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INTRODUCTION:

Is there an emerging multidisciplinary field wherein the aim is to link basic research
in neuroscience, psychology and cognitive science with education? Broadly
speaking, yes. The bridges between brain sciences and education are numerous
and quickly developing like educational neuroscience, which explores the
relationship between education and Brain Sciences, encompassing neurosciences,
psychology and cognitive science. But how can educators adapt and adopt these
findings in order to apply effective changes on a classroom? And most importantly
why is neuroscience the key to achieve new approaches on language educational
field?
As neuroplasticity could be consider the key bridging process and its molecular,
neuronal and brain-wide mechanisms are being research. The methods of brain and
cognitive sciences have reached a stage where scientists can now objectively
monitor the developmental trajectory of the child's brain and document how this
trajectory is shaped by parenting, education and other environmental influences.
Bilingualism, multilingualism and translanguaging have been widely discussed from
classical language theories to academic research in order to describe and build
definitions and approaches to these ideas in the real world, but defined by a very
specific set of frameworks forced by how knowledge has been available for everyone
on an educational field, but it wasnt intended to be produced and integrated
alongside areas that initially wouldnt seem to be close to the goals of the academic
research, different sciences and disciplines such as neurology, brain pathologies,
brain scanning, psychology, psychiatry have been leading to major breakthroughs
and discoveries on how the brain is wired and its function during the use of speech,
language related functions, and general communication. In this order of ideas, due to
the accelerated development on science and technology that we have lived over the
past

two

decades,

human

cognitive

neuroscience

has

made

enormous

developments in understanding the specific cerebral circuits underlying particular


domain of education, such as mathematics, reading and, of course, language
acquisition.

EDUCATION NEUROSCIENCE IMPLICATIONS; TEACHING AND


LEARNING

Some advantages of the results I got from investigation were accuracy and data
analysis, which involved areas as the above on an educational approach.
Consequentially the human brain can be seen as a collection of recycled devices,
inherited from our evolutionary history that address specific problems such as
location, representing time, acquiring a sense of number for concrete sets,
recognizing objects and faces, representing sounds and particularly speech sounds
typical of our species. Through development of language, we have take advantage
representations and recycle them to original uses, specially because we are the only
species capable of attaching random symbols to these representations and tying
them together into elaborate symbol systems such as our modern languages
[Dehaene 2011]. This fresh view of the brain learning and the new understanding of
intelligence marked the beginning of discussion on the connectivist model in
psychology. These models have begun to offer a more sophisticated view of the
brain as a intricate integration of various systems, rather than just the simple theories
of the past (which was where anR X function was located in a Y spot of all brains ).
The general idea of cognitivism is that mental functions can and should be explained
by evidence of brain activities that can be measured through experimentation (Such
as much of the educational classic theories were proved before scientists could get
to look directly inside the brain activity). On the other hand, a constructivist model of
learning, [Piaget], suggests that people construct their own knowledge based on
their experiences. Cognitivism and constructivist models of learning pointed out on
how human mental capacity grows over the course of life, and how this have been
measured both in relative and absolute terms. Psychology has taken a turn
regarding social sciences. The interdisciplinary view of learning and its natural
counterpart of teaching were firmly established in the 1980s.
From this point the topic research heads towards language acquisition, bilingualism,
foreign language acquisition and multilingualism, from a scientific perspective
focused on how multilingualism is approached by the brain, what can we learn from it
on an educational perspective? How can we adapt these findings to the curriculum
on schools? Can we develop new educational strategies understanding how
bilingualism, and multilingualism works on different populations? .

EDUCATION NEUROSCIENCE IMPLICATIONS; TEACHING AND


LEARNING

According to some authors I engaged there is a perception on some countries


where monolingualism is considered norm and bilingualism, and certainly
multilingualism, are problematic, or impossible to achieve.

ACOMMONGROUND

Language Education and any kind of modern education is about enhancing learning,
and neuroscience is about understanding the processes involved in the act of
learning. This common ground suggests a future in which educational practice will be
transformed by science, in the same way as medical practice was transformed by
science about a century ago. In this state of the art I consider some of the key
perceptions from neuroscience that could lead to such a transformation. Among the
new evidence there is evidence, which suggest that learning results are not just
determined by the environment. Biological factors play an important role in
accounting for differences in learning ability between individuals. [Fabbro 2001]
By considering these biological factors, among others research has advanced the
understanding of specific learning skills, such as the processes inside the brain when
you learn, read and communicate or create. Likewise, neuroscience is uncovering
why certain types of learning are more rewarding than others. As stated by Ph.
Stanislas Dehaene:

Overall, then, the comparison of literate and illiterate brains emphasizes the
degree to which reading acquisition changes the brain, not just within the
visual word form area, but also earlier in the visual system and later on in the
phonological system. [Human Neuroplasticity and EducationPontifical
Academy of Sciences, Scripta Varia 117, Vatican City 2011. P.25]

EDUCATION NEUROSCIENCE IMPLICATIONS; TEACHING AND


LEARNING

By studying the data from the ex-illiterate adults, Researchers were able to
demonstrate that these systems are highly plastic: virtually all of the above changes
were visible, in partial form, in the ex-illiterate adults who learned to read during
adulthood (Dehaene, Pegado, et al., 2010). Moreover the brain changes constantly
as a result of learning, and remains plastic throughout life. Neuroscience has shown
that learning a skill changesthe brain and that these changes revert when practice of
the skill ceases. Henceforward use it or lose it is an important principle for durable
learning on any functional purpose. The emerging field of educational neuroscience
presents opportunities as well as challenges for education, and provides means to
develop a common language and bridge the gap between educators, psychologists
and neuroscientists.
As a future educator is very important to know that education works through
experiences dependent on the processes in the brain, and still scientists understand
too little about these processes. Studies have begun to reveal insights on mental
processes involved in learning over the past decade or so. This state of the art is
intended to explore the range to which these new scientific comprehensions can tell
to our approach to education. Teachers should be careful about transposing these
brain results directly to the education domain. This is because by just observing how
the brain change does not lead to a direct prescription of a utopic education
method. However, educators will strongly benefit from a better understanding of what
is going on in their students brains as they engage learning. Educators who can
visualize how their childs brain works will lead to a clearer view of the amount of
brain-zones engaged by their students on a given reading task, which is required for
reading acquisition and communication. Furthermore, reading is not a natural task,
and children are not biologically prepared to it by evolution unlike spoken language
[Benard Odoyo Okal on Universal journal of educational Research.2014]
Accordingly, teachers must be aware that many of the learning steps that they take
for granted, [because they are education professionals which have a completely
automated communication system], are not that obvious for young children.
Substantial changes would be needed, at phonological and visual level, before

EDUCATION NEUROSCIENCE IMPLICATIONS; TEACHING AND


LEARNING

children can master some skills like reading or speaking a fluent language. The rapid
research progress in neuroscience is producing new understandings that have the
potential to help us engage teaching and learning in new accurate ways. Education
is far more than learning facts and fixed skills such as reading, writing, speaking and
listening. It is not confined to the school years, but plays an important role thru
lifetime and helps individuals handle adversity. Flexibility through teach enables
people of any age to adapt to challenges of economic upheaval, Ill health, and brain
ageing. This new field of educational

Neuroscience or Neuro-education investigates some of the basic processes


involved in learning; but beyond this it also explores this aspect of learning to learn,
cognitive skills, flexibility, and motivation as well as social and emotional
experiences. With an effective critical approach, all learners as well as teachers,
parentsand policy makers, could benefit from these advances.

THELEARNINGBRAIN

The brain is constantly changing and everything we do changes our brain. These
changes can be short or longer lasting. When we sleep, hike, dialog, discern,
introspect, and interact, the brain shows an extraordinary adaptability, referred to as
neuroplasticity. This is due to the process by which connections between neurons
are strengthened when they are simultaneously activated; often summarised as,
neurons that fire together wire together. [Wattendorf and Festman. 2008] this
effect is known as experience-dependent plasticity and is present during the whole
life.Neuroplasticity allows the brain to constantly take account of the environment. It
also allows the brain to store the results of learning as memories. Accordingly, the
brain can prepare for future events based on just experience. However, a habit
learning, which is very fast and durable, could be considered dangerous for
individuals in addiction as an example.

EDUCATION NEUROSCIENCE IMPLICATIONS; TEACHING AND


LEARNING

Recent findings on neuroplasticity include changes in the brains structureand


connectivity, that suggest those thereare sensitive periods in brain development
extending beyond childhood into adolescence in which Plasticity tends to decrease
with age and this is particularly evident when we consider learning a second
language after turning certain age. This has led to some conclusions regarding the
overall pattern of neural development on men and women as well, which turned to
be pretty similar between both sexes, but the step of brain maturation appears to
differ with boys on the average maturation reaching full development at a slightly
later age than girls. [Dehaene.2011] At first glance this might suggest that boys and
girls may do betterif educated separately, especially around puberty and early
adolescence, when the gender difference in brain development is greatest. Still,
there are so many factors that influence brain development, that gender is merely
only one example of a specific difference that might influence learning and
development on an educational sphere.

EDUCATION AS A POWERFUL FORM OF COGNITIVE ENHANCEMENT

Active changes to brain connectivity go through all life and that means that the wiring
of the brain adjusts gradually during development for a surprisingly long time. For
example, according to Woollett K, Spiers HJ, & Maguire:
The connections in the frontal part of the brain involved in impulse control
and other executive functions are pruned progressivelyand adaptively during
adolescenceand beyond. Even after these developmental changes, activitydependent plasticity is evident throughout life: For example, licensed London
taxi drivers, whom have to spend years acquiring the Knowledge of
Londons complex layout, have greater grey matter volume in a region of the
brain known to be essential for memory and navigation. [Woollett K, Spiers
HJ, & Maguire EA (2009). Talent in the taxi: a model system for exploring
expertise. P.6]

EDUCATION NEUROSCIENCE IMPLICATIONS; TEACHING AND


LEARNING

This is a pattern shown by the brain on any complex task that human beings engage,
and illustrates pretty well the something known as experience-dependent plasticity.
Which is the genetic pattern of our brains that partly determines what we know and
how we behave; much depends on environmental factors that determine what we
experience and how our brain process them.

Education is a prominent variable among these factors. Some of the topics that
neuroscience is beginning to update in an innovative scientific method are already
being applied in some extend on modern academies, around multiple existent
methods and approaches that are based upon formal research and did not await the
arrival of neuroscience. Cognitive neuroscience studies of learning can help spread
the word and eventually lead to a more systematic and rational approaches to
education. A true science of education is emerging. In the near future, new
experiments, involving a tight collaboration between scientists and educators, will
lead to an even clearer picture of the learning algorithms used by the brain, and how
they can be harnessed to facilitate learning in the classroom.

EDUCATION NEUROSCIENCE IMPLICATIONS; LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING

Neuroscience research aims to describe the mechanisms of learning and the bases
of individual differences in learning ability. It is thus a tool for new science-based
education policies, which can help measure the performance and impact of different
educational approaches. In addition, neuroscience should be used as a tool in
educational policy. By informing on different and standard education policy options
and their impacts on the human brain. Neuroscience evidence should also be
considered in diverse policy areas such as health and employment. Stronger links
within the research community and between researchers and the education system
(schools, further education, higher education and institutes for lifelong learning) are

EDUCATION NEUROSCIENCE IMPLICATIONS; TEACHING AND


LEARNING

needed in order to improve understanding of these implications.


Conclusions from neuroscience that exemplify different learning processes can
support and enhance teachers own experiences on how individuals learn. These
findings can be used to create alternate teaching approaches for a variety of sociocultural contexts. Besides, findings from cognitive neuroscience that characterise
different learning processes can support and enhance teachers own experiences of
how individuals learn. These findings can be used to develop unconventional
teaching approaches for those who lack access to education. How the brain benefits
from exercise, and how it understands numeracy, can help develop educational
technologies. A growing number of neuroscience evidence already exists which is
relevant for education. However, for some education researchers, this evidence can
be difficult to access and evaluate. Findings from neuroscience are often
misinterpreted and taken out of context. A dialogue between the research base
(neuroscientists, cognitive psychologists and social scientists) as well as frontline
teachers is required. A good work in building bridges has already started, where
successful teaching approaches have been developed for learners who cannot keep
up with the conventional classes. Learning technologies have the potential to play an
essential role to the teacher in assisting the rehearsal of targeted learning activities.
Based upon the information that neuroscientific insights have already given.
Some individuals struggle to learn in all fields, whereas others have specific
difficulties for instance, with language or learning. There is ample evidence that
these individuals are at increased risk of poor social adaptation and unemployment.
Current work in neuroscience is directed toward identifying the brain basis of
learning difficulties. As research advances, perspectives have raised for identification
and diagnosis, and for designing interventions that are suitable to treat illness and to
take this knowledge to any classroom. It will be wise to expect a revolution in a
variety of areas derivate from cognitive neuroscience, especially on education
subjects in the near future.

EDUCATION NEUROSCIENCE IMPLICATIONS; TEACHING AND


LEARNING

REFERENCIAS

Stanislas Dehaene, The Massive Impact of Literacyon the Brain and its
Consequences for Education Human Neuroplasticity and EducationPontifical
Academy of Sciences, Scripta Varia 117, Vatican City [2011]. Tomado de:
www.pas.va/content/dam/accademia/pdf/sv117/sv117-dehaene.pdf

Benard Odoyo Okal. Benefits of Multilingualism in Education Universal Journal of


Educational Research [2014]. Tomado de:
http://www.hrpub.org

Elise Wattendorf and Julia Festman, Images of the multilingual brain: The effect of
age of second language acquisition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics [2008].

Franco Fabbro, The Bilingual Brain: Bilingual Aphasia.Brain and Language 79,
201210 [2001].

Jeffrey Kluger. The Power of the Bilingual Brain. [2013] Tomado de:
http://www.time.com/time/subscriber/printout/0,8816,2147707,00.html

Suresh Canagarajah. Multilingual Communities, and Language Acquisition.The


Modern Language Journal 91 [2007]

Woollett K, Spiers HJ, & Maguire EA .Talent in the taxi: a model system for exploring

EDUCATION NEUROSCIENCE IMPLICATIONS; TEACHING AND


LEARNING

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expertise. P.6 [2009]

Angela Creese, Adrian Blackledge. Translanguaging in the Bilingual Classroom: A


Pedagogy for Learning and Teaching?. The Modern Language Journal 94 [2010]

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