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SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:

U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreas
ImageandReputation

ADirectedResearchProjectSubmittedto
TheFacultyofThePublicCommunicationGraduateProgram

SchoolofCommunication
AmericanUniversity
Washington,D.C.

InCandidacyfortheDegreeofMasterofArts

By
ChanMiPark

April2010

SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Ithasbeenalongandexcitingjourneycompletingthisproject.Iwouldliketo
expressmysincerestgratitudetowardsProfessorJosephGrafandDr.RhondaS.
Zaharnafortheirinvaluableknowledgeandwisdomthathaveguidedmethrough
theprocessofdevelopingandfinalizingthisstudy.Additionally,thisprojectcould
nothavebeencompletedwithoutthemoralsupportandenthusiasmfromProfessor
MariaIvancinandCharlesCutshall.THANKYOU,forkeepingmefocusedand
remindingmedaybydayhowmuchIenjoythissubject.

SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

ABSTRACT

Nationbrandingcampaignshavebeenlaunchedworldwidetohelpdevelopa
countrysimageandreputationandtoprovideacompetitiveedgeonsocial,
economic,andpoliticaldevelopments.Thisstudyprovidesinsightintothe
conditionsoftheSouthKoreanimageandreputationintheUnitedStatesbeforeand
afterthesystematiceffortsmadebytheSouthKoreanPresidentialCouncilon
NationBranding.Throughacontentanalysisofthetopfourmostcirculated
newspapersintheEastCoast,thisdatademonstratesthebeforeandafter
conditionsoftheSouthKoreanbrandimageandprovidesinsightintothe
effectivenessofits10pointplan.Thisstudyalsoexploresthetheoriesofnation
branding,nationalimage,nationalreputation,andcompetitiveidentity.

Keywords:NationBranding,Branding,InternationalPublicRelations,NewsMedia,
SouthKorea,KoreaBranding,ReputationManagement,CompetitiveIdentity,
NationalBrands,NationImage.

SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

TABLEOFCONTENTS

I. Introduction5

II. Background7

III. LiteratureReview9

IV. ResearchQuestions21

V. Methodology26

VI. Analysis28

VII. Discussion31

VIII. Conclusion35

IX. Appendix38

X. References43

SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

INTRODUCTION

Inaglobalizedworld,withthedevelopmentoffastandefficientinformation
technology,ithasbecomecrucialtoidentifyandmanageacountrysimageand
reputation.Whileacountrysimagehasbeenindirectlydevelopedthroughout
historybyinternationalpolitics,thispracticehashelpedcapitalizeoninternational
economic,social,andpoliticalprospects.Theactivedevelopmentofacountrys
imageandreputationisbasedonthetheoryofNationBranding,whichuses
marketingtacticstobuildacountryasabrand(Fan,2006).However,thistermhas
mostrecentlybeenreferredtoasCompetitiveImage,usingmorerelationshipbased
approaches(Anholt,2008).
OnJanuary22,2009,SouthKoreanPresidentLeeMyungBak,eagerlyassembled
aPresidentialCouncilonNationBrandingtoproactivelyshapeandmanagethe
SouthKoreanimageandreputation.Beforetheimplementationofanynation
brandinginitiativeSouthKorearanked33outof50countriesontheNationBrands
Index(NBI)(GfKRoperPublicAffairs&Media,2008).TheNBIisthemostwell
knownindexindicatingpublicfavorabilityandperceptionofacountrybasedonits
political,socialandeconomicstatus(GfKRoperPublicAffairs&media,2008).To
SouthKoreasdisappointment,evenasthe12thrankingcountrywiththehighest
GDPin2009,(WorldFactBook,2010)ithadbeenrankedamongstthelowestof50
countries.
Determinedtodobetter,SouthKoreaannouncedthatitwoulddevelopaplanto
moveuptothe15thrankby2013(Kang,2009).Theannouncementwasmetwith

SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

skepticismbyexpertssuchasSimonAnholt,whodeemedupwardmobilityonthe
NBIofmorethantworanksimpossibleinamatterofafewyears(Kang,2009).
ThisstudyanalyzestheeffectoftheSouthKoreanPresidentialCouncilonNation
BrandingseffortsonNationBrandingbyanalyzingthe10PointPlanannouncedin
Marchof2009,throughreviewingtheU.S.newspapermedia.Theresultsofthis
studyprovidesinsightintotheSouthKoreaimagemostwellknowntoU.S.
audiencesandprovidesrecommendationstoeffectivelyreachaudiences.Thisstudy
introducesSouthKoreascurrentcondition,presentsaliteraturereviewof
competitiveidentityandrelatedtheories,andidentifiesthemethodologyand
analysisofresearchconductedbycontentanalysisofU.S.newspapermedia.

SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

BACKGROUND

ToprovidehistoryandperspectivetoSouthKoreasnationbranding
initiatives,thefollowingidentifiessomeofthecountryscurrentconditions.

COUNTRYPROFILE

Koreahasexperiencedmanyinvasionsoverits2,000yearsofrecorded
history.Butwithitsstrongvaluesofsufficiencyanditshomogeneityithasresisted
foreigninvasion,earningitthetitleofHermitKingdominthe1800s(U.S.State
Department,2010).Thisslowlychangedtowardsthelate1800sasitfaced35
yearsofcolonialrulebyJapan,followedbytheKoreanWar.Koreathentolerated
foreigninvolvementfollowingtherebuildingofthenationpostwar(U.S.State
Department,2010).
AttheendoftheKoreanWar,in1953,Koreawassplitwithanarmistice
betweentheNorthandSouthatthe38thparallel.Sincethen,SouthKoreahas
establishedarepublicgovernmentwherepowersaresharedbetweenthepresident,
thelegislatureandthecourts(U.S.StateDepartment,2010).Ithasalsobeennoted
foritsrapidgrowth,asSouthKoreaseconomyhasexceededtheNorthKorean
economybyfourteentimes(CentralIntelligenceAgency,2010).Evenasacountry
slightlylargerthanthestateofIndiana,itseconomicpoweriscomparabletothe
worldslargesteconomiesandismemberoftheG20.Itistheseventhlargest
tradingpartnertotheUnitedStatesprovidingelectronicproducts,automobiles,
machineryandtransportationequipment(U.S.StateDepartment,2010).

SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

Itspopulationislargelyhomogenous,withcommonalitiesincultureand
language(U.S.StateDepartment,2010).TheSouthKoreanliteracyrateisamong
thehighestintheworldwith97.9percent(CentralIntelligenceAgency,2010).
Sincetheculturegreatlyvalueseducation,attendanceofprimaryandsecondary
leveleducationisveryhighandthustheworkforceiswelleducated(Central
IntelligenceAgency,2010).Technologically,SouthKoreahasthe10thlargest
populationofInternetusers,withastrongcommunicationsystem(Central
IntelligenceAgency,2010).
Inrecentyearsitspopulationhasexperiencedlargeratesofemigrationto
countriessuchasChina,theUnitedStates,andJapan(U.S.StateDepartment,2010).
SouthKoreahassufficientrepresentationinternationallyandhasachievedgreat
economicsuccess.RecognizinghowSouthKoreanhasdevelopedsincetheKorean
War,itisnosurprisethattheSouthKoreangovernmentfeelstheneedtoproveto
theinternationalcommunitythroughitsNationBrandinginitiative.

SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

LITERATUREREVIEW

BRANDANDBRANDING

Thetermnationbrandingimpliestheuseofcorporatemarketingtacticsata
publicandnationallevel.TheAmericanMarketingAssociation(2010)defines
brandingasthesystematicidentificationofaproductorservicewithparticular
distinctionfromitscompetitors.Furthermore,brandingrepresentsanimage,ideas,
valuesandevenpersonality(AmericanMarketingAssociation,2010).
Thestudyofbrandingassumesthatabrandisdevelopedthroughtwomajor
components:brandawarenessandbrandimage(Kotler,1991ascitedinKeller,
1993).Abrandcansucceedifitbecomessalientandmemorabletoalevelthat
customerscaneasilyrecognizeabrand,andrecallthebrandifandwhengivenits
respectivecategory(Kotler,1991ascitedinKeller,1993).Thesecondcomponent,
brandimage,alsoworkswiththehumanmemory,asitistheconnectionofthe
brandsassociations,suchasimage,values,andcharacteristics,reflectedinthe
consumermemory(Kolter,1991ascitedinKeller,1993).

NATIONBRANDING

Nationbrandinghasbeendefinedastheapplicationofbrandingstrategiesat
thenationalleveltopromoteanationsimage(Fan,2006).Otherscholarshave
madedistinctionsfactoringintheinfluenceandpowersassertedbythegovernment
orprivatecorporationsastheinitiatorsofpersuasionorchangeinanationsimage.
Theyhaveevendismissedtheideaofbrandingasthecorepractice(Gudjonsson,
2005).Whilethetermnationbrandingassumesthatthemarketingtactic,branding,

SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

isacorepracticeintheprocessofbuildinganationsimageandreputation,the
nationatlargeincludesmultiplefacetsthatarenotfactoredintoacommon
corporatepractice.
Inthecaseofnationbrandingthetermnationwithoutdefinitecertainty
indicatesthenationasstateornationaspeople(Widler,2007).Inthepracticeof
nationbrandingithasusuallybeeninitiatedbythestate,whichholdsthe
institutions,government,andtheterritory(Hill,2003).However,nationbranding
alsoappearstoincludewhatHillidentifiesasanationthatrepresentsagroupof
peoplewithacommonidentityandhistory(Hill,2003).HeatherSkinnerand
KrzysztofKubackialsorecognizethisdynamic,acknowledgingthatovertimethe
conceptsofnationasstateandnationaspeoplehaveconvergedtoidentify
nationalandculturalfacetsofeconomy,legal,culturalandpoliticalsystemswiththe
choiceforindividualstoconsciouslychoosetheirdefinitionsaccordingtotheir
traditionsandvalues(2007).
Thus,nationbrandingcanbedefinedasthestrategicselfpresentationofa
countrywiththeaimofcreatingreputationalcapitalthrougheconomic,politicaland
socialinterestpromotionathomeandabroad(Szondi,2008)andissuccessful
whenpublicspeakstopublics;whenasubstantialproportionofthepopulationof
thecountrynotjustcivilservantsandpaidfigureheadsgetbehindthestrategy
andliveitoutintheireverydaydealingswiththeoutsideworld(Anholt,2003).
Asaresultoftheshiftingnatureofthedefinitionofnation,therearemany
ideaspresentedinthepracticeandstudyofnationbranding.Thissuggeststhat
therearevariousfacetstothedefinitionofanation.Thus,YingFanrecognizesthata

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SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

nationwillneedtounderstandthesemultiplefacetsanditsimplicationsduringits
nationbrandinginitiative(2006).Fanidentifiesplace,naturalresources,local
products,people,history,culture,language,politicalandeconomicsystems,social
institutions,infrastructure,famouspersonsandpictureorimageascontributing
factorstotheentirenationbrand(Fan,2006).

Figure1.NationBrandHexagon(GfKCustomResearchNorthAmerica,2010).

SimonAnlhot,aspecialistinnationalimageandreputation,andoneofthe
fathersofnationbranding,alsoacknowledgesthecomplexityandmagnitudeof
nations.Heidentifiescontributingfactors,tourism,people,exports,cultureand
heritage,investmentandimmigration,andgovernnanceintheNationBrand
HexagonshowninFigure1.In2005hedevelopedtheNationBrandIndex(NBI),
whichusesthosesixfactorstomeasuretheimageandreputationofanationin

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SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

comparisontoothernationsbyidentifyingthepublicperceptionsofthedifferent
countries(GfKCustomResearchNorthAmerica,2010).Thesefactorsinclude
exports,whichdeterminethepublicsimageofanationsproductsandservicesand
measuretheextenttowhichconsumersseekoravoidproductsfromanation;
governance,whichgiveslighttopublicopiniononthelevelofthenational
governmentscompetency,fairness,perceivedcommitmenttoglobalissues,andthe
individualsbeliefsabouteachcountrysgovernment.Additionalfactorsinclude
cultureandheritage,whichmeasuretheglobalperceptionsofthenationsheritage
aswellastheappreciationforitscontemporaryculture;people,measuredfortheir
reputationincompetence,education,opennessandfriendliness,andlevelsof
hostilityanddiscrimination.Italsoincludestourism,whichmeasuresthelevelof
interestinvisitingthecountry;andinvestmentandimmigration,whichdetermines
theattractivenessoflivingandstudyinginthecountry,whilealsorevealingthe
perceivedeconomicandsocialsituation(GfKCustomResearchNorthAmerica,
2010).Thisassertsthatthedevelopmentandmanagementofanationsbrandmust
consider,thebranding,reputationandmanagementofthenationsexports,
governance,cultureandheritage,thepeople,tourism,investmentandimmigration.

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SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

Figure2.NationsBrandIdentityModel(Skinner&Kubacki,2007).

SkinnerandKubacki(2007)haveelaboratedonthedynamicsofnationhood,
nationalandculturalidentityandplacebranding,throughthenationsbrand
identitymodelshownaboveinfigure2.Thismodelcomparestheinteractionoftwo
nationsanditsfactors.Eachnationhastheabilitytoaffecttheplacesandpeople
withinthenationthroughpolitical,culture,economic,andlegalsystems.Each
nationhastheabilitytoaffectplacesandpeopleoutsideofitsbordersthrough

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SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

tourism,exportbrand,foreignanddomesticpolicy,investmentandimmigration,
culture,heritageandpeopleasshowninSimonAnholts(2007)NationBrand
Hexagon,becausethesedictatethenationalandculturalidentityofthenation.To
provideamorecompleteviewofthedifferentsystemsatwork,thenationsand
theirmoderatorsaremetthroughplacebrands,whichisasimilarconcepttonation
brandsbutusedatasmallerscaletoencompassonlyaregionortouristdestination
(Skinner&Kubacki,2007).

NATIONBRANDINGTOOLS

Therearevariousnationbrandingtoolsthathelpinthedevelopmentofa
nationsimageandreputation.TheNationsBrandIdentityModelidentifiesseveral,
suchasplacebranding,publicdiplomacy,informalandformalcommunication,and
personalexperiences(2007).Theidentificationofthesetoolsholdstheideathat
tailoringcommunicationofeachnationsfacettotherighttargetaudiencesbecomes
importantinnationbranding.
TheBrandBoxModelfurtherexplainsthedifferencesofplacebrandingand
nationbranding..TheresearchdonebyNiallCaldwellandJoaoR.Freire,reveals
howindividualsevaluatetheattractivenessofacountry,region,and/orcity
differentlyinaccordancewiththeBrandBoxModel.TheBrandBoxModeldivides
brandingintotwodifferentsubcategories:representationalityandfunctionality.
Representationalityidentifiesasetofconsistentbeliefsandmeaningsassociated
withpurchasingaproductorservice(Caldwell,2004).Functionalityontheother
handemphasizestheutilitarianneedsoftheconsumer(Caldwell,2004).The
researchshowedthatcountries,overall,wereevaluatedbasedon

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SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

representationalityasitdefinedthosewhotraveledthereandalsobuiltasenseof
identityforthevisitor(Caldwell,2004).Regionsandcitieswereevaluatedby
functionalityintermsofthedestinationcharacteristics,anditsoverallexperience
withrespecttotrendculture(Caldwell,2004).Consideringthesefindings,when
brandingtheassociatedcharacteristicsofaplace,regionand/ornation,onemust
considermultiplelevelsofinteraction,asthenationencompassesandrepresentsall
thelocalattractionsinitsterritory.Localattractionshelpbuildandaddsubstance
tothenationalimage.
PhilipKotlerandDavidGertners(2002)studyemphasizestherelationship
ofanationsproductorservicetothenationsoverallimage.Thecountryoforigin
effectisanintegralpartoftheconsumerdecisionmakingprocessasitprovides
customersassociativecharacteristicsthatbuildthebrandimageandconnectsit
backtothecountryoforigin(Kotler&Gertner,2002).Nationimagehelps
consumersrecallbeliefsandclaimsaboutthebrandusingcognitiveprocessingand
stereotypesaskeymodestounderstandanationandmakeconsumerdecisions
(OShaughnessy&OShaughnessy,2000).Throughtheuseofmodesthathelp
associateanationsimagetoaproductorservice,theproperbrandingofaproduct
orservicecanbuilduponanddevelopanationsimagefortheconsumer.Therefore,
bybrandingareasoftourism,exports,cultureandheritage,acountrycanhelpbuild
thenationimage.Theapplicationofpublicrelations,marketingandadvertising
tacticsmayalsobebeneficialinachievingnationimagethroughproductsor
services.

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SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

Similartotheprocessofbrandingtourism,exports,cultureandheritage,
thereareotherfieldsofstudytraditionallyusedinthepublicsectorthatassistin
nationbrandingthroughthegovernancecategorymentionedintheNationBrands
Hexagon.Traditionally,publicdiplomacyhastriedtoinfluencethegeneralpublicof
targetnationsinordertoinfluenceachangeintheirforeignordomesticpolities
(Szondi,2008).Mostrecently,publicdiplomacyhasfocusedoncreatingamore
receptiveenvironmentforforeignpolicygoalsandpromotesnationalinterestnot
onlyinternationallybutalsonationally(Szondi,2008).
Otherexpertsdefinepublicdiplomacyasaninclusionofthreemajor
components:thegovernment,themedia,andpublicopinion(Gilboa,2008).Public
diplomacyhasalsobeendefinedasworkingmostlywithsoftpower.Softpowerisa
nationsvalues,culturesandpolicies,thatcausepeopletoactthroughcooperation
ratherthancoercion(Gilboa,2008).Nationbranding,similarly,triestoengagethe
mediaandpublicopinion,whilecommunicatingtothepublicthenationsvalues,
culturesandpoliciesforthedevelopmentofpolitics,economics,andcultures.
Therearefivedistinctwaysthatnationbrandingandpublicdiplomacyhave
beenparalleled(Szondi,2008).Thefirstcomparisonstatesthatnationbranding
andpublicdiplomacyactasseparatefields.Thesecondstatespublicdiplomacyisa
smallersubsetofnationbranding.Thethirdstatestheoppositeofthesecondand
viewsnationbrandingasasmallersubsetofpublicdiplomacy.Thefourthlooksat
publicdiplomacyandnationbrandingasequallypowerfulconceptssharinga
similargoal.Thelastdefinespublicdiplomacyasexactlyequaltonationbranding.
Suchideascomparegoals,contexts,targetaudiences,direction,theroleof

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SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

government,actors,strategies,tactics,themedia,budget,timeframesand
evaluation.Theseworkingcomparisonsshowhowthecombinationofpublic
diplomacyandnationbrandingcanbeadjustedtomeettheobjectivesofthenation
(Szondi,2008).
Regardlessofthewaypublicdiplomacyandnationbrandingareusedin
relationtoeachother,accordingtoJianWang(2006),nationalreputationhasbeen
alargepushinaidingtheprocessofinternationalinteractionsandtransactions.
Thus,tocultivatenationalreputationnationsmustcommunicatewithinternational
publics.Asaresult,publicdiplomacyhasadaptedtoincludegovernmenttopeople
interactionsandhasincludedtheuseofmassmedia,communicationsstrategies,
publicrelations,anthropologyandinternationalrelationsasmeanstobuild
relationshipsbetweennationsandcultures(Wang,2006).

CulturalDiplomacyissimilartopublicdiplomacy,buttakesonaculturally

sensitiveapproachtobuildingrelationships.CynthiaSchneider(2003)defines
culturaldiplomacyas,theexchangeofideas,information,artandotheraspectsof
cultureamongnationsandtheirpeoplestofostermutualunderstanding.Themajor
methodsinachievingculturaldiplomacyareasfollows:communicatingnational
values;cateringtheinterestofthetargetcountryofferingpleasure,informationor
expertise;openingdoorstotargetcountriesthroughdiplomats;providing
alternativestodirectpresenceintargetcountry;forminglongertermrelations;and
beingcreative,flexibleandopportunistic(Schneider,2003).Publicdiplomacy,
culturaldiplomacyandnationbrandingconvergeintheirbasictactics.Allthree
conceptsattempttoattractothernationsthroughpositiveimagesinordertobuild

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SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

relationshipsforthefuturedevelopmentaccordingtotheirrespectiveobjectives
(Szondi,2008).

TARGETAUDIENCES

Ifanationsgoalistochangeordevelopabetternationalimageand
reputation,itiscriticaltounderstandthedifferenttargetaudiencesthatneedtobe
reachedtodevelopthenationsbrandawareness.Therefore,differenttacticsfrom
differentfieldsarenecessarytopersuadetargetaudiencestodevelopafavorable
imageofanation.
Itisimportanttonotethatnationbrandinghasbeenaprocessthathasbeen
developingsincethecreationofcountriesandinternationalexchange.National
imageisbaseduponstereotypesthathavebeenbuiltuponculturalandhistorical
eventsthathavedevelopedovertheyears,andnationalreputationisearned
throughthoseinteractions(Anholt,2008).AsexplainedbyKotler(2002)and
OShaughnessy(2000),nationalimageisreliantuponthehumanabilitytorecall
ideasandmemoriesaboutthenationandstereotypescanbealargepartinmaking
consumerdecisions.Theemphasisthenfornationimageandreputationisonthe
developmentofrelationshipswiththeinternationalcommunitythroughtime.

COMPETITIVEIDENTITY

Subsequently,SimonAnholthastakenadifferentapproachtothe
developmentofnationalimageandreputationtakingintoconsiderationthe
relationalfactor.ThenewideaisoutlinedinhistheoryofCompetitiveIdentity.
Thistheoryassumesthatcommunicationalonecannotchangeanationalimage.

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U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

However,longtermrelationshipdevelopmentwiththeinternationalcommunity
throughtourism,brands,people,policy,culture,andinvestments,thecountrycan
influenceitsimage(Anholt,2008).Strategicallyitisrecommendedthatthecountry
behonestinitsinteractionsandcommunicationaboutitsconditionsandtostill
considerappropriateandaffectivewaystoinspirepublicopinion(Anholt,2008).
CompetitiveIdentityissimilartoNationBrandingbutlessmisleadinginitstactical
implications,asitchoosesamorenaturalmeansinitsapproachtochange
nationalimage(Anholt,2008).
Asthecompetitiveidentitystrategystatestheinclusionofthecountryandits
peoplesimage,itisimportanttoconsidertheethicalimplicationsofdevelopinga
nationimage.Thedevelopment,implementationandmanagementofnationimage
isdonethroughaninstitution,usuallythegovernment.JanineWidlerexploresthe
conceptofnationbrandingasitrelatestothemanagementofstereotypes(2007).
Nationbrandingisthenastereotypingpractice,wheretheseshortcutsareusedto
characterizeanationtotheentireworld(Widler,2007).However,ifnation
brandingrequirestheparticipationofthepublicstolivethemessagesandhopeto
spreadittotherestoftheinternationalcommunity,whatifciviliansdonotidentify
withthenationalimage?JanineWidlerposesthequestion,aretheysupposedto
movetoanothercountry,totheonewithwhosebrandvaluestheyidentifywith
more?(2007).Itmaybeimportanttoincludeparticipationandinvolvementofthe
entirenationtoconsiderplanningandimplementinganationbrandingcampaign
(Widler,2007).

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Whilenationimagedoesnotchangeinashortamountoftime,SimonAnholt
arguesthatinthecurrentsituationwheremediaandtechnologyhavebecomeso
integraltotheinternationallifestyle,itwouldbewiseforanationtotakeinitiative
inbuildingitsownnarrativebeforethemediadictatesthenarrative(2009).He
furtherexplainsthatindividualswillinevitablyuseshorthandstomakejudgments
aboutacountryandpositiveshorthandsmuststrategicallybeplacedinorderto
developnationbrands.Acountrywithpoorbrandingwillbemetwithcynicismand
indifferencebytheworldsmediaregardingitsactions,whereascountrieswith
strongbrandshavelittletroublegainingrespectandattentionformediocreactions
(Anholt,2009).Nationbrandinginthiscasehelpstolevelacountryseconomic
andpoliticaldevelopmentintheinternationalcommunity(Anholt,2005).Itis
recommendedthatallnationstakepartincommunicatingitsnationalimagetothe
worldastheconsequencesaregreaterinnotbranding,thaninactivelydoingso.

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RESEARCHQUESTIONS

InMarchof2009,theNationBrandingCommitteeannouncedits10PointPlan
usingSimonAnholtsNationBrandingIndexasageneralcriterionofmeasurement.
TheNationBrandingCommittees10pointsareasfollows:

1. ShapingtheFuturewithKorea:Asarecentlydevelopednationitself,
SouthKoreawillsystematicallyprovideexternalaidtodevelopingnationsto
helpbuilditsindustriesbyteachingandinformingbestpracticesfor
developmentandprovidingsupplieswhennecessary.Asaresultofthis
effort,SouthKoreawillstandoutasamodelfordevelopingnationsand
developinterestintheKoreanculture.

2. CampusWorld/GlobalKoreaScholarship/CAMPUSAsia:Through
exchangeprograms,SouthKoreawillwelcomestudentsandscholarsto
experience,learnandunderstandSouthKoreanculture.Thus,SouthKorea
willbuildafriendlyrelationshipwithforeigners.Focuswillbeputon
activelyprovidingthisopportunitytoexperienceSouthKoreatofutureand
currentstudentsleadersandscholarsfromneighboringcountries.Thehope
isthiswillbuildafriendlyworldwidenetworkofinfluentialforeignerleaders
whohaveadirectconnectionwithSouthKoreaandhaveanunderstandingof
theKoreanbrandimage.

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SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
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3. KoreanSupporters:Systemizevolunteereffortsatamorenationallevelin
ordertoconnecttheimageofthevolunteerorganizationasaSouthKorean
effort.Furthermore,buildnationaleagernesstoparticipateinvolunteer
programsbydevelopingthefeelingofprideforvolunteeringwithinthe
Koreanresidents.AsaresultboostingSouthKoreanimageasthesecond
largestvolunteernation.

4. GlobalKoreanNetwork:ToconnectKoreansallovertheworldby
providingacomprehensiveandaccessiblecybernetworkfortheeaseof
informationexchangeattheinternationallevel.Thus,buildingastronger
brandidentityabroadthroughthestrengtheningofrelationshipswiththose
ofKoreanheritage.

5. KingSejongInstitute&EnjoyTaekwondoProject:Thisprojecthopesto
systemizetheKoreanlanguagelearningprogramsunderasingleumbrella
organizationtheKingSejongInstitutetomakeKoreanlanguagelearning
programsmoreaccessibleandheightentheinterestfortheKoreanlanguage.
Secondly,thisprogramalsohopestostandardizeandmanagetheteachings
ofthemostwellknownKoreanmartialart,Taekwondo,inordertoeasily
defineitasaSouthKoreanculturalproduct.Bothlanguageandmartialart
willbeusedasagatewayintootheraspectsofSouthKoreanculture.Asa
resultitwillincreasetheavailabilityofKoreanlanguageandTaekwondo
programsandheightenforeigninterest.

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6. GlobalCitizenship:ByeducatingSouthKoreanstobewellroundedglobal
citizensbyspreadingcountryspecificetiquetteinformation,SouthKorea
hopestobecomeamorewelcomingandunderstandingcountryfor
foreigners.Itwillaccordinglybuildafriendlyandsophisticatedimageof
SouthKorea.

7. AdvancedTechnology&Design:PutforwardthebestSouthKorean
productstobetterrepresentnationalbrands,fortheheighteningofSouth
Koreanproductimage,especiallyintechnologyanddesign.Asaresult
increasingKoreanbrandawarenessandincreasingexports.

8. Rainbow+Korea:Provideforthesuccessofforeignfamiliesinadaptingand
assimilatingintoSouthKorea.Todoso,thegeneralSouthKoreansociety
mustbemoreacceptingofmultinationalandmulticulturalfamiliesand
becomefriendliertotheirsettlementexperiences.Thisefforthopesto
bridgetheworldwithSouthKoreathroughthoseimmigrantfamilys
experiences.

9. FriendlyDigitalKorea:Makemediaandbroadcastedcontentsopen,easily
accessiblyandeasilyunderstoodtotheworldviewers.Thiswillexpeditethe
crossculturalexchangeofinformationaboutSouthKorea.Andasaresult
therewillbeincreasedinterestinSouthKoreanpopcultureandprovidethe
opportunityforSouthKoreanindustriestoestablishanddevelopinother
countries.

23

SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

10. KoreaBrandIndex:Systematicallydevelop,manageandmaintainthe
SouthKoreanbrandthroughtheuseofaKoreaBrandIndex.Thisprogram
willhelptheNationBrandingCommitteeunderstandthecurrentconditions
oftheSouthKoreanimageandbeabletoisolateneedsforthefuture.This
willalsomonitorfeedbackofthenationbrandinginitiativesandcontinueto
giveSouthKoreaabetterNationBrandingIndexranking.Byraising
awarenessoftheSouthKoreanbrand,theNationBrandingCommitteehopes
toadvancethecapacityandinfluenceoftheSouthKoreangovernment.

(PresidentialCouncilonNationBranding,2009).

Ampleresearchhasbeenconductedontheimportanceofframingandthe

effectsofprintmediathathave,throughcognitivememorymodels,alludedtothe
changesinpublicopinion(AlbrittonandManheim,1983,1985;Manheimand
Albritton,1984;Perry,1985,1987ascitedinBrewer,Graf&Willnat,2003).In
communicationtheory,primingandframingbecomeessentialtothepublics
experiencewithmassmedia.Primingprovidesaudiencesthecontextwithwhichto
interpretcertainsubjectsinthemedia(UniversityofTwente,2004).Framing
workssimilarlybutassumesthatmediaprovideafieldofmeaningtothe
informationaudiencesreceive(UniversityofTwente,2004).Primingandframing
bothaffectthepublicsperceptionandrecallontheparticularsubject(Albritton
andManheim,1983,1985;ManheimandAlbritton,1984;Perry,1985,1987ascited
inBrewer,Graf&Willnat,2003).Thus,byuseofprominentnewspapermediawith
theuseofthe10PointPlanasthecorebasisofmeasurementforthedevelopment

24

SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

ofSouthKoreasnationalimage,thisstudyexaminesthearticlecontentinreference
toSouthKoreaandposesthefollowingquestions:

R1:IsthereachangeintheSouthKoreanimagebeforeandafterthe
initiationoftheNationBrandingCampaign?

R2:IsthePresidentialCouncilonNationBrandings10pointplaneffective?

25

SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

METHODOLOGY

Theresearchquestionswereanalyzedbycontentanalysis.Theselectionof
newspaperswasbasedonthenationstopmostcirculatednewspapersaccordingto
theAuditBureauofCirculation(2009)andtheavailabilityofaccesstonewspaper
archives.Asaresult,USAToday,theNewYorkTimes,theWallStreetJournal
EasternEditionandtheWashingtonPostwereselectedandrepresentasampleof
newspaperscirculatedontheEastCoastoftheUnitedStates.
Asampleofeightmonthswasidentifiedbefore(May222008toJan21,
2009)andafter(July22,2009toMarch21,2009)theestablishmentofthe
PresidentialCouncilonNationBrandingonJanuary22,2009.Sixmonthswereleft
inbetweenthebeforeandaftersamplingperiodstoensuredatacollectionwould
allowforthetimeacampaignwouldneedtotakeeffect.Throughsystematic
samplingprocesses,fourdateswerechosentoequallyrepresenteachdayofthe
weekdistributedamongtheidentifiedtimeperiods,foratotalof32sampleddays
fromeacheightmonthperiod.
Throughelectronicsearchdatabases,ProQuestandLexisNexis,thekeyterm
SouthKoreawasusedtoidentifynewspaperarticlesprintedfromthefour
differentnewspapersforeachsampledate.OthertermsthatrelatedtoSouthKorea,
likeSeoul,werenotsearchedbecausethedevelopmentofaNationBranding
campaignhopestomakesalienttheattributesofthecountrythroughthereference
ofthenameSouthKorea.
Theresultingsamplescontained102articlesforthetimeperiodbeforeand
150articlesfortheperiodafterward.Thearticlesgatheredwereanalyzedbythe

26

SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

subjectsmentioned,referencestotheeffectsofthe10pointplan,andvalenceof
coverageonSouthKorea.Thefullcodingsheetingcanbeseenintheappendix.
Additionally,toprovidefortheaccuracyandreliabilityofthedata,anintercoder
reliabilitytestoftwentyarticleswasconductedbetweentwoindividuals.
Furthermore,assamplessizesforthebeforeandafterdataaredifferent,the
confidenceintervalsforeachdatasetwerecalculated.

27

SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

RESULTS

Inanalyzingthedata,thelimitationsthatmustbeconsideredaretime,
resourcesandmajornationalevents.Therewasalimitedsampleavailableforthe
timeperiodafterwardtofullyshowthecampaignseffects.Thechosennewspapers
werebasedonavailabilityofthearchivethroughelectronicdatabases,whichdid
notincludeWestCoasteditionsoftheWallStreetJournalandtheLosAngelestimes.
Hence,thedatacollectedisrepresentativeonlyoftheEastCoastandnotofthe
entireU.S.population.Furthermore,nationaleventsmustbenoted,includingthe
2008BeijingOlympicsandthe2009VancouverWinterOlympics,whichmayhave
changedtheamountofcoverageoncertainsubjects.
Theintercoderreliabilitytestontwentyarticlesfromtwocodersshoweda
94percentmatchonthemajorquestionsoverall.The94percentdisregardsthe
generalcollectionofdataonthenameofthenewspaper,thepage,thesectionand
thenumberofwordsinthearticle,astheywerefactbasedquestionsnotinvolved
intheanalysisoftheresearchquestionsmentionedabove.However,toensure
furtherconsistencyofthecoding,eachquestionsreliabilitywasanalyzed,showing
thatoutoftwentythreequestions,onlyonefellbellowthe85percentmark.This
wasfoundtobearesultofamisunderstandingofwordingandwascorrected.
Theconfidenceintervalofbothbeforeandaftersamplesizeswerecalculated
andshowedthatatthe95percentlevelofconfidence,theerrorattributabletothe
beforesamplesizeisplusorminus4percentagepoints.Theerrorattributableto

28

SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

theaftersamplesize,alsoatthe95percentlevelofconfidenceisplusorminus4.8
percentagepoints.ConfidenceintervalscanbeseeninTable3oftheappendix.
Thetotalsamplesizeforthebeforesampleconsistedof150articlesandthe
aftersamplesizeconsistedof102articles.Figure4showsabreakdownofthe
numberofarticlespresentforeachselectednewspaper.Thenewspapersshowing
thelargestnumberofmentionsofSouthKoreaweretheNewYorkTimesandthe
WashingtonPostforboththebeforeandaftersamples.Notably,thenumberof
articlesfortheWashingtonPostfellfrom58to26,whereasothernewspapersdid
notdrasticallychangebetweenthebeforeandaftersamples.

InordertoidentifytheconditionsofSouthKoreanimageandreputation,this

researchcodedforthecoverageandmentionofSouthKoreainthenewspaper
accordingtogeneralsubjectsforthebeforetimeperiod.Theaftertimeperiodhelps
toidentifyanypossiblechangesthatmayhavetakenplaceoveraperiodoftimethat
mayhavebeentheresultofthePresidentialCouncilonNationBrandings10Point
Plan.TheconditionsofSouthKoreancoverageinthefournewspapersindicates
consistentmentionofSouthKoreaalongthesubjectofpoliticsandgovernment,
business,economyandfinance,andsports.Thedatacomparisononthebeforeand
afternewscoverageindicatesthelargestamountofincreaseinthecoverageof
military/defense/securityby13.9percent,followedbycoverageofcultureand
societyby13.8percent,andlastlybycoverageofNorthKorea,whichincreasedby
12.9percent.Therewasanotabledecreaseinthecoverageofsportsby12.2
percent,whichmaybearesultofthe2008BeijingOlympicsgames.Table5inthe

29

SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

appendixshowsfurtherdetailedresultsofthesubjectspresentintheU.S.
newspapersforSouthKoreancoverage.

Tofindtheeffectsofthe10PointPlanintotheU.S.media,theresearch

collecteddatabeforeandaftertheimplementationofthe10PointPlanto
determineifitmayhaveinfluencednewsarticles.Thedatashowsomeincreasesin
coveragefromthebeforetotheaftersamples,withatotalof26inthebeforesample
and39intheaftersample.Whilethedifferencesarenotgreat,datashowsthatthe
newspaperscoveredalmostallofthe10Pointsatleastonce.Consideringthe
numberoftimestheScienceandTechnologysubjectwasmentionedintheotherall
categorizationofnewspapersasseeninTable5,itisnotsurprisingthattechnology
and/ordesignwasthehighestmentionedofthe10points,withlittledifference
betweenthebeforeandaftersamples.Furtherdetailonthe10PointPlanisshown
inTable6intheappendix.

InordertofindanychangesintheeventsandattitudestowardsSouthKorea,

valenceofeacharticlewascoded.Inthebeforesample,over50percentofcoverage
wasconsideredneutral,leavingpositiveandnegativewith23.33percentand20.67
percentcoveragerespectively.Theaftersampleshowsashifttowardsmore
positivecoverageofSouthKoreabyanincreaseinalmost20percent,whereasboth
neutralandnegativecoveragedropped.Table7showsthedetailsofthesechanges.

30

SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

DISCUSSION

ThepurposeofthisstudywastoinvestigatetheconditionsofSouthKorean

imageintheUnitedStatesanddeterminethepossibleeffectsofthe10PointPlan.
Againthetworesearchquestionsposedatthebeginningofthisstudyareasfollows:

R1:IsthereachangeintheSouthKoreanimagebeforeandafterthe
initiationofthenationbrandingcampaign?

R2:IsthePresidentialCouncilonNationBrandings10pointplaneffective?

Theobservationsmadeinthiscontentanalysisappeartoindicate
considerablechangesinmediacoverageofSouthKorea.Whilenumbersofarticles
referencingSouthKoreahavedecreasedbetweenthetwosamples,theanalysis
appearstoindicateanoverallpositivechangetoSouthKoreancoverage.The
categorizationofsubjectsfromthesamplesindicatedmostofthecoveragerevolved
aroundSouthKoreanPoliticsand/orGovernment,andBusiness,Economyand/or
Finance.Whileboththosecategoriesaresignificanttothecomponentsof
competitiveidentity,thesignificantchangesshownintheaftersampleprovide
greaterinsight.
Theaftersamples,whilecontinuingtooffersignificantrepresentationofthe
subjectsjustmentioned,alsoprovidegreaterfocusontopicssuchasCultureand
Society,ArtsandEntertainment,andScienceand/orTechnology,representing
SouthKoreaacrossdifferentplatforms.Consideringtheprimingandframingeffects
onthepublic,thesechangesinmediacoverageindicatepossiblepositiveinfluences

31

SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

oftheSouthKoreanimagethatresonatewiththegeneralU.S.public,astypesof
coverageareexpanded.

TheincreaseincoverageofsubjectssuchasMilitary,DefenseandSecurity

andreferencestoNorthKorea,isanimportantchangetonoteinthedata,
consideringthehistoryofthetwocountries.Interestingly,articlesreferencing
NorthKoreaweremostlypositiveintheirportrayalofSouthKorea.Nevertheless,
thenegativeframesbuiltanassociationinthemindsoftheU.S.publicof
communistNorthKoreawiththeimageofSouthKorea.Thesearethingsthatwill
continuetoaffecttheSouthKoreanimage.Thisisevidentwhentakingintoaccount
thespillovertheoryeffectsusedincrisiscommunication,whichobservesthe
negativeflowofimpactonorganizationsinrelationtotheorganization
experiencingthecentralcrisis(Yu,Sengul,&Lester,2008).Theseeffectsarenot
onlylimitedtoorganizations,butspanacrosscountrybordersasshowninother
researchfindings(Kaminsky&Schmukler,1999).Asaresultoftheclose
associationofNorthKoreaandSouthKoreainhistoryandculture,furtherresearch
onthemattermustbeconductedtofindthedirectcausalityandtheimpactofNorth
KoreaontheSouthKoreanimage.
Toanswerthesecondresearchquestion,researchwasdonekeepinginmind
thecompetitiveidentitytheory,whichemphasizestheneedfordevelopmentof
relationshipsovertime.Sincethecouncilidentifiedeachofthe10Pointstostart
andtofurtherdeveloprelationships,anyindicationofpreparation,developmentor
implementationofthe10Pointsweresignificant.The10Pointswererepresented
inthecodingthroughindividualquestionsthathelpedidentifyarticlesreferringto

32

SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

thepreparation,developmentorimplementationofeach10Points.Theresults
indicateincreasednumbersofreferencesofthe10PointPlaninthenewspapers.
Theincreaseinmediacoveragereferringtothe10PointPlanisslight,but
positiveandsubstantialtotheaffectofthePresidentialCouncilonNation
Brandingsefforts.Thereachofthe10PointPlanseffectscannotbecertain,but
whatiscertainisthatallofthe10pointshavebeentoucheduponintheafter
sample,whereasthebeforesampleonlyindicatesafewwereincluded.
Furthermore,theincreasesincoverageofSouthKoreaonthedifferentsubjects
acrossCultureandSociety,ArtsandEntertainment,andScienceand/orTechnology,
intheaftersampleimplyasignificantchange.Whetherthosechangeswerecaused
bythecouncilseffortareunknownandthedataislimited,butitisextremely
positiveandbeneficialtothecouncilsefforts.

Similarly,thereareotherlimitationsthatneedtobeconsideredforthe

implicationsofthedata.First,theeffectsofthe10PointPlanmayhavegreataffects
onmediawhichwerenotconsidered.Asaresultoftheplanscentralnatureto
movetowardsbuildingrelationshipssomeresultsmaybevisibleinwebsites,blogs
and/orsocialmedia.Thisisespeciallythecaseforpointsthatemphasize
networkingsuchastheGlobalKoreanNetwork.Theseoutletsmayhavebeen
moretargetedascommunicationmediaastheycanbemoreinfluentialinthe
developmentofthedifferentpoints.Secondly,thenewspapersselectedforanalysis,
whileconsiderablyrepresentativeoftheeastcoastmediaasshowninthe
confidenceintervals,arenotrepresentativeoftheglobalmedia.Bearinginmind
thatatleastoneofthepointsofthecampaigntargetscountriesinAsia,moreofthe

33

SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

campaignseffectsmaybeseeninthoseregionalmedia.Lastly,thetimeperiod
lengthinwhichanationsimagecanfullybechangedisconsiderable.Thelimited
timeperiodanddataavailabletoanalyzeinthisstudyprovidesforaverynarrow
segmentofapossiblylargedevelopmentofnationimage.Thedataishighly
encouraging,buttoprovideforfullimpactofthecampaign,researchmustbe
conductedoveralongerperiodoftime.
Additionalresearchmustbeperformedconsideringtheareasmentioned
above,toindicatecampaigneffectsandunderstanditsstrengthsandweaknesses.
Thedatagatheredfromthisstudyindicatestheneedforfurtherresearchinthe
continuationofthePresidentialCouncilonNationBrandingsinitiatives.The
analysisofthisresearchshowsslightchangestowardsdevelopingapositivenation
imageandreputation.Itishighlyencouragingthatwhatisobservedimpliesthe
campaigneffectshavebeensignificant,andmoreoverindicatesthateffortsto
developanationalimagebySouthKoreacantrulybeeffective.

34

SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

CONCLUSIONS&RECOMMENDATIONS

ThisstudyshowsindepthanalysisoftheU.S.newspapermediaandits
coverageofSouthKorea.ItalsoprovidesinsightsintothenatureofU.S.newspaper
mediaanditsrelationshipwithcoverageofforeignnations.Thisdataindicates
noteworthychangestothecoverageofSouthKorea,inU.S.newspaperandonthe
continueddevelopmentofnationalimageandreputation.
Presently,theinformationprovidedinthisstudycanbeusedasanindication
ofthecurrentconditionsofSouthKoreanewscoverageandinprovidingresearch
evidenceontheeffectivenessofthe10PointPlan.Toadvancethecouncilsagenda
onnationimageandreputationthefollowingisrecommended:
(1)Thisresearchprovidesagenerallayoutofthesubjectspresentedinthe
newsthatcanprovideameansofmeasurementindevelopingnationalimageand
reputation.MoreinformationaboutSouthKoreaacrossallsubjectsinapositive
lightwillbebeneficialinconveyingsalientandcomprehensiveinformationtothe
public,accountingforthetheoryofmemorymodessimilarlyusedinbranding.In
researchingthenewspapermediabearinmindthenatureofU.S.newspapermedia,
asitisimportanttokeepcloserelationshipswiththegatekeepersofthemedia,who
areresponsibleforthepriming,framing,andpickingthenewsagenda.
(2)Itisalsoessentialtounderstandthatindevelopingacompetitive
identity,thestrategy,substanceandsymbolicactionsmustbeconsidered.Anholt
statesitisimportantforstakeholdersofeachaspectofthecompetitiveidentity
hexagontodevelopastrategythatformsaclear,inspiring,truthfulnarrativeof

35

SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

thecountryanditspeoplespastandfuture(2008).Inaddition,itisimportantto
followupthestrategywithinnovativesubstancethatintereststhemediaandthe
publicopiniononallcategoriesofthehexagon(2008).Lastly,symbolicactionsthat
havegreatcommunicativepowerandaremediafriendlymustbemadetosupport
allactionsofdevelopingacompetitiveidentity(2008).Approaching
communicationmethodsinthesethreewaysimplytheneedforunderstandingand
strategicallyusingeventsoractionstogaintheattentionoftraditional,digitaland
subsequentlynontraditionalmedia.
(3)Thisstudyonlyprovidesasmallperspectiveoftheentirecampaignasit
onlyfocusesontheU.S..However,liketherecommendationsmadeaboveconsider
thegoalsofthecampaignandthediverseculturespresentintheworld,to
implementseveralcommunicationcampaignsthataremosteffectiveinreaching
targetaudiences.Asexplainedpreviously,thisparticularstudyfocusesonthe
obviouscommunicationpresentinU.S.newspapers;however,publicscanalso
gatherinformationthroughdigitalandmorenontraditionalmedia.
(4)Culturaldiplomacycanbestrategicallyusedtodevelopstrongbonds
withtheinternationalpublic.Withmorethan240,000Koreanstudentsstudying
abroad,andalmost7millionemigrantsandsecondgenerationalKoreansliving
abroadasof2009(YonHapNews,2010;MOFAT,2009),buildingonthosenetworks
toreachmoreaudienceswouldbuildstrongertieswiththeSouthKoreanimage.
(5)Acrisiscommunicationsplanisneeded.Consideringthespillovereffect
mentionedinrelationtoNorthKorea,thePresidentialCouncilonNationBranding
shoulddevelopacrisismanagementplan,whichintegratesissuesmanagementto

36

SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

alleviateconsequencesduringacrisissituation.Thespillovereffectcanbe
detrimentaltothebuildingandmaintainingoftheSouthKoreanimage.Mostrecent
eventsinthedevelopmentsofNorthandSouthKoreahavesparkedtensionand
moremediacoverageofNorthKorea.Theseeffectsmaybedetrimentaltothe
currentdevelopmentsmadeontheSouthKoreanimage.Preparationforcrisisis
importantasshowninmanydifferentcasestudiesandcrisismanagementpractices
(Yu,Sengul&Lester,2008).

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SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

APPENDIX

Table3.
ConfidenceInterval
Group

SampleSize

Plusorminus

Before

150

4percentagepoints

After

102

4.8percentagepoints

Table4.
NumberofArticlesPresentinEachNewspaper

Before
(outof150)

After
(outof102)

WashingtonPost

58

26

NewYorkTimes

56

47

WallStreetJournal

18

15

USAToday

18

14

38

SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

Table5.
ThemesPresentinU.S.NewspapersinArticleswithreferencetoSouthKorea
Subjects
Before
After

Politicsand/orGovernment

33.33%

34.31%

Military/Defense/Security

6.67%

20.59%

0%

1.96%

35.33%

34.31%

6%

2.94%

Sports

34.67%

22.54%

Arts&Entertainment

4.67%

10.78%

Scienceand/orTechnology

3.33%

8.82%

Immigrationand/orTravel

5.33%

4.90%

0%

2.94%

CultureandSociety
Others:
NorthKorea

10.67%

24.51%

4%

17.65%

HumanRights

1.33%

13.92%

Olympics

21.33%

7.83%

Golf

4.67%

5.88%

4%

2.94%

NaturalDisasters
Business,Economy&Finance
Education

Crimeand/orViolence

Protests

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SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

Table6.
Articleswithreferencestothegoalsandtacticsof
thePresidentialCouncilonNationBrandings10PointPlan.
Points
Before
(outof150)

After
(outof102)

ShapingtheFuturewithKorea
CampusWorld/GlobalKorea
Scholarship/CAMPUSAsia

KoreanSupporters

GlobalKoreanNetwork
KingSejongInstitute&EnjoyTaekwondo
Project

GlobalCitizenship

AdvanceTechnology&Design

19

20

RainbowKorea

FriendlyDigitalKorea

KoreaBrandIndex
Total:

0
26

1
39

Table7.
DifferenceinPositiveandNegativeCoverageOverall
Valence
Before

After

Positive

23.33%

42.16%

Neutral

56%

43.14%

Negative

20.67%%

14.71%

40

SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

U.S. Newspaper Content Analysis Coding Sheet for South Korea Nation
Branding
Date:
Newspaper Name:
1. Wallstreet Journal
2. USA Today
3. New York Times
4. Washington Post
Page(s):
Section Label:
Number of words in article:
Politics and/or Government is a theme present in this
article.
1. Yes
2. No
Military/Defense/Security is a theme present in this article.
1. Yes
2. No
Natural Disaster is a theme present in this article.
1. Yes
2. No
Business, Economics & Finance is a theme present in this
article.
1. Yes
2. No
Education is a theme present in this article.
1. Yes
2. No
Sports is a theme present in this article.
1. Yes
2. No
Arts &Entertainment is a theme present in this article.
1. Yes
2. No
Science and/or Technology is a theme present in this article.
1. Yes
2. No

41

SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

Immigration and/or Travel is a theme present in this article.


1. yes2. No

Crime and/or Violence is a theme present in this article.


1. Yes
2. No
Culture and Society is a theme present in this article.
1. Yes
2. No
If the article present another theme not mentioed above
please specify. If not please type 2.

Does this article mention external aid


(monetary/informational/technological aid/etc.) provided
by South Korea to developing nations for their economic,
social and/or political development?
1. Yes
2. No
Does this article mention efforts/programs/individual
accounts of scholarly/student exchange to South Korea?
1. Yes
2. No
Does this article mention efforts/programs/individual
accounts of volunteer efforts linked to South Korea?
1. Yes
2. No
Does this article mention networking programs that help the
exchange of information among persons of Korean heritage
all around the world?
1. Yes
2. No
Does this article mention development of programs or
events/provide information on/show interest by persons
about the Korean language or Taekwondo?
1. Yes
2. No
Does this article mention the conditions of/ways to better
South Korean hospitality/attitudes/treatment of foreigners?
Does this article mention the conditions of/the ways to
better the mannerisms of South Korean tourists?
1. Yes
2. No

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SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

Does this article mention brands (products or services) that


originated from South Korea (Specifically brands that refer
to the Country-Of-Origin as South Korea)?1. Yes2. No

Does this article mention information/opinions of


tourism/immigration/adjustment in to South Korea?
1. Yes
2. No
Does this article mention the development/availability of
South Korean products/culture/information via the
Internet, or broadcast media?
1. Yes
2. No
Does this article give analysis of the South Korean image or
rank? Does this article provide information on the upward
or downward movement of South Korea on the Nation
Branding Index or the Korea Brand Index?
1. Yes
2. No
Rate if the Article content was mostly Positive/Negative:
Does the news coverage mention South Korea and its
activities/events/initiative in a positive light that may draw
the audience to become more interested in or in general
leave a positive feeling about South Korea (its economy,
culture, politics, its people, etc...)? Or Does the news
coverage mention South Korea and its
activities/events/initiative in a negative light that may draw
the audience to become less interested in or in general leave
a negative feeling about South Korea (its economy, culture,
politics, its people, etc...)?
1. Negative
2. Neutral
3. Postive

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SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

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45

SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

VERSION2:TTableGraphs

Table4.
NumberofArticlesPresentinEachNewspaper
Newspapers
Before
(outof150)

After
(outof102)

WashingtonPost

58

26

NewYorkTimes

56

47

WallStreetJournal

18

15

USAToday
18
14

Table5.
ThemesPresentinU.S.NewspapersinArticleswithreferencetoSouthKorea
Subjects
Before
After
MSD
MSD
t
Politicsand/orGovernment

0.3333

0.3431

Military/Defense/Security

0.0667

0.2059

NaturalDisasters

0.0000

0.0196

Business,Economy&Finance

0.3533

0.3431

Education

0.0600

0.0294

Sports

0.3467

0.2254

Arts&Entertainment

0.0467

0.1078

Scienceand/orTechnology

0.0333

0.0882

Immigrationand/orTravel

0.0533

0.0490

Crimeand/orViolence

0.0000

0.0294

CultureandSociety
Others:
NorthKorea

0.1067

0.0400

0.2451

0.1765

HumanRights

0.0133

0.1392

Olympics

0.2133

0.0783

Golf

0.0467

0.0588

46

SOUTHKOREANNATIONBRANDING:
U.S.NewspaperMediaContentAnalysisofSouthKoreasImageandReputation

Protests
0.0400

0.0294

Table6.
Articleswithreferencestothegoalsandtacticsof
thePresidentialCouncilonNationBrandings10PointPlan.
Points
Before
After
MSD
MSD

Total:
0.1733
0.3823

Table7.
DifferenceinPositiveandNegativeCoverageOverall
Valence
Before
After
MSD
MSD

df

Positive

0.2333

0.4216

100

3.1816*

Neutral

0.56

0.4314

100

2.0045**

0.1471

100

1.2027

Negative
0.2067
*p<0.01%**p<0.02%

47