB, shown in Fig, 12—that is, ‘between a half and a complete rotation—the angle so formed is a reflex or re-entrant angle. The dotted curve and arrows indicate how the position has been reached (see $14 (a) ‘Angles of Unlimited Size. The student will probably J ie. 12, Fe. 13, have noticed that the rotating line, after describing a complete rotation, may continue to totate. In dain, it will pass again through all the positions indicated in Figs. 11 and 13 and go on to make two complete rotations, In this way the minute hand of a clock makes twenty-four complete rotations in twenty-four hours, while the hour hand makes two complete rotations in the same period. Clearly there is no limit to the possible number of rotations, and therefore, from this poitt of view, no limit to the 17, Right Angles and Rotation. ‘The conception of an angle as being formed by-rotation leads to a convenient ‘method of describing a right angle. Let the straight line OA (Fig. 13) describe a complete | 2 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY rotation as indicated by the dotted curve. In the position OC, half a complete rotation has been made (§ 16). Let OB be the position half-way between OA and OC. ‘Then with equal amounts of rotation the two angles AOB, BOC will have been described. Hence the angles AOB, BOC must be equal and are therefore right angles (§12). ‘Similarly, considering the position at OD, half-way in the rotation from OC onward to O4, the angles COD and ‘AOD must also be right angles, and BO and OD must be in the same straight line. ‘Thus a complete rotation covers four right angles and a half rotation two right angles. Or the straight angle 40, (OC equals two right angles. From the above the following axiom relating to right angles is self-evident. ‘Axiom. Ail right angles are equal. 18. Geometric Theorems. Nave nts revo etn at i gh ine, OA (Fg. MH), rotates through an angle, OB, an i ‘then continues the rotation through he angle BOC 30 $ ‘that it is in a straight line swith its initial postion 04, it & Tins completed a hallrtatip. Consequently the sum of the ¢ 3 "two angles must beewo right are angles (17). The angles AOB, BOC areadjacent angles (§10)—, they are the angles made when OB mests AC. Fhe concision reached may be stated more concisely as follows: Ifthe straight line OB meets the straight line AC at O, the sum of th Fight angles. "This ta statement ofa geometric fact, and when expressed in general terms is called a geometric Vheorem. In such a foun it would be stated thus 1¢ angles so formed, AOB and BOC, is two ANGLES 3 Theorem. If one straight line meets another straight line, the sum of the two adjacent angles on one side of it is two right angles. In this particular case the student, after reading the last few sections, will probably be satisfied as to the truth of the theorem’ but in general, a theorem cannot be accepted. a being true until it has been proved to be so by methods Of geometric reasoning. . Theft step towarsthis is «clear and accurate state- ment of what has to be proved and what are the data from which we start. Thos in the above theorem the facts, ‘which are given, are that one straight line (OF in Fig. 1d} Isis ‘nother ‘tight tne (40C), and 30 forme two adjacent angles (BOA, BOC). What has then to be proved is that the sum of these anges so ht angle Thee are thus two distinct parts of the theorem, and of all others (1) Whats sven, the deta, somesies called fo hypothesis Cand (2) The proof. “When the theorem hasbeen stated in general form tf customary to draw a figure by means of which the yo parts of the theorem can be clearly stated with special Fee to ti gure, By the us this gure the proot of the theorem is develo 19. Converse Theorems. Tf the data and the proof are interchanged, we get a now ‘theorem which is called the . ‘converse of the first theorem. : 8 ‘Applying this tothe above ee ae that a straight line such a8 ¢ 80 in Fig. lSmeetstwoother ©—— A ruight ines such as CO and Pie 6, 40, and that the sum of the jacent angles so formed-—viz BOC, BOA ts ewo right angles. These are the data or hypothesis. eee a TEACH, YOURSELF GEOMETRY We then require to prove that CO and AO are in end tame sesight line, on, {nthe same straight line, jin theorem may be expresed in gent tem Theorem. If at a point in a straight line two other straight lines, on opposite sides of it, make the two adjacent angles together equal to two right angles, these two straight lines are in the same straight line. The two theorems above are converse theorems. The hypothesis in the first theorem is what has to be proved {nt the second and vice versa. Tt'is important to remember that the converse of ‘theorem isnot always true, Examples will occur in Part I. TE was stated above that a theorem cannot be acepted as being true until it has been proved to be so by geometrical Feasoning, This will be adbeted to in the formal treatment Of the subject in Part TI of the book, but in Part I, for Various reasons, the strict proof will not always be given, Tepecially with such theorems as those above, which will Pibbably. be accepted by the student as seli-evident-or Exiomatic. ‘They arise naturally from the conception of angles, and especially right angles, as being formed by the rotation of @ straight line, asin § 16, Tf the stndent desires 10 see how the above theorems can be proved he should turn to the proofs of Theorems 1 and 2 in Part 1. 20, Vertically Opposite Angles. ‘There is an important theorem concerning vertical onsets Sie, Sood gh inc may be fated thus Theorem. When two straight lines intersect, the vertically opposite angles are equal. ‘The theorem is illustrated by Fig. 16, in which two straight lines AB and CD intersect at 0, forming as shown, line, or, in other words, C,Q and A are ANGLES a in $11, two pairs of vertically opposite angles. Tt wil be Suficien if this is proved to be true for one pair of a only sy 08,40, ena {is thus required to prove that ZCOB = Z 40D. Proof. In tie Theorem of $18 was chown that (The adjacent Zs, ZCOR + ZAOC = 2right 2s ana {3 400% Z40C 2 right Ze. But things equal to the same thing are equal to one another, 3. £COB-+ ZKOC = ZA0D + ZAC. Subtracting ZAOC, which is common to both, the remainders must be equal—iz., ZCOB = ZAOD. c 6 By ace ee 0c so BD ay recs ton etapa a Proof by Rotation. fe ae smh Gf roiion, a See anti-clockwise direction to the position CD. > ia dren eee rotation, *. 2C0B = LA0D. ‘CHAPTER 3 A ee aaa satu aoe come ts de i the nt tao ecg ae See om comin i, Neral ee ieee net eee fe, ea hee rae Ae Fig. 17, the arm with the a ek Bet rary ange Bun. a ipa meisient Ricans ADC eta tlie dc seo cmon ofthe ce cnt tu ina Sib ene oft al gd Game ah ings on a tae Ae eae em bea, fe fee oe Ie le eur el te in fom ht emf ie or aS er eee se tegen ge pe) eee aed ron te Metin eo oer : Rie. 17. MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES ” meant, but, strictly, it is the same for the whole ‘the area of a circle, 4s suggested above, la the area of ‘the plane which is enclosed by the circumference, Are of a Circle. A part ofthe circumference is called an arc. ‘Thusin Fig. 17 the part of the circumference between the points B and C (Other definitions connected with the circle are given in Chapter 16.) Concentric Circles. Circles which have the same contre but different radii are called concentric, Fis. 18, Fra. 19, In Fig. 18, with centre 0, and different radii, OA, OB, OC, three circles are described. ‘These are concentric! 2, Measurement of Angles. ‘The conception ofthe formation of angles bythe rotation ofa eine isle) tars ty cmveset wechod ak ae ‘When stright Be, 04 eons about point, 0, | any poine, 2, cc te wil atwaye be at foo suas Aistanee fom O, and consequent wil describe 4 cise, oncentrie-with that desorbed by OAvasshowa fa Fig 18. Shen an ale such as BOC is desctibed, the poine © has Tmarked out sn arc of dre, Bo. ee Py TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY The length of the arc clearly depends on the amount of rotation, as also does the sizo of the angle. ‘The same Amount of rotation as before will produce the angle COD ‘equal to the angle BOC. "Then the arc CD must clearly be equal to the arc BC. ‘Thus, the angle BOD being twice the angle BOC, the are BD wil be ewice the are BC, and so fr ther multiples We may conclude, therefore, that the length of the are will depend on the size of the angle. If the angle be doubled, the are is doubled; it the‘angle be halved, the are is halved. Suppose the circumference of the cele, when a complete rotation, has taken place, to be divided into 360 equal parts. ‘Then each aris gisth of the whole circumference; Eensoquntly the angle corespanding vo this are i yt ff that marked out in a complete rotation, Thisangle is employed asa unit of measurement for angles and ig called a degree, Tt is denoted by 1°. 15 degrecs— te,, Hoth of a complete rotation—would be denoted by Pires poeta tT yt angle is one-fourth ‘Thowas seen in §17 that a right angle is one-fourth of a complete rotation, i.e, of 360°. a right angle = 90°. A suaight angle, corresponding to half rotation contains 160" Tig. 20 shows a circle, centre 0, in which the cieum- frence divided to 390 egual parte The aes re comparatively very smal, and'so ate the correspond angles which, for each are of one degree, are fortned by joining the ends of the are to 0.. Any particular” an ‘mado with O4 ean be constructed by joining the appropriate int to 0. Pifor exaimple, ZAOB is ah angla of 46°, and ZAOF is 120 ‘The ZAOC, the straight angle, represents 180°, ‘The straight line BOD is perpendicular to AOC, and thus the angles of 90° and 270° are formed. ‘+ Fora proof of thie oe Part 11, Theorem 40, MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES » For angles smaller than one degree the following sub- divisions are used: (1) Each degree is divided into 60 equal parts, called minutes, denoted by *; thus 28’ means 28 minutes. (2) Bach minute Is divided into 60 equal parts, calied seconds, denoted by ”, For example, 30’” means 30 seconds, Example —An angle denoted by 87° 16° 277" means 97 degrees 16 minutos 27 second, is Gubdivison ofthe degrees very important in marine and air navigation, surveying, gunnery, ete., where very ‘great accuracy is essential Tt will be absorved that the cirle in Fig. 20 is divided a TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY by BD and AC into four equal sectors called quadrants, se are numbered the Ist, 2nd, Srd and 4th quadrants respectively, AOB being the Ist ‘quadrant, BOC the 2: quadrant, etc, 23. Protractors. ‘An instrument for measuring or constructing angles is called a protractor. It may be semi-circular or rect angular in shape. The ordinary. semi-circular protractor is much the same as half of the circle shown in Fig. 21, ‘A clreular protractor, These protractors are usually made of transparent celluloid, So that when ‘one is placed over straight Lines these are visible. "To measure the angle whose arms are OB and OD the protractor i placed wilh OB ovr one em. The point on the angle scale of the protractor. where iv is dit by the other arm enables us to fead off the BOD. In Fig. 2] this angle is 40°. A suitable modification enabies us to construct an angle of a given size, when one arm. bu of tie ear eee ae . ae "5 6 two sets of mumbersis to make it easy teed ae ange teal eibe ead d cre (Gs tus mate paragraph) ibis ard MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES « 24. Supplementary and Complementary Angles. (1) Supplementary ang! ob see 1 each ofthe anes i les is equal to two right angles, led the supplement of the other. 22 ZBOA is the supplement of 2B0C, a 2B0C ,, »— 2B0A. Example, The supplement of 30° is 180° — 30° — 150° Also » 190° is 180° — 150° = 30°, (See seals on protractor, Fig, 21), S26 oe Fro, 22. Fe, 28, fonts, Theorem of § 18 could therefore be written sis Ifa straight line meets another straight line, the adjacent angles are supplementary. 2) Complementary angles. When the sum of two angles is a right angle each Yaa. oe ker ee aap Bis 28 HOC ite complement of 2408, = ae nee 60", and mm 60Pis 99° — Go? = BO 25. A Practical Problem. ‘The foregoing work enables us to perform a useful piece of pract work, the first of our constructions, ‘a a TEACH YOURSELF. GEOMETRY Construction |. To construct an angle equal to a given angle. Let ZAOB, Fig. 2%, be the angle which we require to ‘copy. We are not concerned with the number of degrees in the angle, and a protractor is not necessary. Method of Construction Take a straight line, PQ, which isto be one ofthe arms of the required angle ee ee a crcl, AB. oe Fre. 24, With P as centre and the same radius OB, draw another are, CD. With D as centre and radius BA, draw another are inter- secting the are CD in E. “join EP. Then ZEPD is the angle required. The two circles of which AB! and ED are arcs have the same radi." Sinco DE was made equal to AB, it iy evident that the are ED is equal tothe are AB. fom. previous ‘conclisions the angles at the centre AGB and EPD may reasonably be concluded as equal the angle EPD lias been constructed equal to the angle 408. oe a Lee es i secben eee res R. P angles are the following? Bur () BOR, (2) 409, (3) , ye, NRE BS OE peel Ceo pucce. ae 1 Eeiityaieenemnay apiaree: eee po By DB Pe ee Ze a o ~ a ao a ane S08 28 gE ale OG ad 0D wo spyarepetins icing (OandOb3t0, Nameti ara per Od al open What ee ee ae Teepe are aa ea ees a1, 29, Afterwards check by measuri B the angles with a protractor. 8. Draw a straight line, PQ. at 0 A Pon one side of “it, constrict an angle of 72°. On the other side con- a TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY struct an_angle of 28°. Chee by measuring the angle ‘which isthe sum ofthese, mee ‘8. Without using a protractor, construct an angle w is twice the angle Bin Tig. 20, and another angle whichis three times the angle. 10, "Tog what sles doe the minute hand of lek rotate betwoon 12 o'clock and (1) 12-20, (@) 1249, @) Bofclock? TL Through what angles does the hour hand of a clock (A) @ Fre. 20. rotate between (1) 12 o'clock and 2 o'clock, (2) 12 o'clock and 6 o'clock, (8) 12 o'clock and 10 minutes to one? CHAPTER 4 SIMPLE GEOMETRY OF PLANES 26, Rotation of a Plan Every time that you turn over a page of this book you are rotating a plane surface, or, more briefly, a plane: this may be observed more closely by rotating the front age of the cover. Tt will be noticed that the rotation takes place about the straight line which is the intersection of the rotating plane and the plane of thelirst page, It was ined out in §3 that the intersection of two plane surfaces isa straight line, ea cee Let AB, Fig 90, be the line of the fold, "Draw this straight ed Tene These can beregarded see oo: eee Seems sreaeidns ee ace eee eae fg eee eeenttoea See eee Sooo carer Hai noise pet ged ‘ y TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY Bi wis oe oe RE ets Sept Nera ele i ue tena EP sie OY De eh 0 Soa erie Sie eee socal rues anion ee eee ee ee nse ieee eee ee ee Coe eee fe eran era ee ee eee ore oe Ses ee ag i ere areata eee eee ae aga ent nn eg ee te oe eee nee Dye ay ge ey es oe tas Se ee Pe ee one Aer jal Surieca 0M rieneeeitiats eettecra ta: SC oe ee ee Be eee aes are ee SIMPLE GEOMETRY OF PLANES © couple of matches float on the surface, so that ends of the matches touch the string, Tt will be observed that the string is. always at right angles to. the matches. In other words, the string is always perpendicular to any straight lines which it intersects on the surface. Under these conditions the thread is said to be perpendicular to the surface, Tee (ie Surface. Or it may bestated thus: ahort- 2p} to,a plane. ‘Take a piece of cardboard, AB (Fig, 82), and on it draw a Re. 8h, Fee. #2, number of straight lines intersecting at a piont, 0. At 0 ‘fix pin, OP, so that itis perpendicular to one of these lines, ‘Then OP will be perpendicular to the other lines and is said to be perpendicular to the plane AB. inition. A straight line is said fo be perpendicular to 4 plane when it is perpendicular to any straight line which it ‘meets in the plane, TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY The distance of the point P from the plane AB Is given by the length of the perpendicular, OP, drawn from it to the plane. 30. Angle between a Straight Line and a Plane which it jects. ‘Take a set square, OPQ, and stand it on apiece of smooth paper or cardboard, 4B, so that one of the edges, 00, con Fie. 35. taining the right angle, lies along the plane and the plane of the set square is perpendicular to the plane AB. Thus PO is perpendicular tothe plane, Regarding the cgs as straight lines, OP meets the plane in 0, PQ is perpendicular to the plane and 0Q joins!O to ‘the foot of this perpendicular, The angle thus formed, POQ, is the angle which the straight line OP makes with the plane, It will be noted that if from any point R on OP a straight Aine, RS, is drawn perpendicular to the plane, S will lie on 00." ‘Thus the straight line OQ contains all ‘the points in which perpendiculars from points on OP meet the plane. OQ is called the projection of OP on the plane AB. Definition, The angle between a straight line and a plane 4s the angle betweon the straight line and its projection on the Hane. PM Coisequenly, the projection of # sraight line OP on « SIMPLE GEOMETRY OF PLANES ° ae ra seme mca eee i Ti cient ri to Ee ee a Samed ae ete CHAPTER 5 DIRECTION 31, Meaning of Direction. ‘The term “ direction isa dificult one to define, but its meaning is generally understood, and the definition wil fot be attempted hee.” is, however, often sed vaguely, a5 when we speak of walking “ in the direction of London = We are more precise when we speak of the direction of the wind as being, say, “north-west ", though this may some. times be only roughly correct. ‘To nd exact dicecton {sso important in navigation, both at sea and in the ait ae vllasin many other ways, that tis desirable fo have precise ideas of what is understood by "direction "and how itis Fre. a4, termined and expressed. We will begin with a simple everyday example. : . Tn Fig. 94, FQ represents a straight road along which a man walis from P towards Q. 0 represents the position of a church tower Iying at some distance from the road, At various points along the road, A, B, C. DE, the straight lines 40, BO, CO, DO, EO represent the direction of Oat these points. "Thisdirection can be described more accurately if we know the angle which the line of direction makes with the road.” The angles, of course, change as the man walks along, as is evident from the diagram, in which the angles are consistently measured in an anti-clockwise direction 2 DIRECTION * from the road. These angles can be obtained by the use of a surveying instrument known as a theodolite. It as at example, the angle made by BO with the road is 45%, then ye.can say thatat B the direction of © makes an angle of 45> withthe direction of the rose. Tt must be emphasised that this statement as to the direction of O gives the information only relative to the direction ofthe road and this may not be known.” Conse ently for practical purposes the statement is not precise hd does nok state an absolution diretons nt 32. Standard Direction, All directions are relative—i.e, they are related to some ater direction as inthe case of the road above, Therefore it is necessary for practical purposes —g., navigation, that there should ‘be. some a selected fixed direction to which other directions can N berelated. Suchadizeetion Nw a is called a standard direc ton. This is provided by ‘heim and onierally a ‘tem of North, South, East and West : directions. ‘The North direction is fixed by the position o North Pole svn a oe at the enc 5 of the Earth's. axis, ‘Geass Fa 3, {289 and Fig. 18). Thee uth is the opposite dircetion from the North. East and West directions are at right angles to these. ‘These four directions are termed the cardinal points, ‘They are indicated in Fig. 96 and all others between them are related to these. Thus a direction half-way. between N. and E., and thus making angles of 43° with each, ig called North-east, and so for others as shown in Fig. 35. 5 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY 33. The Magnetic Compass. ‘The North direction can always be determined by the use of the Magnetic compass or Mariners’ compass.» This instrument has a magnetised needle which is free to move in a horizontal plane: the needle always sets, not towards the true North, but in the direction of what is called the Magnetic North. The amount of the angle of deflection from the true North is known at varions positions on the Earth's surface, and with this correction the true North ‘can readily be found. 34, Polnes of the Compas. Fig. 36 illustrates part of the compass card or dial of a mariners! compass, wo diameters at right anges to\one 4 NZ eS Fi. 38. another, and representing North-South and East-West, divide the circle into four quadrants. Each of the quadrants is further subdivided into eight equal divisions, “Thus the whole circle has thirty-two divisions each of which repre~ sentsa definite direction. ‘The names employed to indicate Fe DIRECTION 3 these directions are shown for the first quadrant; those in other quadrants ae similarly divided al deseo rhe fare ofeach of these thirty-two divisions subtende i aris at the eentre which must be GA)" or ILE Directions Between these ate indicated by stating the number of degrees, from one of the 9 fel diners thas: O° Bast of North indicates a point between N. and N, by B,, and 6° from the North. 35. Bearing, When the direction of one objet, B, with respect lo another Objet A i defined by reference 6 dandard dracon, he Angle giving this direction ts ealled the bearing of Bo a Thus in Fig. 37, if and B represent two ships, and the angle BAN gives the direction of B from 2 the North, tons The angle BAN is alled the bearing 8 of B with respect to A. ithe angle BAN is 40% then the bear. ing of B from A ts 40" East of North. Bearings are messured in a clockwise “ZL e direction from the North ve, 31, 36. Angle of Elevation. In the consideration of diction we have so far been concerned only with direction onthe horkontal place But itan object such as an aeroplane i above the shrtace of the Barth, inorder to find its true direction Sts poston Ahove the horlzoneal plane must be taken into aceon Tf for example, agua is to be polated at an aeroplane rust not only know the horizontal hearing of the seroptane, Dut we must also low the angle through which it's seces, sary to elevate the gun to polit to it: “This angle i calcd the angle of elevation ofthe aeroplane "Tn Hig. 88,4 represents the’posttion of the aeroplane, and 0 the position of the gun, then the latter mist be Totated from the horizontal i a vertical plane through the angle OB to point to the aeroplane. ews oy aun ari a a ie & TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY The angle AOB is called th angle of lean of ee aeroplane: ‘Tle determination of the actual height of the aeroplane Wien the angle of elevation and A Therange ae ing, fa problem CHAPTER 6 Lae TRIANGLES ¢ 38. Rectlineal Figures. t 37. The Altitude of the Sun. . 8 {A part ofa plane surface which is enclosed or bow me «gg The ana of atin of th um lined called plane igure Me os is called ats altitude, 1 snddry lines ae all straight lines, the figure is Ce eee ern er ih marine navigation. The instrament which i sed for ‘The least number o straight Hines which can thos enclose the purpose is called a sextant... ScRisy tien fe may fated nom 3 46, that ro @ Exercise 2 Oiyfeal Chree 8 there will be one solution asis obvious. Tt will be seen therefore that for ambiguity a must be less than b and greater than b. 6 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY Summartsing. Ifthe glven elements are A, a, b, ambiguity will arise if 2, Len the side opposite to the given angle is less than b, tunlesé a is equal fo the perpendicular drawn from C to the Side. 48. Corresponding, Sides and Angles of | Congruent Triangles. When triangles are congruent iti important to specity accurately which sides and angles are equal. Let the As ABC, DEF (Fig. 50) be congruent triangles. A D Ao ae Fi, 50, If AB-and DE are sides which are known to be equal, ‘then the angles which are opposite to them are called ‘corresponding angles and are equal summarising: Similarly when angles are known to be equal, the opposite sides are corresponding sider and ate equals 49. Theorems concerning Congruent Triangles, The three sets of conditions that triangles may be con- gruent, which were deduced in §45, may be set out in the form of Geometric Theorems as follows: TRIANGLES tee Theorem A. Two triangles are congruent if two sides and the included angle of one triangle are respectively equal to two sides and the included angle of the other. Theorem B. Two triangles are congruent three sides of one triangle are respectively equal to the three sides of the other. Theorem C. Two triangles are congruent if two angles and a side of one triangle are respectively equal to two angles and a side of the other. Tt will be noted that the theorems above have been enunciated, or stated, with respect to two. tri ‘because itis in this form that the theorem is usually appli ‘but they are true, of course, for all triangles which satisly tthe given conditions. 380 @kxercise 3 1. Construct a triangle in which two of the sides are 6 cm, and 8 cm and the angle between them 35%. Find by ‘measurement the third side and the other angles. 2. Construct a triangle of which the three sides are 10 cm, 11 em and 12 cm. Measure the angles and find their ‘8. Construct triangle in which two of the angles are 40° and 50° and the length of the side adjacent to them both is 6 cm. Measure the third angle and the lengths of the other two sides, ‘4, The angles and sides of a triangle are as follows. A = 88°, Bm 40°, C = 52°, @= 616 cm, b= 3-05 cm, c= 4-85 cm them. i ji TG HT as eter ee 6 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY 5. Construct by. three different methods triangles con- gruent with that in Fig. 51. Cut them out and test by superimposing them on one another, Fe, 6 6. In the As ABC, DEF certain angles and sides are qual a given Below. Determine whether or not they are congruent. If they are congruent, state which of the ‘conditions A, B, C of § 49 is satisfod. () 24 = 2D, b=ecmf Q) ZA = 2D, c=fand. @) ZB = ZE b= ecm () 2B = ZE, LA = 2D, @) 2D= ZB, Z4= Zc, 1. In a ABC, 2B = 95%, ¢= 87 cm, b= 70 cm. Construct tie telangle and ‘show ‘that there are. two tolutions 8. Two straight lines AB, CD bisect each other at their point of intersection 0.” What reasons can you give for Faying that CB — 4D? 8. ie inch Ise AB and CD bisect each other perpendicularly at 0. What reasons can you give for stati The the straight lines AC. CB. DD, Dawe st ovat 10. The As ACB, ADB are congruent and are placed on pests, 49 of the comnion te AB, “Join CD eating ‘at 0.” Using Theorem A show that OC = OD. CHAPTER 7 PARALLEL. STRAIGHT LINES 50. Meaning of Parallel. Tf the ruled printed tines on an exercise book are ‘examined, two facts will be evident. null Th® distance between any pair of lines is always same. (2) If the lines could be produced through any distance beyond the page of the book, you would be confident that they would never meet. Such straight lines drawn in a plane are called parallel straight lines. Pe aad pedi coer ince a et eee ng ee eget an eee sale ener ea eels era siege ee las a ee Se SS Ren Definition. Parallel straight lines are such that lying in the same plane, they do not mect, however far they may be produced in either direction, 51. Distance between Two Parallel Straight Lines. It should be noted that in the definition of parallel straight lines stated above there is no mention of them being always the same distance apart, though in the pre~ 7 e TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY ceding explanations it was stated asa fact which would be fdas obvious, The defnition lta involves onky Tie fac eee poraliel sratghe lines ia plane never meet ‘The fact that fhe dstancefetwean thom fs constant follows fr the definition a wil bese Eis nportane that we should be clear at the outset as : io whet emeiy ie tie eee) 5 wéaanee sapere! ‘of poets and cw it can be measured Let AB, CD be tro el > paral straight "nex Be. 32 Fre, 82, Let P be any point on AB. Let PQ be the straight line whi drawn from P to CD. PQ is defined as the distance between the two parallel straight lines. Two facts may be deduced from this: is the perpendicular 1) PO isthe least of al straight tines such a8 PQ, pal see anes ay be drawn trom P to mea ob. (3) 1f from any other point P%, the straight Hine iO) be drwwn pependicalar to CB, P°Q" wilco be {halts ston the to pra stright ines, od TE wil be Soo later that PQ and P'Q' must theme selves be perale. Consequently we may deduce the fect that! Straight lines hick are perpendicular to eval aight lies are hemalves paraded 52. Corresponding Angles. Take a set square, angles 60°, 20°, 90°, and place the shortest side AC against a rulet, as in Fig. 03. Draw straight lines along the sides of the set square, so forming the triangle ABC. ‘Now, holding the ruler firmly, slide the set square along it to a new position to form another triangle A’B'C’. PARALLEL STRAIGHT LINES 6 ‘The two triangles ABC and A’B'C’ must be congruent. The angles at A are right angles and ee LACB = LA'C'B’ = 00°. (1) The straight lines AB and A’B’, which are both perpendicular to the straight line representing the edge of. the ruler PQ, are evidently parallel. mec We cannot prove that they satisfy the definition of parallel lines—viz., that they do not meet if produced in either direction—but we know intuitively that they will not meet. TE the sot squares in the experiment were moved along the ruler to other snr positions the straight lines core sponding to AB would all be parallel This, in effect, is the metlod commonly employed by raughtsmen for drawing parallel straight lines. (2) The angle ACB represents the inclination of che straight line BC to PQ. "Or we may say that BC is inclined at an angle represented by BCP to PQ—i, inclined at 60° t0 FO. ‘Similarly. ZA°C'B" represents the inclination of C’B" to PQ, and is equal fo ZACB. “BC and B'C" are equaly inclined to PQ. Also BC and B'C" are evidently parallel straight lines, since, as was the case with AB and A/B", they will obviously ~ TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY never meet if produced. Tt may now reasonably be deduced that : (a) Straight lines which are equally inclined to another straight line which they eut are parallel. Also, the converse of this is clearly true, viz. @) If seraighe lines are parallel they are equal Inclined fo another straight fine which they incerseck_ Transversal. A sivaight line which cuts other straight lines is called a transversal. Corresponding anges. The angles ACB, 4'CB", are corresponding Sage lite cngract Changs 486, TBE te tthe They » ‘are also corresponding angles sin the al eat A incebO.b0arceut ty the fanaa PO! thy pe feats equal angle of Seas A strug ines tt tase con 53 'The conclusions reached ove may now be cen font he ol Spend are wostaight tines cat by atransvanal 29 a Hand S ‘Then 4s PRB, RSD are corresponding angles. 2s PRA, RSC ate also corresponding Zs. From the considerations stated in § 52. (1) IF AB be parallel to CD, then ZPRB = ZRSD. Converseiy, (2) f the corresponding Zs PRB, RSD are equal. Then AB and CD are parallel These conclusions may be expressed generally as geo- metrical theorems as follows + eee PARALLEL STRAIGHT LINES n Theorem D. If a straight line cuts two parallel straight lines, corresponding angles are equal. Theorem D, (converse of previous Theorem). If ‘two straight lines are cut by another straight line so that corresponding angles are equal, then the ‘two straight lines are parallel. 54, Aleornate Angles. In Fig. 55 the two straight lines AB, CD are eut by the transversal PQ at R and S._ Theangles ARS, RSD » recalled alternate angles. “They lie on. alternate sides of PO. A 4 8 The angles BRS, RSC also form a pair of alter nate angles. es s = (u) bot AB and CD be parallel. Q Then, as shown in § 53, corresponding angles are Fro. 65. equal. Le. SERB = RSD, oe ZARS (vertically opp. Zs). 2. ZARS = ZRSD. Le, The alternate angles are equal. ‘ole —The other pair of alternate angles may sinilarly be shown tobeeqaa S, Convery, @) Let Z ARS Now © ZARS s. 2PRB= ZRSD. But these are corespoing ages ‘ABs parallel to CD. (Theor. § 8) ‘Note These results can be expressed in the form of geometric seorems as follows a Br TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY Theorem E. If two parallel straight lines are cut by another stralght line the alternate angles are equal. Theorem E, (converse of previous Theorem). If two straight lines are cut by another straight line so that the alternate angles are equal then the two straight lines are parallel. 55. Interior Angles. In Fig. 56, with the same figure as in preceding sections the angles BRS, RSD are called the Interior angles on the same side of the transversal P a 8 s + D re, 8 Similarly ARS, RSC are interior angles on the other side. * fag (1) Let AB and CD be parallel. Then ZARS = ZRSD (alternate angles). ‘Add ZERS to each, ‘Then ZARS + 2BRS = ZRSD + ZBRS. But ZARS + ZBRS = two right angles. (§ 18) ce ZBRS + ZRSD = two right angles. Le., the sum of the interior angles on the same side of the transversal Is equal to two right angles. me PARALLEL STRAIGHT LINES B Conversely 2). Let ZBRS + ZRSD = two right angles, ‘Then ZBRS + ZRSD = ZBRS + LARS, Subtracting ZBRS from each side ZRSD = LARS. But these are alternate angles. ‘AB and CD are parallel (§ 53) These conclusions may be ex in the form ‘theorems as follows: * ee ee ss Theorem F. When two parallel straight lines are cut by another straight line the sum of the two interior angles on the same side of the line is two right angles. Theorem F, (converse of previous Theorem). When two straight lines are cut by another straight line, and the sum of the two interior angles on the same side of the straight line Is two right angles, then the two straight lines are parallel, 56. Summary of above Results. I. Three properties of parallel straight lines. If two parallel straight lines are cut by a transversal, the D. Pairs of corresponding angles are equa B: Pairs of sortie anges oe ep EF. Sum of the interior angles on the same side of the traversal is feo right angles. I. Conditions of parallel seraghe lines. Straight lines are parallel if one of the following condi- sos — When they are cut by a transversal they are parallel Dy If corresponding angles are equa. Fare eta eee FS Ifthe sum of to interior angles om the same side of te iransoersal 1 30 right angles n TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY 57. Construction 2. To draw through a given point a straight line parallel to a given straight line. ‘The conditions of B, (§ 64) above suggest the method of construction. ‘Nola —The student is advised to perform the construction which {ollows, sep by step. Lot AB (Fig, $7) be the given straight line and P the it given point, Tt ip required to draw through P a straight fine parallel to AB. 5 ¥ A 8 Fro. 51, Method of construction From P draw any straight line PQ to mest AB at Q. Bee dn aa Pv eal we SPH feonstackon $25 "Phen PY is the straight line required, and it can be produced either way. Proof. The straight lines PY, AB are cut by a trans- versal PQ and ZYPQ— 2PQ4." (By construction.) But these are alternate angles. ‘2 Condition B, of § $4 is satisfied PY and AB ‘re parallel Nues-—(1) When PY in drawn making LYPQ — P04 eo ltt apd Ste waist eas be dati Honea we cole Through a point only one straight line can be drawn parallel to a given straight line. PARALLEL STRAIGHT LINES s (2) If the straight line PQ ia Fig. 67 and again in Fig. 58 were aan pnp 4) nce £OPY = 2A4 64 et aos A straight line which is perpendicular to one of ‘two parallel straight lines, is also perpendicular to the other. x Y a B Fa. 68 @txercise 4 39° 1. In Fig. 69 AB and CD are parallel straight lines and are cat by @ transversal PQ at and Y.-S meet g c. a 8 8 x. : c D Q Fro. 58 Pi, 00 State: (1) Which are pairs of equal corresponding angles. (2) Wie are Furs of cual site ans ) Which are 3 of interior angles whose sum is two right angles Sat 2. In Fig, 60 AB and CD are parallel straight lines cu bya trnaversal at Sand Yn Dru Stsight Hines cot If ZPXB = 60°, find in degrees other the figure. oe eee * TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY 8, In Fig. 59 ifthe angle CYP = 60° state the number of degrees in the following angles: > () PXA, (2) BXY, (8) DYX, E (8) QD, () PXB. 4, Through the vertex A of the P (BC (Fig 61), i drawn parallel to the base BC,and BA and CA are 8 produced to Band 2 respectively. Feo. 61 if LDAQ = 65° and LEAP = 40", find the angles of the triangle. 5, In Fig 62 AB is parallel to CD and AC is parallel to BD. CD is produced to E. Ti ZCAD = 37° and ZBDE = 68°, find the angles of the figure ABDC. 6. In Fig. 63 the arms of the angles ABC, DEF are 4 A : ase) ¢ E spe: Rio. 62 Fao, 63. parallel, What reasons can you give for the statement that 2ABC= CDE? (fin Let BC ext DE in and Produce to 2) 7, Draw a Straight line AB. Take points C, D, # on it, and. through them draw parallel straight lines making corresponding pias EAB and CD are perl straigh < fPAB and CD are parallel straight ° Iines (Fig. 64), The angle APOC gD 45° and Z0QC = 35°. Find the angle POQ. bakes 8 Two parallel straight. lines AB, CD are ext by the transversal PQ at E and F. The 2s BEF and EFC are bisected by the straight lines EH, FG. Prove that these straight lines are parallel. CHAPTER 8 ANGLES OF A TRIANGLE 58. On several occasions in the previous work the attention of the student has been called to the sun of the thse anleof parte tangle He alo has cently fore him the triangles represented by the two set squares which he uses and the sumof their angles. It is probable, Therefore, that he has come to the conclusion tha the sunt of the angles of a trangle We avaye equal to two right angles or 1% aes e ‘simple experiment will help to confirm this. Draw any triangle and cut it out. Then tear of the angles and fi them together, as is indicated in Fig. 60. Fro. 68 ‘The common vertex O will be found to lie in a straight line, AOB. Therefore, as stated in the Theorem of §18, the sum of the angles—i.c, the angles of the triangle—is 180°, This is one of the most remarkable facts in elementary egmety, butt would not te satisfactory to accept it ay ing, tru for all triangle because thas bee found to be true in cortain cases. We must therefore prove beyond. doubt that the result holds for all triangles, The proof which we shall proceed to give has alread been anticipated in Question 4, Fig. 61, of Exercise. Wit a small modification thisis sustantially the standard proof fof the theorem. This s as follows. ” * TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY 59. Theorem. The sum of the angles of any triangle is equal to two right angles. Fig. 68 represents any triangle ABC. It is required to prove that ZLABC + ZBCA + LCAB = two right angles. To obtain the proof some additional construction is necessary. Construction. (1) Produce one side, eg., BC to D. @) From C draw CE parallel to BA (Construction 2). Proof. (1) 4B and CE are parallels and AC is a transversal. “: Alternate angles ACE, BAC are equal (§ 56 E). () 4 and CE are parallel and BC ea anayers, ‘ Corresponding angles ECD, ABC (§ 56). Fra. 60, (@) «. by addition— LBAC + LABC = LACE + ZECD ZACD. (4) Adding ZACB to each ZBAC + ABC + LACB = ZACD + LACB = two right angles (18). I.e,, the sum of the angles of the triangle Is equal to two right angles. ANGLES OF A TRIANGLE » 60. Tt will be evident that in proving the above theorem, two other theorems have been incidentally proved. They Theorem. An exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the two interior opposite angles. It was shown in step (8) of the proof that ZACD = LBAC + LABC. ‘4 the exterior angle ACD i ga to the um of the two intesior epposite angles ABC and BAC. ‘Employing & simllar proof, it cam be shown that if any other side be produced, the exterior angle thus formed {6 qual to the sim of the two corresponding interior angles. Theorem. An exterior angle of a triangle is greater than either of the two opposite interior angles. For, in Fig. 66, since the exterior angle ACD is equal to the sum of the two interior angles ABC, BAC, it must be greater than either of them. Wo ee hae ede es tore ee ee Sea ee et es eee ee Lae oe () fa rele ig ph mag aa ie eee eo eee nti ees ice tere bee aoe 1s Or oe epee ei area fa ee feels oe en % TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY @ Exercise 5 cases gee | ee TE ST, et et oot ee eee ey ACD, is 112°, If 4A = 40°, what is the sees Etna ceht-angled triage two ofthe anges a6 oa Pt ng eget 400 je. From Ba perpendicular BD fs drawn to AC. It ‘Zhic 135%, find the angles ABD, CBD and ACB. aie eo ee sini Matec coc La asta oi ONS mas eal eka ade cs ee Ae a meets AC in D. If ZABC = 80° and 2BDC = 95°, find eee ee Ga A pnt gt ot 7 aeons mses eee ene TL The side BC of the trance AAC is produced both ways to Dand E. If 2ABl 124° and 2ACE = 130°, Siceninae ated erateasa oat seit Prove that ZACD | ZBAB = three right angles CHAPTER 9 ISOSCELES TRIANGLES {2 Relations between the Sides and Angles. Tn Fig. 42 (0) an ioneles triangle was defined a tang having tv egal sides _ Take two set sures (0°, 00, 90° ofthe same size and plage them side by side as in Fig. 67. Te will be seen 1) Since Zs ADB, ADC are right angles, BD and Dears inthe tame aig ine A A |S. Ad mas Re. 67. @) The two As together constitute a new A in which 4B a pA la a Fie. 70, the opposite angles must be equal.” The converse is, “if the angles are equal, the opposite sides are equal” Theorem. If two angles of a triangle are equal, the sides opposite to them are equal. In Fig. 70 the angles ABC, ACB are given equal, We require t6 prove AB! AC, these bag the sides ‘opposite to them, © proof is similar to that of the Theorem above, but Theorem C of § 40 is used instead of Theorem A. Construction. Draw AD bisecting the angle BAC. Proof. Inthe 4s ABD, ACD: l) ZABD = ZACD (given). 2) ZBAD = ZCAD (construction), (3) Side AD is common to both <:. AS ABD, ACD are congruent (Theorem C, § 49). in particular AB— AG. i Corollary. Triangles which are equi equilateral [converse of Corollary 2 (§62))- lar are also oy TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY @kxercise 6 1. In the isosceles triangles, in which the angle of the vertex is (2) 45°, (0) 110°, (¢) 90°, find the remaining angles, TE Find the angle at the vertex of an isosceles triangle when each ofthe equal anaes i () 60% () $2", 48". 3. In the triangle ABC, AB — AC, find the angles of the triangle when (1) 2B = 48°, (@) 24 = 80°, (8) ZC = 70°. 4. Tn an isosceles triangle each of the angles at the base is double the angle at the vertex. Find all the angles. 5. The angles of a triangle are in the ratio of 22:6. Find them, 6. The equal sides of an isosceles triangle are produced, and each of the extetior angles so formed is 1907. Find the angles of the. 7. Ina SABC, AB = AC. PQ is drawn parallel to BC and meets the equal sides in P'and Q.” Prove that the ‘angle 4PQ i oseles, 8. ‘The equal angles of an isosceles triangle ABC—vin ACB and ABC—are bisected and the bisectors mest at 0. Prove that, AOBC is isosceles. ‘9. ABC is an isosceles triangle, and AB = AC. AB is produced to D.. If ZBAC = 80° find the angle CBD. 10. Show that if the mid points of the sides of an equi- lateral triangle are joined, the resulting triangle is also equilateral, - What fraction of the whole triangle is it? 1. ABC is a triangle and D is the mid point of BC. DA is‘drawn, “MDA DC prove that’ ZBAC is a right angle. CHAPTER 10 SOME FUNDAMENTAL CONSTRUCTIONS 65, Before beginning the study of draughtsmanship, engineering and building students and others must frst fete alley ern ene ae these will be dealt with in this chapter, others will come later. "For these constructions only compass and ruler should be employed for the present. ‘These constrictions are placed before the student not only for their practical value, but also because, with the sid of those geometrical theorems which have been studied in previous chapters, it will be possible to prove that the method of construction is a correct one, and must produce the desired result. ‘thus farnich exercises in geo metrical reasoning of which the reader has already had a number of examples. Two examples of constructions have already been introduced @§ 25 and 57), and the methods of constructing triangles from fixed data were explained in 545. 66. Construction No. 3. (@) To construct an equilateral triangle on a given base. io (6) Ata point on a straight line to construct an angle of 60°. (2) AB is a straight line on which it is required to construct an equi- lateral triangle (ig. 71). ‘A i Method of construction. (1) With A as centre and AB as radius, constrict an arc ofa circle. (2) With B as centre and AB as radius, construct 85 Fie. 7. & TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY anare ofa circle large enough to cut the are previously described in C- (8) Join AC, BC. ‘ABC Is the required triangle. Proof. By the method of construction AC and BC are cach equal fo 4B. <. they are equal to one another. the three aides AB, BC and AC are all equal, "che triangle ABC Is equilateral. (@) The triangle ABC being equilateral is therefore equiangular (Corollary 2, § 62) each angle is $of 180° i, 60°. atthe points’ and B angies of 60° have been con- structed. 67. Construction No. 4. To bisect a given angle. Let AOB (Fig. 72) be the angle which we require to bisect. Fic, 72, Method of construction. 1) From the two arms of the angle 04, OB cut off pia it sees ees tae SOME FUNDAMENTAL CONSTRUCTIONS 87 2) With X as centre, and with any convenient radius, describe an are of a circle. (3) With ¥ as centre, and the same radius, describe an arc of a circle cutting the other arc in P, (@) Join OP. ‘Then OP bisects the angle AOB, Proof. Join PX, PY. in As OPX, OPY: (1) OX = O¥ (construction). (2) PX = PY (construction) (3) OP is common to both As. <*. As OPX, OPY are congruent (§ 49, B). In particular ZPOX = ZPOY. Ta,, OP bisects the angle AOB. 68. This construction suggests the following theorem: Theorem. Any point on the bisector of an angle is equidistant, from the arms of the angle. Cee ee ee “Dian JE and QF perpendicular to the arms 04, 0B, JE, QF ate the distances of @Q from OA and OB. Proof. In As OEQ, OFQ: (1) 2E09 = ZK0@ (halves of £A0B). (2) ZoK0 = ZOrO (right Zs). (3) 09'is common to both As, j; the triangles OEQ, OFQ are congruent (49, C- in particular Oi TE ieadideen ge rena te rector Similarly ‘any other point on OP can be shown to’ be. ‘equidistant from 04 and OB. Note—Stadents may have goticed that use was male of the bisector ofan angle in Theorem of 62, before tho method of obtaining a8 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY sk nad been considered, But this doesnot ia any way invalidate {Epis te Taorem above memo ce the Duero the SPE "Tous ovat eventhough we had aot previously proved are eee eee tne poet of the theotan dows het in any Way ‘otha the matnod ef drawing an soourete bdo. 69, Construction No. 5. To bisect a given straight line. Let AB (Fig. 73) be the straight line which itis required to bisect. Fie. 73. Method of construction. () With centres 4 and B in turn, and a radius greater than JAB, draw ares of circles intereseting at Pand 3 pin 29 cutting AB at 0. ‘Then O is the mid point of AB. Proof. Join AP, BP, AQ, BQ. Ins APQ, BPQ: W) AP = PB (onstruction 2) (construction {5} 28 i common to both as ‘1. As APQ, BPQ are congruent (§49, B). ia particular 2APQ = ZBPQ. SOME FUNDAMENTAL CONSTRUCTIONS a pnw the GAP is isosceles and OP bisects the ange at vertex. “using the proof of the Theorem of § 62 (Cor. 1) GP bisects the base AB at right angles. 2, AB is bisected at O. Since OP bisects AB at right angles, t of the following construction. To draw the perpendicular bisector of any straight line. 70. A theorem also arises from the above which is similar to that following Construction No. 4, viz. Theorem. Any point on the perpendicular bisector of a straight line is equidistant from the ends of the line. In Fig. 73 if any point C be taken on OP and joined to A.and B the As 40€, BOC can be shown to be congmnent, as in § 69 and consequently CA = CB. 71. Construction No. 6. To draw a straight line perpendicular to a given straight line from any point on it. Let 4B (Big. 74) be a straight line and 0 a point on it, 6 is also the method Soar o Fre. 74. at which it is required to draw a straight line which is perpendicular to AB. 3 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY Method of construction. (Q) Oneither side of 0 mark off equal distancesOP, 00. 2) With P and Q as centres and any suitable radius sere circles which cut at C {@) Jom oc. ‘Then OC is a straight line perpendicular to AB. Proof. Join CP, CQ. In as COP, COQ: () CP = (equal radii). B Gp = 09 (ahstrucion, {8} 0¢ is common, 2. As COP, COO are congruent (§49,B) it pat ‘Tear = "Seog: 84.) definition they are ight angles. {Cis perpendicilar to PQ. ey th pol nae on nd of AB, tat the to cls ca sonventeiy be devel the method of consrcton No i SER Sate Se apap 72. Construction No. 7. To draw a perpendicular to a straight line from a point at, or near, one end of it. i once P Fre. 15 Let AB (Fig. 75) be a straight line to which it is required to draw a perpendicular at one end, viz., at B. SOME FUNDAMENTAL CONSTRUCTIONS 9x Construction. j (1) With centre B and any suitable radius, describe a circle cutting AB at P. (2) With P as centre and the same radius, describe an are of a circle cutting the previous circle at Q. (3) With Q as centre and the same radius, describe an are cutting the same circle at R. (4) Join PQ, BQ and BR. (6) Bisect the angle QBR by OP (Construction No. 4). ‘Then OB Is perpendicular to AB. Proof, Join QR. Asin Construction No.8, ABPQ is equilateral, LPBQ = 60°. i so oq P SEOR autre ZOBR = 60°. Since this is bisected by OB (construction). 2. £000 = 30° 2 2008 = 60 + 0° a 1, OB Is perpendicular to AB at B. 73. Construetion No. 8. To draw a straight i line perpendicular to a given straight line from 2 given point without A. Fr = 8B “eopoeean | NIL line, and P is a point with- out’ it, Tt is required to draw from Pa straight line perpendicular to 4B, Ber o TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY ‘Method of Construction, (2) With P as centre and a convenient radius draw a circle cutting AB at C and D. (@) With centres C and D and the same radius, a convenient one, draw circles intersecting at R. (8) Join PR. ‘Then, PR Is perpendicular to AB. Proof. Join PC, PD, RC, RD. ‘As PCD, RCD are isosceles As on opposite sides of CD. We can therclore prove as in the pret of Construction No.5 (Fig. 73) that the 5 PCQ, PDQ are congruent, and in particular ZPQC — ZPOD. jg see AS hE angles and PQ is perpndialar to AB. @Exercise 7 Nole—In the following exercises only a ruler and compasses should ‘be use: 1. Construct the following angles: 30°, 75°, 120°, 150°, 2, Construct on angle of 45°. Use it to obtain an angle of 223°. 3 Eonseract the following angles: 16°, 185°, 105% 4. Construct an equilateral triangle’ of side 6 cm, Biséct each side and produce the bisectors. They should meetin a point 8. Draw a triangle with sides 4 em, 3 em and 3 em. Bisect each of the ages. The bisector should meet in'& int. ; e From this point draw perpendiculars to the sides of the triangle, With the point a5 centre, and a radius equal to the length of one of these perpendicular, deseribe a circle, It should touch the three sides at the points where the Perpendicaars meet ther, @ Construct a triangle with sides of 38 cm, 44 em, Bisect each side and join the points to the opposite vertices. ‘The three straight lines should be concurrent—z.e., meet in. point. SOME FUNDAMENTAL CONSTRUCTIONS 99 7. Construct a triangle with sides 4 em, 6 em, 7 em, Draw the perpendicular bisectors of the’ sides. These should meet in a point. With this point as centre, and radius equal to its distance from a vertex, describe a circle, Tt should pass through the three vertices, 8. Draw a citcle of radius $-6 cm. Draw any chord AB. and then draw its perpendicular bisector. Repeat this with another chord CD. Do the two perpendiculars meet at the centre of the circle? eigDyaM a tangle of sides 8, 9 and 10 cm. From cach iex draw a perpendicular to the opposite side. The three perpendiculars should be concurrent. 10. AB is a straight line of length 4 em. Show how to find two points each of which is 6'cm from both A and B. CHAPTER 11 QUADRILATERALS 74, As defined in §88, a quadriaceral isa plane rect lineal Agure. bounded by four straight Hnes. There are thus four angular points, a8 A, B,C, D in Tig. 77. Straight lines which joln two opposite angular points are clea diigonaes | Earn Thus in Fig. 77, BD is a diagonal, and as A and C can also be joined, every quadrilateral A hhas two diagonals. 8 ‘Fach diagonal divides the quadri- lateral into two. triangles. Conse- quay, it follows from Theorem of $59 that the sum of the angles ny quadrilateral bs ual to four righ whe quadrilateral of Fig. 77 is irregular in shape, but most of the quadilaterals which ‘we shal consider are regular quadrlacerals. D Cw Fa, 77 5 75. Rectangles. ‘The most commonly occurring quadrilateral in our daily life is the rectangle. A knowledge of this figure and its ame were assumed in Chapter, as being part of the fundamental geometrical Knowledge which everybodh possesses, In §2 it appeared again in connection wit the solid body, as the shape of each of the faces of a box. ‘The definition of it will come later, as it may be regarded, from the geometrical point of view, as a special form of another quadrilateral which we shall consider next. 76, Parallelograms. The cover of an ordinary match-box, the inner part having been removed, can be used, as follows, to illustrate # ‘QUADRILATERALS ie a parallelogram. In Fig. 78, ABCD represents the o Fetanguar end of fhe cover of the bos with the longer Sides horizontal. Squceze gently together the top_and bottom of the box 30 that the sides of the end rectangle rotate until they take up a position such as is shown by ABCD in Fig. 78 ‘The opposite sides of A’B'CD are parallel, but its angles are not right angles, The lengths of the sides, however, remain the same ‘Such a quadrilateral Is called a parallelogram. The original reetangle ABCD also has its fides parallel and is Fro. 78 therefore, as will be seen Tater from the definition, a special form of & parallelogram. Tf the end of the box had been a square instead of a rectangle, on rotating, it would stllbe changed toa paralelo- seam. But jos asiwith the aguare fs sides ae ll equal Fe" therefore «special orm of parallelogram, the ‘Considering. the four figures, rectangle, parallelogram, square, rhombus, i wil be seen that they Lave one pro- Ried: acy ae ieoa! a ate foe parallel; ‘they difier however in other respects. nay be contrasted and defined as follows 77. Definitions of Parallelogram, Rectangle, Square, Rhombus ult A Palogram i gnarl LF is aera deeb gree soars forall igo (0) Paaelogam. f rd se ; # TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY i) A rectangle isa quadrilateral in which both airs of opbesite sides are paralel and one of is angles fs a right angle (Fig 8) (© Rectang Ey (9 A square is a quadritateral with both bare of opposite sides. paral, one of ts fanles a right angle, and. to adjacent sides equal (Fig. ¢). oe i LS hig tiie ei ee sie Notes on the definitions. (0) The definition of a parallelogram stated above should bo examined in connection with the characteristics of a saubfactry dentin as described in 4 Since, the ‘opposite sites of a parallelogram are obviowsly equal there might be a. temptation to'define ft as a. quadrilateral, Whose opposite sides are equal and parallel”. But the inclusion of the statement of equal sides is iliogical, A parallelogram can be constructed by drawing two parallel enight fines and then two other parallel straight lines which cut them.» But this construction involves only one geometrical fact about the straight lines, vi, that they fre parallel. That is all that we know about them, But from this fact, and the properties of parallels which have bboen considered in Chapter 7, we can proceed to prove that the opposite ses mast be equal. This is done in ‘the Theorem of § 78. (2) Jemayfrter be noted that since the rectangle square and thombos are all paralelograms, in that they QUADRILATERALS. ” conform to the defnition of having “ pairs of opposite Sides parallel they might be defined as Yellows: A rectangle is a parallelogram in which one of the angles is a right angle. Bid A square na rectangle which has two adjacent sides equal. ‘A thombus is a parallelogram with two adjacent sides equal, but none of its angles is a right angle. Q) In the definition of a rectangle itis stated that “one. of the angles is a rightangle”. It will be proved later that if this is so all the angles must be right angles. But, for reasons previously given, this does not form part of the definition proper. ‘ 78, Properties of Parallelograms. ‘We can now proceed to establish some of the charac- teristic: es of the important quadrlaterals dealt with above, basing the proofs upon the definitions given in § 77. Theorem. (a) The opposite sides and angles of a parallelogram are equal. (b) A parallelogram is bisected by each diagonal. ha =e ABCD (Fig. 80) i a parallogram and BD is one of te diagonals. ie (0) ere to rn 43, = BE: (9) Zale cape. &) Zino = Zee. 8 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY Proof. By definition AB is parallel to DC and AAD is parallel to BC. The diagonal BD is a transversal meeting these parallel straight lines. c.In the As ABD, CBI () ZABD = ZBDC (alternate 2s, § 50). (2) ZADB = ZDBC (alternate Zs, § 00), (8) BD is common to both As. ‘. As ABD, CBD are congruent ($49, C). In particular AB = DC AD = BC. Also from (1) and (2) by addition ZABD + LDBC = LADB + ZBDC, fe, ‘ZABC = ZADC. Similarly, it may be shown by drawing the other diagonal, that LDAB = ZBCD. () Since the As ABD, CBD are congruent, each of them amust be half of the arca of the parallelogram, ie, the iagonal BD bisects the parallelogram. Similarly. ft maybe shown that the agonal AC it drawn would bisect the parallelogram, Corea Gor. 1. If ome angle ofa aratdogram sa right ange, ail the ents aright ends (en deen et 0 tang, 7) Tel 1 ie wiiees vies jocatairam wh equal, all the sides are equal (see definitions of square and shombus, §77). 79. The diagonals of parallelograms, Theorem. The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. EN QUADRILATERALS © In Fig. 81, ABCD is a parallelogram; AC and BD its diagonals intersect at 0. o, Ne Fete to prove that the diagonals are bisected at ee 40 = 0C, BO =0D. Proof. In As AOB, COD: 8 AB =CD (878), (2) 2048 = ZOCD (alternate Zs, § 56). (3) ZOBA = ZODC (alternate Zs, § 66). 2+ As AOB, COD are congruent (§ 49, C). In particular AQ = OC BO = OD. Note-—This theorem holds for a rectangle, square and rhombas, ? Im : ; : DI Pre. 8. Fie, 82, > since these are, parallelograms and the theorem can be proved ‘relay as i eke above a 80. The diagonals ofa square. Theorem. The diagonals of a square are equal, Intersect at right angles and bisect the opposite angles. ABCD in Fig. 82is a square and 0 is the intersection of its diagonals, a We require to prove : (Q) The diagonals are equal 2) The andes at are taht 2m {3 The diagonals bisect opposite angles. oi . 100) TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY Pro (itn the as ADC, BCD: @) 4D =2c (ns). &) Deis cmuoeio ach a, @) ZADC™ CBCD (eight ngs, § 1, Cor.) the 48 ADC, BCD are congruent (§ 49, ricaat AC = PD, che agonal are eqs sin these AOD, @) 40 =0c 679. ig A> De is os gear, 8) OD is common. 4: 8 AOD, COD are congruent ($4, 2). ii particu’ Ca0D'= SBOE <*. these are right angles and the diagonals intersect at Fighe angles. i (@) Since ‘As AOD, COD are congruent. i :. LADO = £CD0, ia, ZADC is bisected, diagonals bisect opposite angles. i 81. Properties of the diagonals of parallelograms. ‘The facts deduced above respecting the diagonals of different types of parallelograms may be summarised as follows : Parallelograms. Bisect each other. Rectangles. (1) Bisect each other. (2) Are equal. Square, es : (2) Are equal. i (3) Are af right angles, E ee . Rhombus. {) Bisct each other, : eee @) Bisect opposite angles. ‘QUADRILATERALS tor 2. The Trapezium. ‘The trapezium is a quadrilateral in which two opposite. sides are parallel but the other ses sr ioe pata In the quadrilateral (Fig. 1 parallel to DC but AD and BC are not parallel. ABCD is a trapezium. 83. The following is a test by which, when the conditions, stated are satisfied, a quadrilateral can be declared to be a parallelogram, Theorem. A quadrilateral, in which one pair of opposite sides are equal and parallel gram, ABCD (Fig, 84) is a quadrilateral in which AB, and CD are equal and parallel ‘Then ABCD ts a parallelogram, In order fo satisfy the definition of a parallelogram it is necessary to prove that AD and BC are’ parallel Construction. Draw the diagonal AC. Proof. In ds ABC, ADC: q AB =CD (given). {2) AC is common, (8) ZBAC = ZACD (altemate Zs). is 5 ABC ADC are congruent (§40, A). in particular 24GB = 2 DAC. But these are alternate angles when the straight lines AD and BC are cut by the transversal AC. ‘1. ADIs parallel to BC. (§ 56, Ey) a roa TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY Sine A spr to DC. co bp de os parallgram, ‘ABED is a pralclogrant Ail ae my at ted at Tesi re Apa ae eal Pa oct 84, The next two theorems are helpful in proving other theorems which have useful practical applications, Theorem. A stralght line drawn through the middle point of one side of a triangle and parallel to another side bisects the third side, In Fig. 85, Pis the mid point of the side 4B. is parallel to BC, j fe require to Prove: 2 is the midpoint of 40, “The i lowi ; Conctruction is necessary to obtain a proof, ‘From C draw CR parallel to AB to meet PQ produced in R. Proof. The opposite sides of Fro. 5. the” quadsilatersl PRCB are parallel. ¢. PRCB isa parallelogram (Def). c RC-=PB 78) P (given). Tn As APQ, CRQ: Q) AP RC (proved above) b) are = 20 (@) 2P4Q = ZOCR (alternate Zs) 2. As are congruent (§49, C). Baek! in particular A ss AC iis bisected at Q- » R QUADRILATERALS 1303 85, Theorem, The straight line joining the middle points of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and is equal to one half of it. ‘The Fig. 80 isthe same as in the preceding theorem, but in this ease we are given that: P and Q are the mid points of two sides of the AABC. We require to prove: (Q) PQ is parallel to BC. 8) PQ = BC. ‘The construction is the same as inthe preceding theorem, ie, CR is drawn parallel to AB to meet PQ produced at R. Proof, In 8 APQ, QRC: ) 2PAQ = ZOCR {alternate Zs). “ (@) 2APQ = ORC (alternate Zs). @) AQ = OC (giver). 8 c As APQ, QRC are con- us grient (49, 6). In partcalar 4 = RC A But by construction PB and RC are parallel : 7 CH iss vadeateral a which ap of opposite © by the Theorem of § 83. PRCB is 2 parallelogram, 4, PQ is paralel to BC. since PQ = PR. PO — 48C. 86, The following theorem is useful in its practical applications. 104 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY Theorem. If three or more parallel straight lines make equal intercepts on any transversal they also make equal intercepts on any other transversal, In Fig. 87, AB, CD, EF are three parallels, They are cent by two teansversals PQ. RS. e Given thal the intercepts on PQ are equal, ie, AC = CE, Q@ 5 6. It is required to prove that the intercepts on RS are equal, aera rs io Construction. Draw AG parallel to BD, and CH parallel to DP. Proof. AGDB and CHED are parallelograms (Def). :. BD=AG and DP =CH, In As ACG, CEH: 46 = OF gv cde LEE @espontiog sgh). B} Zéae = ech Concsponting angi} 4. BE ACG, CEH are congrune inane acter a tga Nosh theorem a known Ie is tho basis of tho diagonal seal ‘the theorem of qual Intercepts". QUADRILATERALS 105 87. Construetion No. 9. To divide a given straight line into any number of equal parts. ‘This construction problem is solved by the application of the preceding i © (ea) Feo. 88 Ta Fig. 8, AB isany straight line, Suppose it is ested to divide into (say) three equal parts, 1.c., to trisect it. Method of construction. Draw a straight line AP making any convenient angle with 4B. With 4 pai of dividers or compasses mark off along AP suitable lengths AX, XY, YZ, which are equal join ZB. Pree and ¥ draw the sought ines XC, YD, parallel toZB. “The straight line AB is trsected at C and D. Prof ‘The two trangverals 4B and AP cat the three allel straight lines CX, DY, Pagat the intereepts on AP, viz, AX, XY, YZ, are equal by Theorem of § 86, the Intereapts on AB, viz, AC, CO, DB are equal, 4c, AB is trisected at C and D. 106 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY @kxercise 8 1. Find the angles of the parallelogram ABCD (Fig. 80) when! ( cape = 70°. (3 ZoB¢ S42" ana 2BDC = 30". 2. Construct a square of 8 cm side. 3. (@ Construct a thombus whose diagonals are 3-6 cm and 48 cm, {i) The diagonals of a square are 4 em long, Draw the square and mesure the eth oft side Mt Construct a parallelogram such that its diagonals are 8 em and 4 em tong and one of the angles between them or 5 Construct a parallelogram ABCD when AB = 4 cm, BC'= Sem and the diagonal AC 85cm. What particular form of parallelogram isi? es i The diagonals of a parallelogram ABCD intersect at 0. ‘Through 0 a straight line is drawn to cut AB and CD at P and Q respectively. Prove that OP = 00. 7, ABC isa. Hand F are the mid points of AB and AC. “EF is produced to G so that FG = EF. Prove that ‘BE is equal and parallel to CG. ‘8, Draw a straight line 8 cm long and divide it into five ‘equal parts. Cheek by comparing their lengths by measure= ‘ment. ‘9. ABCD is a trapezium in which AB is parallel to CD. If AD = BC prove that ZADC = ZBCD. CHAPTER 12 AREAS OF RECTILINEAL FIGURES 88. Area was defined in § 7 as the amount of surface enclosed by the boundaries of a figure and there have been Several implicit references to the areas of rectlineal figures i peeling cpio or example when, nd 78 axe proved that “a parallelogram is bisected by a diagonal,” the Teference was to arca only. Again, when it was stated that congruent triangles coincide" the implied meaning is that not only are corresponding sides and angles equal, but that the areas of such triangles are also equal, ‘is now necessary to consider the methods by which the areas of rectilineal figures are obtained and, also, how these areas are measured. 89, Measurement of Area. ‘The first essential forall measurement is a units the unit sf area obviosly going to e related tothe unit of length ‘The unit of length in Sl is the metre (m), and the logical unit of area is that of a square which has sides of 1 metre. ‘This is the square metre (mm). For smaller measurements the square of any unit may be used, e.g-: square centimetre (cm), square millimetre (mm*);, these are the areas of squares having centimetres, etc., a3 theirside. ‘The same procedure applies to larger areas, but in addition, there is the are, the are ofa square having a sic The usual metric may also be used with the are, eg. the hectare (100 ares). Misuse eee en ee a one ‘The sides of the square are divided into 10 equal parts, S 108 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY cach part being thus 01 om, Bach division is the side of "sua sch ae neated in he small sgare. at 4 Ssequently, in the bottom row, corresponding to o side AB, there are 10 of these Sioall squares. Throughout D £ Whole square ABCD there are 10 Such rows, since each side of the suare sab divided. into, 10 ts. Altogether then fitere are 10 % 10, 4, 100 small Sauares such as that at 4, Every small square is therefore O01 ofa square centimetre. ‘Thus 3 rows contain (10.% 8) of these Fra, 80. and their total area is 0-01 x 50— 03 en®. Similarly 7 rows would contain (10 x 7) =70 small qjuares ad the area of the rectangle represented by these Trows would be 10 %< 001 = O7 em® 91, Area of a Rectangle. ‘The above example suggests a method for finding the area ola rectangle. Asa more general cae let us consider ‘he rectangle shown in 7 Big. 90, which is drawn onequazed paper raled in Centinetres, fhe square BCD. being square centimetre. Each centie metre is divided info 10 equal divisions, each a millimetre. "The aides of the rect angle AHKL aro 4 cm and 3 em. a. Corresponding to each centimetre in theside ATT Dj a there is a aq. em above it, i ‘f squares constructed above each centimetre along AH. Ta! the whole rectangle ALKH there are 3 such rows. , there are 4 cm* in the row AREAS OF RECTILINEAL FIGURES 109, +. The total number of sq. cm in ALKH =3 X 4.= 12, 4.0), the area of AHKL = I2 em if the rectangle were 6 cm by 5 cm, then there would be 6 cm? in each row and 5 rows. c. Total area = 6 x 5: = 30cm, This reasoning can evidently be applied to a rectangle of any size and the result generalised as follows: Let a = number of units of length in one side of the rect- Je. "fet — nuraber of units of length inthe adjacent side of the rectangle. : Then area of rectangle = (a x b) sq. units. The argument above referred to examples in which the lengths of the sides of the rectangle are exact numbers of nits of length, With sultable modification, however, it can be shown to be true when the lengths of the sides are fractional. For examplondjacent sides ftherectangl AEF, Fig. 0, vig, AE and AG, are 35 and 1-5 cm respectively. ‘These lengths expressed in millimetres are 25 and 15 mm respectively, and each very small square with a side one millimetre is a square millimetre. ‘with the same reasoning as above, Area of AEFG = (85 x 15) mm* = 525 mm? = 5:25 cm. Similar methods employed in other cases confirm the truth of the general rule given above. 92. Area of a Square. Regarding a square a8 a rectangle with adjacent sides equal, the bove formula for its area canbe modified sczordingh Thus = Thon ares of square = ax a moon units, no TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY 93. Area of a Parallelogram. ‘The formula for the atea of a parallelogram, the ar of the figure not being right anges, can Be dete as Consider the parallelogram ABCD, Fig. 91. Construction. Draw €P perpendicular to AB. From D drow DQ perpentinar CD te, mest BA produced at is per- Pendicular to.8Q. fe of. If CD be regarded as the ase of the pale ram, then CP-or BQ is the corresponding “alee or ¢ ight of the, parallelogram. Se onan Tis the distance between the tho parallels AB and DC. DCPQ is a rectangle and DC and CP aie two adjacent sides. In As BCP, ADQ: (1) ZCBP = ZDAQ (corresponding angles). ) Aaya = ZcPD jt ats. @) CB = DA (§78). :. As BCP, ADQ are congruent quadrilateral ADCP +} APCB = quadrilateral ADCP + ADO, 42, parallelogram ABCD = rectangle PCDQ. ‘1, the area of a parallelogram is equal to the area of the rectangle with the same base and same height. ". area of parallelogram = ase x helght. Corollary. The arca of any other parallelogram with the tase'DC end having the same heighy or lying. Bebwcon the Ste Paralls, ts equal lo thal ofthe recangle BCDQ. 94, The statement in the corollary above can be ex: pressed formally in the following theorem. AREAS OF RECTILINEAL FIGURES m Theorem. Parallelograms on the same base and having the same height, or between the same parallels, are equal in area. In Fig, 92 PQ and XV are two parallels. Let Ais, a patt of PQ, be a base to any two parallelograms, Gate eK, F ey ALY Pro. 92. such as ABCD, ABEF, between the two parallels PQ and xy. Draw AL and BK perpendicular to XY. ‘Then AL =BK. [As in § 93 each of the parallélograms ABCD, ABEF can be shown to be equal in area to the rectangle ABKL. i. the area of ABCD = area of ABEF. 95. I both base and hight o constant in parallelogram such at ar daoibed aver the enw be constant D PS, RW G A Bea F Fre. 98 ‘The base need not be the same base; but the bases must be equal. “ence we arrive at : Theorem. Parallelograms which have equal bases and lie between the same parallels, /e., they have the same height, are equal in area. mm TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY In Fig. 93 ABCD, EFGH are parallelograms having equal bases AB and BF and lying between the same paralels rectangles ABPQ, EPRS be constrictal as shown in figure, these will have the same area, ‘parailelograms ABCD, EFGH, which are equal in arca 18 these, must be themselves equal 96. Area of a Triangle. Every triangle, can be, regarded as half of @ certain arallelogram which can be readily constructed. This is iustrated in Fig. 4. Each of the three types of triangles, FACE pri psa DAS p Beas com 8 © ® © Feo 94 acute angled (a), obtuse angled (2) and right angled (c) is hall ofthe parallelogram 42CD, the construction of which is obvious. "In the ease of the right-angled triangle (¢) the ralelogram astmes the form ef a retanele. fn (4) and {G) AUT represents tho altitade or height ofthe tslangle and therefore also of the corresponding parallelogram. Tn each case the parallelogram is equal to the rectangle BCEF, constructed by drawing perpendiculars BF and CE. ‘Also, each triangle ts equal to half of the rectangle, one of whose sides is the base of the triangle and the other side ‘the same in length as the height of the triangle. ‘in both parallelogram and rectangle it has been shown §99) that : se x height. (base height). It length of base titude and ea, Then A= bh. AREAS OF RECTILINEAL FIGURES oy 97. From the above conclusions the truth ofthe following theorems will be apparent without any formal statement ‘of the prools Theorem. If a parallelogram and a triangle be on the same or equal bases and between the same parallels, the area of the triangle is one half that of the parallelogram. Theorem. Triangles on equal bases and between the same parallels are equal in area. 98. Arca of a Trapezium. ABCD isa taperium (Fig, 08) im which AD ie paral to BC. From D and B draw perpendiculars DE and BF to the ‘opposite side, produced” in he case of DA. Join BD. ¢__A__D ‘The trapezium is divided by BD into two 4s ABD, DBC, Lek i be the distance be- pL C tween the parallel sides, “Then his equal to DE and Fie. 05 BE, the altitudes of the As DBC and ADB. Let AD = a units of length and BC = b. ‘Area of ADBC = 40h, ‘Area of OADB area of trapezium Yah + Wh = Tha +b) [leighe > sum of parle sides) height x average of parallel sides, Area of a Quadrilteral, Any quadrilateral can_be divided into two triangles, ag in the trapezium above. The sum of the areas of these triangles is equal to the area of ‘the quadrilateral or 4 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY @Exercise 9 ‘Note-—Ia some of the following exercaes the student is expected to draw the figures to cale and calculate the areas from the measured 1, Take two set squares of angles 80°, 60°, 90° and place them together with the hypotenuses coinciding, thus forming a rectangle. Measure the sides of the rectangle ‘and find its area, Hence find the area of one of the set squares. 2. Fig. 96 represents a square tile of side 10 cm. ABCD yr i g Stn Fro. 98 Fre. 91. are the mid points of the sides of the square. Find the area of the part which is shaded. ‘3. Find the area of a rectangle 6:8 cm by 4 4. Find the areas of the following triangles: Base 165 mm, height 70 mm () Base 9-7 m, height 6-7 m (@) Base 16-4 cm, height 11-4 em. 5. Construct a triangle with sides 2, 25 and 3 cm and find its area. Check the result by doing it in three ways ‘and finding the average of your results. '6. Construct an equilateral triangle of side 7 cm and find its area. "7, The diagonals of a rhombus are 8-6 em and 1-4 cm. Find the area of the rhombus. '3, The area of a triangle is 1646 cm? and the length of @ ‘base is 6-5 cm. Find the corresponding altitude. AREAS OF RECTILINEAL FIGURES us 9. Fig. 07, not drawn to scale, represents the side of lean-to shed ‘of dimensions as indicated. Pind its area, 10. Fig. 98, not drawn to scale, represents the section es ey daa a. : CHAPTER 13 RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES. THEOREM OF PYTHAGORAS 99. One of the most important theorems in Geometry is that connected with a right-angled triangle and known fas the “Theorem of Pythagoras”. It is as follows: Theorem. The area of the square on the hypo- tenuse of a right-angled triangle is equal to the sum of the areas of the squares on the other two sides. Tn Fig. 99 ABC is a right-angled. & and BC is its by be Metewnse. ‘Squares are COn- structed on the sides. “The Theorem states that Square on BC = square ‘on AB + square on AC. anlar ae several intrest vices for cutting 1 the squares on BA and AC and ftting them into the Square on BC. But t0 save time and space we will pro- ceed directly t0 the proof which the student may find kK > inner and. petaps more Gepicced ten terre Fro. 00 theorems. re ‘e Condition, Draw ALM ralel to BE and CD, and consequently at ight ang BiBc‘and ED. This vis th square on BC into two rectangles. ‘The proof cons In showing that Ee RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES. PYTHAGORAS 117 rectangle BLME — square on AB. (these are shaded) and afterwards ‘the rectangle CDML (A) To prove rectangle BLME o obtain connecting links between these, join AE, HC. shiniifis noted that KA snd AC re nthe same gis ine (6 18). fl) ABE and rectangle BLME are on the same base BE and between the same parallels BE and AMM. < SABE = j(rectangle BLME) (07). (3) AHBC and square ABHK are on Same base HB and. between the same parallels HB and KC. , QHBC = }(square ABHK). If it can be proved that AABE = HBC, Then rectangle BLME = square ABHK, (8) To prove ABE (1) 4B = BB Gi (2) BE = BC (sides of a square) (8) ZABE = ZHBC (anos cach 4 eats a vght 2+ ZABC). ss As ABE, HBC are congruent. (§ 49 A). . rectangle BLME = square ABHK . (1) In a similar manner by joini and BG it may maces y joining AD and BG it may be rectangle CLMD = square ACGE . (2) By addition of (1) and (2) we get square on BC = sum of squares on AB and AC. ‘The student is advised to go through the proof lea to (2) and write it down, £ = ees ‘The above proof has been made somewhat longer ‘explanations designed to help the student through it. Shorter and) more usual way of setting Ht out is given in Part II (p. 265). a ee ; 18 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY 100, The converse of the above theorem is also true. Tt is as follows: Theorem. [fina triangle the square on one side Is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides, then the triangle is right-angled. ‘The proof is omitted in this section of the book, but will be found in Part IT (p. 267). 101. The Theorem of Pythagoras can be expressed in algebraical form as follows: Ta the right-angled triangle ABC (Fig. 100) the sides are represented by a, 5, ¢ as explained in §44, ¢ being the hypotenuse. ‘Then by the Theorem of Pythagoras: aot whence covet also ee and a=ve—e similarly bavaaa “ence any one side canbe expressed in terms of the other so. From these results is vient cha fin eworghe-angled triangles, the hypotenuse and one side of cach are equal the shied side wll ago. be equal and the triangles a congruent. 102. To find the length of the diagonal of a square in terms of the sides. Let a= length of a side of the square ABCD (Fig. 101). Let ¢ = length of the diagonal, DB. Then 28 =a! + a? (Theorem of Pythagoras) ‘Le,, the ratio of the diagonal of a square to a side Is 21. VF may be noted that the angles CBD, CDB are each 45° RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES. PYTHAGORAS 119 103. To find the height, or altitude, of an equilateral triangle In terms ofthe side. 2 In Fig: 202, ABCis an equilateral 4. 8 A a XC lo Co 8 | Dom eee cee: Fi 100, Re Fre, 102, AD, the perpendicular from A to BC, is the height or altitude. Poe - Let a = length of each side Then cD =§. In tho right-angled AADC, AC* = AD* + DC. f. ADE = AC — DoH ---@ @ : V3, 2 AD= Ma. ‘The angles of the AADC are 90°, 60°, 30° (those of one of the set squares) and the A is one of frequent occurrence. Tt should be noted that the ratio of the sides of this 4 are 0 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY ‘Area of an equilateral triangle, From the above triangle: @éxercise 10 1, Which of the As, with sides as follows, are right- angled? (a) 1-2, 1-6, 2, 0) 4, 5, 6. () 1, 24, 2:6, 37,8. _2. Find the lengths of the diagonals of squares whose (@ Lm, @ 12m. 8. Find the altitudes of equilateral As whose sides are: (2) 1m, @) 12m. 4, The diagonals of a rhombus are 4-6 m and 5-2 m. Find the lengths of the sides. 5. A man travels 15 km due east and then 18 km due ori, How far she from his starting pont in straight 5 6. One side of a rect field is 140 m. A diagonal 4s 160m. Find the ‘of the other side. i 1. A peg is 3 m from the foot of a flagstaff which is 8 m high. What length of rope, when taut, will be needed to reach the peg from the top of the flagstaff? 8. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 65 cm and one side is 26 cm. “What is the length of the other 9, Find the altitude of an isosceles triangle in which ‘each of the equal sides is 10 cm, and the base is 5 cm. 10. (a) Find the area of an equilateral triangle of side 5 RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES. PYTHAGORAS 1a cm; () 1 the area of en oqustenl tangle s 25/5 hae @ ela ef ech Ses oe 1, Aad 12m fog re gut avert wala hots, ofa he ot of ads on fom the oe oft’ ow far op th wal este tt tia eer Tate agp of aunt intonet at right angles rove tat he et th uae oon pated oppose sds equals he sm of ihe Sarees Wh he arr. _ 18, Construct a square so that its area is twice that of a ‘given square, 14. A'rod 3 m in Jength makes an angle of 30° with its pletion on @Doriontal plane. “Hind the length of CHAPTER 14 POLYGONS 104, A polygon isa Blane rectilineal figure bounded by more than four siaight Fines. Triangles and quadsilaterals are sometimes included under the term polygon, but it will be used here in the sense defined above. A regular polygon is one in which all the sides and all dae gis are dual, A convex polygon, like a convex quadeilateral, is one in which no angle vegreater than boo right angles, £2,098 00 Telex or re-etrant gle The. work which follows will be confined to regular convex polygons. (05. Stes of Polygons Tw ty threat ote mmber of sie a ae oe thos with telve or ew a0 commonly eth the names of plone which re mos in we oleae ‘Name 5 Pentagon 8 Hexagon 7 Heptagon $ Octagon » Decegoa number of angles of a polygon is the same as the numberof sides. ‘Ths # regblar hexagon bas sequal Ingles, as well as six equal Si POLYGONs ES 106. Cireumseribing Circles of Polygons. With al sega polygons crs can be desc which pass through all the aigulat points or vertices Such cies are called creumserbing ei are shown in Fig. 102. ‘To draw the circumscribing circle, Tf i x required to cs 8 y 0} la Fl la fo e (eyfegdartacgan Repu Papen (par Octagon ro 108 drow the circumscribing circle ofa given regular polygon, ‘this can be done in two ways. lena: it) Din the prpendinar bisects oor more (2)’ Draw the bisectors of two or more of the angles othe pln: Tnedlncr ease the interaction ofthe lines 9 obtained is the centre of the required ci Ia the examples 51 Fig. 108 all the lines thus drawn are bisectors of the Sipe Each cf teas seat eae Ome tee ‘he proof nether case wil be ar fom previous Corpesponding bench side of cegtlar ealpeom, ox mccain Ali ts yeriec ef te Soule EPs pee Scrbng Gave as shown in Fig. 103, Tn te caso of tho exagen all teas triangles are equilateral 107. Inscribed Circles. Circles which are drawn within polygons 29 28 to touch all the sides are called inscribed cltles. ‘They ‘clearly ‘ouch each side at its mid-pomt, Examples 14 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY To draw the inscribed circle ofa given polygon, such as the hexagon in Fig. 108, ind the centre, which is the stme ‘as for the circamseribing cicl, by “drawing the perpendicular B —tikectors of the sides The length of any one of these perpendicilars from 0 to. one of thete mi pointsis theradiusor the o Inscribed rcle. For example, in Fig. 108, OP is the radius of the inscribed crce e f Fre. 108 108, Angles of Regular Polygons. [As stated in § 105 these are all «iva in any” regular polygon They can bs found in vas ways. Bi st method. Consider the pentagon in . The five isosceles swith sides of the pentagon as bases and werties at 0 are early congruci, andthe anges at centre are equal. Their sum is four right angles. This is Sion ie tr al epuet ptyerees For the pentagon each angle at the centre =} of 4 right Zs. 240B 2. 5 ‘1+ each of the angles O4B, OBA = 4(180° — 72°) = 54°. LABC = 2 x LOBA = 108°, Second method. For our example in this ease we will consider the hexagon (Fig. 108 (a) Hp this polygon ax equatral As are formed with sides of the polygon as bases. Ee AT ll the angles of these triangles, 6 x 2 = 12 right’ Ze "These include the angles at 0, i. 4right Zs. ‘emo th a anges of he hexagon = (13 — A) ght = Bright Zs, POLYGONS ns 8 90° Fright Zs = 8 x 8 = 120". The angle of a regular polygon of n sides. In general, if a polygon has n sides there are » triangles. «sum of all the angles of the As = 2n right angles. Tihs includes the 4 right Zs at the centre “+ sum of angles ofthe polygon = (2n — 4) right Zs. in 4 each angle eee oe ete iPcheales eae ae eadhangle= © 94 ue 25 i, Third method. Exterior angles of a regular polygon. inet the sides ofa regular polygon (Fig. 108) be produced Exterior angles are thus formed, and these are as many as there are sides to the polygon. Let sides. Then there are m exterior angles, At each angular point the sum of the interior tnd exterior angles is 2 right for m exterior angl ‘sum of all the angles = 2n the number of right Zs. ‘but sum of interior angles = Ga 8) reht cs rs. 105. . sum of exterior angles = 4 right Zs, When there are # sides and thus m exterior angles ‘each exterior angle = 4% 4 z was TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY each Interior anglo = 180° — 900°, Thus, fora hexagon each interior angle = 180° — 50" = 120°, 109. Construction No. 10. To construct a regular polygon on a given straight line. es aati on og ey acca a. eS en aoc eae | Seas i B Let AB (Fig. 106) be. the Fro, 108, given side of the required alygon. Consideing the general case let the polygon have m sides. Method of construction. Produce AB indefinitely to P. AUB construct an angle whith, by elation, sone of the exterior angles of the polygon (§108, Third Method), twas there shown that ! 360° Each exterior angle = 0 ‘1 at B construct an angle PBQ equal to Along PQ mark off BC = AB. ‘Then BC is aside of the polygon and ZABC is one of the angles of the polygon. ninrly, choles cng equal to PBC can be constructed POLYGONS Po at C and a third side obtained. Thus the whole polygon can be constructed step by step. = Note—It is frequently helpful, having obtained BC, to find the ceatre ofthe abusing Sle ss stated bore @ Exercise 11 1, Find the number of degrees in each of the equal angles of the following regular polygons‘ (a) heptagon, Loreen ee 100%, how many sides are there? eee '3. Construct & hexagon with a slde of 04 m. 8 ‘What is the radius ofthe circumscribing circle? (W) What is the distance between two opposite sides? (@) Find the area of the hexagon. 4, Construct a regular octagon of side 8 em. Each of the exterior angles of a re alygon is 40°, How many sides has it? Find each of the interior ', The sum of the exterior angles of a polygon is equal to the sum of the interior angles. How many sides has the polygon? Feces CHAPTER 15 Loci tee ee ee a teers eee ees a ee ee ene Sree Soon ae Le see aber er Win ferns tt fom Ls ea oes ae a , cera ores eee ae oft R S A second example is as follows. ee acne cera Sc nr ts to le ae eae ee Ri ae ace aa gaat Conca ail chet OF pS pea ae ae ae a Se ee eee ee Cees eat a ee ce pe cigae sane oe eae 17, EM, each one centimetre in length, we obtain the points Land M, which also satisfy the condition. Tt is clear, from previous work, that all such points must 23 Loci 2 lie on the stright line PQ which ts parallel to AB and qual In length £0 It. ‘The points P and Q wil lie at the fds ofthe perpendiclrs tom A and respectively. Tei also evident that a straight line RS, drawn parallel to AB on the other side of it, such that the perpendicular from any point on AB to it is one centimetre in length, also contains points which satisfy the condition of being one centimeter 4 Consequently, we conclude that ald the foints in the plane which aly the condition of being ome conbmetre from A fe {n two parallel straight lines, one contimare from AB, equal im tenth io and ing om oo ses 0 4 euros, tw be lex that ‘there are no other pont inthe plane of the paper which are distant one centimetre from AB. ‘An assemblage of all the points which satisfy a given condition Is led a locus, (Latin, locus =a. pace, position? ploral—tooé) ‘Worhave also ate that the straight Hine PQ may be regarded as the path of a point moving so that it satisfies She condition of Being on centimetre fem AB. Hence the “The path traced out by a point moving so as to sti « fed Zondlion or taw 1 alfed the locugof the polnt 111. Let us next consider this problem: What i the locus of points In a plane which are one ‘centimetre distant from a fixed point ‘The answer to this is at once suggested by the definition of. cee a0) Ba fiat dein wa a al rile lines dracon from points on the circumference to a fixed point within the carve called the centre are gual”. 2 Consequently, the answer to the question is that the locus Is the circumference of a circle, whose centre is at the fixed point and whose radius is one centimetre 112. Locus of Points Not in One Plane. In the above definitions points and lines were specified. asbeing inone plane. Butit will bereadily understood that 330 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY there may be points not In the plane, in space, which also satisly the given condition. Tn the example of the previous section ifthe lines are no longer restricted one plane, then it will be seen that the Iocas in space of points which tre al a given distance fom a {fer point i the surface of a ball or sphere, The radius of fhe sphere ithe specified distance fromm the fixed point which i the centre of the spire Slang the locus in space of poets which are 2 specified ditance from a fixed straight line (av in § 110) Tethe Interior surface ‘oft fplinder, such a8 2 jamjar oF th ‘The sphere and cylinder will be more fully dealt with in Chapter 24. 113. Locus of Points Equi- distant from Two Fixed Points Let A and B be the two fixed ints (Fig. 108). P*Ganstration No.8 provides the solution of the. problem. ‘There it was proved that any jint_ on. the perpendicalar Fiseetor of straight Hine is Fao, 108 equidistant from the ends of the line. Theor, join 4B and drag asin Gmatrocton No.6 the perpendicular bisector of AB, viz, ‘Then, as in the theorem of §68, any’ pout on PQ is equi- Aistant from A and B. J; PQs the required locus. 114, Locus of Points Equidistant from Two Incersecting Straight Lines. ‘The answer to this problem is supplied by the Theorem of §68, following on Construction No. 4. It is clear that the locus is the bisector of the angle formed by the intersection ofthe two straight lines. Thus, Loci 130 4 Fig, 72 OP is the lous of points which are equidistant from the two straight ines OAand OB. 11S. The geomet costrcton of ous is seldom as easy as those stated above, The following example is Someuliat more dilfeult. Seee Find the locus of a polne which moves so that the sum of ts distances from two fixed points conan. The locus may be drawn a5 fellows D Enlipse Fis. 100, Let P and @ be two fixed points on a piece of paper on a drawing boa. teow tee ‘Fasten two pins firmly at P and Q. Take a closed Toop of fine string or thread and place it round the pins at P'and Q. |” With the poiat of a pene stretch the string taut, so that it takes up & poston Sch a cc the pensil now be moved, keeping the string taut, the point nt X will travel along’a cave®. Since the length of the string is constant, and the distance between P and Qs constant, the sum of PX and QX must be constant, Thus, the point moves round a curve so that the sum of its distances from P and Q ls constant. The resulting curveis an ellipse, which may therefore be defined as: 32 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY The locus of the point moving so that the sum of is distances from two fed points I conseane isan ellipse, “Two of the points and B wil eon the straight line ced each way Through Ora ular to AB, Through 0 dia COD reread AB, ee and CD are z led the major and minor axes of the ell rand are called the foc 116, Loct by Plotsng Points Many loc, as we have seen, can be drawn readily by salah og ru compa fut th {Specially when they fic upon a curve, are obtane method known as plotting points, This means that umber of points are obtained which satisfy the given fonditions. "Such points wil im genera, appear to jie on Tegular, smooth Garve or straight line,” They ate joined Sp by drawing as acrorately as possible the curve Which passes through them all The parabola. A very useful example of this method is one which produces a parabola. A mechanical method of drawing {his curve is possible, but is seldom used. The following ‘two methods are commonly employed. (Q) Geometrical. In this method we employ a funda- ‘mental property of a parabola as a locus. It is as follows: ‘The locus of points whose distances from a fixed point are gual athe coteponding distances fom a fied straight line 4 called a parabola. {iis cad be draw most easly by using squared paper as in Fig. 110, ‘Let P be the fixed point and XOX’ the fixed straight line, 0 being the point where the perpendicular from P to XOX? meets that line Tf OP be bisected at A, then A is clearly @ point on the ‘curve, its distance from the fixed straight line XOX’, viz, ‘40, being equal to AP, its distance from P. Loci = Selecting one of the ruled lines perpendicular to OP, such AsBC, with BO as radius and Pak Catt draw ah ac of & circle cutting BC in C. Se pe Then PC =08 = co, 4, the distance of C from the fixed point P is its distance from the fixed line OX. aa ora, . Cs. point on the locus ‘A similar point can be found on the other side of 0: Parabola Fre, 110. OP. Thus a number of other points may be found on both sides of OP as an axis and a curve drawn to contain them. The more points that are plotted the more accurately the curve can be drawn, (2) Algebraical. Students who have studied algebra wil be acquainted with the following, which is a very brief summary of te treatment of the matter in an algebra text-book (Teach Yourself Algebra, § 108). a TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY Let OX, OY be two straight lines at right angles to each other. Let P be a point in the plane of these lines, Let y, 4, PK, be its distance from OX, Let, f., PL, be its distance from OY. Tf the relation between y and # for a series of points be Fis. 1, such that y is always proportional to the square of x, then ‘the locus of such points is a parabola, This relation can be expressed by the equation y=ar, This is true for any value of a, Let @ ‘Then the equation becomes y = x. Using this simpler form of the equation, we may proceed to find the locus of all points which satisfy the condition, To do this we assign suitable values to x and then caleulate ‘the corresponding values of y. For convenience some of ‘these are tabulated as follows (other values can be added by the student): > feels TT] i ° oa [1 [sae] « fea] e Loci 1 Using scales a indicated on OX and OF (Fig. 112), wwe proseed to find the points for which the corresponding Walves of and y are those inthe table, chus at P ea2y ad Te will be seen that these points apparently lle on a smooth regular curve. This mat be drawn by ie student. Teis'a resonable inference trom the form of the curve 2 Parabola Fie. 12, that all points on it, besides those plotted, will satisfy the condition y = x. ‘This can be checked By taking points ‘nit, finding the corresponding values of + and y and seeing if they do satisfy the condition. Further, it will be clear that there are no points on the plane, not lying on the curve, which satisfy the condition y = 2% For convenience, different units are employed for x andy. ‘The curve Is thus the locus ofthe points, which are such 136 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY that the distance from OX Is equal to the square of the Aiszance from OY. e student who has a knowledge of elementary algebra vill realise that there is a similar curve on the other side of OY, corresponding to negative values of x. This agrees with the curve as drawn by geometrical methods in Fig. 110. The curve is a parabola, 117. The Hyperbola. Algebraic expressions, involving two quantities denoted by.x and y, in which y'is expressed in terms of x, can be represented’ by curves obtained in a similar way to that given above. A noteworthy example is the curve which Fepresents the relation between x and y denoted by the equation y= Using the method of the previous example, the curve to be obtained may be regarded as the locus of points such that the distance (5) of each of them from OX is the reciprocal of the distance (s) from OY. “This curve presents dificulties when x becomes very large or very Small, but they cannot be discussed here. The student fs referred to Teach Yourself Algebra, §173. "A table of corresponding values of v and ys as follows: mionioven aa Ls Stal ate When the curve is drawn through the points obtained from these it is as shown in Fig. 113. ‘A carve similar to that obtained by using the above values can be drawn for negative values of x. This curve is known as the hyperbola. 118, The Cyclold. This curve Is the locus of a fixed point on the circum- Loci 4 farance of cle which rel along a aight In without The Curve, which is one of considerable practical vai, may be observed by making visible man on a bicyele wheel, or garden roller. As the wheel rolls emeatly tie Hygperbola Fro. 113, ‘mark will be seen to move along a curve in space, This carve is the eycloid. Accycloid may be plotted as follows. Take a solid circular disc, place it horizontally on a piece of paper and with its edge touching a fixed ruler or a book a marked point, P, is made on the paper. Carefully roll the dise along ‘the edge of the ruler for a short distance, taking care it does 138 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY fais gee is eee a ee ee eee ee reat oa ree ett sees Pp Cydoiad Fie. 114, Fig, 114 represents the curve, the marked point on the circle starting from A, reaching’the highest point at P. ‘At B the circle has made one complete rotation, and the fixed point is back again on the line AB. 119. Intersection of Loci. ‘When two lines which are the locl of points satisfying two separate sets of conditions intersect, then the point oF points of Inersection satisfy both sets of conditions. Example |. A and B (Fig. 115) are any two points, PQ is the lar bisector of AB. Then PQ is the locus of pointe equidistant from A and B 1a), f Lee be a third point, and RS the perpendicular bisector of BC. Thon RS Is the locus of points equidistant from B and C. Let 0 be the intersection of PQ and RS. Since 0 lies on PQ it must be equidistant from 4 and B. ‘Also since O lies on RS it must be equidistant from B and, © :. © must satisfy both sets of conditions and is equl- distant from A, B and C, i 04 = 0B =0C. Loci 139 Ifa circle be described with O as centre and OA as radius the circumference will pass through B and C. ie following conclusions may be deduced from the (I) If AC be drawn then ABC is a triangle and the circle Fic. 118, drwun as described above is the circumscribing circle of the ‘langle sce § 100). (Q) Since PO and RS can intersect in one point only, one circle onby can be described to passthrough tree points. (9) The perpendicntarbsor of AC mst fa tog be centre ofthe circumscribing circle O.. Consequently the pert ondicada bisecors ofthe side of ariangle mia be concirion. Example 2. The principle ofthe intersection of lc has been used previously in & number of example, without retrace locus, as, for example, in the ‘ollowag problem, ‘A and Bare to foinls 5 om apart on a siraight line AB. Find a point which fs 4 om from A and 9 om from B. ‘With centre and radiun dem describe a cle (Fig, 110). With centre B and radius 8 em describe a circle He TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY ‘The locus of all points in the plane which are 4 cm from Ais the circumference of a circle, centre A and radius 4 cm. ‘The locus of all points 3 em from B is the circumference ofa circle centre B and radius 3 cm. ‘The intersection of these two circles, viz., C and C’ are Fro. 116 points which satisfy both conditions, é.c., each of them is em from A and $m from B. They are thus the vertices fof two triangles ABC and ABC’ whose sides are of the {given dimensions, 5 cm, 4 cm and 3 cm. “Pest ar cleny Gmgruent ‘Teebbant wht ebervs that, princi, this was the mad aelayel in the constriction of tangs, whe ee a re ven ($40, 5). Loct ut @Exercise 12 1. Describe the following loci: (@) The centre of a wheel of radius 1 m which rolls in a vertical plane over a smooth horizontal surface. (8) The centre of a wheel of radius 1 m which rolls round a wheel of radius 2 m. (0) Arunner who runs round a circular track, always keeping 1 m from the inner edge of the track. 2. A number of triangles on the same base and on the same side of tare of equal area, "What i the los oftheir vertices '3. On a given straight line as base a number of isosceles, triangles are constructed. What is the locus of their vertices? ‘4. On a given straight line, AB, a number of right-angled, triangles are constructed, each with the right angle opposite to.AB, Draw a number of such As and sketch the curve which passes through the vertices, What does it appear to be? 5. AB is a fixed straight line and 0 a point without it Qs flngd to a point Pon AB and PO is produced to 9.50 09 =OP. As P moves along AB, what is the locus of Q? %6, Ona fixed straight line, AB, a'series of isosteles As are ‘constructed on ane side of AB. Let C be one of the vertices. Produce C4 to D, so that CD = CB. What isthe locus of 7. AB is a straight line and P is a point without it. If P moves so that the perpendicular from it to AB is always ‘one-half of its distance from A, what is the locus of P? 8. XY is a fixed straight line of indeterminate length, A part of it, BC, is the base of an equilateral 4 ABC.” If the triangle rolls over, without slipping, on. XY, until AC lies on XY, what is the locus described by B? 9. Two straight lines PQ and XY of unlimited length intersect at 0 at an angle of 45°. ‘Show how to find points which are one centimetre from each of the straight lines. 10. POQ is an angle of 60°. Show how to find a point which is one centimetre from OP and 4 cm from 09. CHAPTER 16 THE CIRCLE, ARCS, CIRCUMFERENCE, AREA 120. Ares and the angles they subtend. The student is reminded of the conclusions reached in $21 and 22. There it was pointed out that ifa straight line Totates in a plane about a fixed point at one end of the line ‘then any point on the rotating line traces the circumference of a circle, and that any part of this circumference is called an are. ‘Thus wlien the straight line OA (Fig. 117) rotates to OB ‘about O, an are of the circle, viz., B AB is described by A, and ZAOB S jis the corresponding angle through a which AB toms ‘The angle AOB Is said to stand fon the are AB, while the arc AB Is ‘ald to subtend the angle AOB at the centre of the circle. Both arc and angle are described by the same = Amount of rotation. eae If the rotating line moyes through a further angle BOC equal to AOB, the are BC is formed Subtending 2B0C at the contre. Clearly since ZAOB = ZBOC the aro BC must equal the are AB. It is reason- Able to conclude that equal angles correspond to equal arcs fand vice versa, This may be expressed in the theorems. Theorems. (1) Equal arcs in a circle subtend equal angles at the centre. (2) (The converse of the previous theorem.) Equal angles at the centre of a circle stand upon equal arcs. When, as stated above and illustrated in Fig. 117, the ue THE CIRCLE. ARCS, CIRCUMFERENCE, AREA 143 Bem tates eat eee ee faiish testes ms ce te eee ‘Sine way, were to be treble, the are would be tebled, and Bye tes eee rsa aa that In a circle ares are proportional to the angles which hep subeya ae the ceikre ob the crclea oa 121. Sector. ‘That part of a circle which Is enclosed by an are and the ‘drawn to the extremities of the arc Is called a 118 the figure AOB is a sector. In a circle of Sector uadtants Fro. 18, re. 11, given radius, the size of the sector is determined by the Engl of the Sector, AOB, or by the length of the ac. Quadrant. If the angle ofthe sector is aright angle, the sector becomes a quadrant. Tn Fig. 119 the shaded sector is a quadrant. If two diameters be drawn at right angles, such as AC and BD, the circle is divided into four quadrants. Semicirele, Tf the angle of the sector be 180", the sector becomes a semi-circle, 4, half a circle, as ABC in Fig. 119. A-semi-cirele thns contaiis two quadrants. An important ractical example is the semi-circnlar protractor (see ig, 21), “Ghord. The straight line which Joins the ends of an a TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY arcofa circle Is aed a chord, Tn Fig. 120, AC ina chord Of the exe an which ABC isan arc “its algo a chord of the are ADC. ‘A dlameter isa chord which passes through the centre. 122. Length of the circumference ofa circle. The length of a exrve obviously cannot be obtained in theme iy a8 tn of he Hey ao Straight edge or ruler,” Hence, other tDetlods must be found, “Te length ofthe circumference of ca cirdeis's matter of great import thee, if only for practial porpones {To cbiain an exact formula forts Calculation ‘we nequire more d= Sanced mathemati: than i possible A ini Bink, bat an spproniation fe eae femal yeah Chord tethods, sich as the following. Be ‘Wind'a ‘stout. thread "round. a smooth. cylindcal tn or Bottle, or some similar object of wich the section is» circle. Tt is fitter to wind 4 exacly ound faree or four times, so That ox average canbe falen Unvind the thread and tmeasuring the tured by a ruler the length of ne round, Of the ceummference can be found, Evidenty this length wl vary with the ameter of hecirle, so the next problem Will be to find the relation betwoen them. ‘The diameter an be measured by means ofa ruler care being taken to so fat the line ensured pases tongh the conto the cc ‘This can be done more satsfactonly inthe ace of jar or ti y the as of calpr ot by plang the Gres obit tn i side-on the table between two smooth rectangle Blocks, taking care that fhey are parallel The distance between the blocs is evidently the Gameter of the crcl. rom those measurements the racio of the length of the circumference to that of the diameter maybe found. Feet to-do this"wth sven objects of varying diameters, and then fake the average of the results Two Conclusions wil be spparets THE CIRCLE. ARCS, CIRCUMFERENCE, AREA 4s (1) The value of the ratio peonere allowing for errors of measurement, Is found to be the same in all cases. t ce eens and d = diameter. Tae ci eneae cael @) This constant number will probably be found by the above experiment to lie between 3:1 and 32. If this constant ratio can be determined accurately we have a rule by which the length of any circumference can be found when the diameter is known ‘The problem of finding the ratio exactly has exercised aathenaticansfor many centuries The Egyptians arived at fairly good approximations and the Greeks at more exact ones. Modern mathematics has, however, found ‘method by which it can be calculated to any required degree of accuracy. Its value to 7 places of decimals. is 31415027.” This is universally denoted by the Greek letter (pronounced * pie”) Thus x = 31415027... to 7 places. For practical purposes it is usually sufficient to take S146, ‘A less accurate value is 9, i 4A. elma th B08. Ge ler int 1 be so used in lations the accuracy of the results cannot, in general, depended apo 8 “accurate for more than two significant ures. The value 4 wil be sufficient for questions, unless otherwise stated. ‘Using this symbol, the results reached above can be expressed in a formula; Let Cm of circumference. 4 length of diameter. fore Cl Thea $== us TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY or Cand or since d=% C= nr. 123. To Find the Length of an-Are. ‘The length of an arc of a circle, given the angle subtended by it at the centre, can readily be g calculated from that of the whole rcumference by making use of the ‘geometric theorem of § 120, viz.: ‘Arcs are proportional’ to. the angles they subtend at the centre, Fig. 121 the arc AB beats the same ratio to the whole circumference that the angle subtended by AB at Foi. the centre, viz., AOB, bears to a complete rotation, 360°. Lat a = length of arc, 7 = radius of circle, 4° = angle subtended at the centre by AB in degrees, ‘Then as stated above: ty 7 300" Le dm gpy X er. For example, if an aro subtends 72° at the centre of a circle of radius 2 em: 72 ‘Then, length of are = guy X 2m X 2 dr _ 4 x 31416 Bre = 251 cm approx. 124, The Area of Circle ‘Areas bounded by regular curves are, ia general, not easily calculated, except by methods of advanced mathe- inatics, ‘The problem of finding the area of crc {3 no THE CIRCLE. ARCS, CIRCUMFERENCE, AREA 147 exception to this, Tt was one of the most famous of geometrical problems for centuries, but was never solved Satisfactorily until modern mathematics found means of obtaining the area of any figure bounded by a regular carve. This method is beyond the scope of the present volume, ‘As was the case with the circumference, however, there fare methods by which the area can be determined ap- proximately, and one of these is given below. In the circle drawn in Fig. 122, 4B, BC, CD . . . are A Fre. 122, the sides ofa regular polygon inscribed in the circle; centre Oy and radius 7. The ares corresponding to these sides are equal. “The angular points 4, BC. © ae joined tothe centre, thus forming’ series’ of’ equal isosceles triangles, GAB, OBC,OCD . (106). Selecting one of these As, OAB, draw OP perpendicular to AB. This is the altitude or height of the triangle, and n each triangle there is a corresponding equal altitude, Let op ‘Then area of AOAB ‘area of AOBC x and ‘area of AOCD = CD x h. 4s TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY apSitiaty forall such 4 corresponding to other sides of polygon. Taking the sum of these areas AOAB + AOBC 4 OCD +... = }4B + BC ¥eD..) xh = perimeter of polygon} x # . (A) ‘Suppose the number of sides of the polygon to be great! increased, Then the ‘umber of “goscles. tlangles Se increased correspondingly. The result (A) above remains true, however many may be the number of sides. The ‘more they are, the smaller become the sides of the polygon fand the corresponding ares of the crcl. ‘Thus, the greater the number of sides, the more nearly true aré the following: : (1) The sum of the sides of the polygon becomes apposite ots crcunfernce a} be cle {2) The sum of the areas of the triangles. becomes imately equal 1 the area of the erale. "Pay a become approximately epual fo. The differences may be made as small as we choose, by t continuing to increase the number of sides. i, But alt A above connec be rues ‘ultimately, ft may be a , approximately, ‘Ares of circle — flcircumference) te ; But ciscurference — 2er. Crates of dle = § ¥ Bot X or ‘Area = rf, ' This formula may also be expressed in terms of the iF diameter. a: . F it 4 = diameter ; aoa. ret s ii ‘Substituting in the formula aboves A “ Area = Te THE CIRCLE. ARCS, CIRCUMFERENCE, AREA 49 125. Area of a Sector of a Circle. __ Asin the case of the length of an arc, the area of a sector is proportional to the angle subtended at the centre by the <. iix® = angle of the sector, ‘Area of sector = 355 x 31 @bxercise 13 1. In a circle of S-em radius, find the lengths of: (0) the drcunfeences the ae ofa quan; (¢) an aro subtending an angle of 00 (é) an are subtending an angle of 45° (x = 3-416). 2. A circle of radius 4 om passes through the vertices of fan equilateral triangle. ind the lengths of each of the ‘aes opposite to the sides. '. The diameter of the halfpenny was exactly ond inch. ind (0) ie leg of ts Greufrence, G9 Hae 4 In a circle of radius 5 cm find the lengths of the arcs which ‘subtend at ‘the centre the following angles: 30°, Tho*, 135° 5. Through what distance does a point at the end of the minute hand of a clock, 8-7 cm long, move between five minutes past three and a quarter to 6. A pendulum, consisting of a small leaden bob, at the end of @ piece of cotton 4 m long, swings 25° on each side of the vertical. What is the length of the path traced out by the bob on a single swing (= = 24)? 7. Find the length of the circumference of a circle the area of which isthe same as that of @ square of 3 cm side, 8, Tt was required that the atea of the ground covered by ihe circular base of a tent should be 100m,» What ust be the diameter of the base? 9. A’ wire 16 cm long is bent round to form a circle. What is the area of the circle? 130 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY 10, Find the areas of the following sectors: (2) Radius 8 cm, angle of sector 60°; () Radius 2-8 em, angle of sector 25°; (c) Radius 0 em, angle of sector 140°; {) Radius 22 cm, angle of sector 246", 11. A searchlight a little above the level of the water of 1 haibour can turn its rays through an angle of 210°. Tt the greatest datane a which objects can be clearly seen by dhe hep of t's 1000 m, what i the aren ofthe surface of the water within which objects can be seen? CHAPTER 17 CHORDS AND SEGMENTS 126. Chord and Segment. ‘A chord of a circle has been defined in §121. Tt may. also be described thus: If a straight line cuts a circle, that part of it which lies within the circle is called a chord of the circle. A chord divides a circle into two parts, which are called segments, in Fig. 123 the chord AB divides the circle into the two segments APB, AQB. Unless the chord is a dianieter one of the seg- ments is greater than a semi-circle, and is called a major segment as QB in Fig. 123. “The other is less than a semicircle ‘and is called a minor segment, as 7 we encore wn we OL a described as major and minor arcs. The following theorems concern~ ing chords are of considerable im- portance. 127, Theorem. The perpendicular bisector of a chord of a circle passes through the centre. _[nFig 124A is chord of the crcl APB, Dis the centre of the cho fs perpendicular to AB. Tos ieiseoreeed to ors taut FU net eae eo the centre 0. "Proof. PO being the perpendicular bisector of AB. It must be the locus of all points equidistant from 4 and BGI). Fre. 128, 151 12 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY But OA = OB since 0 is the centre, s+ O must lie on PQ. 128, To find the distance ofa chord from the centre of a circle. In the circle ABC (Fig. 125) AB is a chord of known length. e NTP a Fro. 124, Fro. 125, From the centre 0 draw OP perpendicular to AB. ‘The length of OP is the distance of the chord AB from O. To find the length of OP. Join 04, 0B. ‘AOAB is isosceles. g; Perpendicular OP bisects the base AB (62 cor. 3. ‘OPB, in adres, OP? + PB — OB* ras). poe Cee ay Whence OP can be found. ‘Employing algebraic symbols. Let Then Let CHORDS AND SEGMENTS 153 129, Results (A) and (B) above lead directly to the following theorems. Theorem. Equal chords in a circle are equi- distant from the centre. Th the circle ABC (Fig. 126), AB and DE are equal chords, Los z ee Fe, 126, Required to prove: The distances from the centre, OP and OQ, are equal. ‘From (A) in §128 OP? + PEt = OB* co from (B) in § 128 P4EPar (osing the same letters as in § 128). Now PB or Lis fixed, and OR or ris fixed. ©. OP or h must be Axed, wherever the equal chords are decom, 12, OP = 09 and the two chords ere equidistant ‘The converse theorem is obviously true, viz.: Theorem. Chords of a circle which are eq distant from the centre are equal. 130. From Results (A) and (B) of § 128 the following theorem is readily deduced. 14 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY Theorem. The greater of two chords in a circle is nearer to the centre than the lesser. In the circle ABC (Fig. 127) the chord DE is greater {han AB. "OQ and OP are ie corresponding distances from he contre. Required to prove: Proof As before, OP 4 PBR Op... UN es Btpom | i 1a theres rerun the same for ll hors OP > 09. ec. 127, Fie. 128, equation (B), if be inereased, will diminish, and vice’ versa, ~’. for the chords AB and DE, since QD > PB 2. 09<0P, s.e,, DE is nearer to the centre than AB. ante converse ofthis lo follows from sila reasoning to 1BL. Construction No. 11. To find the centre of a given circle. ee 128) is a circle of which it is required to find CHORDS AND SEGMENTS 155 Construction. Draw any two chords, AB and CD. Draw the perpendicular Bisectors of each chord, viz, oP and 00, ia 0. iis the required centre of the circle, or prpendilar bisector of AB posses throngh Also the perpendicular bisector of CD passes through the . the point which Is common to both, viz. © must be the centre. @ Exercise 14 1. The diameter of a circle is 5 cm long, How far from the centre is a chord which is 4 em long? 2. A chord of a circle is 8 cm long and itis 8 cm from the centre. » What is the length of the diameter? 3. Th a circle whose radius is 13 cm, a chord is drawn cm from the centre. Find the length of the chord. 4, Find the distance between two parallel chords of a circle which are 24cm and 10 cm in length. The radius of ‘the circle is 13 cm. 5. Ais point on the circumference of a circle centre 0. Two equal chords AB and AC are drawn. 4 is joined. Prove that OA bisects the angle BAC, 6. A straight line cuts across the circumferences of two concentric circles (21), XY is the chord so formed of the larger circle, and 4B is the chord of the smaller circle, Prove that XA = BY. 7. Ina citole of radius 5 cm a number of chords of length @ cin are drawn, Find the locus of their mid-points. 8, AB and XY, are parallel chords in a circle. Show that the arc AX equals the arc BY. 9, Draw a circle round @ penny and find its centre, Measure its diameter. 10, Draw an equilateral triangle of 6 cm side, Draw the circumscribing circle and measure its radius. CHAPTER 18 ANGLES IN SEGMENTS 132, Angle in a Segment. (On the are of the major segment of the circle in Fig. 129, any point C is taken and joined to 4 and B, the points in ‘which the chord of the Segment meets the circumference, ‘Then the angle ACB Is called the angle In the segment. It is said to be-subtended by the chord 4B. Similarly, if & point D be taken in the minor segment the angle ADB is the angle in that segment _ It will be observed that the angle ina major sogment is an acute angio, iil the angle in the minor segment is obtu The angle ACB is also called the angle subtended at the circumference by the arc ADB, while the angle AOB is called the angle subtended at the centre by the arc ADB. ‘There is a very important relation between these angles which is expressed in the following theorem, Fe, 130, 133, Theorem. The angle which an arc of a circle subtends at the centre is twice that sub- tended at any point on the remaining part of the circumference. (1) TE the centre 0 lies within the angle APB (as Fig, 180) and (2) if O les without the angle as Fig. 131. Construction, In each case join PO and produce it to ‘meet the circumference again in Q. 156 There are two cases: ] ANGLES IN SEGMENTS 357 Proof \st case. In A04P, 04 =OP. cl LOAP = ZOPA. Pp qi \p x a ls a Fre, 190, Fre. 131 Butexterior 2409 = sumof interior Zs04P, OPA (560). 2400 = twice ZOPA. Similarly from the AOBP. "2800 ~ twice £OPB, 2409 + 2600 = tks (Zork + 2oPD), a ZAO8 = ewe LAPD. ‘2nd ease (Fig. 131). Sin ee tac re! " 2008 = ewe 2OPB, aM See ae eer ESE ‘Subiracting ZAOB — twice APB. (A 3rd case arises when the angle J APBisan obtuse angle, Le, tt an arlene minor segment and stands n'a major are. ‘The angle at the Centre, AOR, is now a reflex angle. a he proofs snlar to the foregoing. Joinhg P to O and producing {0 @. i is proved, es before, that 409 = tie and Zh08 = ive ZAP, adding, reflex ZAOE twice ZAPB. 158 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY 134, Angles in the Same Segment. Tn defining an angle in a segment ” ( 192) it was stated “any int ‘is taken”. The observant student will grctaal fave wonder hn he term the al he Eegment” should be employed, since there is‘no iit ihe number of points that may be taken and so no init to the number of'angles. In Fig. 198 three points C, D, E fe taken and three corresponding angles fommed, But Since, as proved in §193, te angle at the centre AOB is Fre. 188. Fro. 19. double any angle in the segment, because any angle was taken in the proof, it follows that all the angles in the segment must. be equal. This striking and important fact may be embodied in a theorem, as follows: Theorem. Angles in the same segment of a circle are equal. 135, A special case of this theorem is contained in the following theorem. Theorem. The angle in a semi-circle fs a right angle. Tn this ease the segment is a semi-circle, and therefore al the angles in the semi-circle are oqual.” That they are ‘ight angles follows from the fat thatthe angle atthe centre ANGLES IN SEGMENTS 159 in this case, AOB, Fig. 134, is a “straight” angle, é., ‘equal to ewo right angles. ‘Hence, the angle ACB, being a half of this, isa right angle. This theorem can also be proved very simply as follows: join OC. hen 04 =0C e. also OB = 06. Z0CB. % ZOAG's ZOBC = ZACB. ‘But since the sum of the angles of a triangle is two right angles. ZOAC ZOBC LOCA 2 ZACB muse be a righe angle. Note This theorem shoyld be compared with the explanation of “an angie in a segment " (§ 182). 2 136 Quadrilateral need i sce, The flowing very important theorem also" is easily” prove ‘Theorem of § 133. pea ted Theorem. The sum of the opposite angles of a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle is equal to two right angles, i.e., the opposite angles are supple- mentary. In Fig. 135, ABCD is a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle. as Fra 195, Then 24+ LC =2right Zs and’ 2B LD =2 right Zs. Proof. Join O to Band D. ZBOD|x) =2ZBCD, (§ 133) and reflex ZBOD()") =22BAD. (4133) PRE tig a ethane 5 5 oP Te Sh ORT NS ty tet Tae 160 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY ‘. ZBOD + reflex LBOD = twice (ZBCD +- ZBAD), but ZBOD(x") + reflex ZBOD(y*) = 4 right angles, 1. ZBCD + LBAD = two right angles. Similarly by joining O to A and C it may be shown, LB -+ LD =2 right angles. @kxercise 15 1. In a circle of 6 cm radius cut off a segment which ‘contains an angle of 40°. ‘2. On a straight line 2 cm long describe a s circle which shall contain an angle of 60°. length of the radius of the circle? '3. A triangle ABC is inscribed in a circle, centre 0. - The ZAOB = W", ZAOC = 120". Find the angles of the Gang! . OP = . O mst lic on the bisector of the ZPCO (§ 180). Similarly, 0 mmast lie on BO, the bisector of the ZRBQ. Tt mast also lie on AO, the bisector of the ZRAP. he three bseetors of the angles at A, 8 and C must be’concurrent and OP if @ circle be described with O as centre and one of ‘these as radius it must touch the three sides of the 4 at P,Qand R. 14, Angles made by a tangent with a chord at the point of contact. isa tangent to the circle ABC (Fig. 142). From the pe ieble| int of connect 4, chord ABs ww dividing ‘the cirele into ‘bro segments, ABC (major seg- ment) and ABD (minor segment). Tha chord atthe pint of en: tact makes two angles with the tangent, BAQ and BAP. ‘Wher conidriag the 2540, the segment which lies on the ther side of the chord AB, ie, the major segment ACB, is caled the alternate segment corresponding to this angle. Similarly, if we are considering the ZBAP the alternate Fic. 142 segment corresponding to it is the minor, #.., the segment ~ BDA. ‘The following theorem shows an important connecting link between either angle and its alternate segment. 144, Theorem. The angles made by a chord of a circle with the tangent at an extremity of it are equal to the angles in the alternate segments. In Fig. 143 PQ is a tangent to the circle ACBD and AB 4s a chord drawn from the point of contact. TANGENTS TO A CIRCLE 167 Dri i shat ANC! Then ZACB i an ang agen wai corresponding to ZBAG. meee Required to prove: (1) 2B4Q = ace, Note—It must be remembered that Z ACB is equal to any other ‘angle which ‘may be draw in the segment ACB (Theorem, § 130), zat proved for CAC ale ve forty oder angle Semect ve 14, Proof. BAQ + CBAC = a right angle ao. ZBCA + ZBAC = a night angle (ince ZABC, being the angle in a semicircle, isa right ingie. = Subtracting ZBAC trom each: ¢ LBAQ— ZBCA. (2) Let the point D be taken inthe minor segment. ZBDA is the angle in the corresponding alternate seg- meeBPA Js the ang ie corresponding alternate seg. it is required to prove ZPAB = ZBDA. two right angles ZEDA + ZBCA = two right angles. (§ 136) But ZBAQ was proved equal to ZBCA (Ist part). * 2PAB= ZBDA. 168 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY @kxercise 16 1. PQtsa straight line which lies without the circle ABC. ‘Show how to draw a tangent to the cirele which is parallel (0 79." How many sch tangents can be drawn? 2. Tn a circle of fadius 8 cm construct a triangle with all its vertices on the circumference and having two ofits angles ‘0° and 70" '3. The radius of a circle is 8 cm, From a point 5 em fem the cntre a tangent drawn fo the cle Find the of this tangent. ee tne ral of bvo concentric circles are 8 cm and 4 cm, ‘A chord of the outer circle is a tangent to the inner one. Find the length of the chord. ', In a cirele of 8 cm radius find the locus of the centres, of chords of the circle which are 4 cm long. 6, The angle between two radii ofa circle, OA and OB, is 100%, From A and B tangents are drawn meeting at T” Find the angle between the tangents. 7 Prove that tangents to a circle at the extremities of any chord make equal angles with the chord. 3. “Tivo circles are concentric, Prove that the tangents drawn to the inner circle from any point on the circum ference of the outer circle are equal in length, ‘. Find the locus of the ends of tangents of the same hh which are drawn to.a fixed circles 0, Find the locus of the centre of circles which touch a fixed straight line at a given point. TI, Find the locus of the Centres of circles which touch ‘ovo intersecting straight lines. Te. Construct a triangle with sides $ cm, 4 em and 6 em fn length. Then draw the inscribed circle, CHAPTER 20 SIMILAR FIGURES. RATIO IN GEOMETRY 145, Similar triangles. When the conditions under which triangles are con sgruent were examined (647) it was pointed: out that {Elangles with all Uree corresponding angles equal were ot nce congroet. Fortis be the case at east tne pair of corresponding sides must also be equal. Tht Fig. 1 are three triangles with corresponding angles eee Rio, 144 ‘equal. The three triangles are of different sizes, but of the same shape. They are copies, one of another, on different scales Such triangles are called similar triangles, _ In Fig. 149 is indicated a method by which a number of similar triangles can readily be drawn. op Beg Operecneas Fro. 45, Poo mscy neue aie eee ee ee 70 saT sae 4040 a had ome by cami ay a eter mepesniametnnnemenines 1 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY FE, HG... parallel to AB and intersecting OP as shown, {ine forming ‘As ODG, OFE, OHG.- <= ‘The parallel straight lines AB, CD, EF, GH . . . being cat by the transversal 0Q the corresponding angies at 5, D,F,H .. . are equal. ‘Similarly, the angles at A, C, E, G . 4s OAB, OCD, OEF, OGH angles equal. «they are similar triangles. Triangles which thus have corresponding angles equal are sald to be equiangular to one anothe ‘Hence, the definition of similar triangles may be stated thus: Triangles which are equiangular to cach other are called similar triangles. 146, Ratios of Lengths. Tnarihmetwe er Sa one method of comparing ve antes in ro ir magaitude is to express them he form of a fraction, the numerator and denominator tf which state tesize ofthe quantities measuredin suitable nd the sameunits, This fonmof comparison is calla rato. "Hence, wen we speak of the raio of two straight lings «are equal. ‘have corresponding ‘we mean the ratio of the numbers which express the measures Of their lengths in terms of the same unit. Similarly, by the ratlo of the areas of two triangles we mean the ratio ‘of the numbers which express these areas in the same square units. 147, Ratios of the Sides of Similar Triangles. Fig. 146 shows a number of similar triangles constructed as in Fig. 145, but the distances OB, BD, DF, FH are equal. ‘Since the straight lines AB, CD, EF, GH are then the lengths of O4, AC, CE, FG are equal @ ‘vein the similar As OAB, OEF. ‘ig,, these sides are proportional. SIMILAR FIGURES, RATIO IN GEOMETRY 271 ‘Again, In the similar 4s OGH, OEF. OH _4 4 0G_4 Also, by drawing straight lines EK, CL, AM parallel to 00 it may be shown that: EF _OF_3 AB~ 0B ~T GH _oH_4 EF ~ OF ~3 Snalar coalosons muy bo rested wifi respect fo obier and P Boge Rng ic. 140, pairs of the four triangles in the figures. Hence, it is Fethcable to Gavhar all the abe pat ana results that! The corresponding sides of similar triangles are In the same ratio, Le., the sides are proportional. For example, in the similar As ABC, DEF in Fig. 144, AB _BC_ AC DE~ EF~ DF on TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY SIMILAR FIGURES. RATIO IN GEOMETRY 373 148. Fixed Ratios Connected with Angles. from the vertex, intercepted on the other arm, (The eangent. There is a special cae of the above is constant for the angle. | coecluens giGh in ck ery tat racseallaportanes Tila consant ratio i calod che cangen of che angle eae ne ee Take a series of pan 4, G,£, G on one arm OP and ‘Tims, in Fig. 147, Sa draw AB, CD, EF, iiar to the other arm 09. ABCD OEF tanFog = 42 03 EF as very ange has its own partcolar tangent and can be Sanayi Tans are nstacted ging ite tages of angles between 0 and 90°, so that when the tangent is narra Snip seep a econ aa For the further treatment of this Trigonometry should be consulted. ms 2) ‘Nole—The term tangent 28 used above must not be confused swith the tangent to a eieie av defined ta Chapesr 19. | ‘These straight lines are parallel, (2) The sine and cosine. 7H perp Hence the As OAB, OCD, OEF, OGH are similar, and Two other constant ratios connected with an angle are the eos of conesponding ses ae equal given by taking the ratios of each of the sides, In turn, Sa anes sonealning the Fight angle, to the hypotenuse. AB_CD_EF _GH ‘In Fig. 147 the ratio of the side opposite the angle to 0B ~ OD~ OF = OH" tpe hypotenuse is the same foreach ofthe triangles formed. ‘No matter how many perpendicalars are drawa, all such cay eee ratice for chs angle, POO are equal. oan § ~bE- oe ee: With AB, CD, EF, GH as the perpendiculars, the distances 0B, OD, Ok, Oi can be spoken: of as the distances inter- ‘This ratio is called the sine of the angle (abbreviated to ales “my ils Bes OS Sy (eigmr cia ee. perpendicular drawn from one arm_ A ~ OC ee. ‘istanco intercepted on the other arm ‘Also, the ratio of the side adjacent to the angle to the #, Saalditar thaingi POO: hypotenuse is the same foreach of the tangles. ‘The angle chosen was any angle, consequently a similar OB _OD__OF _ OH _ side adjacent conclusion can be reached for any other angle, +c, 0A OC = OE™ OC “hypotenuse” For any angle the ratio of the perpendicular ‘This constant ratio ig called the cosine of the angle, drawn from any point on one arm to the distance, abbreviated to “cos”. ie ee ™ TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY 0B _oD Thus 008 POQ = OF = OP etc. It will be noticed that since the hypotenuse is the greatest side ofthe triangle, both sine and coslne must be numerically jess than unity. ‘The tangent, however, may have any value. 149, Other Similar Figures, ‘The term “ similar”, in the sense it is used above, is not confined to triangles, All rectilineal figures, with the same number of sides, may be similar, provided that they eonform to the nectssary conditions ‘stated above for triangles, vi (a) All corresponding angles must be equal. (b) Corresponding sides must be proportional. In the case of triangles, if (a) is true, (8) must follow, as wwe have seen, so that it is suficient to know that triangles are equiangalar to one another. But with other rectilineal figures both conditions must be satisfied, before it can be eral io. 148, said that they are similar. If, however, they are equi- hate with equilateral triangles, the ratios of corre- sides are the same and corresponding angles must mes ser ne ta at eats Sa ee a oie atest saeee SIMILAR FIGURES. RATIO IN GEOMETRY 175 are similar, for the sides of B will be found to be one half the corresponding sides of C Regular polygons, such as hexagons, pentagons, ete, are similar, bot polygons whishare not regar may be silat only if conditions (a) and (2) are satisfied Generally when two figures are similar their “ shapes "* are the sano: one isa copy of the other on a diferent scale. All drawings and models, when not fall size, are drawn fo constructed to scale. When thus drawn or constructed they aresimilar. Angles are copied exactly and the ratio of corresponding distances is that of the scale employed, Tf, for example, a model is made on a scale of ah inch’ to @ yard, lengths in the model wil in all cases be gy of the orresponding length of the original ‘Pictures appearing on the ‘cinema screen are greatly enlarged coples of small photographs on the film, all parts bring enlarged inthe same ratio. The pictures are therefore ‘The picture of the west front of a cathedral shown in the frontispiece is similar in every detail to a picture of the same building which is ten times its size. Both are similar jn appearanes to the building itself, 150. Construction No. 15: To divide a straight line in a given ratio. Example: Divide the sraight tine AB (Fg. 19) inthe ralio of 3: Pp E Fro. 10, 16 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY ‘The solution of the problem depends directly upon Con- struction No. 9, § 87, First, divide 4B into (8 + 2) = 5 equal parts as follows. ‘From A draw AP at any convenient angle. ‘AP mark off with dividers 5 equal distances, JoinCB, From the points of division on AC draw straight lines parallel to CB to meet AB. ‘Then AB is divided into 6 equal parts. Let DE be the straight line joining the 3rd points from Aon AC and AB. Lot x be the length of each of the equal parts of AB. SIMILAR FIGURES. RATIO IN GEOMETRY 377 From the mth point of division on AC, viz. D, draw DE parallel toCB AD _m Then the ratioof — $P ‘ AE . the ratio of g " Corollary. Since ACB is a triangle it may be concluded. jn general that, if a straight line be drawn parallel to one of the sides of a triangle, It cuts the other two sides in ‘the same ratio. See Theorem in § 84, for a special case, Then AE = 3% and sore 151. Areas of Similar Figures. og a8 The areas of similar figures are proportional to the squares of corresponding sides. ‘The simplest example of this principle, and one with which the student is acquainted, is that of the square. If the side of a square is doubled the area is increased 4 times, ee ee ee se and. similar examples can ‘seen, observation of Fig. 90. i Tn general, if the side of a square be increased n times the area is increased n* times. ‘Again, the formula for the area of a circle, viz., A = indicates tht the areal proportional co the square of the radius. ‘Thus, if the radii of two circles are 7, and ry, 45. THEME line AB i dlvided a E inthe ratio of [Notetn pectce i i necessary to daw CB and DE only, The method may be generalised thus. Let it be required to divide the straight line AB (Fig. 150) in the ratio m:n. ‘Then ratio of areas = "at =" Area ofa triangle, In Part Ila geometrical proofs given of the theorem that “the areas of similar triangles are proportional to the squares of corresponding sides ” (ce ‘Theorem 64). Fro. 150. Drawing AP as before, mark off on it (w+ 1) equal divisions; be inal ene beng 6: oo Join cB. | ! us TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY @exercise 17 1. Ina AABC, PQ is drawn parallel to BC and cutting AB and AC in P and Q._ AB = 5 cm and AC =8 cm, Also, the ratio of AP: PB = 2:8. Find the lengths of AP, PB, AQ, OC. If PQ = 6 cm, find BC. 2, Od, OB, OC are the bisectors of the angles A, B, C of a AABC, 0 being their point of intersection. “From a it P on AO, PQ is drawn parallel to AB, meeting BO in ‘From Q, OR is drawn parallel to BC, meeting OC in R. PR. Prove that the 4s ABC and POR are similar. 3. In a circle two chords AB and CD intersect at 0. AO DO oy, ae CB are drawn. Prove 52 =". (Hint.—Join Di 4, Divide a straight line 8 cm long in the ratio 4: 3. 5, Trisect a line which is 10 cm long. If the perimeter of julateral triangle is 10 cm, construct the triangle. 6, The perimeter of a triangle is 14 cm and its sides are in the ratio of $:4:5, Construct the triangle. 7. Two 4s ABC, DEF are similar and the altitudes from A and D are3 cm and 4 cm respectively. If the area of the ‘smaller triangle is 22-5 cm, find the area of the larger 8 The area of one square fs twice that of another. Find the rato of ther side Equlaeral triangles are described on the side and diagonal ofa square. Find the ratio of their areas. 10. Consts an of 50°. From three points on to the other army” Hence, each cane the tangent of 8 and Bn Ue aerage ofthe en eae aay ne TT, Using the resus of 65101 and 1 sine, cosine and fangent of (1) 30% @) 60, (8) 45" CHAPTER 21 RELATIONS BETWEEN THE SIDES OF A TRIANGLE (This chapter may be omitted by beginners) 152. Extensions of the Theorem of Pythagoras. In Chapter 13 the very important law, known as the Theorem of Pythagoras, was established, in which is stated the relations which exist between the sides of a right- angled triangle. We now extend the investigations to A ascertain what similar laws connect the sides of tri: Ay angles which are not right angled, i, they are obtuse angled of nente-angled tri- anges, Fig. 151 ABC is a right-angled triangle, CB @ being the right angle. Fie. 151 , Demon thts in the “usual way by @ 8 ¢, then, by the Theorem of Pythagoras, re : " (0) Obeuseangled triangles, With C as contr and CA as radios, describe an arc of circle," On the same side as the right angle take « pot and join to 8 and C, He Bee are e 24 CB is ceary obtuse and the A4,BC obtuse: angled. Comparing the sides of this, triangle’ wit of the ABC itis Seen that — AC =AC. ‘BC is commen to each, but A,B is greater than AB. Denoting 4B by ghee, mast be greater thane eh> (at + 0, i»

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