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idiot suerte ea GEOMETRY
Higher Education Journal
P. Abbott
BALFirst printed in this form March 1948
Revised edition 1970
Third impression 1973
Fourth inpresion 1976
Fifth impression 1677
PREFACE
The primary object of this book is to provide an intro-
duction to the fundamental principles of Geometry suitable
for a private student, whether he be one who is desirous of
beginning the study of the subject or one who, after a com-
Capp © 1970 edition pulsory gap in his education, wishes to refresh his memory
Hodier and Stoughton Lint of previous studies.
The general plan of the book, modified in accordance
with its special purpose, follows, in the main, recommenda~
tions made some years ago by the Teaching Committee of
‘the Mathematical Association, of which committee the
Al rights reserved. No part of this publication may be writer was at the time the Hon. Secretary. Accordingly
reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, there isa frst part which is intended to lead the student to
electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, a realization of basic geometric truths by appealing to
or any information storage and retzieval system, without common sense reasoning and intuition. The usual proofs,
permission in writing from the publisher, when introduced are considerably modified, the formal
proofs in logical sequence being postponed to Part IT,
The use of geometry in our everyday life is constantly
indicated so that the student does not feel that the subject
is merely one of academic interest.
‘Very little “practical geometry,” involving drawing and
meastirements, is employed, as it is thought to be hardly
suitable to the kind of stndent for whom the book is written.
When, however, the theorems enunciated are suitable for
the purpose, a considerable number of numerical exercises
fare included, their main purpose being to impress the
‘theorems on the memory. Also such elementary mensura-
ttion as arises naturally from the geometry is introduced ~
am 0 390 05505 9 and the student thus acquires a knowledge of the ordinary
rules for the calculation of areas and volumes.
Printed in Great Britain 'No previous knowledge of Mathematics, beyond ordinary.
Jor Hodder ond Siglo Papas, dso
Hodde ndSghn Lt, Rod, Dein Gre, Sea, Ket
(Carl Oe; 47 Bf Su, Loon Wer DP)
Richard Ce (The Cher Pres) Lay Dang, Sale
Arithmetic, is required by a student who proposes to useof PREFACE
the book. It is desirable, however, from every point of
view that the student who possesses but litle knowledge of
algebra should begin his study of that subject concurrently.
At a later stage, Trigonometry should be started when the
student will begin to find himsolf weaving together threads
from all three subjects and realising their interdependence.
NOTE ON THE 1970 EDITION
This edition has been revised to cover the introduction
into Britain of SI (Systeme Internationale), the internation
Ally agreed metric gystem
two respects the book ignores SI. First, for various
reasons the centimetre is officially excluded from the units
available, but many eminent people have already objected
to this decision, and it is certainly true that it is more con-
yenient to handle centimetres when making constructions.
Secondly, we have completely ignored the use ofthe radian,
‘unt of angular mencure. Its sdvantages arenot apparent
{nthe earlier stages of mathematics and there are'ney many
Drotractors available marked in radians, and as with the
centimetre, it is more convenient in practice,
If the student does come across radians before being
introduced to them, he can convert them to degrees by
multiplying by 300/37.
CONTENTS
Introduction, What isGeametry? 5 ss
PART |
PRACTICAL AND THEORETICAL GEOMETRY
CHAPTER |
SOLIDS, LINES, POINTS AND SURFACES
Geometric figures. Solids, lines, points, plane
18
10
CHAPTER 2.
ANGLES
Adjacent, vertically opposite, rghit, cate, obtuse
‘Angles formed by rotation. "Geometric theorems,
feoaverse theorems, Angles ata point
Ea
CHAPTER 3
MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES
The cisco. Degrees, protractars, complementary
fand supplementary angles
CConservetion No.
Bxercise 1.
21-26,
38
CHAPTER 4
SIMPLE GEOMETRY OF PLANES
Planes. Angle between two planes, Vertical and
horizontal planes. Angles between a straight line
Gaal a plane) fe gee See
26-20.sist.
2849,
50-07.
5-01.
I os
CONTENTS.
CHAPTER 5
DIRECTION
Standard difections, Magnetic compass, Points
of the compan Beatty. Ale of ovation,
Altitade of the sum. . ae abies
Esorcise 2
CHAPTER 6
TRIANGLES
Rectilinoal Sgures. Perimeter. Triangles. Ex-
‘rior angles, Kinds of triangles. Altitude,
Medians, "Congruent triangles, Conditions of
compres 6 iy beg
Esorcise 8.
CHAPTER 7
PARALLEL STRAIGHT LINES
Distance betwoon parallel straight lines, Anglos
formed by ‘ransverals, Propertioe of parallel
straight lines. Conditions of parallelism
Construction No. 2.
‘To draw a parallel straight line,
Esorcise 4.
CHAPTER 8
ANGLES OF A TRIANGLE
Sam of angles of a triangle, Exterior and interior
MEE ORG sha eae
Baercise 6.
CHAPTER 9
ISOSCELES TRIANGLES
‘Relations between sides and angies . .«
Eserciee 6,
»
55
a
n
a
66-73.
187.
98-08,
90-108,
104-109.
0-119.
CONTENTS
CHAPTER 10
FUNDAMENTAL CONSTRUCTIONS
Nos. 3-8, Equilateral triangle; bisection of angle
andstraightline. Perpendicularstoa straightline
‘Exercise 7.
CHAPTER II
QUADRILATERALS. PARALLELOGRAMS
‘Propartios of parallelograms. Diagonala of quadsi-
laterals, Trapeslum, Intercept theorem,
Construction No, 9. Division of a straight line,
Esorcise 8,
CHAPTER 12
‘AREAS OF RECTILINEAL FIGURES
Meatuement of asa, Rectangle, progr,
‘langle, traperiam.
Exercise 9
CHAPTER 13,
THEOREM OF PYTHAGORAS
‘Connection between squares on sides of right-angled
‘aiangles. Application to square and equilateral
Riad atl POE ene
‘Exercise 10,
CHAPTER 14
POLYGONS
Angles of regular polygons. Circumseribing circles
‘Construction of palygoa « oe
‘Construction No. 10.” Regolar polygon.
‘Exercise 1h
CHAPTER 15
Loct
Construction of loci from given conditions, Loci
‘by plotting points; parabola; hyperbola
eycloid, Intersction of leds es
‘Exercise 12,
10
ne
ae
128120-135
120-101.
132-136,
145-161.
CONTENTS:
CHAPTER 16
THE CIRCLE
‘Arcs, sectors; length of circumference; area.
Exorise 13,
CHAPTER 17
THE CIRCLE (contd)
Chonis and segments. :
Construction No. II. Contre of «cil,
Exercise 1.
CHAPTER 18
THE CIRCLE (cont.)
Angles in sogments, Inscribed quadilaterals
Bxereie 1.
CHAPTER 19
CIRCLE. TANGENTS
‘Tangents to circles. Angles in alternate segments.
Constructions Nos. 12,13, 14. Drawing tangents
Exec 16,
CHAPTER 20
RATIO IN GEOMETRY. SIMILAR FIGURES
Similar triangles; ratios of sidos; fixed ration
connected with angles; tangeats, sins, cosines.
‘Areas of similar figures :
Construction No. 15, Division ofa straight tine
Exercise 17,
CHAPTER 21
EXTENSION OF THE THEOREM OF PYTHAGORAS
162-165,
‘olatons between the sides of any triangle. +
Exercise 18,
a
as.
156
10
169
10
161-104.
105-176.
176-184,
195-193,
CONTENTS
CHAPTER 22
SYMMETRY
Symmetry in geometrical Sgures. Axis of sym-
metry. Symmetry incurves see
Exercise 19,
CHAPTER 23,
SOLID GEOMETRY
CHAPTER 24
PRISMS
‘Regular prisms; cross sections, Cylinder; area of
‘urface of eylinder.' Volumes of prisms; volume
ofeyliader” « Since ascot
Esercise 20,
CHAPTER 25
PYRAMIDS
Construction of a pyramid. Regular pyramids.
Cones. Arca of surface of pyramids and cone
Volumics of pyramid and cone. Frusta.
Esercice 21
CHAPTER 26
SOLIDS OF REVOLUTION
Cylinder, cone, sphere as formed by rotation. The
farth ata sphere, Determination of postion on
he carth’s surface, Latitude and longitude
Surface and volume of aaphers ss
Esrcise 22.
188
190
183
2
anhn
2,
13,
4.
CONTENTS
PART I
Introduction —Nature of formal geometry
Subject. Theorem.
Angles at a point. Lae
Exercise 29
CCongruent triangles and exterior angles, 4, 6
Exercise 26,
Parallels oo
Exercise 2
Angles ofa triangle and regular polygon 10-12,
Exercise 2,
‘Triangles 17
(Congruent and isosceles)
‘Exercise 2
Inequalities. isa
Eserise 28,
Parallelograms, 22-26
(Gatereepts on parallel straight lines)
‘Exercise 29,
‘Areas of parallelograms. 20-32
‘Construction No. 16
Exercise 90.
Right-angled elanles. 20-36
Exercise 31.
Extensions of Theorem of Pythagoras, 35-26,
“Esercise 32,
Chords of creas s130
Esercise 23,
Angle propartes of circles. oar
Evercse 34,
Tangents to 8 cicl oo
(Constructions Nos. 17-19,
“Beercise 95,
‘Concurrencies connected with a rangle. 62-65
(lnseribed, circumscribed and escribed triangles)
Esercie 38.
235,
228
238
24
a9
258
263
208
260
a
276
285
205
Section,
6,
16.
CONTENTS
‘Subject. Theorems.
Ratio In Geomecry. coos.
Exercie 31
Constructions Nos. 20-22. ‘
(Proportional division of straight line)
Arrvone A Geom ropreentation of algy
‘balcal deatites :
Apraxore B. Sections of cones and cylinders.
‘Ampruss ie Pei scare ee
fe
300
338‘ABBREVIATIONS
The following abbreviations are used occasionally
‘throughout this book.
Sign.
>
=
4
a
4
sq.
‘gram
rect.
rt
Meaning.
is equal to.
is greater than.
is less than.
is parallel to.
angle,
triangle.
square,
parallelogram.
rectangle.
right.
therefore,
INTRODUCTION
WHAT IS GEOMETRY?
1. The Practical Origin of Geometry.
The word “geometry” is derived from two Greek
words, and means "earth measurement.” This suggests
that in its beginnings the subject had a practical basis,
with which the Greeks were familiar, Tt is known that the
Greeks did not originate geometry, but became acquainted
with the subject iron tha niece, with, the
tians, who, by tradition, were
sie. ‘i ints ahd eorda nat ht hs
ited race employed some of the principles of geomet
{tin surveying, tgetor with snp development,
a ae now includ in the subject of Trigonometry.
is practical application of geometry appears to have
originated tn the animal rcurreke of widespread foods in
tthe Nile valley. - These resulted in the obliteration of many
of the boundaries of private lands. Hence the necessity
of restoring them after the subsidence of the waters of the
‘er, "Originally the work was undertaken by the priests;
{o accomplish it they applied certain geometrical princ
tiany of whi thoy aSoubt dicots
eis also a fair assumption that the construction of their
massive temples, tombs and pyramids could scarcely have
‘been accomplished without a considerable knowledge of
geometry and mechanical principles.
2. The Development of Abstract Geometry by the Greeks.
It was, however, the abstract. conceptions and. logical
reasoning of geometry which made a special appeal to the
Greeks: to them, abstract reasoning of any Kind was con-
rial. _ Consequently, when philosophers geomet
ser sub et fol aud cai, ny te Sot saa
fied with the knowledge of some geometrical truth; they
sought for logical and incontrovertible proof of it.a INTRODUCTION
Gradually there came into being a considerable body of
geometric theorems, the proofs of which were known and
rere parts ofa chan of logical reasoning, ‘The proot of
any particular theorem was found to be dependent on some
other theorem or theorems, and logically could not be based
fn them unless the truth of these, in their turn, had been
established. Nothing was to be assumed, or taken for
granted, except certain fundamental self-evident truth
termed ‘axioms, which from their nature were usuall
Incapable of proof
Thus there gradually was established a body of geo-
‘metrical knowledge forming a chain of geometrical reasoning
in a logical sequence.
3. Euclid’s Sequence.
De etd ae
ferme gan cat Se Sot mating
erate cee see oe ee
Sy rere oa tee creed wa
fie et eel ute a See
ee eee ot peel Dt
ieee rn ean fxt oak on slenettan geoey
ete anata Zam exten to out oe Hc
cu tas ora Snr 3 ray of ot
ethene ounce ts abet or in dere
Thou ranches hoks is raring dep,
Sa ange ees detest:
opens renee octet creel ne oe
Sis ne tienen lant daa
Se nse emir fomeey
Pisin i caine al oa
4. The Practical Aspects of Geometry.
We have seen that in its origins geometry was essentially
@ practical subject. This aspect of it las of necessity
continued to be of increasing importance throughout the
centuries, since it is essential in all. dratghtsmanship
necescary in the work of engineers, architects, surveyors,
INTRODUCTION xi
Practical geometry, in this sense is mainly concerned
with the construction of what may be termed geometrical
Fyures, Some of the simpler of thee constrvetions have
always been included in the abstract logical treatment of
{he Subject, the accuracy of the methods employed being
proved thereialiy. Forexampl, i prctiel geomet
{fc may leam the mechanieal method of bsecting wstraighit
Tne, and go no farther. Bt the method is made evident
by theoretical geometry, and has been proved locally and
‘inclusively to produ the desired rest
‘knowledge of the fundamental principles of geometry
is aso necessary for the study of otfer branches of matho-
matics, such 26 trigonometry and. mechanics-subjects
ric are of vita importance to engineers of all ki
Yrellas fo those who are proceeding to more advanced work
in mathematics,
5. The Treatment of Geometry inthis Book.
Geometry may ths be treated from two aspects:
1) The practical applications of the subject, and
{3} Ae‘aPictbod OP trating in masher and
logical reasoning.
‘These are reflected inthe plan ofthis ook, which consists
of two parts:
Part 1, This will be concermed with the investigation
and sy of te salient fact of lementary gener,
practical methods, intuition and deduction being’ trely
Enployed to demonstrate their truth. It is designed t0
enable the student more easily, and with more understand
ing, to proceed toa full and logical treatment of the subject,
Part Il consists of a short course of formal abstract
geometry, Limitations of space do not allow of a full
treatment, but it is hoped that it will be sufficient to enable
‘the student to realise the meaning, and perhaps to feel
something of the satisfaction to be derived from the logical
‘completeness of mathematical reasoning, from which vague,
unsupported statements and loose thinking are excluded.PART I
PRACTICAL AND THEORETICAL GEOMETRY
CHAPTER |
SOLIDS, LINES AND POINTS
1. Geometric Forms and Figures.
1 is seldom realised to what an extent the terms and
facts of geometry are woven into the fabric of our daily
life, and how important is the part they play in our environ.
tne Such getmetrefermy as square rectangle erage
line, circle and triangle are familiar to everybody. Most
people realise what they signify, though ideas about them
Inay occasionally be vague and lacking in precision.
je are familiar also with the pictorial representation of
‘Oblong or Triangl Circle
Rectangle ge. :
Ret
these terms by means of drawings such as are shown in
Fig. 1. ‘These drawings we may call geometric figures.
They will be found very useful when examining and dis-
cussing the properties of the particular forms represented.
2. Geometric Figures and Solids.
Many ofthe geometric gures which we se aroand us are
sorfaecs of what are termed sold bodies, As an example
Cxamine the outside cover of an onfinary box of matches2 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
This bo ag sh sles or faces, each of which isan oblong
ot rectangle
‘This box may be represented by a drawing in two ways,
In Fig 2, it raw sowesee Owing the woot
Which the Box is composed, three faces only ofthe box are
Visible, "But for the examination of the fgure from the
int of view of geometry, it is usually drawh as shown in
Fig. 2().- There it is represented 26 though the solid
wero a kind of skeleton, constructed with fine wires, sp that
Bl the faces ean be seen. Thove which are actually hidden,
in realty, are represented by dotted lines,
Ta this form we ae better able to examine the construc-
tion of the body and to develop elations which exist between
parts of i Por example, attaching leters to the comers
(a) © (b)
Fw 2
Fete feetilo aoa a ans tes
ic BEE a ra aa it
ee ee a ce ee
BigP Least
We spoke shove ofthis asa solid body, and we must dwell
tr ment oth an whch te er Hed
emetry. Tn the ordinary way we mean by the term
Feat onebing which ctepat wh matin Bain
metry we are concerned only with. portion of
txcosed or bounded by surfaces, and are nat concerned with
She matter or material which at might oF might not contain
We think only of the abstract shape of the sli, Thus
4 slid tay om he fot st onc
ceived a occupying space, and the amound of tis space i
‘dlled ts volume, =
SOLIDS, LINES AND POINTS os
3. Surfaces, Lines, Points.
‘Examining in more detail the box represented in Fig. 2,
wwe note the following points: e
(1) The box i bounded or enclosed by sx faces or
sides, which we call surfaces
(2) Two adjacent faces meet in straight line, which
is called an edge. Thos the faces BED and’ FBCG
meetin the straight ine BC.” In the whole slid there
tre, tvelve of these
{@) The Intersection of ewo edges Is @ point. For
example, the edges AB and BC mect in a point which
is indicated by B ‘There are ‘eight ‘such. points,
commonly referred to as comers. ‘Each of thee also
ines he ering ito res edge The 8
marks the intersection of the edge BF with the edges
‘AB and BC.
4, Definitions.
In the preceding section three geometric terms occur:
surface, straight line, point. Tt is very important, when
geometric terms are employed, that we should be quite
clear as to the precise meanings which are attached to them,
Itis therefore, that such terms should be clearly
and accurately defined.
Before proceeding to deal with definitions of the terms
above, it is desirable that we should consider for a moment
what should constitute a clear and accurate definition. At
gate atage this wil be dealt with more flly, but it may
be stated now that definitions should employ no wor
which themselves require definition. Bucther, they should
contain no more words or statements than are'necessary for
‘accurate description.
There are terms in geometry, however, which describe
fundamental notions, for which no satisfactory definitions
have been framed, or are possible. They are terms for
which no simpler words can be found, and at the same time
ate so clearly understood by everybody that definitions are
not really necessary; there is no misconception as to theiree
Ps TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
meaning. Among such terms are those employed above—
vviz., points, straight lines and surfaces.
‘In the same category as these, are many other words
outside geometry in everyday use, such as colour, sweet,
noise and shape, which we cannot define by the use of
simpler words, but we know exactly what they mean,
In geometry, though we may not be able to define certain
terms, such as those employed above, it is necessary to
examine further the sense in which they are employed,
‘when they occur in the subject,
5. Points.
Tt was stated in §3 that the edges AB and BC of the box
meet in the point B. This means that the point B marks
the position in space where the straight lines AB and BC
meek Telstar act with allows io maria poston
on a piece of paper, or a map, or on a picture by maki
‘small dot, and we speak of that as showing some particular
position which we wish to indicate, Thus we may say that
A point indicates position in space.
Attoogh we make a sal dot, which x vibe to mask
4 particular position, in theory a point ha no size oF magn
tude. Sometimes, for various Teasons, we make’ siall
: 4 a
sn ai ae
es ©
(a) (b) Pa)
Fie. a
cross instead of a dot to indicate position, and in that case
the point lies at the intersection of the two lines forming
‘the cross.
In Fig. $ is shown the position of a point as marked by :
(a) The intersection of two straight lines, AB and
€D, at 0.
oval
SOLIDS, LINES AND POINTS oy
(@) The meeting of two straight lines, AB and OC,
ato.
(0) The meeting of two straight lines, 04 and OB,
at 0.
(d) The intersection of two curved lines, AB and
D.
‘The student should note the differentiation in the above
between a straight line and a curved line.
6. A Straight Line.
Teas stated inf that when two fags of thes inter
sected a straight line was formed, We were thus using
the term “straight line” before defining it. No confusion
‘or misunderstanding {s caused thereby, because everybody
Knows what is meant. by.
aight fine, though no sate
factory definition of it has been
formulated. " However, itis
necessary to investigate further
the term asi fs used in geome D
aay Bre. &
Straight lines occur inv:
many other ways besides the intersection of two faces of a
solid. They were employed, for example, in the construc-
tion of two of the geometric figures of Fig. 1. They enter
into the constructions of the majority of geometric
‘There is a further way in which the formation of a line
sngy be imagined,
spose point to move along the surface of the paper,
inspace, Te wil mark outa lie, which may be staig
or iregular, according to the manaer in which it
Tn Fig. let A and B be two points on the surface ofthe
per, Imagine a point at a to move to the postion B.
ere isan innumerable numberof paths which Ht may take,
such as those indicated by ACB and ADB.” These vary
in length, Dat we know itoitively that the most direct
way will’be along the straight line 4B, which joins the
points. Just as, if we wish to cross a field from one side» TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
to the other, the nearest and quickest way, other things
being equal, is along a straight path.
‘Thus we arrive at a description of a straight line as “the
shortest distance between te0 fonts.”
Te will be noted that this idea of a line being formed as
the path of a moving point is illustrated in drawing, when
the poine ofthe penell moves along the paper, either along
aa ruler or straight edge to produce stralght line, or guid
by the eompass to form a circle.
Tt was stated in § 6 that a point has no size or magnitude.
Consequently the sraight ne which marks the pal of @
moving foinl can have no wid, though, when draving.&
Tepresentation of it on paper a slight width is given to it,
{Ronde to make it vb to the eye z
Ie an, however; be measured tn ane way only Its
length. "Hence a line is said to be of one dimension only;
Ie has length without breadth.
‘Axioms about Straight Lines and Points.
‘The following axioms, or self-evident truths, will now be
clear to the student:
(1) One straight line only can be drawn to pass through
fe points.
(2) Teo straight lines cam intersect in one point only.
(3) Two straight lines cannot encase a space," Othe
wise, they must meetin more than one point
7. Surace.
Twas pointed out in §3 that the box which we were
considering-asalid--was mated of, or bounded, from the
Surrounding space by sx faces ot surfaces. This is true
forall sold; the space which they oospy is bounded by
‘Ac stated previously, “surface is another geometric
term which cannot be’ satisfactorily defined: but every
sent wil understand the meaning of You wate ob
Surface of a sheet of paper, you polish the surface of a
tabi you may observe the rate of the water in
tumbler
SOLIDS, LINES AND POINTS 25
Area of a Surface. If it is required to find the size or
‘magnitude of a given surface, as for example the page you
are reading, we must know both the length and breadth’
of it, since the size of it evidently depends on both of these,
This will be found to be true of the surfaces covered by all
regular geometricfigures; two measurements are necessary.
Hence a surface Is of two dimensions. Evidently thickness
of depth does not enter into the conception of a surface,
‘Theamount of surface covered by afigure such asa rectangle
or circle is called Its area.
8. Plane Surfaces.
Some saraes are pvety fat or Jee, auch as the
surface of the paper of which this s printed, or the top o
a polished table or the surface of stil water. D
ch surfaces are called plane surfaces, or, more briey,
planes, "No foal denim of «plane srace can
Even, but the meaning of a flat or level surface is perfect
clear to everybody. ne Le
sg is races ay be eve, sh a hat of the siden
‘jam jar, 2 biliatd ball ete, but for the present we are
hot onceraed with these.
“Test ofa Plane Surface. A plane surface could be tested
as follows:
Tf any boo points ar taken on the surface, th straight
i ore
Acting on this principle, a carpenter tests a surface, such
as that ofa plece of wood, which heis™ planeing "to produce
“level erties for able ete ee oP
‘This is clearly not the case with curved surfaces. Tf, for
example, you take a rubber ball and make two dots ofits
Surface some distance apart, iis obvious that the straight
line joining them would not le on the surface of the ball,
‘They can be joined by a curved line on the surface of the
ball ut that wil be discussed ina later chapter.
‘We shall rum t9 plane surface or planes later, but for
the present we shall proceed to diseusé figures which Ie ia
a plane. Such figures are called plane figures.CHAPTER 2
ANGLES.
8. When two straight lines meet they are said to form an
we may say that they include an angle.
This is «-saeement ofthe manner my which an angle is
formed; itis not a definition, and, indeed, no satistagtory
definition is possible. It is in-
B
fia pace bet ren twa into
ingest wwe have seen that two
Stioight nes counot cacaae 8
‘A Space.
stralzht tines whieh meet t0
form an angle are called the" arms” of the angle,
Vertex. The point where the two arms meet is called
fhe verter
of the two arms OA and O#, and O is the vertex.
Te fs evident that the sizeof the angle doesnot depend
ca: ha Log th eras thar wil ee soa thes
A, OB in Fig. 6 are produced. In making a drawing to
Ternain te same in size
Naming an Angle. When letters are employed to denote
an angle, itis usual to use three, as the (OB in Fig. 5,
the mile etter beng that which is paced at the vertex”
angle.
correct to say that the angle is
Fro. 6. ‘Arms of an Angle. The
In Fig. 5 AOB represents the angle formed by the meeting
scale, whether the drawing is reduced or enlarged, all angles
‘Then OA and OB represent the arms of the angle, When
there can be no doubt as to the angle referred to, the letter
at the vertex—0 in Fig, 5—is often used by itself to denote
the angle; thus, we may speak of the angle 0.
‘The phrase “the angle AB” may be abbreviated to
ZAOB or AOB.
6
ANGLES Bs
10, Adjacent Angles
When a straight line mets two other straight lines, ax
40 meets CO and DO in Fig 6, two angles ae ove
‘itn a common vertex O, Those anges 40D, 40G ae
galled aipcene angles I CO be profuced ty B, then Zs
; BOA are adjteent angles. "Soako are 2s 40D,
and the 2s COD, BOD. 38 oe
Defrition. Aigiss which have a common seer, one
>
A
ee
8 Lo,
Pat
Fie, 6.
common arm and are on opposite sides of the common arm,
‘Se called adjacent angles, i
‘When two lines intersect, as in Fig. 7, four pairs of
adjacent angles are formed.
11. Vertically Opposite Angles.
‘When two straight lines cut one another, as AB and
CD, which intersect at 0, in Fig. 7, the two angles AOD,
BOC are called vertically’ oppo
siteangles. Theother two angles rr
whihare formed—viz, AOC, D
ID—are also vertically oppo”
site angles, Such angles have a
common vertex.
5 0
12. Right Anges. Boe
When a straight line such as
AO meets another straight line BOC (Fig. 8) then, if the
‘adjacent angles are equal, cach ofthese Ys called a right angie
AO is then said to be perpendicular to BC, and BC is
perpendicular t0-40.+
{
j
3 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
13, Acute and Obtuse Angles.
In Fig. 8 the straight line OD is drawn to meet the
straight line BOC at 0, thus forming the angles DOC and
DOB with BC. Itis evident that of these two angles:
206 js less than aright angle, Tt is called an
acute angle.
ZDOB is greater than a right angle, and is called an
obtuse angle.
Hence the definition
‘An acute angle is less than aright angle.
An obtuse angle is greater than a right angle.
14, Angles Formed by Rotation.
‘There is another conception of the formation of an angle
shih eof grt importance in practical appitions of
tathematies
“Take a pair of compasses, and Keeping one arm fixed,
as Od in Fig. 9, rotate the other arm, OB, lowly. As the
moving arm rotates it forms with the xed arm a uooession
of angles which increase in magnitude. In Fig. aro shown
ANGLES 9
four of these angles, AOB,, AOBy, AOB, and AOBy. Con-
sidering these angles, it is'noted that:
In (a) the angle AOB, is an acute angle;
In (®) the angle 40B, is an obtuse angle, and
Tn (¢) the rotating afm is in the same straight line
with the fixed arm 04. Although this seems to be
inconsistent with the idea of an angle in §, neverthe-
less it is formed in the same way as the acute and
obtuse angles, and so AOB, must be regarded as an
angle, formed by rotation." This is sometimes called
a straight angle, and it will be considered again later.
(@) Continuing the rotation beyond the straight angle
a position such as 0B, is reached. Such an angle,
{greater than a straight angle, is called a reflex angle.
Te must not be confused with the acute angle which
is also formed with G4. "Cleary he angle which is
meant when we speak of ZA0B, fon the
direction of the rotation. This i indicated by ‘an
arrow on the dotted curve. Ttis therefore important
to know the direction of the rotation before we can
be sure which angle is referred to.
15. Clockwise and Anti-clockwise Rotation.
‘The formation of by rotation may be illustrated
by the familiar example of the hands of a clock, If the
rotation of the minute hand be observed, starting from
twelve o'clock, all the above angles, acute, obtuse, straight
and reflex, will be formed in turn. For example, a straight
angle has’been formed with the original position at half
past twelve.
__ Iewill be noted, however, that the direction of the rotation
is opposite to that indicated in Fig. 9. This movement is
from left to right, wheres the minute hand moves right 9
When the direction of the rotation is the same as that
of the hands of a clock itis called clockwise, but when in
the opposite direction, anti-clockwise. Thus if the angle
40 ig (2 sored iy cocorse rotation tf an
acute angle, if by anti-clockwise, refiex..
> TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
‘Mathematically, anti-clockwise rotation is conventionally
regarded as a standard direction and considered to be
positive, while clockwise rotation is considered as negative.
16, Rotating Straight Lines.
‘We must now proceed to examine the idea of rotation
{in the abstract by imagining the rotation of a straight line,
‘Suppose a straight line G4 (Fig. 10) to start from a fixed
position to rotate in the plane of the paper about a fixed
B 8
& oO
(@) (8)
nt O on the line, the rotation being in an anti-clockwise
rection,
‘When it has reached any position such as OB (Fig. 10 (a)),
an angle AOB has been formed by it with the original position
04.
‘Thus we have the conception of am angle as Bing formed
‘by the rotation of a straight line
athout a fixed point on ib, which
& 8 Becomes the vertex of the angio
(x CY niacin conti to
(xx ctu poraisaciaa DC ip
Al JA 10 (6)), an obtuse le, AOC, is
Cay feel a eeneceatee ie ad
tinued, the positionOA ‘is reached,
in which 4, 0, A” are in the same
5 straight lin,
Fee, 11. ‘A “Complete Rotation. Con-
Suing te rotten, a slows
in Fig. 11, the straight line passes Urough a postion such
OD, ani finaly returns to Od, Uh postion rom which
iE started. The feraight line has chus made a complete
ANGLES *
rotation or revolution about the fixed point O whieh is the
centre of rotation.
‘A Half Rotation. It is evident that when the position
0A” is reached the rotating line has moved through half a
complete rotation. OA and OA” are now in the same
straight line. | Hence the name straight angle (14).
Reflex or Re-entrant Angle. When the rotating line
reaches a position such as OB, shown in Fig, 12—that is,
‘between a half and a complete rotation—the angle so
formed is a reflex or re-entrant angle. The dotted curve
and arrows indicate how the position has been reached
(see $14 (a)
‘Angles of Unlimited Size. The student will probably
J
ie. 12, Fe. 13,
have noticed that the rotating line, after describing a
complete rotation, may continue to totate. In dain,
it will pass again through all the positions indicated in
Figs. 11 and 13 and go on to make two complete rotations,
In this way the minute hand of a clock makes twenty-four
complete rotations in twenty-four hours, while the hour
hand makes two complete rotations in the same period.
Clearly there is no limit to the possible number of rotations,
and therefore, from this poitt of view, no limit to the
17, Right Angles and Rotation. ‘The conception of an
angle as being formed by-rotation leads to a convenient
‘method of describing a right angle.
Let the straight line OA (Fig. 13) describe a complete|
2 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
rotation as indicated by the dotted curve. In the position
OC, half a complete rotation has been made (§ 16).
Let OB be the position half-way between OA and OC.
‘Then with equal amounts of rotation the two angles AOB,
BOC will have been described.
Hence the angles AOB, BOC must be equal and are
therefore right angles (§12).
‘Similarly, considering the position at OD, half-way in the
rotation from OC onward to O4, the angles COD and
‘AOD must also be right angles, and BO and OD must be
in the same straight line.
‘Thus a complete rotation covers four right angles and a
half rotation two right angles. Or the straight angle 40,
(OC equals two right angles.
From the above the following axiom relating to right
angles is self-evident.
‘Axiom. Ail right angles are equal.
18. Geometric Theorems.
Nave nts revo etn at i gh
ine, OA (Fg. MH), rotates through an angle, OB, an
i ‘then continues the rotation
through he angle BOC 30
$ ‘that it is in a straight line
swith its initial postion 04, it
& Tins completed a hallrtatip.
Consequently the sum of the
¢ 3 "two angles must beewo right
are angles (17). The angles
AOB, BOC areadjacent angles
(§10)—, they are the angles made when OB mests AC.
Fhe concision reached may be stated more concisely as
follows:
Ifthe straight line OB meets the straight line AC at O,
the sum of th
Fight angles.
"This ta statement ofa geometric fact, and when expressed
in general terms is called a geometric Vheorem. In such a
foun it would be stated thus
1¢ angles so formed, AOB and BOC, is two
ANGLES 3
Theorem. If one straight line meets another
straight line, the sum of the two adjacent angles on
one side of it is two right angles.
In this particular case the student, after reading the last
few sections, will probably be satisfied as to the truth of
the theorem’ but in general, a theorem cannot be accepted.
a being true until it has been proved to be so by methods
Of geometric reasoning. .
Theft step towarsthis is «clear and accurate state-
ment of what has to be proved and what are the data from
which we start. Thos in the above theorem the facts,
‘which are given, are that one straight line (OF in Fig. 1d}
Isis ‘nother ‘tight tne (40C), and 30 forme two
adjacent angles (BOA, BOC).
What has then to be proved is that the sum of these
anges so ht angle
Thee are thus two distinct parts of the theorem, and of
all others
(1) Whats sven, the deta, somesies called
fo hypothesis Cand
(2) The proof.
“When the theorem hasbeen stated in general form tf
customary to draw a figure by means of which the yo
parts of the theorem can be clearly stated with special
Fee to ti gure, By the us this gure the proot
of the theorem is develo
19. Converse Theorems.
Tf the data and the proof are interchanged, we get a now
‘theorem which is called the .
‘converse of the first theorem.
: 8
‘Applying this tothe above
ee ae
that a straight line such a8 ¢
80 in Fig. lSmeetstwoother ©—— A
ruight ines such as CO and Pie 6,
40, and that the sum of the
jacent angles so formed-—viz BOC, BOA ts ewo right
angles. These are the data or hypothesis.eee
a TEACH, YOURSELF GEOMETRY
We then require to prove that CO and AO are in
end tame sesight line, on,
{nthe same straight line,
jin theorem may be expresed in gent tem
Theorem. If at a point in a straight line two
other straight lines, on opposite sides of it, make
the two adjacent angles together equal to two
right angles, these two straight lines are in the
same straight line.
The two theorems above are converse theorems. The
hypothesis in the first theorem is what has to be proved
{nt the second and vice versa.
Tt'is important to remember that the converse of
‘theorem isnot always true, Examples will occur in
Part I.
TE was stated above that a theorem cannot be acepted
as being true until it has been proved to be so by geometrical
Feasoning, This will be adbeted to in the formal treatment
Of the subject in Part TI of the book, but in Part I, for
Various reasons, the strict proof will not always be given,
Tepecially with such theorems as those above, which will
Pibbably. be accepted by the student as seli-evident-or
Exiomatic. ‘They arise naturally from the conception of
angles, and especially right angles, as being formed by the
rotation of @ straight line, asin § 16,
Tf the stndent desires 10 see how the above theorems can
be proved he should turn to the proofs of Theorems 1 and 2
in Part 1.
20, Vertically Opposite Angles.
‘There is an important theorem concerning vertical
onsets Sie, Sood gh inc may be fated thus
Theorem. When two straight lines intersect,
the vertically opposite angles are equal.
‘The theorem is illustrated by Fig. 16, in which two
straight lines AB and CD intersect at 0, forming as shown,
line, or, in other words, C,Q and A are
ANGLES a
in $11, two pairs of vertically opposite angles. Tt wil be
Suficien if this is proved to be true for one pair of a
only sy 08,40, ena
{is thus required to prove that ZCOB = Z 40D.
Proof. In tie Theorem of $18 was chown that
(The adjacent Zs, ZCOR + ZAOC = 2right 2s
ana {3 400% Z40C 2 right Ze.
But things equal to the same thing are equal to one
another,
3. £COB-+ ZKOC = ZA0D + ZAC.
Subtracting ZAOC, which is common to both, the
remainders must be equal—iz., ZCOB = ZAOD.
c
6
By ace ee
0c so BD ay recs ton
etapa a
Proof by Rotation.
fe ae
smh Gf roiion, a See
anti-clockwise direction to the position CD. >
ia dren eee
rotation,
*. 2C0B = LA0D.‘CHAPTER 3
A ee aaa
satu aoe come ts de i the
nt tao ecg ae
See om comin i, Neral
ee
ieee net eee fe, ea
hee rae Ae Fig. 17, the arm with the
a ek Bet rary ange
Bun. a
ipa meisient Ricans ADC
eta tlie dc
seo cmon
ofthe ce cnt tu ina Sib ene
oft al gd Game ah
ings on a
tae
Ae eae em
bea, fe fee oe
Ie le eur el
te in fom ht emf
ie or aS er eee
se tegen ge
pe) eee aed
ron te Metin eo oer
:
Rie. 17.
MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES ”
meant, but, strictly, it is the same for the whole
‘the area of a circle, 4s suggested above, la the area of
‘the plane which is enclosed by the circumference,
Are of a Circle.
A part ofthe circumference is called an arc. ‘Thusin Fig. 17
the part of the circumference between the points B and C
(Other definitions connected with the circle are given in
Chapter 16.)
Concentric Circles.
Circles which have the same contre but different radii are
called concentric,
Fis. 18, Fra. 19,
In Fig. 18, with centre 0, and different radii, OA, OB,
OC, three circles are described. ‘These are concentric!
2, Measurement of Angles.
‘The conception ofthe formation of angles bythe rotation
ofa eine isle) tars ty cmveset wechod ak
ae
‘When stright Be, 04 eons about point, 0,
| any poine, 2, cc te wil atwaye be at foo suas
Aistanee fom O, and consequent wil describe 4 cise,
oncentrie-with that desorbed by OAvasshowa fa Fig 18.
Shen an ale such as BOC is desctibed, the poine © has
Tmarked out sn arc of dre, Bo.ee
Py TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
The length of the arc clearly depends on the amount of
rotation, as also does the sizo of the angle. ‘The same
Amount of rotation as before will produce the angle COD
‘equal to the angle BOC.
"Then the arc CD must clearly be equal to the arc BC.
‘Thus, the angle BOD being twice the angle BOC, the are
BD wil be ewice the are BC, and so fr ther multiples
We may conclude, therefore, that the length of the are
will depend on the size of the angle. If the angle be
doubled, the are is doubled; it the‘angle be halved, the
are is halved.
Suppose the circumference of the cele, when a complete
rotation, has taken place, to be divided into 360 equal
parts. ‘Then each aris gisth of the whole circumference;
Eensoquntly the angle corespanding vo this are i yt
ff that marked out in a complete rotation,
Thisangle is employed asa unit of measurement for angles
and ig called a degree, Tt is denoted by 1°. 15 degrecs—
te,, Hoth of a complete rotation—would be denoted by
Pires poeta tT yt angle is one-fourth
‘Thowas seen in §17 that a right angle is one-fourth of a
complete rotation, i.e, of 360°.
a right angle = 90°.
A suaight angle, corresponding to half rotation
contains 160"
Tig. 20 shows a circle, centre 0, in which the cieum-
frence divided to 390 egual parte The aes re
comparatively very smal, and'so ate the correspond
angles which, for each are of one degree, are fortned by
joining the ends of the are to 0.. Any particular” an
‘mado with O4 ean be constructed by joining the appropriate
int to 0.
Pifor exaimple, ZAOB is ah angla of 46°, and ZAOF is
120
‘The ZAOC, the straight angle, represents 180°,
‘The straight line BOD is perpendicular to AOC, and thus
the angles of 90° and 270° are formed.
‘+ Fora proof of thie oe Part 11, Theorem 40,
MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES »
For angles smaller than one degree the following sub-
divisions are used:
(1) Each degree is divided into 60 equal parts, called
minutes, denoted by *; thus 28’ means 28 minutes.
(2) Bach minute Is divided into 60 equal parts, calied
seconds, denoted by ”, For example, 30’” means 30
seconds,
Example —An angle denoted by 87° 16° 277" means 97
degrees 16 minutos 27 second,
is Gubdivison ofthe degrees very important in marine
and air navigation, surveying, gunnery, ete., where very
‘great accuracy is essential
Tt will be absorved that the cirle in Fig. 20 is divideda
TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
by BD and AC into four equal sectors called quadrants,
se are numbered the Ist, 2nd, Srd and 4th quadrants
respectively, AOB being the Ist ‘quadrant, BOC the 2:
quadrant, etc,
23. Protractors.
‘An instrument for measuring or constructing angles is
called a protractor. It may be semi-circular or rect
angular in shape. The ordinary. semi-circular protractor
is much the same as half of the circle shown in Fig. 21,
‘A clreular protractor,
These protractors are usually made of transparent
celluloid, So that when ‘one is placed over straight Lines
these are visible. "To measure the angle whose arms are
OB and OD the protractor i placed wilh OB ovr one em.
The point on the angle scale of the protractor. where
iv is dit by the other arm enables us to fead off the
BOD. In Fig. 2] this angle is 40°. A suitable modification
enabies us to construct an angle of a given size, when one
arm. bu of tie ear eee ae . ae
"5 6 two sets of mumbersis to make it easy
teed ae ange teal eibe ead d cre (Gs tus mate
paragraph)
ibis ard
MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES «
24. Supplementary and Complementary Angles.
(1) Supplementary ang!
ob see 1
each ofthe anes i
les is equal to two right angles,
led the supplement of the other.
22 ZBOA is the supplement of 2B0C,
a 2B0C ,, »— 2B0A.
Example, The supplement of 30° is 180° — 30° — 150°
Also » 190° is 180° — 150° = 30°,
(See seals on protractor, Fig, 21),
S26 oe
Fro, 22. Fe, 28,
fonts, Theorem of § 18 could therefore be written sis
Ifa straight line meets another straight line, the adjacent
angles are supplementary.
2) Complementary angles.
When the sum of two angles is a right angle each
Yaa. oe ker ee
aap Bis 28 HOC ite complement of 2408,
= ae nee 60",
and mm 60Pis 99° — Go? = BO
25. A Practical Problem.
‘The foregoing work enables us to perform a useful piece
of pract work, the first of our constructions, ‘aa TEACH YOURSELF. GEOMETRY
Construction |.
To construct an angle equal to a given angle.
Let ZAOB, Fig. 2%, be the angle which we require to
‘copy. We are not concerned with the number of degrees
in the angle, and a protractor is not necessary.
Method of Construction
Take a straight line, PQ, which isto be one ofthe arms of
the required angle
ee ee
a crcl, AB.
oe
Fre. 24,
With P as centre and the same radius OB, draw another
are, CD.
With D as centre and radius BA, draw another are inter-
secting the are CD in E.
“join EP.
Then ZEPD is the angle required.
The two circles of which AB! and ED are arcs have the
same radi." Sinco DE was made equal to AB, it iy evident
that the are ED is equal tothe are AB.
fom. previous ‘conclisions the angles at the centre
AGB and EPD may reasonably be concluded as equal
the angle EPD lias been constructed equal to the angle
408.
oe a
Lee es
i secben
eee res
R. P angles are the following?
Bur () BOR, (2) 409, (3) ,
ye, NRE BS OE
peel
Ceo pucce. ae
1 Eeiityaieenemnay apiaree:
eee
po
By DB
Pe ee Ze
a o ~
a ao
a ane S08 28 gE ale OG ad 0D wo
spyarepetins icing (OandOb3t0, Nameti
ara per Od al open What
ee ee ae
Teepe are aa ea
ees
a1,
29, Afterwards check by measuri B
the angles with a protractor.
8. Draw a straight line, PQ. at 0 A
Pon one side of “it, constrict an
angle of 72°. On the other side con-a TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
struct an_angle of 28°. Chee by measuring the angle
‘which isthe sum ofthese, mee
‘8. Without using a protractor, construct an angle w
is twice the angle Bin Tig. 20, and another angle whichis
three times the angle.
10, "Tog what sles doe the minute hand of lek
rotate betwoon 12 o'clock and (1) 12-20, (@) 1249, @)
Bofclock?
TL Through what angles does the hour hand of a clock
(A) @
Fre. 20.
rotate between (1) 12 o'clock and 2 o'clock, (2) 12 o'clock
and 6 o'clock, (8) 12 o'clock and 10 minutes to one?
CHAPTER 4
SIMPLE GEOMETRY OF PLANES
26, Rotation of a Plan
Every time that you turn over a page of this book you
are rotating a plane surface, or, more briefly, a plane:
this may be observed more closely by rotating the front
age of the cover. Tt will be noticed that the rotation
takes place about the straight line which is the intersection
of the rotating plane and the plane of thelirst page, It was
ined out in §3 that the intersection of two plane surfaces
isa straight line,
ea cee
Let AB, Fig 90, be the line of the fold, "Draw this straight
ed
Tene
These can beregarded
see
oo:
eee
Seems
sreaeidns
ee ace
eee eae
fg eee eeenttoea
See eee
Sooo carer
Hai noise pet ged
‘y TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
Bi wis oe oe RE ets
Sept Nera ele i
ue tena EP sie OY De eh 0
Soa erie
Sie eee
socal rues anion
ee eee ee
ee
nse ieee eee
ee ee
Coe eee
fe eran era ee
ee eee ore oe
Ses ee
ag i ere
areata eee eee
ae aga ent nn
eg ee te oe
eee nee
Dye ay ge
ey es oe tas
Se ee
Pe ee one
Aer jal Surieca 0M rieneeeitiats eettecra ta:
SC
oe ee ee
Be eee aes are ee
SIMPLE GEOMETRY OF PLANES ©
couple of matches float on the surface, so that ends of
the matches touch the string, Tt will be observed that the
string is. always at right angles to. the
matches. In other words, the string is
always perpendicular to any straight lines
which it intersects on the surface. Under
these conditions the thread is said to be
perpendicular to the surface,
Tee (ie
Surface. Or it may bestated thus: ahort- 2p}
to,a plane.
‘Take a piece of cardboard, AB (Fig, 82), and on it draw a
Re. 8h,
Fee. #2,
number of straight lines intersecting at a piont, 0. At 0
‘fix pin, OP, so that itis perpendicular to one of these lines,
‘Then OP will be perpendicular to the other lines and is said
to be perpendicular to the plane AB.
inition. A straight line is said fo be perpendicular to 4
plane when it is perpendicular to any straight line which it
‘meets in the plane,TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
The distance of the point P from the plane AB Is given
by the length of the perpendicular, OP, drawn from it to
the plane.
30. Angle between a Straight Line and a Plane which it
jects.
‘Take a set square, OPQ, and stand it on apiece of smooth
paper or cardboard, 4B, so that one of the edges, 00, con
Fie. 35.
taining the right angle, lies along the plane and the plane
of the set square is perpendicular to the plane AB.
Thus PO is perpendicular tothe plane,
Regarding the cgs as straight lines, OP meets the plane
in 0, PQ is perpendicular to the plane and 0Q joins!O to
‘the foot of this perpendicular,
The angle thus formed, POQ, is the angle which the
straight line OP makes with the plane,
It will be noted that if from any point R on OP a straight
Aine, RS, is drawn perpendicular to the plane, S will lie on
00." ‘Thus the straight line OQ contains all ‘the points in
which perpendiculars from points on OP meet the plane.
OQ is called the projection of OP on the plane AB.
Definition, The angle between a straight line and a plane
4s the angle betweon the straight line and its projection on the
Hane.
PM Coisequenly, the projection of # sraight line OP on «
SIMPLE GEOMETRY OF PLANES °
ae ra
seme mca eee
i
Ti cient ri to
Ee ee a
Samed ae eteCHAPTER 5
DIRECTION
31, Meaning of Direction.
‘The term “ direction isa dificult one to define, but its
meaning is generally understood, and the definition wil
fot be attempted hee.” is, however, often sed vaguely,
a5 when we speak of walking “ in the direction of London =
We are more precise when we speak of the direction of the
wind as being, say, “north-west ", though this may some.
times be only roughly correct. ‘To nd exact dicecton
{sso important in navigation, both at sea and in the ait ae
vllasin many other ways, that tis desirable fo have precise
ideas of what is understood by "direction "and how itis
Fre. a4,
termined and expressed. We will begin with a simple
everyday example. : .
Tn Fig. 94, FQ represents a straight road along which a
man walis from P towards Q. 0 represents the position
of a church tower Iying at some distance from the road,
At various points along the road, A, B, C. DE, the straight
lines 40, BO, CO, DO, EO represent the direction of Oat
these points. "Thisdirection can be described more accurately
if we know the angle which the line of direction makes with
the road.” The angles, of course, change as the man walks
along, as is evident from the diagram, in which the angles
are consistently measured in an anti-clockwise direction
2
DIRECTION *
from the road. These angles can be obtained by the use of
a surveying instrument known as a theodolite. It as at
example, the angle made by BO with the road is 45%, then
ye.can say thatat B the direction of © makes an angle of
45> withthe direction of the rose.
Tt must be emphasised that this statement as to the
direction of O gives the information only relative to the
direction ofthe road and this may not be known.” Conse
ently for practical purposes the statement is not precise
hd does nok state an absolution diretons nt
32. Standard Direction,
All directions are relative—i.e, they are related to some
ater direction as inthe case of the road above, Therefore
it is necessary for practical purposes —g., navigation, that
there should ‘be. some a
selected fixed direction to
which other directions can N
berelated. Suchadizeetion Nw a
is called a standard direc
ton. This is provided by
‘heim and onierally
a ‘tem of North,
South, East and West :
directions.
‘The North direction is
fixed by the position o
North Pole svn a oe
at the enc 5
of the Earth's. axis, ‘Geass Fa 3,
{289 and Fig. 18). Thee
uth is the opposite dircetion from the North. East and
West directions are at right angles to these.
‘These four directions are termed the cardinal points,
‘They are indicated in Fig. 96 and all others between them
are related to these. Thus a direction half-way. between
N. and E., and thus making angles of 43° with each,
ig called North-east, and so for others as shown in
Fig. 35.5 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
33. The Magnetic Compass.
‘The North direction can always be determined by the
use of the Magnetic compass or Mariners’ compass.» This
instrument has a magnetised needle which is free to move
in a horizontal plane: the needle always sets, not towards
the true North, but in the direction of what is called the
Magnetic North. The amount of the angle of deflection
from the true North is known at varions positions on the
Earth's surface, and with this correction the true North
‘can readily be found.
34, Polnes of the Compas.
Fig. 36 illustrates part of the compass card or dial of a
mariners! compass, wo diameters at right anges to\one
4
NZ eS
Fi. 38.
another, and representing North-South and East-West,
divide the circle into four quadrants. Each of the quadrants
is further subdivided into eight equal divisions, “Thus the
whole circle has thirty-two divisions each of which repre~
sentsa definite direction. ‘The names employed to indicate
Fe
DIRECTION 3
these directions are shown for the first quadrant; those in
other quadrants ae similarly divided al deseo rhe
fare ofeach of these thirty-two divisions subtende i aris
at the eentre which must be GA)" or ILE
Directions Between these ate indicated by stating the
number of degrees, from one of the 9 fel diners
thas:
O° Bast of North indicates a point between N. and N, by
B,, and 6° from the North.
35. Bearing,
When the direction of one objet, B, with respect lo another
Objet A i defined by reference 6 dandard dracon, he
Angle giving this direction ts ealled the bearing of Bo a
Thus in Fig. 37, if and B represent two ships, and the
angle BAN gives the direction of B from 2
the North, tons
The angle BAN is alled the bearing 8
of B with respect to A.
ithe angle BAN is 40% then the bear.
ing of B from A ts 40" East of North.
Bearings are messured in a clockwise “ZL e
direction from the North ve, 31,
36. Angle of Elevation.
In the consideration of diction we have so far been
concerned only with direction onthe horkontal place
But itan object such as an aeroplane i above the shrtace
of the Barth, inorder to find its true direction Sts poston
Ahove the horlzoneal plane must be taken into aceon
Tf for example, agua is to be polated at an aeroplane
rust not only know the horizontal hearing of the seroptane,
Dut we must also low the angle through which it's seces,
sary to elevate the gun to polit to it: “This angle i calcd
the angle of elevation ofthe aeroplane
"Tn Hig. 88,4 represents the’posttion of the aeroplane,
and 0 the position of the gun, then the latter mist be
Totated from the horizontal i a vertical plane through the
angle OB to point to the aeroplane.ews oy aun ari a a ie
& TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
The angle AOB is called th angle of lean of ee
aeroplane:
‘Tle determination of the actual height of the aeroplane
Wien the angle of elevation and
A Therange ae ing, fa problem CHAPTER 6
Lae TRIANGLES
¢ 38. Rectlineal Figures.
t 37. The Altitude of the Sun.
. 8 {A part ofa plane surface which is enclosed or bow
me «gg The ana of atin of th um lined called plane igure Me os
is called ats altitude, 1 snddry lines ae all straight lines, the figure is
Ce eee ern er
ih marine navigation. The instrament which i sed for ‘The least number o straight Hines which can thos enclose
the purpose is called a sextant... ScRisy tien fe may fated nom 3 46, that ro
@ Exercise 2 Oiyfeal Chree 8 there will be one solution asis obvious.
Tt will be seen therefore that for ambiguity a must be
less than b and greater than b.6 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
Summartsing.
Ifthe glven elements are A, a, b, ambiguity will arise if
2, Len the side opposite to the given angle is less than b,
tunlesé a is equal fo the perpendicular drawn from C to the
Side.
48. Corresponding, Sides and Angles of | Congruent
Triangles.
When triangles are congruent iti important to specity
accurately which sides and angles are equal.
Let the As ABC, DEF (Fig. 50) be congruent triangles.
A D
Ao ae
Fi, 50,
If AB-and DE are sides which are known to be equal,
‘then the angles which are opposite to them are called
‘corresponding angles and are equal
summarising:
Similarly when angles are known to be equal, the opposite
sides are corresponding sider and ate equals
49. Theorems concerning Congruent Triangles,
The three sets of conditions that triangles may be con-
gruent, which were deduced in §45, may be set out in the
form of Geometric Theorems as follows:
TRIANGLES tee
Theorem A. Two triangles are congruent if
two sides and the included angle of one triangle
are respectively equal to two sides and the included
angle of the other.
Theorem B. Two triangles are congruent
three sides of one triangle are respectively equal
to the three sides of the other.
Theorem C. Two triangles are congruent if
two angles and a side of one triangle are respectively
equal to two angles and a side of the other.
Tt will be noted that the theorems above have been
enunciated, or stated, with respect to two. tri
‘because itis in this form that the theorem is usually appli
‘but they are true, of course, for all triangles which satisly
tthe given conditions.
380
@kxercise 3
1. Construct a triangle in which two of the sides are 6 cm,
and 8 cm and the angle between them 35%. Find by
‘measurement the third side and the other angles.
2. Construct a triangle of which the three sides are 10
cm, 11 em and 12 cm. Measure the angles and find their
‘8. Construct triangle in which two of the angles are
40° and 50° and the length of the side adjacent to them
both is 6 cm. Measure the third angle and the lengths of
the other two sides,
‘4, The angles and sides of a triangle are as follows.
A = 88°, Bm 40°, C = 52°,
@= 616 cm, b= 3-05 cm, c= 4-85 cm
them.i
ji
TG HT as eter ee
6 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
5. Construct by. three different methods triangles con-
gruent with that in Fig. 51. Cut them out and test by
superimposing them on one another,
Fe, 6
6. In the As ABC, DEF certain angles and sides are
qual a given Below. Determine whether or not they
are congruent. If they are congruent, state which of the
‘conditions A, B, C of § 49 is satisfod.
() 24 = 2D, b=ecmf
Q) ZA = 2D, c=fand.
@) ZB = ZE b= ecm
() 2B = ZE, LA = 2D,
@) 2D= ZB, Z4= Zc,
1. In a ABC, 2B = 95%, ¢= 87 cm, b= 70 cm.
Construct tie telangle and ‘show ‘that there are. two
tolutions
8. Two straight lines AB, CD bisect each other at their
point of intersection 0.” What reasons can you give for
Faying that CB — 4D?
8. ie inch Ise AB and CD bisect each other
perpendicularly at 0. What reasons can you give for stati
The the straight lines AC. CB. DD, Dawe st ovat
10. The As ACB, ADB are congruent and are placed on
pests, 49 of the comnion te AB, “Join CD eating
‘at 0.” Using Theorem A show that OC = OD.
CHAPTER 7
PARALLEL. STRAIGHT LINES
50. Meaning of Parallel.
Tf the ruled printed tines on an exercise book are
‘examined, two facts will be evident.
null Th® distance between any pair of lines is always
same.
(2) If the lines could be produced through any
distance beyond the page of the book, you would be
confident that they would never meet.
Such straight lines drawn in a plane are called parallel
straight lines.
Pe aad pedi coer ince a et
eee ng ee
eget an
eee
sale ener ea eels era
siege
ee las a ee
Se
SS Ren
Definition. Parallel straight lines are such that lying in
the same plane, they do not mect, however far they may be
produced in either direction,
51. Distance between Two Parallel Straight Lines.
It should be noted that in the definition of parallel
straight lines stated above there is no mention of them
being always the same distance apart, though in the pre~
7e TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
ceding explanations it was stated asa fact which would be
fdas obvious, The defnition lta involves onky
Tie fac eee poraliel sratghe lines ia plane never meet
‘The fact that fhe dstancefetwean thom fs constant follows
fr the definition a wil bese
Eis nportane that we should be clear at the outset as
: io whet emeiy ie tie
eee) 5 wéaanee sapere! ‘of
poets and
cw it can be measured
Let AB, CD be tro
el > paral straight "nex
Be. 32
Fre, 82, Let P be any point on
AB.
Let PQ be the straight line whi
drawn from P to CD.
PQ is defined as the distance between the two parallel
straight lines. Two facts may be deduced from this:
is the perpendicular
1) PO isthe least of al straight tines such a8 PQ,
pal see anes ay be drawn trom P to mea
ob.
(3) 1f from any other point P%, the straight Hine
iO) be drwwn pependicalar to CB, P°Q" wilco be
{halts ston the to pra stright ines, od
TE wil be Soo later that PQ and P'Q' must theme
selves be perale. Consequently we may deduce the
fect that! Straight lines hick are perpendicular to
eval aight lies are hemalves paraded
52. Corresponding Angles.
Take a set square, angles 60°, 20°, 90°, and place the
shortest side AC against a rulet, as in Fig. 03. Draw
straight lines along the sides of the set square, so forming
the triangle ABC.
‘Now, holding the ruler firmly, slide the set square along
it to a new position to form another triangle A’B'C’.
PARALLEL STRAIGHT LINES 6
‘The two triangles ABC and A’B'C’ must be congruent.
The angles at A are right angles and ee
LACB = LA'C'B’ = 00°.
(1) The straight lines AB and A’B’, which are both
perpendicular to the straight line representing the edge of.
the ruler PQ, are evidently parallel. mec
We cannot prove that they satisfy the definition of
parallel lines—viz., that they do not meet if produced in
either direction—but we know intuitively that they will
not meet.
TE the sot squares in the experiment were moved along
the ruler to other snr positions the straight lines core
sponding to AB would all be parallel
This, in effect, is the metlod commonly employed by
raughtsmen for drawing parallel straight lines.
(2) The angle ACB represents the inclination of che
straight line BC to PQ. "Or we may say that BC is inclined
at an angle represented by BCP to PQ—i, inclined at
60° t0 FO.
‘Similarly. ZA°C'B" represents the inclination of C’B" to
PQ, and is equal fo ZACB.
“BC and B'C" are equaly inclined to PQ.
Also BC and B'C" are evidently parallel straight lines,
since, as was the case with AB and A/B", they will obviously~ TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
never meet if produced. Tt may now reasonably be
deduced that :
(a) Straight lines which are equally inclined to
another straight line which they eut are parallel.
Also, the converse of this is clearly true, viz.
@) If seraighe lines are parallel they are equal
Inclined fo another straight fine which they incerseck_
Transversal. A sivaight line which cuts other straight
lines is called a transversal.
Corresponding anges. The angles ACB, 4'CB", are
corresponding Sage lite cngract Changs 486,
TBE te tthe They
» ‘are also corresponding angles
sin the al eat
A incebO.b0arceut ty the
fanaa PO! thy pe
feats equal angle of
Seas
A strug ines tt tase
con
53 'The conclusions
reached ove may now be
cen font he ol
Spend are wostaight
tines cat by atransvanal 29 a Hand S
‘Then 4s PRB, RSD are corresponding angles.
2s PRA, RSC ate also corresponding Zs.
From the considerations stated in § 52.
(1) IF AB be parallel to CD,
then ZPRB = ZRSD.
Converseiy, (2) f the corresponding Zs PRB, RSD are
equal.
Then AB and CD are parallel
These conclusions may be expressed generally as geo-
metrical theorems as follows + eee
PARALLEL STRAIGHT LINES n
Theorem D. If a straight line cuts two parallel
straight lines, corresponding angles are equal.
Theorem D, (converse of previous Theorem). If
‘two straight lines are cut by another straight line
so that corresponding angles are equal, then the
‘two straight lines are parallel.
54, Aleornate Angles.
In Fig. 55 the two straight lines AB, CD are eut by the
transversal PQ at R and
S._ Theangles ARS, RSD »
recalled alternate angles.
“They lie on. alternate
sides of PO. A 4 8
The angles BRS, RSC
also form a pair of alter
nate angles. es s =
(u) bot AB and CD be
parallel.
Q
Then, as shown in § 53,
corresponding angles are Fro. 65.
equal.
Le. SERB = RSD, oe
ZARS (vertically opp. Zs).
2. ZARS = ZRSD.
Le, The alternate angles are equal.
‘ole —The other pair of alternate angles may sinilarly be shown
tobeeqaa S,
Convery, @) Let Z ARS
Now © ZARS
s. 2PRB= ZRSD.
But these are corespoing ages
‘ABs parallel to CD. (Theor. § 8)
‘Note These results can be expressed in the form of geometric
seorems as follows aBr TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
Theorem E. If two parallel straight lines are cut
by another stralght line the alternate angles are
equal.
Theorem E, (converse of previous Theorem). If
two straight lines are cut by another straight
line so that the alternate angles are equal then
the two straight lines are parallel.
55. Interior Angles.
In Fig. 56, with the same figure as in preceding sections
the angles BRS, RSD are called the Interior angles on the
same side of the transversal
P
a 8
s + D
re, 8
Similarly ARS, RSC are interior angles on the other
side. * fag
(1) Let AB and CD be parallel.
Then ZARS = ZRSD (alternate angles).
‘Add ZERS to each,
‘Then ZARS + 2BRS = ZRSD + ZBRS.
But ZARS + ZBRS = two right angles. (§ 18)
ce ZBRS + ZRSD = two right angles.
Le., the sum of the interior angles on the same side of
the transversal Is equal to two right angles.
me
PARALLEL STRAIGHT LINES B
Conversely 2). Let
ZBRS + ZRSD = two right angles,
‘Then ZBRS + ZRSD = ZBRS + LARS,
Subtracting ZBRS from each side
ZRSD = LARS.
But these are alternate angles.
‘AB and CD are parallel (§ 53)
These conclusions may be ex in the form
‘theorems as follows: * ee ee ss
Theorem F. When two parallel straight lines
are cut by another straight line the sum of the
two interior angles on the same side of the line is
two right angles.
Theorem F, (converse of previous Theorem).
When two straight lines are cut by another straight
line, and the sum of the two interior angles on the
same side of the straight line Is two right angles,
then the two straight lines are parallel,
56. Summary of above Results.
I. Three properties of parallel straight lines.
If two parallel straight lines are cut by a transversal,
the
D. Pairs of corresponding angles are equa
B: Pairs of sortie anges oe ep
EF. Sum of the interior angles on the same side of the
traversal is feo right angles.
I. Conditions of parallel seraghe lines.
Straight lines are parallel if one of the following condi-
sos —
When they are cut by a transversal they are parallel
Dy If corresponding angles are equa.
Fare eta eee
FS Ifthe sum of to interior angles om the same side
of te iransoersal 1 30 right anglesn TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
57. Construction 2.
To draw through a given point a straight line
parallel to a given straight line.
‘The conditions of B, (§ 64) above suggest the method of
construction.
‘Nola —The student is advised to perform the construction which
{ollows, sep by step.
Lot AB (Fig, $7) be the given straight line and P the
it
given point, Tt ip required to draw through P a straight
fine parallel to AB.
5 ¥
A 8
Fro. 51,
Method of construction
From P draw any straight line PQ to mest AB at Q.
Bee dn aa Pv eal we SPH feonstackon
$25
"Phen PY is the straight line required, and it can be
produced either way.
Proof. The straight lines PY, AB are cut by a trans-
versal PQ and ZYPQ— 2PQ4." (By construction.)
But these are alternate angles.
‘2 Condition B, of § $4 is satisfied
PY and AB ‘re parallel
Nues-—(1) When PY in drawn making LYPQ — P04
eo ltt apd Ste waist eas be dati Honea we cole
Through a point only one straight line can be
drawn parallel to a given straight line.
PARALLEL STRAIGHT LINES s
(2) If the straight line PQ ia Fig. 67 and again in Fig. 58 were
aan pnp 4) nce £OPY = 2A4 64 et aos
A straight line which is perpendicular to one of
‘two parallel straight lines, is also perpendicular to
the other.
x Y
a B
Fa. 68
@txercise 4 39°
1. In Fig. 69 AB and CD are parallel straight lines and
are cat by @ transversal PQ at and Y.-S
meet g
c. a 8
8
x.
: c D
Q
Fro. 58 Pi, 00
State:
(1) Which are pairs of equal corresponding angles.
(2) Wie are Furs of cual site ans
) Which are 3 of interior angles whose
sum is two right angles Sat
2. In Fig, 60 AB and CD are parallel straight lines cu
bya trnaversal at Sand Yn Dru Stsight Hines cot
If ZPXB = 60°, find in degrees other
the figure. oe eee* TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
8, In Fig. 59 ifthe angle CYP = 60° state the number
of degrees in the following angles:
> () PXA, (2) BXY, (8) DYX,
E (8) QD, () PXB.
4, Through the vertex A of the
P (BC (Fig 61), i drawn parallel
to the base BC,and BA and CA are
8 produced to Band 2 respectively.
Feo. 61 if LDAQ = 65° and LEAP = 40",
find the angles of the triangle.
5, In Fig 62 AB is parallel to CD and AC is parallel to
BD. CD is produced to E.
Ti ZCAD = 37° and ZBDE = 68°, find the angles of
the figure ABDC.
6. In Fig. 63 the arms of the angles ABC, DEF are
4 A
: ase)
¢ E spe:
Rio. 62 Fao, 63.
parallel, What reasons can you give for the statement
that 2ABC= CDE? (fin Let BC ext DE in and
Produce to 2)
7, Draw a Straight line AB. Take points C, D, # on it,
and. through them draw parallel
straight lines making corresponding pias
EAB and CD are perl straigh <
fPAB and CD are parallel straight °
Iines (Fig. 64), The angle APOC gD
45° and Z0QC = 35°. Find the
angle POQ. bakes
8 Two parallel straight. lines AB, CD are ext by the
transversal PQ at E and F. The 2s BEF and EFC are
bisected by the straight lines EH, FG. Prove that these
straight lines are parallel.
CHAPTER 8
ANGLES OF A TRIANGLE
58. On several occasions in the previous work the
attention of the student has been called to the sun of the
thse anleof parte tangle He alo has cently
fore him the triangles represented by the two set squares
which he uses and the sumof their angles. It is probable,
Therefore, that he has come to the conclusion tha the sunt
of the angles of a trangle We avaye equal to two right
angles or 1% aes e
‘simple experiment will help to confirm this. Draw
any triangle and cut it out. Then tear of the angles and
fi them together, as is indicated in Fig. 60.
Fro. 68
‘The common vertex O will be found to lie in a straight
line, AOB. Therefore, as stated in the Theorem of §18, the
sum of the angles—i.c, the angles of the triangle—is 180°,
This is one of the most remarkable facts in elementary
egmety, butt would not te satisfactory to accept it ay
ing, tru for all triangle because thas bee found to be
true in cortain cases. We must therefore prove beyond.
doubt that the result holds for all triangles,
The proof which we shall proceed to give has alread
been anticipated in Question 4, Fig. 61, of Exercise. Wit
a small modification thisis sustantially the standard proof
fof the theorem. This s as follows.
”* TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
59. Theorem. The sum of the angles of any
triangle is equal to two right angles.
Fig. 68 represents any triangle ABC. It is required to
prove that
ZLABC + ZBCA + LCAB = two right angles.
To obtain the proof some additional construction is
necessary.
Construction. (1) Produce one side, eg., BC to D.
@) From C draw CE parallel to BA
(Construction 2).
Proof.
(1) 4B and CE are parallels and AC is a transversal.
“: Alternate angles ACE, BAC are equal (§ 56 E).
() 4 and CE are parallel and BC ea anayers,
‘ Corresponding angles ECD, ABC
(§ 56).
Fra. 60,
(@) «. by addition—
LBAC + LABC = LACE + ZECD
ZACD.
(4) Adding ZACB to each
ZBAC + ABC + LACB = ZACD + LACB
= two right angles (18).
I.e,, the sum of the angles of the triangle Is equal to two
right angles.
ANGLES OF A TRIANGLE »
60. Tt will be evident that in proving the above theorem,
two other theorems have been incidentally proved. They
Theorem. An exterior angle of a triangle is
equal to the sum of the two interior opposite
angles.
It was shown in step (8) of the proof that
ZACD = LBAC + LABC.
‘4 the exterior angle ACD i ga to the um of the two
intesior epposite angles ABC and BAC.
‘Employing & simllar proof, it cam be shown that if any
other side be produced, the exterior angle thus formed {6
qual to the sim of the two corresponding interior angles.
Theorem. An exterior angle of a triangle is
greater than either of the two opposite interior
angles.
For, in Fig. 66, since the exterior angle ACD is equal to
the sum of the two interior angles ABC, BAC, it must be
greater than either of them.
Wo ee hae ede
es tore ee ee
Sea ee et es eee
ee Lae oe
() fa rele ig ph mag
aa ie eee eo
eee
nti ees ice
tere bee
aoe
1s Or oe epee ei area
fa ee feels oe en% TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
@ Exercise 5
cases
gee | ee
TE ST, et et oot ee
eee ey ACD, is 112°, If 4A = 40°, what is the
sees
Etna ceht-angled triage two ofthe anges a6 oa
Pt ng eget 400
je. From Ba perpendicular BD fs drawn to AC. It
‘Zhic 135%, find the angles ABD, CBD and ACB.
aie eo ee
sini Matec coc La asta
oi ONS mas eal eka
ade cs ee Ae a
meets AC in D. If ZABC = 80° and 2BDC = 95°, find
eee ee
Ga A pnt gt ot 7
aeons mses
eee ene
TL The side BC of the trance AAC is produced both
ways to Dand E. If 2ABl 124° and 2ACE = 130°,
Siceninae
ated erateasa oat seit
Prove that ZACD | ZBAB = three right angles
CHAPTER 9
ISOSCELES TRIANGLES
{2 Relations between the Sides and Angles.
Tn Fig. 42 (0) an ioneles triangle was defined a tang
having tv egal sides _
Take two set sures (0°, 00, 90° ofthe same size and
plage them side by side as in Fig. 67. Te will be seen
1) Since Zs ADB, ADC are right angles, BD and
Dears inthe tame aig ine
A A
|S. Ad
mas
Re. 67.
@) The two As together constitute a new A in
which 4B a pA la
a
Fie. 70,
the opposite angles must be equal.” The converse is, “if
the angles are equal, the opposite sides are equal”
Theorem. If two angles of a triangle are equal,
the sides opposite to them are equal.
In Fig. 70 the angles ABC, ACB are given equal,
We require t6 prove AB! AC, these bag the sides
‘opposite to them,
© proof is similar to that of the Theorem above, but
Theorem C of § 40 is used instead of Theorem A.
Construction. Draw AD bisecting the angle BAC.
Proof. Inthe 4s ABD, ACD:
l) ZABD = ZACD (given).
2) ZBAD = ZCAD (construction),
(3) Side AD is common to both
<:. AS ABD, ACD are congruent (Theorem C, § 49).
in particular AB— AG. i
Corollary. Triangles which are equi
equilateral [converse of Corollary 2 (§62))-
lar are alsooy TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
@kxercise 6
1. In the isosceles triangles, in which the angle of the
vertex is (2) 45°, (0) 110°, (¢) 90°, find the remaining
angles,
TE Find the angle at the vertex of an isosceles triangle
when each ofthe equal anaes i () 60% () $2", 48".
3. In the triangle ABC, AB — AC, find the angles of the
triangle when
(1) 2B = 48°, (@) 24 = 80°, (8) ZC = 70°.
4. Tn an isosceles triangle each of the angles at the base
is double the angle at the vertex. Find all the angles.
5. The angles of a triangle are in the ratio of 22:6.
Find them,
6. The equal sides of an isosceles triangle are produced,
and each of the extetior angles so formed is 1907. Find
the angles of the.
7. Ina SABC, AB = AC. PQ is drawn parallel to BC
and meets the equal sides in P'and Q.” Prove that the
‘angle 4PQ i oseles,
8. ‘The equal angles of an isosceles triangle ABC—vin
ACB and ABC—are bisected and the bisectors mest at 0.
Prove that, AOBC is isosceles.
‘9. ABC is an isosceles triangle, and AB = AC. AB is
produced to D.. If ZBAC = 80° find the angle CBD.
10. Show that if the mid points of the sides of an equi-
lateral triangle are joined, the resulting triangle is also
equilateral, - What fraction of the whole triangle is it?
1. ABC is a triangle and D is the mid point of BC.
DA is‘drawn, “MDA DC prove that’ ZBAC is a right
angle.
CHAPTER 10
SOME FUNDAMENTAL CONSTRUCTIONS
65, Before beginning the study of draughtsmanship,
engineering and building students and others must frst
fete alley ern ene ae
these will be dealt with in this chapter, others will come
later. "For these constructions only compass and ruler
should be employed for the present.
‘These constrictions are placed before the student not
only for their practical value, but also because, with the
sid of those geometrical theorems which have been studied
in previous chapters, it will be possible to prove that the
method of construction is a correct one, and must produce
the desired result. ‘thus farnich exercises in geo
metrical reasoning of which the reader has already had a
number of examples. Two examples of constructions have
already been introduced @§ 25 and 57), and the methods of
constructing triangles from fixed data were explained in
545.
66. Construction No. 3.
(@) To construct an equilateral triangle on a
given base. io
(6) Ata point on a straight
line to construct an angle of 60°.
(2) AB is a straight line on which
it is required to construct an equi-
lateral triangle (ig. 71). ‘A i
Method of construction.
(1) With A as centre and AB
as radius, constrict an arc ofa circle.
(2) With B as centre and AB as radius, construct
85
Fie. 7.& TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
anare ofa circle large enough to cut the are previously
described in C-
(8) Join AC, BC.
‘ABC Is the required triangle.
Proof. By the method of construction AC and BC are
cach equal fo 4B.
<. they are equal to one another.
the three aides AB, BC and AC are all equal,
"che triangle ABC Is equilateral.
(@) The triangle ABC being equilateral is therefore
equiangular (Corollary 2, § 62)
each angle is $of 180° i, 60°.
atthe points’ and B angies of 60° have been con-
structed.
67. Construction No. 4.
To bisect a given angle.
Let AOB (Fig. 72) be the angle which we require to
bisect.
Fic, 72,
Method of construction.
1) From the two arms of the angle 04, OB cut off
pia it sees ees tae
SOME FUNDAMENTAL CONSTRUCTIONS 87
2) With X as centre, and with any convenient
radius, describe an are of a circle.
(3) With ¥ as centre, and the same radius, describe
an arc of a circle cutting the other arc in P,
(@) Join OP.
‘Then OP bisects the angle AOB,
Proof.
Join PX, PY.
in As OPX, OPY:
(1) OX = O¥ (construction).
(2) PX = PY (construction)
(3) OP is common to both As.
<*. As OPX, OPY are congruent (§ 49, B).
In particular ZPOX = ZPOY.
Ta,, OP bisects the angle AOB.
68. This construction suggests the following theorem:
Theorem. Any point on the bisector of an
angle is equidistant, from the arms of the angle.
Cee ee ee
“Dian JE and QF perpendicular to the arms 04, 0B,
JE, QF ate the distances of @Q from OA and OB.
Proof. In As OEQ, OFQ:
(1) 2E09 = ZK0@ (halves of £A0B).
(2) ZoK0 = ZOrO (right Zs).
(3) 09'is common to both As,
j; the triangles OEQ, OFQ are congruent (49, C-
in particular Oi
TE ieadideen ge rena te rector
Similarly ‘any other point on OP can be shown to’ be.
‘equidistant from 04 and OB.
Note—Stadents may have goticed that use was male of the
bisector ofan angle in Theorem of 62, before tho method of obtaininga8 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
sk nad been considered, But this doesnot ia any way invalidate
{Epis te Taorem above memo ce the Duero the
SPE "Tous ovat eventhough we had aot previously proved
are eee eee tne poet of the theotan dows het in any Way
‘otha the matnod ef drawing an soourete bdo.
69, Construction No. 5.
To bisect a given straight line.
Let AB (Fig. 73) be the straight line which itis required
to bisect.
Fie. 73.
Method of construction.
() With centres 4 and B in turn, and a radius
greater than JAB, draw ares of circles intereseting at
Pand
3 pin 29 cutting AB at 0.
‘Then O is the mid point of AB.
Proof. Join AP, BP, AQ, BQ.
Ins APQ, BPQ:
W) AP = PB (onstruction
2) (construction
{5} 28 i common to both as
‘1. As APQ, BPQ are congruent (§49, B).
ia particular 2APQ = ZBPQ.
SOME FUNDAMENTAL CONSTRUCTIONS a
pnw the GAP is isosceles and OP bisects the ange at
vertex.
“using the proof of the Theorem of § 62 (Cor. 1)
GP bisects the base AB at right angles.
2, AB is bisected at O.
Since OP bisects AB at right angles, t
of the following construction.
To draw the perpendicular bisector of any
straight line.
70. A theorem also arises from the above which is similar
to that following Construction No. 4, viz.
Theorem. Any point on the perpendicular
bisector of a straight line is equidistant from the
ends of the line.
In Fig. 73 if any point C be taken on OP and joined to
A.and B the As 40€, BOC can be shown to be congmnent,
as in § 69 and consequently CA = CB.
71. Construction No. 6.
To draw a straight line perpendicular to a given
straight line from any point on it.
Let 4B (Big. 74) be a straight line and 0 a point on it,
6
is also the method
Soar o
Fre. 74.
at which it is required to draw a straight line which is
perpendicular to AB.3 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
Method of construction.
(Q) Oneither side of 0 mark off equal distancesOP, 00.
2) With P and Q as centres and any suitable radius
sere circles which cut at C
{@) Jom oc.
‘Then OC is a straight line perpendicular to AB.
Proof. Join CP, CQ.
In as COP, COQ:
() CP = (equal radii).
B Gp = 09 (ahstrucion,
{8} 0¢ is common,
2. As COP, COO are congruent (§49,B)
it pat ‘Tear = "Seog: 84.)
definition they are ight angles.
{Cis perpendicilar to PQ.
ey th pol nae on nd of AB, tat the to cls
ca sonventeiy be devel the method of consrcton No
i SER Sate Se apap
72. Construction No. 7.
To draw a perpendicular to a straight line from
a point at, or near, one end of it.
i once
P
Fre. 15
Let AB (Fig. 75) be a straight line to which it is required
to draw a perpendicular at one end, viz., at B.
SOME FUNDAMENTAL CONSTRUCTIONS 9x
Construction. j
(1) With centre B and any suitable radius, describe
a circle cutting AB at P.
(2) With P as centre and the same radius, describe
an are of a circle cutting the previous circle at Q.
(3) With Q as centre and the same radius, describe
an are cutting the same circle at R.
(4) Join PQ, BQ and BR.
(6) Bisect the angle QBR by OP (Construction No. 4).
‘Then OB Is perpendicular to AB.
Proof, Join QR.
Asin Construction No.8, ABPQ is equilateral,
LPBQ = 60°.
i so oq
P SEOR autre
ZOBR = 60°.
Since this is bisected by OB (construction).
2. £000 = 30°
2 2008 = 60 + 0°
a
1, OB Is perpendicular to AB at B.
73. Construetion No. 8.
To draw a straight i
line perpendicular to a
given straight line from
2 given point without A.
Fr = 8B
“eopoeean | NIL
line, and P is a point with-
out’ it, Tt is required to
draw from Pa straight line
perpendicular to 4B, Bero TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
‘Method of Construction,
(2) With P as centre and a convenient radius draw
a circle cutting AB at C and D.
(@) With centres C and D and the same radius, a
convenient one, draw circles intersecting at R.
(8) Join PR.
‘Then, PR Is perpendicular to AB.
Proof. Join PC, PD, RC, RD.
‘As PCD, RCD are isosceles As on opposite sides of CD.
We can therclore prove as in the pret of Construction
No.5 (Fig. 73) that the 5 PCQ, PDQ are congruent, and
in particular ZPQC — ZPOD.
jg see AS hE angles and PQ is perpndialar to
AB.
@Exercise 7
Nole—In the following exercises only a ruler and compasses
should ‘be use:
1. Construct the following angles: 30°, 75°, 120°, 150°,
2, Construct on angle of 45°. Use it to obtain an angle
of 223°.
3 Eonseract the following angles: 16°, 185°, 105%
4. Construct an equilateral triangle’ of side 6 cm,
Biséct each side and produce the bisectors. They should
meetin a point
8. Draw a triangle with sides 4 em, 3 em and 3 em.
Bisect each of the ages. The bisector should meet in'&
int. ;
e From this point draw perpendiculars to the sides of the
triangle, With the point a5 centre, and a radius equal to
the length of one of these perpendicular, deseribe a circle,
It should touch the three sides at the points where the
Perpendicaars meet ther,
@ Construct a triangle with sides of 38 cm, 44 em, 4.om.
Bisect each side and join the points to the opposite vertices.
‘The three straight lines should be concurrent—z.e., meet in.
point.
SOME FUNDAMENTAL CONSTRUCTIONS 99
7. Construct a triangle with sides 4 em, 6 em, 7 em,
Draw the perpendicular bisectors of the’ sides. These
should meet in a point. With this point as centre, and
radius equal to its distance from a vertex, describe a circle,
Tt should pass through the three vertices,
8. Draw a citcle of radius $-6 cm. Draw any chord AB.
and then draw its perpendicular bisector. Repeat this
with another chord CD. Do the two perpendiculars meet
at the centre of the circle?
eigDyaM a tangle of sides 8, 9 and 10 cm. From cach
iex draw a perpendicular to the opposite side. The
three perpendiculars should be concurrent.
10. AB is a straight line of length 4 em. Show how to
find two points each of which is 6'cm from both A and B.CHAPTER 11
QUADRILATERALS
74, As defined in §88, a quadriaceral isa plane rect
lineal Agure. bounded by four straight Hnes. There are
thus four angular points, a8 A, B,C, D in Tig. 77.
Straight lines which joln two opposite angular points
are clea diigonaes | Earn
Thus in Fig. 77, BD is a diagonal, and as A and C can
also be joined, every quadrilateral
A hhas two diagonals.
8 ‘Fach diagonal divides the quadri-
lateral into two. triangles. Conse-
quay, it follows from Theorem of
$59 that the sum of the angles
ny quadrilateral bs ual to four righ
whe quadrilateral of Fig. 77 is
irregular in shape, but most of the quadilaterals which
‘we shal consider are regular quadrlacerals.
D Cw
Fa, 77 5
75. Rectangles.
‘The most commonly occurring quadrilateral in our daily
life is the rectangle. A knowledge of this figure and its
ame were assumed in Chapter, as being part of the
fundamental geometrical Knowledge which everybodh
possesses, In §2 it appeared again in connection wit
the solid body, as the shape of each of the faces of a box.
‘The definition of it will come later, as it may be regarded,
from the geometrical point of view, as a special form of
another quadrilateral which we shall consider next.
76, Parallelograms.
The cover of an ordinary match-box, the inner part
having been removed, can be used, as follows, to illustrate
#
‘QUADRILATERALS ie
a parallelogram. In Fig. 78, ABCD represents the o
Fetanguar end of fhe cover of the bos with the longer
Sides horizontal. Squceze gently together the top_and
bottom of the box 30 that the sides of the end rectangle
rotate until they take up a position such as is shown by
ABCD in Fig. 78
‘The opposite sides of A’B'CD are parallel, but its angles
are not right angles, The lengths of the sides, however,
remain the same
‘Such a quadrilateral Is called a parallelogram. The
original reetangle ABCD also has its fides parallel and is
Fro. 78
therefore, as will be seen Tater from the definition, a special
form of & parallelogram.
Tf the end of the box had been a square instead of a
rectangle, on rotating, it would stllbe changed toa paralelo-
seam. But jos asiwith the aguare fs sides ae ll equal
Fe" therefore «special orm of parallelogram, the
‘Considering. the four figures, rectangle, parallelogram,
square, rhombus, i wil be seen that they Lave one pro-
Ried: acy ae ieoa! a ate foe
parallel; ‘they difier however in other respects.
nay be contrasted and defined as follows
77. Definitions of Parallelogram, Rectangle, Square,
Rhombus
ult A Palogram i gnarl LF
is aera deeb gree soars
forall igo
(0) Paaelogam.f
rd
se
;
# TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
i) A rectangle isa quadrilateral in which
both airs of opbesite sides are paralel and
one of is angles fs a right angle (Fig 8)
(© Rectang
Ey (9 A square is a quadritateral with both
bare of opposite sides. paral, one of ts
fanles a right angle, and. to adjacent sides
equal (Fig. ¢).
oe
i
LS hig tiie ei ee
sie
Notes on the definitions.
(0) The definition of a parallelogram stated above should
bo examined in connection with the characteristics of a
saubfactry dentin as described in 4 Since, the
‘opposite sites of a parallelogram are obviowsly equal there
might be a. temptation to'define ft as a. quadrilateral,
Whose opposite sides are equal and parallel”. But the
inclusion of the statement of equal sides is iliogical, A
parallelogram can be constructed by drawing two parallel
enight fines and then two other parallel straight lines
which cut them.» But this construction involves only one
geometrical fact about the straight lines, vi, that they
fre parallel. That is all that we know about them, But
from this fact, and the properties of parallels which have
bboen considered in Chapter 7, we can proceed to prove
that the opposite ses mast be equal. This is done in
‘the Theorem of § 78.
(2) Jemayfrter be noted that since the rectangle
square and thombos are all paralelograms, in that they
QUADRILATERALS. ”
conform to the defnition of having “ pairs of opposite
Sides parallel they might be defined as Yellows:
A rectangle is a parallelogram in which one of the
angles is a right angle. Bid
A square na rectangle which has two adjacent sides
equal.
‘A thombus is a parallelogram with two adjacent
sides equal, but none of its angles is a right angle.
Q) In the definition of a rectangle itis stated that “one.
of the angles is a rightangle”. It will be proved later that
if this is so all the angles must be right angles. But, for
reasons previously given, this does not form part of the
definition proper. ‘
78, Properties of Parallelograms.
‘We can now proceed to establish some of the charac-
teristic: es of the important quadrlaterals dealt with
above, basing the proofs upon the definitions given in § 77.
Theorem.
(a) The opposite sides and angles of a
parallelogram are equal.
(b) A parallelogram is bisected by each
diagonal.
ha
=e
ABCD (Fig. 80) i a parallogram and BD is one of te
diagonals. ie
(0) ere to rn 43, = BE:
(9) Zale cape.
&) Zino = Zee.8 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
Proof. By definition AB is parallel to DC
and AAD is parallel to BC.
The diagonal BD is a transversal meeting these parallel
straight lines.
c.In the As ABD, CBI
() ZABD = ZBDC (alternate 2s, § 50).
(2) ZADB = ZDBC (alternate Zs, § 00),
(8) BD is common to both As.
‘. As ABD, CBD are congruent ($49, C).
In particular AB = DC
AD = BC.
Also from (1) and (2) by addition
ZABD + LDBC = LADB + ZBDC,
fe, ‘ZABC = ZADC.
Similarly, it may be shown by drawing the other diagonal,
that LDAB = ZBCD.
() Since the As ABD, CBD are congruent, each of them
amust be half of the arca of the parallelogram, ie, the
iagonal BD bisects the parallelogram.
Similarly. ft maybe shown that the agonal AC it
drawn would bisect the parallelogram,
Corea
Gor. 1. If ome angle ofa aratdogram sa right ange,
ail the ents aright ends (en deen et 0 tang,
7)
Tel 1 ie wiiees vies jocatairam wh
equal, all the sides are equal (see definitions of square and
shombus, §77).
79. The diagonals of parallelograms,
Theorem. The diagonals of a parallelogram
bisect each other.
EN
QUADRILATERALS ©
In Fig. 81, ABCD is a parallelogram; AC and BD its
diagonals intersect at 0.
o, Ne Fete to prove that the diagonals are bisected at
ee 40 = 0C, BO =0D.
Proof. In As AOB, COD:
8 AB =CD (878),
(2) 2048 = ZOCD (alternate Zs, § 56).
(3) ZOBA = ZODC (alternate Zs, § 66).
2+ As AOB, COD are congruent (§ 49, C).
In particular AQ = OC
BO = OD.
Note-—This theorem holds for a rectangle, square and rhombas,
? Im : ; :
DI
Pre. 8. Fie, 82,
>
since these are, parallelograms and the theorem can be proved
‘relay as i eke above a
80. The diagonals ofa square.
Theorem. The diagonals of a square are equal,
Intersect at right angles and bisect the opposite
angles.
ABCD in Fig. 82is a square and 0 is the intersection of
its diagonals, a
We require to prove :
(Q) The diagonals are equal
2) The andes at are taht 2m
{3 The diagonals bisect opposite angles.oi .
100) TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
Pro
(itn the as ADC, BCD:
@) 4D =2c (ns).
&) Deis cmuoeio ach a,
@) ZADC™ CBCD (eight ngs, § 1, Cor.)
the 48 ADC, BCD are congruent (§ 49,
ricaat AC = PD,
che agonal are eqs
sin these AOD,
@) 40 =0c 679.
ig A> De is os gear,
8) OD is common.
4: 8 AOD, COD are congruent ($4, 2).
ii particu’ Ca0D'= SBOE
<*. these are right angles and the diagonals intersect at
Fighe angles.
i (@) Since ‘As AOD, COD are congruent.
i :. LADO = £CD0,
ia, ZADC is bisected,
diagonals bisect opposite angles.
i 81. Properties of the diagonals of parallelograms.
‘The facts deduced above respecting the diagonals of
different types of parallelograms may be summarised as
follows :
Parallelograms. Bisect each other.
Rectangles. (1) Bisect each other.
(2) Are equal.
Square, es
: (2) Are equal.
i (3) Are af right angles,
E ee
. Rhombus. {) Bisct each other,
: eee
@) Bisect opposite angles.
‘QUADRILATERALS tor
2. The Trapezium.
‘The trapezium is a quadrilateral in which two opposite.
sides are parallel but the other ses sr ioe pata
In the quadrilateral (Fig. 1 parallel to
DC but AD and BC are not parallel.
ABCD is a trapezium.
83. The following is a test by which, when the conditions,
stated are satisfied, a quadrilateral can be declared to be a
parallelogram,
Theorem. A quadrilateral, in which one pair of
opposite sides are equal and parallel
gram,
ABCD (Fig, 84) is a quadrilateral in which AB, and CD
are equal and parallel
‘Then ABCD ts a parallelogram,
In order fo satisfy the definition of a parallelogram it is
necessary to prove that AD and BC are’ parallel
Construction. Draw the diagonal AC.
Proof. In ds ABC, ADC:
q AB =CD (given).
{2) AC is common,
(8) ZBAC = ZACD (altemate Zs).
is 5 ABC ADC are congruent (§40, A).
in particular 24GB = 2 DAC.
But these are alternate angles when the straight lines
AD and BC are cut by the transversal AC.
‘1. ADIs parallel to BC. (§ 56, Ey)a
roa TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
Sine A spr to DC.
co bp de os parallgram,
‘ABED is a pralclogrant
Ail ae my at ted at Tesi re
Apa ae eal Pa oct
84, The next two theorems are helpful in proving other
theorems which have useful practical applications,
Theorem. A stralght line drawn through the
middle point of one side of a triangle and parallel
to another side bisects the third side,
In Fig. 85,
Pis the mid point of the side 4B.
is parallel to BC,
j fe require to Prove:
2 is the midpoint of 40,
“The i lowi ; Conctruction is
necessary to obtain a proof,
‘From C draw CR parallel to
AB to meet PQ produced in R.
Proof. The opposite sides of
Fro. 5. the” quadsilatersl PRCB are
parallel.
¢. PRCB isa parallelogram (Def).
c RC-=PB 78)
P (given).
Tn As APQ, CRQ:
Q) AP RC (proved above)
b) are = 20
(@) 2P4Q = ZOCR (alternate Zs)
2. As are congruent (§49, C).
Baek!
in particular A
ss AC iis bisected at Q-
» R
QUADRILATERALS 1303
85, Theorem, The straight line joining the middle
points of two sides of a triangle is parallel to
the third side and is equal to one half of it.
‘The Fig. 80 isthe same as in the preceding theorem, but
in this ease we are given that:
P and Q are the mid points of two sides of the AABC.
We require to prove:
(Q) PQ is parallel to BC.
8) PQ = BC.
‘The construction is the same as inthe preceding theorem,
ie, CR is drawn parallel to AB
to meet PQ produced at R.
Proof, In 8 APQ, QRC:
) 2PAQ = ZOCR
{alternate Zs). “
(@) 2APQ = ORC
(alternate Zs).
@) AQ = OC (giver). 8 c
As APQ, QRC are con- us
grient (49, 6).
In partcalar 4 = RC
A
But by construction PB and RC are parallel :
7 CH iss vadeateral a which ap of opposite
© by the Theorem of § 83. PRCB is 2 parallelogram,
4, PQ is paralel to BC.
since PQ = PR.
PO — 48C.
86, The following theorem is useful in its practical
applications.104 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
Theorem. If three or more parallel straight lines
make equal intercepts on any transversal they also
make equal intercepts on any other transversal,
In Fig. 87, AB, CD, EF are three parallels, They are
cent by two teansversals PQ. RS. e
Given thal the intercepts on PQ are equal, ie, AC = CE,
Q@ 5
6.
It is required to prove that the intercepts on RS are equal,
aera rs io
Construction. Draw AG parallel to BD,
and CH parallel to DP.
Proof. AGDB and CHED are parallelograms (Def).
:. BD=AG
and DP =CH,
In As ACG, CEH:
46 = OF gv
cde LEE @espontiog sgh).
B} Zéae = ech Concsponting angi}
4. BE ACG, CEH are congrune
inane acter
a tga
Nosh theorem a known
Ie is tho basis of tho diagonal seal
‘the theorem of qual Intercepts".
QUADRILATERALS 105
87. Construetion No. 9.
To divide a given straight line into any number
of equal parts.
‘This construction problem is solved by the application of
the preceding
i © (ea)
Feo. 88
Ta Fig. 8, AB isany straight line, Suppose it is ested
to divide into (say) three equal parts, 1.c., to trisect it.
Method of construction.
Draw a straight line AP making any convenient angle
with 4B.
With 4 pai of dividers or compasses mark off along AP
suitable lengths AX, XY, YZ, which are equal
join ZB.
Pree and ¥ draw the sought ines XC, YD, parallel
toZB.
“The straight line AB is trsected at C and D.
Prof ‘The two trangverals 4B and AP cat the three
allel straight lines CX, DY,
Pagat the intereepts on AP, viz, AX, XY, YZ, are equal
by Theorem of § 86, the Intereapts on AB, viz, AC,
CO, DB are equal, 4c, AB is trisected at C and D.106 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
@kxercise 8
1. Find the angles of the parallelogram ABCD (Fig. 80)
when!
( cape = 70°.
(3 ZoB¢ S42" ana 2BDC = 30".
2. Construct a square of 8 cm side.
3. (@ Construct a thombus whose diagonals are 3-6 cm
and 48 cm,
{i) The diagonals of a square are 4 em long, Draw the
square and mesure the eth oft side
Mt Construct a parallelogram such that its diagonals are
8 em and 4 em tong and one of the angles between them
or
5 Construct a parallelogram ABCD when AB = 4 cm,
BC'= Sem and the diagonal AC 85cm. What particular
form of parallelogram isi? es
i The diagonals of a parallelogram ABCD intersect at
0. ‘Through 0 a straight line is drawn to cut AB and CD
at P and Q respectively. Prove that OP = 00.
7, ABC isa. Hand F are the mid points of AB and
AC. “EF is produced to G so that FG = EF. Prove that
‘BE is equal and parallel to CG.
‘8, Draw a straight line 8 cm long and divide it into five
‘equal parts. Cheek by comparing their lengths by measure=
‘ment.
‘9. ABCD is a trapezium in which AB is parallel to CD.
If AD = BC prove that ZADC = ZBCD.
CHAPTER 12
AREAS OF RECTILINEAL FIGURES
88. Area was defined in § 7 as the amount of surface
enclosed by the boundaries of a figure and there have been
Several implicit references to the areas of rectlineal figures
i peeling cpio or example when, nd 78 axe
proved that “a parallelogram is bisected by a diagonal,” the
Teference was to arca only. Again, when it was stated that
congruent triangles coincide" the implied meaning is that
not only are corresponding sides and angles equal, but that
the areas of such triangles are also equal,
‘is now necessary to consider the methods by which the
areas of rectilineal figures are obtained and, also, how these
areas are measured.
89, Measurement of Area.
‘The first essential forall measurement is a units the unit
sf area obviosly going to e related tothe unit of length
‘The unit of length in Sl is the metre (m), and the logical
unit of area is that of a square which has sides of 1 metre.
‘This is the square metre (mm).
For smaller measurements the square of any unit may be
used, e.g-: square centimetre (cm), square millimetre (mm*);,
these are the areas of squares having centimetres, etc., a3
theirside. ‘The same procedure applies to larger areas, but
in addition, there is the are, the are ofa square having a
sic The usual metric may also be used
with the are, eg. the hectare (100 ares).
Misuse eee
en ee
a
one
‘The sides of the square are divided into 10 equal parts,
S108 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
cach part being thus 01 om, Bach division is the side of
"sua sch ae neated in he small sgare. at 4
Ssequently, in the bottom row, corresponding to
o side AB, there are 10 of these
Sioall squares. Throughout
D £ Whole square ABCD there are 10
Such rows, since each side of the
suare sab divided. into, 10
ts. Altogether then
fitere are 10 % 10, 4, 100 small
Sauares such as that at 4,
Every small square is therefore
O01 ofa square centimetre. ‘Thus
3 rows contain (10.% 8) of these
Fra, 80. and their total area is 0-01 x
50— 03 en®.
Similarly 7 rows would contain (10 x 7) =70 small
qjuares ad the area of the rectangle represented by these
Trows would be 10 %< 001 = O7 em®
91, Area of a Rectangle.
‘The above example suggests a method for finding the
area ola rectangle. Asa more general cae let us consider
‘he rectangle shown in
7 Big. 90, which is drawn
onequazed paper raled in
Centinetres, fhe square
BCD. being square
centimetre. Each centie
metre is divided info
10 equal divisions, each
a millimetre.
"The aides of the rect
angle AHKL aro 4 cm
and 3 em.
a. Corresponding to each
centimetre in theside ATT
Dj
a
there is a aq. em above it, i
‘f squares constructed above each centimetre along AH.
Ta! the whole rectangle ALKH there are 3 such rows.
, there are 4 cm* in the row
AREAS OF RECTILINEAL FIGURES 109,
+. The total number of sq. cm in ALKH =3 X 4.= 12,
4.0), the area of AHKL = I2 em
if the rectangle were 6 cm by 5 cm, then there would
be 6 cm? in each row and 5 rows.
c. Total area = 6 x 5:
= 30cm,
This reasoning can evidently be applied to a rectangle
of any size and the result generalised as follows:
Let a = number of units of length in one side of the rect-
Je.
"fet — nuraber of units of length inthe adjacent side of
the rectangle. :
Then area of rectangle = (a x b) sq. units.
The argument above referred to examples in which the
lengths of the sides of the rectangle are exact numbers of
nits of length, With sultable modification, however, it
can be shown to be true when the lengths of the sides are
fractional.
For examplondjacent sides ftherectangl AEF, Fig. 0,
vig, AE and AG, are 35 and 1-5 cm respectively.
‘These lengths expressed in millimetres are 25 and 15
mm respectively, and each very small square with a side
one millimetre is a square millimetre.
‘with the same reasoning as above,
Area of AEFG = (85 x 15) mm*
= 525 mm?
= 5:25 cm.
Similar methods employed in other cases confirm the
truth of the general rule given above.
92. Area of a Square.
Regarding a square a8 a rectangle with adjacent sides
equal, the bove formula for its area canbe modified
sczordingh
Thus =
Thon ares of square = ax a
moon units,no TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
93. Area of a Parallelogram.
‘The formula for the atea of a parallelogram, the ar
of the figure not being right anges, can Be dete as
Consider the parallelogram ABCD, Fig. 91.
Construction. Draw €P perpendicular to AB.
From D drow DQ perpentinar CD te, mest BA
produced at is per-
Pendicular to.8Q.
fe of. If CD be regarded
as the ase of the pale
ram, then CP-or BQ is the
corresponding “alee or
¢ ight of the, parallelogram.
Se onan Tis the distance between the
tho parallels AB and DC.
DCPQ is a rectangle and DC and CP aie two adjacent
sides.
In As BCP, ADQ:
(1) ZCBP = ZDAQ (corresponding angles).
) Aaya = ZcPD jt ats.
@) CB = DA (§78).
:. As BCP, ADQ are congruent
quadrilateral ADCP +} APCB = quadrilateral ADCP
+ ADO,
42, parallelogram ABCD = rectangle PCDQ.
‘1, the area of a parallelogram is equal to the area
of the rectangle with the same base and same
height.
". area of parallelogram =
ase x helght.
Corollary. The arca of any other parallelogram with the
tase'DC end having the same heighy or lying. Bebwcon the
Ste Paralls, ts equal lo thal ofthe recangle BCDQ.
94, The statement in the corollary above can be ex:
pressed formally in the following theorem.
AREAS OF RECTILINEAL FIGURES m
Theorem. Parallelograms on the same base and
having the same height, or between the same
parallels, are equal in area.
In Fig, 92 PQ and XV are two parallels.
Let Ais, a patt of PQ, be a base to any two parallelograms,
Gate eK, F ey
ALY
Pro. 92.
such as ABCD, ABEF, between the two parallels PQ and
xy.
Draw AL and BK perpendicular to XY.
‘Then AL =BK.
[As in § 93 each of the parallélograms ABCD, ABEF
can be shown to be equal in area to the rectangle ABKL.
i. the area of ABCD = area of ABEF.
95. I both base and hight o constant in parallelogram
such at ar daoibed aver the enw be constant
D PS, RW G
A Bea F
Fre. 98
‘The base need not be the same base; but the bases must
be equal.
“ence we arrive at :
Theorem. Parallelograms which have equal
bases and lie between the same parallels, /e., they
have the same height, are equal in area.mm TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
In Fig. 93 ABCD, EFGH are parallelograms having equal
bases AB and BF and lying between the same paralels
rectangles ABPQ, EPRS be constrictal as shown in
figure, these will have the same area,
‘parailelograms ABCD, EFGH, which are equal in
arca 18 these, must be themselves equal
96. Area of a Triangle.
Every triangle, can be, regarded as half of @ certain
arallelogram which can be readily constructed. This is
iustrated in Fig. 4. Each of the three types of triangles,
FACE pri psa DAS p
Beas com 8
© ® ©
Feo 94
acute angled (a), obtuse angled (2) and right angled (c) is
hall ofthe parallelogram 42CD, the construction of which
is obvious. "In the ease of the right-angled triangle (¢) the
ralelogram astmes the form ef a retanele. fn (4) and
{G) AUT represents tho altitade or height ofthe tslangle and
therefore also of the corresponding parallelogram.
Tn each case the parallelogram is equal to the rectangle
BCEF, constructed by drawing perpendiculars BF and CE.
‘Also, each triangle ts equal to half of the rectangle, one
of whose sides is the base of the triangle and the other side
‘the same in length as the height of the triangle.
‘in both parallelogram and rectangle it has been shown
§99) that :
se x height.
(base height).
It length of base
titude
and ea,
Then A= bh.
AREAS OF RECTILINEAL FIGURES oy
97. From the above conclusions the truth ofthe following
theorems will be apparent without any formal statement
‘of the prools
Theorem. If a parallelogram and a triangle be
on the same or equal bases and between the same
parallels, the area of the triangle is one half that
of the parallelogram.
Theorem. Triangles on equal bases and between
the same parallels are equal in area.
98. Arca of a Trapezium.
ABCD isa taperium (Fig, 08) im which AD ie paral
to BC.
From D and B draw perpendiculars DE and BF to the
‘opposite side, produced” in
he case of DA. Join BD. ¢__A__D
‘The trapezium is divided
by BD into two 4s ABD,
DBC,
Lek i be the distance be- pL C
tween the parallel sides,
“Then his equal to DE and Fie. 05
BE, the altitudes of the As DBC and ADB.
Let AD = a units of length and BC = b.
‘Area of ADBC = 40h,
‘Area of OADB
area of trapezium
Yah + Wh
= Tha +b)
[leighe > sum of parle sides)
height x average of parallel
sides,
Area of a Quadrilteral, Any quadrilateral can_be
divided into two triangles, ag in the trapezium above. The
sum of the areas of these triangles is equal to the area of
‘the quadrilateral
or4 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
@Exercise 9
‘Note-—Ia some of the following exercaes the student is expected
to draw the figures to cale and calculate the areas from the measured
1, Take two set squares of angles 80°, 60°, 90° and place
them together with the hypotenuses coinciding, thus
forming a rectangle. Measure the sides of the rectangle
‘and find its area, Hence find the area of one of the set
squares.
2. Fig. 96 represents a square tile of side 10 cm. ABCD
yr i
g Stn
Fro. 98 Fre. 91.
are the mid points of the sides of the square. Find the
area of the part which is shaded.
‘3. Find the area of a rectangle 6:8 cm by 4
4. Find the areas of the following triangles:
Base 165 mm, height 70 mm
() Base 9-7 m, height 6-7 m
(@) Base 16-4 cm, height 11-4 em.
5. Construct a triangle with sides 2, 25 and 3 cm and
find its area. Check the result by doing it in three ways
‘and finding the average of your results.
'6. Construct an equilateral triangle of side 7 cm and
find its area.
"7, The diagonals of a rhombus are 8-6 em and 1-4 cm.
Find the area of the rhombus.
'3, The area of a triangle is 1646 cm? and the length of @
‘base is 6-5 cm. Find the corresponding altitude.
AREAS OF RECTILINEAL FIGURES us
9. Fig. 07, not drawn to scale, represents the side of
lean-to shed ‘of dimensions as indicated. Pind its area,
10. Fig. 98, not drawn to scale, represents the section
es ey
daa a.:
CHAPTER 13
RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES. THEOREM OF
PYTHAGORAS
99. One of the most important theorems in Geometry
is that connected with a right-angled triangle and known
fas the “Theorem of Pythagoras”. It is as follows:
Theorem. The area of the square on the hypo-
tenuse of a right-angled triangle is equal to the
sum of the areas of the squares on the other two
sides.
Tn Fig. 99 ABC is a right-angled. & and BC is its by
be Metewnse. ‘Squares are COn-
structed on the sides.
“The Theorem states that
Square on BC = square
‘on AB + square on AC.
anlar ae several intrest
vices for cutting 1
the squares on BA and AC
and ftting them into the
Square on BC. But t0 save
time and space we will pro-
ceed directly t0 the proof
which the student may find
kK
> inner and. petaps more
Gepicced ten terre
Fro. 00 theorems. re
‘e Condition, Draw ALM
ralel to BE and CD, and consequently at ight ang
BiBc‘and ED.
This vis th square on BC into two rectangles.
‘The proof cons In showing that
Ee
RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES. PYTHAGORAS 117
rectangle BLME — square on AB.
(these are shaded) and afterwards
‘the rectangle CDML
(A) To prove rectangle BLME
o obtain connecting links between these, join AE, HC.
shiniifis noted that KA snd AC re nthe same gis
ine (6 18).
fl) ABE and rectangle BLME are on the same base
BE and between the same parallels BE and AMM.
< SABE = j(rectangle BLME) (07).
(3) AHBC and square ABHK are on Same base HB and.
between the same parallels HB and KC.
, QHBC = }(square ABHK).
If it can be proved that AABE = HBC,
Then rectangle BLME = square ABHK,
(8) To prove ABE
(1) 4B = BB Gi
(2) BE = BC (sides of a square)
(8) ZABE = ZHBC (anos cach 4 eats a vght
2+ ZABC).
ss As ABE, HBC are congruent. (§ 49 A).
. rectangle BLME = square ABHK . (1)
In a similar manner by joini and BG it may
maces y joining AD and BG it may be
rectangle CLMD = square ACGE . (2)
By addition of (1) and (2) we get
square on BC = sum of squares on AB and AC.
‘The student is advised to go through the proof lea
to (2) and write it down, £ = ees
‘The above proof has been made somewhat longer
‘explanations designed to help the student through it.
Shorter and) more usual way of setting Ht out is given in
Part II (p. 265). a ee;
18 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
100, The converse of the above theorem is also true. Tt
is as follows:
Theorem. [fina triangle the square on one side
Is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two
sides, then the triangle is right-angled.
‘The proof is omitted in this section of the book, but will
be found in Part IT (p. 267).
101. The Theorem of Pythagoras can be expressed in
algebraical form as follows:
Ta the right-angled triangle ABC (Fig. 100) the sides are
represented by a, 5, ¢ as explained in §44, ¢ being the
hypotenuse.
‘Then by the Theorem of Pythagoras:
aot
whence covet
also ee
and a=ve—e
similarly bavaaa
“ence any one side canbe expressed in terms of the other
so.
From these results is vient cha fin eworghe-angled
triangles, the hypotenuse and one side of cach are equal
the shied side wll ago. be equal and the triangles a
congruent.
102. To find the length of the diagonal of a square in terms
of the sides.
Let a= length of a side of the square ABCD (Fig. 101).
Let ¢ = length of the diagonal, DB.
Then 28 =a! + a? (Theorem of Pythagoras)
‘Le,, the ratio of the diagonal of a square to a side Is
21.
VF may be noted that the angles CBD, CDB are each 45°
RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES. PYTHAGORAS 119
103. To find the height, or altitude, of an equilateral
triangle In terms ofthe side. 2
In Fig: 202, ABCis an equilateral 4.
8 A
a XC lo
Co 8 | Dom eee cee:
Fi 100, Re
Fre, 102,
AD, the perpendicular from A to BC, is the height or
altitude. Poe -
Let a = length of each side
Then cD =§.
In tho right-angled AADC, AC* = AD* + DC.
f. ADE = AC — DoH
---@
@
: V3,
2 AD= Ma.
‘The angles of the AADC are 90°, 60°, 30° (those of one
of the set squares) and the A is one of frequent occurrence.
Tt should be noted that the ratio of the sides of this 4 are0 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
‘Area of an equilateral triangle,
From the above triangle:
@éxercise 10
1, Which of the As, with sides as follows, are right-
angled?
(a) 1-2, 1-6, 2,
0) 4, 5, 6.
() 1, 24, 2:6,
37,8.
_2. Find the lengths of the diagonals of squares whose
(@ Lm, @ 12m.
8. Find the altitudes of equilateral As whose sides are:
(2) 1m, @) 12m.
4, The diagonals of a rhombus are 4-6 m and 5-2 m.
Find the lengths of the sides.
5. A man travels 15 km due east and then 18 km due
ori, How far she from his starting pont in straight
5
6. One side of a rect field is 140 m. A diagonal
4s 160m. Find the ‘of the other side.
i 1. A peg is 3 m from the foot of a flagstaff which is 8 m
high. What length of rope, when taut, will be needed to
reach the peg from the top of the flagstaff?
8. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 65 cm
and one side is 26 cm. “What is the length of the other
9, Find the altitude of an isosceles triangle in which
‘each of the equal sides is 10 cm, and the base is 5 cm.
10. (a) Find the area of an equilateral triangle of side 5
RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES. PYTHAGORAS 1a
cm; () 1 the area of en oqustenl tangle s 25/5
hae @ ela ef ech Ses oe
1, Aad 12m fog re gut avert wala
hots, ofa he ot of ads on fom the oe
oft’ ow far op th wal este tt tia eer
Tate agp of aunt intonet at right
angles rove tat he et th uae oon pated
oppose sds equals he sm of ihe Sarees Wh he
arr.
_ 18, Construct a square so that its area is twice that of a
‘given square,
14. A'rod 3 m in Jength makes an angle of 30° with its
pletion on @Doriontal plane. “Hind the length ofCHAPTER 14
POLYGONS
104, A polygon isa Blane rectilineal figure bounded by more
than four siaight Fines.
Triangles and quadsilaterals are sometimes included
under the term polygon, but it will be used here in the
sense defined above.
A regular polygon is one in which all the sides and all
dae gis are dual,
A convex polygon, like a convex quadeilateral, is one in
which no angle vegreater than boo right angles, £2,098 00
Telex or re-etrant gle
The. work which follows will be confined to regular
convex polygons.
(05. Stes of Polygons
Tw ty threat ote mmber of sie a
ae oe thos with telve or ew a0 commonly
eth the names of plone which re mos in we
oleae
‘Name
5 Pentagon
8 Hexagon
7 Heptagon
$ Octagon
» Decegoa
number of angles of a polygon is the same as the
numberof sides. ‘Ths # regblar hexagon bas sequal
Ingles, as well as six equal Si
POLYGONs ES
106. Cireumseribing Circles of Polygons.
With al sega polygons crs can be desc which
pass through all the aigulat points or vertices
Such cies are called creumserbing ei
are shown in Fig. 102.
‘To draw the circumscribing circle, Tf i x required to
cs 8
y
0} la Fl la
fo e
(eyfegdartacgan Repu Papen (par Octagon
ro 108
drow the circumscribing circle ofa given regular polygon,
‘this can be done in two ways. lena:
it) Din the prpendinar bisects oor more
(2)’ Draw the bisectors of two or more of the angles
othe pln:
Tnedlncr ease the interaction ofthe lines 9 obtained
is the centre of the required ci Ia the examples
51 Fig. 108 all the lines thus drawn are bisectors of the
Sipe Each cf teas seat eae Ome
tee
‘he proof nether case wil be ar fom previous
Corpesponding bench side of cegtlar ealpeom, ox
mccain Ali ts yeriec ef te Soule EPs pee
Scrbng Gave as shown in Fig. 103, Tn te caso of tho
exagen all teas triangles are equilateral
107. Inscribed Circles.
Circles which are drawn within polygons 29 28 to touch
all the sides are called inscribed cltles. ‘They ‘clearly
‘ouch each side at its mid-pomt,
Examples14 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
To draw the inscribed circle ofa given polygon, such as
the hexagon in Fig. 108, ind the centre, which is the stme
‘as for the circamseribing cicl,
by “drawing the perpendicular
B —tikectors of the sides
The length of any one of these
perpendicilars from 0 to. one of
thete mi pointsis theradiusor the
o Inscribed rcle. For example, in
Fig. 108, OP is the radius of the
inscribed crce
e f
Fre. 108
108, Angles of Regular Polygons.
[As stated in § 105 these are all
«iva in any” regular polygon
They can bs found in vas ways. Bi
st method. Consider the pentagon in .
The five isosceles swith sides of the pentagon as bases
and werties at 0 are early congruci, andthe anges at
centre are equal. Their sum is four right angles. This is
Sion ie tr al epuet ptyerees
For the pentagon each angle at the centre =} of 4
right Zs.
240B 2.
5
‘1+ each of the angles O4B, OBA = 4(180° — 72°) = 54°.
LABC = 2 x LOBA = 108°,
Second method. For our example in this ease we will
consider the hexagon (Fig. 108 (a)
Hp this polygon ax equatral As are formed with sides
of the polygon as bases.
Ee AT ll the angles of these triangles, 6 x 2 = 12
right’ Ze
"These include the angles at 0, i. 4right Zs.
‘emo th a anges of he hexagon = (13 — A) ght
= Bright Zs,
POLYGONS ns
8 90°
Fright Zs = 8 x 8
= 120".
The angle of a regular polygon of n sides.
In general, if a polygon has n sides there are » triangles.
«sum of all the angles of the As = 2n right angles.
Tihs includes the 4 right Zs at the centre
“+ sum of angles ofthe polygon = (2n — 4) right Zs.
in 4
each angle
eee oe ete
iPcheales eae ae
eadhangle= © 94 ue 25
i,
Third method. Exterior angles of a regular polygon.
inet the sides ofa regular polygon (Fig. 108) be produced
Exterior angles are thus formed, and these are as many
as there are sides to the
polygon.
Let
sides.
Then there are m exterior
angles, At each angular
point the sum of the interior
tnd exterior angles is 2 right
for m exterior angl
‘sum of all the angles = 2n
the number of
right Zs.
‘but sum of interior angles =
Ga 8) reht cs rs. 105.
. sum of exterior angles = 4 right Zs,
When there are # sides and thus m exterior angles
‘each exterior angle = 4% 4 zwas TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
each Interior anglo = 180° — 900°,
Thus, fora hexagon each interior angle
= 180° — 50" = 120°,
109. Construction No. 10.
To construct a regular polygon on a given straight
line.
es aati on og
ey acca
a.
eS
en
aoc eae
| Seas
i B Let AB (Fig. 106) be. the
Fro, 108, given side of the required
alygon.
Consideing the general case let the polygon have m sides.
Method of construction.
Produce AB indefinitely to P.
AUB construct an angle whith, by elation, sone of
the exterior angles of the polygon (§108, Third Method),
twas there shown that !
360°
Each exterior angle = 0
‘1 at B construct an angle PBQ equal to
Along PQ mark off BC = AB.
‘Then BC is aside of the polygon and ZABC is one of the
angles of the polygon.
ninrly, choles cng equal to PBC can be constructed
POLYGONS Po
at C and a third side obtained. Thus the whole polygon
can be constructed step by step. =
Note—It is frequently helpful, having obtained BC, to find the
ceatre ofthe abusing Sle ss stated bore
@ Exercise 11
1, Find the number of degrees in each of the equal
angles of the following regular polygons‘ (a) heptagon,
Loreen ee
100%, how many sides are there? eee
'3. Construct & hexagon with a slde of 04 m.
8 ‘What is the radius ofthe circumscribing circle?
(W) What is the distance between two opposite sides?
(@) Find the area of the hexagon.
4, Construct a regular octagon of side 8 em.
Each of the exterior angles of a re alygon is
40°, How many sides has it? Find each of the interior
', The sum of the exterior angles of a polygon is equal
to the sum of the interior angles. How many sides has the
polygon?Feces
CHAPTER 15
Loci
tee ee
ee a teers
eee ees
a ee
ee ene Sree
Soon ae Le see
aber
er Win ferns tt fom
Ls
ea oes ae a
, cera
ores
eee ae
oft
R S A second example is as follows.
ee acne cera
Sc nr ts to le
ae eae ee
Ri ae ace aa gaat Conca ail chet OF pS
pea ae ae ae a Se
ee eee ee
Cees eat a ee ce
pe cigae sane oe eae
17, EM, each one centimetre in length, we obtain the points
Land M, which also satisfy the condition.
Tt is clear, from previous work, that all such points must
23
Loci 2
lie on the stright line PQ which ts parallel to AB and
qual In length £0 It. ‘The points P and Q wil lie at the
fds ofthe perpendiclrs tom A and respectively.
Tei also evident that a straight line RS, drawn parallel
to AB on the other side of it, such that the perpendicular
from any point on AB to it is one centimetre in length, also
contains points which satisfy the condition of being one
centimeter 4
Consequently, we conclude that ald the foints in the plane
which aly the condition of being ome conbmetre from A fe
{n two parallel straight lines, one contimare from AB, equal im
tenth io and ing om oo ses 0
4 euros, tw be lex that ‘there are no other pont
inthe plane of the paper which are distant one centimetre
from AB.
‘An assemblage of all the points which satisfy a given
condition Is led a locus, (Latin, locus =a. pace,
position? ploral—tooé)
‘Worhave also ate that the straight Hine PQ may be
regarded as the path of a point moving so that it satisfies
She condition of Being on centimetre fem AB. Hence the
“The path traced out by a point moving so as to sti
« fed Zondlion or taw 1 alfed the locugof the polnt
111. Let us next consider this problem:
What i the locus of points In a plane which are one
‘centimetre distant from a fixed point
‘The answer to this is at once suggested by the definition
of. cee a0) Ba fiat dein wa a al rile
lines dracon from points on the circumference to a fixed point
within the carve called the centre are gual”. 2
Consequently, the answer to the question is that the locus
Is the circumference of a circle, whose centre is at the
fixed point and whose radius is one centimetre
112. Locus of Points Not in One Plane.
In the above definitions points and lines were specified.
asbeing inone plane. Butit will bereadily understood that330 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
there may be points not In the plane, in space, which
also satisly the given condition.
Tn the example of the previous section ifthe lines are no
longer restricted one plane, then it will be seen that the
Iocas in space of points which tre al a given distance fom a
{fer point i the surface of a ball or sphere, The radius of
fhe sphere ithe specified distance fromm the fixed point
which i the centre of the spire
Slang the locus in space of poets which are 2
specified ditance from a fixed straight line (av in § 110)
Tethe Interior surface ‘oft
fplinder, such a8 2 jamjar oF
th
‘The sphere and cylinder will
be more fully dealt with in
Chapter 24.
113. Locus of Points Equi-
distant from Two Fixed Points
Let A and B be the two fixed
ints (Fig. 108).
P*Ganstration No.8 provides
the solution of the. problem.
‘There it was proved that any
jint_ on. the perpendicalar
Fiseetor of straight Hine is
Fao, 108 equidistant from the ends of
the line.
Theor, join 4B and drag asin Gmatrocton No.6
the perpendicular bisector of AB, viz,
‘Then, as in the theorem of §68, any’ pout on PQ is equi-
Aistant from A and B.
J; PQs the required locus.
114, Locus of Points Equidistant from Two Incersecting
Straight Lines.
‘The answer to this problem is supplied by the Theorem
of §68, following on Construction No. 4.
It is clear that the locus is the bisector of the angle
formed by the intersection ofthe two straight lines. Thus,
Loci 130
4 Fig, 72 OP is the lous of points which are equidistant
from the two straight ines OAand OB.
11S. The geomet costrcton of ous is seldom as
easy as those stated above, The following example is
Someuliat more dilfeult. Seee
Find the locus of a polne which moves so that the sum
of ts distances from two fixed points conan.
The locus may be drawn a5 fellows
D
Enlipse
Fis. 100,
Let P and @ be two fixed points on a piece of paper on a
drawing boa. teow tee
‘Fasten two pins firmly at P and Q.
Take a closed Toop of fine string or thread and place it
round the pins at P'and Q.
|” With the poiat of a pene stretch the string taut, so that
it takes up & poston Sch a cc
the pensil now be moved, keeping the string taut,
the point nt X will travel along’a cave®. Since the length
of the string is constant, and the distance between P and
Qs constant, the sum of PX and QX must be constant,
Thus, the point moves round a curve so that the sum of
its distances from P and Q ls constant.
The resulting curveis an ellipse, which may therefore be
defined as:32 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
The locus of the point moving so that the sum of is
distances from two fed points I conseane isan ellipse,
“Two of the points and B wil eon the straight line
ced each way
Through Ora ular to AB,
Through 0 dia COD reread AB,
ee and CD are z led the major and minor axes
of the ell
rand are called the foc
116, Loct by Plotsng Points
Many loc, as we have seen, can be drawn readily by
salah og ru compa fut th
{Specially when they fic upon a curve, are obtane
method known as plotting points, This means that
umber of points are obtained which satisfy the given
fonditions. "Such points wil im genera, appear to jie on
Tegular, smooth Garve or straight line,” They ate joined
Sp by drawing as acrorately as possible the curve Which
passes through them all
The parabola.
A very useful example of this method is one which
produces a parabola. A mechanical method of drawing
{his curve is possible, but is seldom used. The following
‘two methods are commonly employed.
(Q) Geometrical. In this method we employ a funda-
‘mental property of a parabola as a locus. It is as follows:
‘The locus of points whose distances from a fixed point are
gual athe coteponding distances fom a fied straight line
4 called a parabola.
{iis cad be draw most easly by using squared paper
as in Fig. 110,
‘Let P be the fixed point and XOX’ the fixed straight line,
0 being the point where the perpendicular from P to XOX?
meets that line
Tf OP be bisected at A, then A is clearly @ point on the
‘curve, its distance from the fixed straight line XOX’, viz,
‘40, being equal to AP, its distance from P.
Loci =
Selecting one of the ruled lines perpendicular to OP, such
AsBC, with BO as radius and Pak Catt draw ah ac of &
circle cutting BC in C. Se pe
Then PC =08 = co,
4, the distance of C from the fixed point P is
its distance from the fixed line OX. aa ora,
. Cs. point on the locus
‘A similar point can be found on the other side of
0:
Parabola
Fre, 110.
OP. Thus a number of other points may be found on both
sides of OP as an axis and a curve drawn to contain them.
The more points that are plotted the more accurately the
curve can be drawn,
(2) Algebraical.
Students who have studied algebra wil be acquainted
with the following, which is a very brief summary of te
treatment of the matter in an algebra text-book (Teach
Yourself Algebra, § 108).a TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
Let OX, OY be two straight lines at right angles to each
other.
Let P be a point in the plane of these lines,
Let y, 4, PK, be its distance from OX,
Let, f., PL, be its distance from OY.
Tf the relation between y and # for a series of points be
Fis. 1,
such that y is always proportional to the square of x, then
‘the locus of such points is a parabola,
This relation can be expressed by the equation
y=ar,
This is true for any value of a, Let @
‘Then the equation becomes y = x.
Using this simpler form of the equation, we may proceed
to find the locus of all points which satisfy the condition,
To do this we assign suitable values to x and then caleulate
‘the corresponding values of y. For convenience some of
‘these are tabulated as follows (other values can be added
by the student):
> feels TT]
i ° oa [1 [sae] « fea] e
Loci 1
Using scales a indicated on OX and OF (Fig. 112),
wwe proseed to find the points for which the corresponding
Walves of and y are those inthe table, chus at P
ea2y ad
Te will be seen that these points apparently lle on a
smooth regular curve. This mat be drawn by ie student.
Teis'a resonable inference trom the form of the curve
2
Parabola
Fie. 12,
that all points on it, besides those plotted, will satisfy the
condition y = x. ‘This can be checked By taking points
‘nit, finding the corresponding values of + and y and seeing
if they do satisfy the condition. Further, it will be clear
that there are no points on the plane, not lying on the curve,
which satisfy the condition y = 2%
For convenience, different units are employed for x
andy.
‘The curve Is thus the locus ofthe points, which are such136 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
that the distance from OX Is equal to the square of the
Aiszance from OY.
e student who has a knowledge of elementary algebra
vill realise that there is a similar curve on the other side of
OY, corresponding to negative values of x. This agrees
with the curve as drawn by geometrical methods in Fig. 110.
The curve is a parabola,
117. The Hyperbola.
Algebraic expressions, involving two quantities denoted
by.x and y, in which y'is expressed in terms of x, can be
represented’ by curves obtained in a similar way to that
given above. A noteworthy example is the curve which
Fepresents the relation between x and y denoted by the
equation
y=
Using the method of the previous example, the curve
to be obtained may be regarded as the locus of points such
that the distance (5) of each of them from OX is the
reciprocal of the distance (s) from OY.
“This curve presents dificulties when x becomes very
large or very Small, but they cannot be discussed here.
The student fs referred to Teach Yourself Algebra, §173.
"A table of corresponding values of v and ys as follows:
mionioven aa Ls
Stal ate
When the curve is drawn through the points obtained
from these it is as shown in Fig. 113.
‘A carve similar to that obtained by using the above
values can be drawn for negative values of x.
This curve is known as the hyperbola.
118, The Cyclold.
This curve Is the locus of a fixed point on the circum-
Loci 4
farance of cle which rel along a aight In without
The Curve, which is one of considerable practical vai,
may be observed by making visible man on a bicyele
wheel, or garden roller. As the wheel rolls emeatly tie
Hygperbola
Fro. 113,
‘mark will be seen to move along a curve in space, This
carve is the eycloid.
Accycloid may be plotted as follows. Take a solid circular
disc, place it horizontally on a piece of paper and with its
edge touching a fixed ruler or a book a marked point, P,
is made on the paper. Carefully roll the dise along ‘the
edge of the ruler for a short distance, taking care it does138 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
fais gee is eee a
ee ee eee ee
reat oa ree ett
sees
Pp
Cydoiad
Fie. 114,
Fig, 114 represents the curve, the marked point on the
circle starting from A, reaching’the highest point at P.
‘At B the circle has made one complete rotation, and the
fixed point is back again on the line AB.
119. Intersection of Loci.
‘When two lines which are the locl of points satisfying
two separate sets of conditions intersect, then the point
oF points of Inersection satisfy both sets of conditions.
Example |. A and B (Fig. 115) are any two points, PQ
is the lar bisector of AB.
Then PQ is the locus of pointe equidistant from A and B
1a),
f Lee be a third point, and RS the perpendicular bisector
of BC.
Thon RS Is the locus of points equidistant from B and C.
Let 0 be the intersection of PQ and RS.
Since 0 lies on PQ it must be equidistant from 4 and B.
‘Also since O lies on RS it must be equidistant from B and,
©
:. © must satisfy both sets of conditions and is equl-
distant from A, B and C,
i 04 = 0B =0C.
Loci 139
Ifa circle be described with O as centre and OA as
radius the circumference will pass through B and C.
ie following conclusions may be deduced from the
(I) If AC be drawn then ABC is a triangle and the circle
Fic. 118,
drwun as described above is the circumscribing circle of the
‘langle sce § 100).
(Q) Since PO and RS can intersect in one point only, one
circle onby can be described to passthrough tree points.
(9) The perpendicntarbsor of AC mst fa tog be
centre ofthe circumscribing circle O.. Consequently the pert
ondicada bisecors ofthe side of ariangle mia be concirion.
Example 2. The principle ofthe intersection of lc has
been used previously in & number of example, without
retrace locus, as, for example, in the ‘ollowag
problem,
‘A and Bare to foinls 5 om apart on a siraight line AB.
Find a point which fs 4 om from A and 9 om from B.
‘With centre and radiun dem describe a cle (Fig, 110).
With centre B and radius 8 em describe a circleHe TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
‘The locus of all points in the plane which are 4 cm from
Ais the circumference of a circle, centre A and radius 4 cm.
‘The locus of all points 3 em from B is the circumference
ofa circle centre B and radius 3 cm.
‘The intersection of these two circles, viz., C and C’ are
Fro. 116
points which satisfy both conditions, é.c., each of them is
em from A and $m from B. They are thus the vertices
fof two triangles ABC and ABC’ whose sides are of the
{given dimensions, 5 cm, 4 cm and 3 cm.
“Pest ar cleny Gmgruent
‘Teebbant wht ebervs that, princi, this was the
mad aelayel in the constriction of tangs, whe
ee a re ven ($40, 5).
Loct ut
@Exercise 12
1. Describe the following loci:
(@) The centre of a wheel of radius 1 m which rolls
in a vertical plane over a smooth horizontal surface.
(8) The centre of a wheel of radius 1 m which rolls
round a wheel of radius 2 m.
(0) Arunner who runs round a circular track, always
keeping 1 m from the inner edge of the track.
2. A number of triangles on the same base and on the
same side of tare of equal area, "What i the los oftheir
vertices
'3. On a given straight line as base a number of isosceles,
triangles are constructed. What is the locus of their
vertices?
‘4. On a given straight line, AB, a number of right-angled,
triangles are constructed, each with the right angle opposite
to.AB, Draw a number of such As and sketch the curve
which passes through the vertices, What does it appear
to be?
5. AB is a fixed straight line and 0 a point without it
Qs flngd to a point Pon AB and PO is produced to 9.50
09 =OP. As P moves along AB, what is the locus of Q?
%6, Ona fixed straight line, AB, a'series of isosteles As are
‘constructed on ane side of AB. Let C be one of the vertices.
Produce C4 to D, so that CD = CB. What isthe locus
of
7. AB is a straight line and P is a point without it. If
P moves so that the perpendicular from it to AB is always
‘one-half of its distance from A, what is the locus of P?
8. XY is a fixed straight line of indeterminate length,
A part of it, BC, is the base of an equilateral 4 ABC.” If
the triangle rolls over, without slipping, on. XY, until AC
lies on XY, what is the locus described by B?
9. Two straight lines PQ and XY of unlimited length
intersect at 0 at an angle of 45°. ‘Show how to find points
which are one centimetre from each of the straight lines.
10. POQ is an angle of 60°. Show how to find a point
which is one centimetre from OP and 4 cm from 09.CHAPTER 16
THE CIRCLE, ARCS, CIRCUMFERENCE, AREA
120. Ares and the angles they subtend.
The student is reminded of the conclusions reached in
$21 and 22. There it was pointed out that ifa straight line
Totates in a plane about a fixed point at one end of the line
‘then any point on the rotating line traces the circumference
of a circle, and that any part of this circumference is called
an are.
‘Thus wlien the straight line OA (Fig. 117) rotates to OB
‘about O, an are of the circle, viz.,
B AB is described by A, and ZAOB
S jis the corresponding angle through
a which AB toms
‘The angle AOB Is said to stand
fon the are AB, while the arc AB Is
‘ald to subtend the angle AOB at
the centre of the circle. Both arc
and angle are described by the same
= Amount of rotation.
eae If the rotating line moyes through
a further angle BOC equal to AOB, the are BC is formed
Subtending 2B0C at the contre. Clearly since ZAOB =
ZBOC the aro BC must equal the are AB. It is reason-
Able to conclude that equal angles correspond to equal arcs
fand vice versa, This may be expressed in the theorems.
Theorems.
(1) Equal arcs in a circle subtend equal angles at
the centre.
(2) (The converse of the previous theorem.) Equal
angles at the centre of a circle stand upon equal
arcs.
When, as stated above and illustrated in Fig. 117, the
ue
THE CIRCLE. ARCS, CIRCUMFERENCE, AREA 143
Bem tates eat eee ee
faiish testes ms ce te eee
‘Sine way, were to be treble, the are would be tebled, and
Bye tes eee rsa aa
that
In a circle ares are proportional to the angles which
hep subeya ae the ceikre ob the crclea oa
121. Sector.
‘That part of a circle which Is enclosed by an are and the
‘drawn to the extremities of the arc Is called a
118 the figure AOB is a sector. In a circle of
Sector uadtants
Fro. 18, re. 11,
given radius, the size of the sector is determined by the
Engl of the Sector, AOB, or by the length of the ac.
Quadrant. If the angle ofthe sector is aright angle, the
sector becomes a quadrant.
Tn Fig. 119 the shaded sector is a quadrant.
If two diameters be drawn at right angles, such as AC
and BD, the circle is divided into four quadrants.
Semicirele, Tf the angle of the sector be 180", the sector
becomes a semi-circle, 4, half a circle, as ABC in Fig. 119.
A-semi-cirele thns contaiis two quadrants. An important
ractical example is the semi-circnlar protractor (see
ig, 21),
“Ghord. The straight line which Joins the ends of ana TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
arcofa circle Is aed a chord, Tn Fig. 120, AC ina chord
Of the exe an which ABC isan arc “its algo a chord of
the are ADC.
‘A dlameter isa chord which passes through the centre.
122. Length of the circumference ofa circle.
The length of a exrve obviously cannot be obtained in
theme iy a8 tn of he Hey ao
Straight edge or ruler,” Hence, other
tDetlods must be found,
“Te length ofthe circumference of
ca cirdeis's matter of great import
thee, if only for practial porpones
{To cbiain an exact formula forts
Calculation ‘we nequire more d=
Sanced mathemati: than i possible
A ini Bink, bat an spproniation
fe eae femal yeah
Chord tethods, sich as the following.
Be ‘Wind'a ‘stout. thread "round. a
smooth. cylindcal tn or Bottle, or
some similar object of wich the section is» circle. Tt is
fitter to wind 4 exacly ound faree or four times, so
That ox average canbe falen Unvind the thread and
tmeasuring the tured by a ruler the length of ne round,
Of the ceummference can be found, Evidenty this length
wl vary with the ameter of hecirle, so the next problem
Will be to find the relation betwoen them. ‘The diameter
an be measured by means ofa ruler care being taken to so
fat the line ensured pases tongh the conto the cc
‘This can be done more satsfactonly inthe ace of jar or
ti y the as of calpr ot by plang the Gres obit
tn i side-on the table between two smooth rectangle
Blocks, taking care that fhey are parallel The distance
between the blocs is evidently the Gameter of the crcl.
rom those measurements the racio of the length of the
circumference to that of the diameter maybe found.
Feet to-do this"wth sven objects of varying
diameters, and then fake the average of the results Two
Conclusions wil be spparets
THE CIRCLE. ARCS, CIRCUMFERENCE, AREA 4s
(1) The value of the ratio peonere allowing for
errors of measurement, Is found to be the same in all cases.
t ce eens
and d = diameter.
Tae ci eneae cael
@) This constant number will probably be found by
the above experiment to lie between 3:1 and 32.
If this constant ratio can be determined accurately we
have a rule by which the length of any circumference can
be found when the diameter is known
‘The problem of finding the ratio exactly has exercised
aathenaticansfor many centuries The Egyptians arived
at fairly good approximations and the Greeks at more
exact ones. Modern mathematics has, however, found
‘method by which it can be calculated to any required degree
of accuracy. Its value to 7 places of decimals. is
31415027.” This is universally denoted by the Greek
letter (pronounced * pie”)
Thus x = 31415027... to 7 places.
For practical purposes it is usually sufficient to take
S146,
‘A less accurate value is 9, i 4A.
elma th B08. Ge ler int 1 be so used in
lations the accuracy of the results cannot, in general,
depended apo 8 “accurate for more than two significant
ures. The value 4 wil be sufficient for questions, unless
otherwise stated.
‘Using this symbol, the results reached above can be
expressed in a formula;
Let Cm of circumference.
4 length of diameter.
fore
Cl
Thea $==us TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
or Cand
or since d=%
C= nr.
123. To Find the Length of an-Are.
‘The length of an arc of a circle, given the angle subtended
by it at the centre, can readily be
g calculated from that of the whole
rcumference by making use of the
‘geometric theorem of § 120, viz.:
‘Arcs are proportional’ to. the
angles they subtend at the centre,
Fig. 121 the arc AB beats the
same ratio to the whole circumference
that the angle subtended by AB at
Foi. the centre, viz., AOB, bears to a
complete rotation, 360°.
Lat a = length of arc,
7 = radius of circle,
4° = angle subtended at the centre by AB in degrees,
‘Then as stated above:
ty 7 300"
Le dm gpy X er.
For example, if an aro subtends 72° at the centre of a
circle of radius 2 em:
72
‘Then, length of are = guy X 2m X 2
dr _ 4 x 31416
Bre
= 251 cm approx.
124, The Area of Circle
‘Areas bounded by regular curves are, ia general, not
easily calculated, except by methods of advanced mathe-
inatics, ‘The problem of finding the area of crc {3 no
THE CIRCLE. ARCS, CIRCUMFERENCE, AREA 147
exception to this, Tt was one of the most famous of
geometrical problems for centuries, but was never solved
Satisfactorily until modern mathematics found means of
obtaining the area of any figure bounded by a regular carve.
This method is beyond the scope of the present volume,
‘As was the case with the circumference, however, there
fare methods by which the area can be determined ap-
proximately, and one of these is given below.
In the circle drawn in Fig. 122, 4B, BC, CD . . . are
A
Fre. 122,
the sides ofa regular polygon inscribed in the circle; centre
Oy and radius 7. The ares corresponding to these sides are
equal. “The angular points 4, BC. © ae joined tothe
centre, thus forming’ series’ of’ equal isosceles triangles,
GAB, OBC,OCD . (106).
Selecting one of these As, OAB, draw OP perpendicular
to AB. This is the altitude or height of the triangle, and
n each triangle there is a corresponding equal altitude,
Let op
‘Then area of AOAB
‘area of AOBC x
and ‘area of AOCD = CD x h.4s TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
apSitiaty forall such 4 corresponding to other sides of
polygon.
Taking the sum of these areas
AOAB + AOBC 4 OCD +...
= }4B + BC ¥eD..) xh
= perimeter of polygon} x # . (A)
‘Suppose the number of sides of the polygon to be great!
increased, Then the ‘umber of “goscles. tlangles Se
increased correspondingly. The result (A) above remains
true, however many may be the number of sides. The
‘more they are, the smaller become the sides of the polygon
fand the corresponding ares of the crcl.
‘Thus, the greater the number of sides, the more nearly
true aré the following:
: (1) The sum of the sides of the polygon becomes
apposite ots crcunfernce a} be cle
{2) The sum of the areas of the triangles. becomes
imately equal 1 the area of the erale.
"Pay a become approximately epual fo.
The differences may be made as small as we choose, by
t continuing to increase the number of sides.
i, But alt A above connec be rues
‘ultimately, ft may be a , approximately,
‘Ares of circle — flcircumference) te
; But ciscurference — 2er.
Crates of dle = § ¥ Bot X
or ‘Area = rf,
' This formula may also be expressed in terms of the
iF diameter. a: .
F it 4 = diameter
; aoa.
ret s
ii ‘Substituting in the formula aboves
A “
Area = Te
THE CIRCLE. ARCS, CIRCUMFERENCE, AREA 49
125. Area of a Sector of a Circle.
__ Asin the case of the length of an arc, the area of a sector
is proportional to the angle subtended at the centre by the
<. iix® = angle of the sector,
‘Area of sector = 355 x 31
@bxercise 13
1. In a circle of S-em radius, find the lengths of:
(0) the drcunfeences
the ae ofa quan;
(¢) an aro subtending an angle of 00
(é) an are subtending an angle of 45° (x = 3-416).
2. A circle of radius 4 om passes through the vertices of
fan equilateral triangle. ind the lengths of each of the
‘aes opposite to the sides.
'. The diameter of the halfpenny was exactly ond inch.
ind (0) ie leg of ts Greufrence, G9 Hae
4 In a circle of radius 5 cm find the lengths of the arcs
which ‘subtend at ‘the centre the following angles: 30°,
Tho*, 135°
5. Through what distance does a point at the end of the
minute hand of a clock, 8-7 cm long, move between five
minutes past three and a quarter to
6. A pendulum, consisting of a small leaden bob, at the
end of @ piece of cotton 4 m long, swings 25° on each side
of the vertical. What is the length of the path traced out
by the bob on a single swing (= = 24)?
7. Find the length of the circumference of a circle the
area of which isthe same as that of @ square of 3 cm side,
8, Tt was required that the atea of the ground covered
by ihe circular base of a tent should be 100m,» What
ust be the diameter of the base?
9. A’ wire 16 cm long is bent round to form a circle.
What is the area of the circle?130 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
10, Find the areas of the following sectors:
(2) Radius 8 cm, angle of sector 60°;
() Radius 2-8 em, angle of sector 25°;
(c) Radius 0 em, angle of sector 140°;
{) Radius 22 cm, angle of sector 246",
11. A searchlight a little above the level of the water of
1 haibour can turn its rays through an angle of 210°. Tt
the greatest datane a which objects can be clearly seen
by dhe hep of t's 1000 m, what i the aren ofthe surface
of the water within which objects can be seen?
CHAPTER 17
CHORDS AND SEGMENTS
126. Chord and Segment.
‘A chord of a circle has been defined in §121. Tt may.
also be described thus:
If a straight line cuts a circle, that part of it which lies
within the circle is called a chord of the circle.
A chord divides a circle into two parts, which are called
segments,
in Fig. 123 the chord AB divides the circle into the two
segments APB, AQB. Unless the
chord is a dianieter one of the seg-
ments is greater than a semi-circle,
and is called a major segment as
QB in Fig. 123.
“The other is less than a semicircle
‘and is called a minor segment, as
7 we encore wn we OL
a
described as major and minor arcs.
The following theorems concern~
ing chords are of considerable im-
portance.
127, Theorem. The perpendicular bisector of
a chord of a circle passes through the centre.
_[nFig 124A is chord of the crcl APB, Dis the centre
of the cho fs perpendicular to AB.
Tos ieiseoreeed to ors taut FU net eae eo
the centre 0.
"Proof. PO being the perpendicular bisector of AB.
It must be the locus of all points equidistant from 4 and
BGI).
Fre. 128,
15112 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
But OA = OB since 0 is the centre,
s+ O must lie on PQ.
128, To find the distance ofa chord from the centre of a
circle.
In the circle ABC (Fig. 125) AB is a chord of known
length.
e
NTP
a
Fro. 124, Fro. 125,
From the centre 0 draw OP perpendicular to AB.
‘The length of OP is the distance of the chord AB from O.
To find the length of OP.
Join 04, 0B.
‘AOAB is isosceles.
g; Perpendicular OP bisects the base AB (62 cor. 3.
‘OPB,
in adres,
OP? + PB — OB* ras).
poe Cee ay
Whence OP can be found.
‘Employing algebraic symbols.
Let
Then
Let
CHORDS AND SEGMENTS 153
129, Results (A) and (B) above lead directly to the
following theorems.
Theorem. Equal chords in a circle are equi-
distant from the centre.
Th the circle ABC (Fig. 126), AB and DE are equal
chords, Los z ee
Fe, 126,
Required to prove: The distances from the centre, OP
and OQ, are equal.
‘From (A) in §128
OP? + PEt = OB*
co from (B) in § 128
P4EPar
(osing the same letters as in § 128).
Now PB or Lis fixed, and OR or ris fixed.
©. OP or h must be Axed, wherever the equal chords are
decom, 12, OP = 09 and the two chords ere equidistant
‘The converse theorem is obviously true, viz.:
Theorem. Chords of a circle which are eq
distant from the centre are equal.
130. From Results (A) and (B) of § 128 the following
theorem is readily deduced.14 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
Theorem. The greater of two chords in a circle
is nearer to the centre than the lesser.
In the circle ABC (Fig. 127) the chord DE is greater
{han AB. "OQ and OP are ie corresponding distances from
he contre.
Required to prove:
Proof As before,
OP 4 PBR Op... UN
es Btpom | i
1a theres rerun the same for ll hors
OP > 09.
ec. 127, Fie. 128,
equation (B), if be inereased, will diminish, and
vice’ versa,
~’. for the chords AB and DE,
since QD > PB
2. 09<0P,
s.e,, DE is nearer to the centre than AB.
ante converse ofthis lo follows from sila reasoning to
1BL. Construction No. 11.
To find the centre of a given circle.
ee 128) is a circle of which it is required to find
CHORDS AND SEGMENTS 155
Construction. Draw any two chords, AB and CD.
Draw the perpendicular Bisectors of each chord, viz,
oP and 00, ia 0.
iis the required centre of the circle,
or prpendilar bisector of AB posses throngh
Also the perpendicular bisector of CD passes through the
. the point which Is common to both, viz. © must be
the centre.
@ Exercise 14
1. The diameter of a circle is 5 cm long, How far from
the centre is a chord which is 4 em long?
2. A chord of a circle is 8 cm long and itis 8 cm from the
centre. » What is the length of the diameter?
3. Th a circle whose radius is 13 cm, a chord is drawn
cm from the centre. Find the length of the chord.
4, Find the distance between two parallel chords of a
circle which are 24cm and 10 cm in length. The radius of
‘the circle is 13 cm.
5. Ais point on the circumference of a circle centre 0.
Two equal chords AB and AC are drawn. 4 is joined.
Prove that OA bisects the angle BAC,
6. A straight line cuts across the circumferences of two
concentric circles (21), XY is the chord so formed of
the larger circle, and 4B is the chord of the smaller circle,
Prove that XA = BY.
7. Ina citole of radius 5 cm a number of chords of length
@ cin are drawn, Find the locus of their mid-points.
8, AB and XY, are parallel chords in a circle. Show
that the arc AX equals the arc BY.
9, Draw a circle round @ penny and find its centre,
Measure its diameter.
10, Draw an equilateral triangle of 6 cm side, Draw the
circumscribing circle and measure its radius.CHAPTER 18
ANGLES IN SEGMENTS
132, Angle in a Segment.
(On the are of the major segment of the circle in Fig. 129,
any point C is taken and joined to 4 and B, the points in
‘which the chord of the Segment meets
the circumference,
‘Then the angle ACB Is called the
angle In the segment. It is said to
be-subtended by the chord 4B.
Similarly, if & point D be taken in
the minor segment the angle ADB is
the angle in that segment
_ It will be observed that the angle
ina major sogment is an acute angio,
iil the angle in the minor segment
is obtu
The angle ACB is also called the angle subtended at the
circumference by the arc ADB, while the angle AOB is
called the angle subtended at the centre by the arc ADB.
‘There is a very important relation between these angles
which is expressed in the following theorem,
Fe, 130,
133, Theorem. The angle which an arc of a circle
subtends at the centre is twice that sub-
tended at any point on the remaining part of
the circumference.
(1) TE the centre 0 lies within the
angle APB (as Fig, 180) and (2) if O les without the angle
as Fig. 131.
Construction, In each case join PO and produce it to
‘meet the circumference again in Q.
156
There are two cases:
]
ANGLES IN SEGMENTS 357
Proof \st case.
In A04P, 04 =OP.
cl LOAP = ZOPA.
Pp
qi \p
x a ls
a
Fre, 190, Fre. 131
Butexterior 2409 = sumof interior Zs04P, OPA (560).
2400 = twice ZOPA.
Similarly from the AOBP.
"2800 ~ twice £OPB,
2409 + 2600 = tks (Zork + 2oPD),
a ZAO8 = ewe LAPD.
‘2nd ease (Fig. 131).
Sin ee tac re! "
2008 = ewe 2OPB,
aM See ae eer ESE
‘Subiracting ZAOB — twice APB.
(A 3rd case arises when the angle J
APBisan obtuse angle, Le, tt an
arlene minor segment and stands
n'a major are. ‘The angle at the
Centre, AOR, is now a reflex angle. a
he proofs snlar to the foregoing.
Joinhg P to O and producing {0
@. i is proved, es before, that
409 = tie
and Zh08 = ive ZAP,
adding, reflex ZAOE twice ZAPB.158 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
134, Angles in the Same Segment.
Tn defining an angle in a segment ” ( 192) it was stated
“any int ‘is taken”. The observant student will
grctaal fave wonder hn he term the al he
Eegment” should be employed, since there is‘no iit
ihe number of points that may be taken and so no init to
the number of'angles. In Fig. 198 three points C, D, E
fe taken and three corresponding angles fommed, But
Since, as proved in §193, te angle at the centre AOB is
Fre. 188. Fro. 19.
double any angle in the segment, because any angle was
taken in the proof, it follows that all the angles in the
segment must. be equal. This striking and important fact
may be embodied in a theorem, as follows:
Theorem. Angles in the same segment of a
circle are equal.
135, A special case of this theorem is contained in the
following theorem.
Theorem. The angle in a semi-circle fs a right
angle.
Tn this ease the segment is a semi-circle, and therefore
al the angles in the semi-circle are oqual.” That they are
‘ight angles follows from the fat thatthe angle atthe centre
ANGLES IN SEGMENTS 159
in this case, AOB, Fig. 134, is a “straight” angle, é.,
‘equal to ewo right angles.
‘Hence, the angle ACB, being a half of this, isa right angle.
This theorem can also be proved very simply as follows:
join OC.
hen 04 =0C e.
also OB = 06. Z0CB.
% ZOAG's ZOBC = ZACB.
‘But since the sum of the angles of a triangle is two right
angles.
ZOAC
ZOBC
LOCA
2 ZACB muse be a righe angle.
Note This theorem shoyld be compared with the explanation
of “an angie in a segment " (§ 182). 2
136 Quadrilateral need i sce, The flowing
very important theorem also" is easily” prove
‘Theorem of § 133. pea ted
Theorem. The sum of the opposite angles of a
quadrilateral inscribed in a circle is equal to two
right angles, i.e., the opposite angles are supple-
mentary.
In Fig. 135, ABCD is a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle.
as
Fra 195,
Then 24+ LC =2right Zs
and’ 2B LD =2 right Zs.
Proof. Join O to Band D.
ZBOD|x) =2ZBCD, (§ 133)
and reflex ZBOD()") =22BAD. (4133)PRE tig a ethane 5 5 oP Te Sh ORT NS ty tet Tae
160 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
‘. ZBOD + reflex LBOD = twice (ZBCD +- ZBAD),
but ZBOD(x") + reflex ZBOD(y*) = 4 right angles,
1. ZBCD + LBAD = two right angles.
Similarly by joining O to A and C it may be shown,
LB -+ LD =2 right angles.
@kxercise 15
1. In a circle of 6 cm radius cut off a segment which
‘contains an angle of 40°.
‘2. On a straight line 2 cm long describe a s
circle which shall contain an angle of 60°.
length of the radius of the circle?
'3. A triangle ABC is inscribed in a circle, centre 0. - The
ZAOB = W", ZAOC = 120". Find the angles of the
Gang!
. OP =
. O mst lic on the bisector of the ZPCO (§ 180).
Similarly, 0 mmast lie on BO, the bisector of the ZRBQ.
Tt mast also lie on AO, the bisector of the ZRAP.
he three bseetors of the angles at A, 8 and C must
be’concurrent and OP
if @ circle be described with O as centre and one of
‘these as radius it must touch the three sides of the 4 at
P,Qand R.
14, Angles made by a tangent with a chord at the point
of contact.
isa tangent to the circle ABC (Fig. 142). From the
pe ieble| int of connect 4, chord ABs
ww dividing ‘the cirele into
‘bro segments, ABC (major seg-
ment) and ABD (minor segment).
Tha chord atthe pint of en:
tact makes two angles with the
tangent, BAQ and BAP.
‘Wher conidriag the 2540,
the segment which lies on the
ther side of the chord AB, ie,
the major segment ACB, is caled
the alternate segment corresponding to this angle.
Similarly, if we are considering the ZBAP the alternate
Fic. 142
segment corresponding to it is the minor, #.., the segment ~
BDA.
‘The following theorem shows an important connecting
link between either angle and its alternate segment.
144, Theorem. The angles made by a chord of a
circle with the tangent at an extremity of it are
equal to the angles in the alternate segments.
In Fig. 143 PQ is a tangent to the circle ACBD and AB
4s a chord drawn from the point of contact.
TANGENTS TO A CIRCLE 167
Dri i shat ANC!
Then ZACB i an ang
agen wai
corresponding to ZBAG. meee
Required to prove:
(1) 2B4Q = ace,
Note—It must be remembered that Z ACB is equal to any other
‘angle which ‘may be draw in the segment ACB (Theorem, § 130),
zat proved for CAC ale ve forty oder angle
Semect
ve 14,
Proof. BAQ + CBAC = a right angle
ao. ZBCA + ZBAC = a night angle
(ince ZABC, being the angle in a semicircle, isa right
ingie. =
Subtracting ZBAC trom each:
¢ LBAQ— ZBCA.
(2) Let the point D be taken inthe minor segment.
ZBDA is the angle in the corresponding alternate seg-
meeBPA Js the ang ie corresponding alternate seg.
it is required to prove ZPAB = ZBDA.
two right angles
ZEDA + ZBCA = two right angles. (§ 136)
But ZBAQ was proved equal to ZBCA (Ist part).
* 2PAB= ZBDA.168 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
@kxercise 16
1. PQtsa straight line which lies without the circle ABC.
‘Show how to draw a tangent to the cirele which is parallel
(0 79." How many sch tangents can be drawn?
2. Tn a circle of fadius 8 cm construct a triangle with all
its vertices on the circumference and having two ofits angles
‘0° and 70"
'3. The radius of a circle is 8 cm, From a point 5 em
fem the cntre a tangent drawn fo the cle Find the
of this tangent.
ee tne ral of bvo concentric circles are 8 cm and 4 cm,
‘A chord of the outer circle is a tangent to the inner one.
Find the length of the chord.
', In a cirele of 8 cm radius find the locus of the centres,
of chords of the circle which are 4 cm long.
6, The angle between two radii ofa circle, OA and OB,
is 100%, From A and B tangents are drawn meeting at T”
Find the angle between the tangents.
7 Prove that tangents to a circle at the extremities of
any chord make equal angles with the chord.
3. “Tivo circles are concentric, Prove that the tangents
drawn to the inner circle from any point on the circum
ference of the outer circle are equal in length,
‘. Find the locus of the ends of tangents of the same
hh which are drawn to.a fixed circles
0, Find the locus of the centre of circles which touch a
fixed straight line at a given point.
TI, Find the locus of the Centres of circles which touch
‘ovo intersecting straight lines.
Te. Construct a triangle with sides $ cm, 4 em and 6 em
fn length. Then draw the inscribed circle,
CHAPTER 20
SIMILAR FIGURES. RATIO IN GEOMETRY
145, Similar triangles.
When the conditions under which triangles are con
sgruent were examined (647) it was pointed: out that
{Elangles with all Uree corresponding angles equal were
ot nce congroet. Fortis be the case at east
tne pair of corresponding sides must also be equal.
Tht Fig. 1 are three triangles with corresponding angles
eee
Rio, 144
‘equal. The three triangles are of different sizes, but of the
same shape. They are copies, one of another, on different
scales
Such triangles are called similar triangles,
_ In Fig. 149 is indicated a method by which a number of
similar triangles can readily be drawn.
op
Beg Operecneas
Fro. 45,
Poo mscy neue aie eee ee ee
70 saT sae 4040 a had ome by cami
ay a etermepesniametnnnemenines
1 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
FE, HG... parallel to AB and intersecting OP as shown,
{ine forming ‘As ODG, OFE, OHG.- <=
‘The parallel straight lines AB, CD, EF, GH . . . being
cat by the transversal 0Q the corresponding angies at 5,
D,F,H .. . are equal.
‘Similarly, the angles at A, C, E, G
. 4s OAB, OCD, OEF, OGH
angles equal.
«they are similar triangles.
Triangles which thus have corresponding angles equal
are sald to be equiangular to one anothe
‘Hence, the definition of similar triangles may be stated
thus: Triangles which are equiangular to cach other are
called similar triangles.
146, Ratios of Lengths.
Tnarihmetwe er Sa one method of comparing ve
antes in ro ir magaitude is to express them
he form of a fraction, the numerator and denominator
tf which state tesize ofthe quantities measuredin suitable
nd the sameunits, This fonmof comparison is calla rato.
"Hence, wen we speak of the raio of two straight lings
«are equal.
‘have corresponding
‘we mean the ratio of the numbers which express the measures
Of their lengths in terms of the same unit. Similarly, by
the ratlo of the areas of two triangles we mean the ratio
‘of the numbers which express these areas in the same
square units.
147, Ratios of the Sides of Similar Triangles.
Fig. 146 shows a number of similar triangles constructed
as in Fig. 145, but the distances OB, BD, DF, FH are equal.
‘Since the straight lines AB, CD, EF, GH are then
the lengths of O4, AC, CE, FG are equal @
‘vein the similar As OAB, OEF.
‘ig,, these sides are proportional.
SIMILAR FIGURES, RATIO IN GEOMETRY 271
‘Again, In the similar 4s OGH, OEF.
OH _4 4 0G_4
Also, by drawing straight lines EK, CL, AM parallel to
00 it may be shown that:
EF _OF_3
AB~ 0B ~T
GH _oH_4
EF ~ OF ~3
Snalar coalosons muy bo rested wifi respect fo obier
and
P
Boge Rng
ic. 140,
pairs of the four triangles in the figures. Hence, it is
Fethcable to Gavhar all the abe pat ana
results that!
The corresponding sides of similar triangles are
In the same ratio, Le., the sides are proportional.
For example, in the similar As ABC, DEF in Fig. 144,
AB _BC_ AC
DE~ EF~ DFon TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY SIMILAR FIGURES. RATIO IN GEOMETRY 373
148. Fixed Ratios Connected with Angles. from the vertex, intercepted on the other arm,
(The eangent. There is a special cae of the above is constant for the angle.
| coecluens giGh in ck ery tat racseallaportanes Tila consant ratio i calod che cangen of che angle
eae ne ee
Take a series of pan 4, G,£, G on one arm OP and ‘Tims, in Fig. 147, Sa
draw AB, CD, EF, iiar to the other arm 09. ABCD OEF
tanFog = 42 03 EF as
very ange has its own partcolar tangent and can be
Sanayi Tans are nstacted ging ite tages
of angles between 0 and 90°, so that when the tangent is
narra Snip seep a econ aa
For the further treatment of this Trigonometry should
be consulted. ms 2)
‘Nole—The term tangent 28 used above must not be confused
swith the tangent to a eieie av defined ta Chapesr 19.
| ‘These straight lines are parallel, (2) The sine and cosine.
7H perp
Hence the As OAB, OCD, OEF, OGH are similar, and Two other constant ratios connected with an angle are
the eos of conesponding ses ae equal given by taking the ratios of each of the sides, In turn,
Sa anes sonealning the Fight angle, to the hypotenuse.
AB_CD_EF _GH ‘In Fig. 147 the ratio of the side opposite the angle to
0B ~ OD~ OF = OH" tpe hypotenuse is the same foreach ofthe triangles formed.
‘No matter how many perpendicalars are drawa, all such cay eee
ratice for chs angle, POO are equal. oan § ~bE- oe ee:
With AB, CD, EF, GH as the perpendiculars, the distances
0B, OD, Ok, Oi can be spoken: of as the distances inter- ‘This ratio is called the sine of the angle (abbreviated to
ales “my
ils Bes OS Sy (eigmr cia ee.
perpendicular drawn from one arm_ A ~ OC ee.
‘istanco intercepted on the other arm ‘Also, the ratio of the side adjacent to the angle to the
#, Saalditar thaingi POO: hypotenuse is the same foreach of the tangles.
‘The angle chosen was any angle, consequently a similar OB _OD__OF _ OH _ side adjacent
conclusion can be reached for any other angle, +c, 0A OC = OE™ OC “hypotenuse”
For any angle the ratio of the perpendicular ‘This constant ratio ig called the cosine of the angle,
drawn from any point on one arm to the distance, abbreviated to “cos”.ie ee
™ TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
0B _oD
Thus 008 POQ = OF = OP etc.
It will be noticed that since the hypotenuse is the greatest
side ofthe triangle, both sine and coslne must be numerically
jess than unity. ‘The tangent, however, may have any
value.
149, Other Similar Figures,
‘The term “ similar”, in the sense it is used above, is
not confined to triangles, All rectilineal figures, with the
same number of sides, may be similar, provided that they
eonform to the nectssary conditions ‘stated above for
triangles, vi
(a) All corresponding angles must be equal.
(b) Corresponding sides must be proportional.
In the case of triangles, if (a) is true, (8) must follow, as
wwe have seen, so that it is suficient to know that triangles
are equiangalar to one another. But with other rectilineal
figures both conditions must be satisfied, before it can be
eral
io. 148,
said that they are similar. If, however, they are equi-
hate with equilateral triangles, the ratios of corre-
sides are the same and corresponding angles must
mes
ser ne ta at
eats Sa ee a
oie atest saeee
SIMILAR FIGURES. RATIO IN GEOMETRY 175
are similar, for the sides of B will be found to be one half
the corresponding sides of C
Regular polygons, such as hexagons, pentagons, ete, are
similar, bot polygons whishare not regar may be silat
only if conditions (a) and (2) are satisfied
Generally when two figures are similar their “ shapes "*
are the sano: one isa copy of the other on a diferent scale.
All drawings and models, when not fall size, are drawn
fo constructed to scale. When thus drawn or constructed
they aresimilar. Angles are copied exactly and the ratio of
corresponding distances is that of the scale employed, Tf,
for example, a model is made on a scale of ah inch’ to @
yard, lengths in the model wil in all cases be gy of the
orresponding length of the original
‘Pictures appearing on the ‘cinema screen are greatly
enlarged coples of small photographs on the film, all parts
bring enlarged inthe same ratio. The pictures are therefore
‘The picture of the west front of a cathedral shown in the
frontispiece is similar in every detail to a picture of the
same building which is ten times its size. Both are similar
jn appearanes to the building itself,
150. Construction No. 15:
To divide a straight line in a given ratio.
Example: Divide the sraight tine AB (Fg. 19) inthe
ralio of 3:
Pp
E
Fro. 10,16 TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
‘The solution of the problem depends directly upon Con-
struction No. 9, § 87,
First, divide 4B into (8 + 2) = 5 equal parts as follows.
‘From A draw AP at any convenient angle.
‘AP mark off with dividers 5 equal distances,
JoinCB, From the points of division on AC draw straight
lines parallel to CB to meet AB.
‘Then AB is divided into 6 equal parts.
Let DE be the straight line joining the 3rd points from
Aon AC and AB.
Lot x be the length of each of the equal parts of AB.
SIMILAR FIGURES. RATIO IN GEOMETRY 377
From the mth point of division on AC, viz. D, draw
DE parallel toCB
AD _m
Then the ratioof — $P
‘ AE
. the ratio of g
"
Corollary. Since ACB is a triangle it may be concluded.
jn general that, if a straight line be drawn parallel to one
of the sides of a triangle, It cuts the other two sides in
‘the same ratio. See Theorem in § 84, for a special case,
Then AE = 3%
and sore 151. Areas of Similar Figures.
og a8 The areas of similar figures are proportional to the
squares of corresponding sides.
‘The simplest example of this principle, and one with
which the student is acquainted, is that of the square.
If the side of a square is doubled the area is increased 4
times,
ee ee ee
se and. similar examples can ‘seen,
observation of Fig. 90. i
Tn general, if the side of a square be increased n times the
area is increased n* times.
‘Again, the formula for the area of a circle, viz., A =
indicates tht the areal proportional co the square of the
radius.
‘Thus, if the radii of two circles are 7, and ry,
45. THEME line AB i dlvided a E inthe ratio of
[Notetn pectce i i necessary to daw CB and DE only,
The method may be generalised thus.
Let it be required to divide the straight line
AB (Fig. 150) in the ratio m:n.
‘Then ratio of areas = "at ="
Area ofa triangle, In Part Ila geometrical proofs given
of the theorem that “the areas of similar triangles are
proportional to the squares of corresponding sides ” (ce
‘Theorem 64).
Fro. 150.
Drawing AP as before, mark off on it (w+ 1) equal
divisions; be inal ene beng 6: oo
Join cB.|
!
us TEACH YOURSELF GEOMETRY
@exercise 17
1. Ina AABC, PQ is drawn parallel to BC and cutting
AB and AC in P and Q._ AB = 5 cm and AC =8 cm,
Also, the ratio of AP: PB = 2:8. Find the lengths of
AP, PB, AQ, OC. If PQ = 6 cm, find BC.
2, Od, OB, OC are the bisectors of the angles A, B, C
of a AABC, 0 being their point of intersection. “From a
it P on AO, PQ is drawn parallel to AB, meeting BO in
‘From Q, OR is drawn parallel to BC, meeting OC in R.
PR. Prove that the 4s ABC and POR are similar.
3. In a circle two chords AB and CD intersect at 0.
AO DO oy,
ae CB are drawn. Prove 52 =". (Hint.—Join
Di
4, Divide a straight line 8 cm long in the ratio 4: 3.
5, Trisect a line which is 10 cm long. If the perimeter of
julateral triangle is 10 cm, construct the triangle.
6, The perimeter of a triangle is 14 cm and its sides are in
the ratio of $:4:5, Construct the triangle.
7. Two 4s ABC, DEF are similar and the altitudes from
A and D are3 cm and 4 cm respectively. If the area of the
‘smaller triangle is 22-5 cm, find the area of the larger
8 The area of one square fs twice that of another. Find
the rato of ther side
Equlaeral triangles are described on the side and
diagonal ofa square. Find the ratio of their areas.
10. Consts an of 50°. From three points on
to the other army” Hence,
each cane the tangent of 8 and
Bn Ue aerage ofthe en eae aay ne
TT, Using the resus of 65101 and 1 sine,
cosine and fangent of (1) 30% @) 60, (8) 45"
CHAPTER 21
RELATIONS BETWEEN THE SIDES OF A TRIANGLE
(This chapter may be omitted by beginners)
152. Extensions of the Theorem of Pythagoras.
In Chapter 13 the very important law, known as the
Theorem of Pythagoras, was established, in which is stated
the relations which exist between the sides of a right-
angled triangle. We now
extend the investigations to A
ascertain what similar laws
connect the sides of tri: Ay
angles which are not right
angled, i, they are obtuse
angled of nente-angled tri-
anges,
Fig. 151 ABC is a
right-angled triangle, CB @
being the right angle. Fie. 151
, Demon thts in
the “usual way by @ 8 ¢, then, by the Theorem of
Pythagoras, re : "
(0) Obeuseangled triangles,
With C as contr and CA as radios, describe an arc of
circle," On the same side as the right angle take « pot
and join to 8 and C, He Bee are
e 24 CB is ceary obtuse and the A4,BC obtuse:
angled. Comparing the sides of this, triangle’ wit
of the ABC itis Seen that —
AC =AC.
‘BC is commen to each, but A,B is greater than AB.
Denoting 4B by ghee, mast be greater thane
eh> (at + 0,
i»