Sie sind auf Seite 1von 58

Pengembangan Obat

FA-5111 (3 sks)
Aspek Umum & Regulasi
Dosen: Tutus Gusdinar Kartawinata
Laboratorium Biokimia Medik & Kimia Klinik
Kelompok Keilmuan Farmakokimia
Sekolah Farmasi Institut Teknologi Bandung

increaseduseofnewantihypertensives and

nasaldecongestantwasfoundtohaveantihypertensive properties


D structureofaknownreceptorbasedonhomologiesof
drugs againstnewtargets.

If an agent possesses useful activity it would be further studied for
possible adverse effects on other major organs. These studies might
suggest the need for further chemical modification to achieve desirable
pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic properties (pharmacomodulation).

The R &D process

Preclinical studies


Clinical studies
Early Clinical







Search for


studies on

studies on a
limited scale



studies on a
number of

New Drug
Application for
permission to
a new
studies on
various types

of animals



**New Drug
Application for
permission to market
a new drug


24 yrs.

26 months

36 yrs.

13 yrs.

Approximately 1015 years from idea to marketable drug




Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API)

Development, Characterization
API process development Discovery route assessment
Route scouting
Lab scale API batch manufacture
IND route development
Primary reference synthesis & characterizations
Preparation of major impurities in API and characterizations
NDA route development
Process safety studies
Process development to support multi-kilo manufacture with
API preformulation
Crystallization process development leading to the desired API
physico-chemical properties.

API synthesis and supply

API analytical development and support
API characterization Appearance
Elemental analysis
Spectroscopic methods (IR, UV-VIS, NMR, Mass Spec)
Purity (HPLC, GC, LC/MS/MS, etc.)
Chirality (optical rotation)
Residual solvents & water content
Thermogravimetry, DSC (Endothermic/ Exothermic properties)
SEM (scanning electron microscope)
Optical microscopy
Particle size distribution
Crystalline vs. amorphous by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD)
Polymorphism by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD)
Stability (susceptibility for oxidation, hydrolysis, photochemical
reactions, etc.)

Formulation and Preformulation



Salt screening
Polymorph screening
API excipient interaction
Novel technologies for highly insoluble APIs (nano technology)

Formulation development
IV and oral preclinical formulations
Clinical formulations

Oral Liquids
Sterile (aseptically prepared) liquids

Process development studies

14C labeled and cytotoxic formulations
Process scale-up studies

Analytical support for preformulation and formulation development, including

method development and validation
Microbiological testing

Key facilities and instrumentation

Highlights of key facilities and instrumentation:
Separate laboratories for non-radiolabelled and radiolabeled materials
X-Ray powder diffraction system
Thermo-gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry
400 MHz and 500 MHz NMR spectrometers
Solid state NMR
Variety of spectrometers and mass spectrometers
Variety of chromatography systems with variety of detection systems
Hot stage microscope
Dynamic vapor absorption/desorption system
ICH compliant stability suite

CMC Regulatory Documentation

(Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls processes)

Preparation of CMC documents for inclusion in regulatory dossiers, including

coordination, writing and compilation

Global marketing applications using the e-CTD format

Investigational Medicinal Product Dossiers (IMPD)
Investigational New Drug Applications (IND)
Quality Overall Summaries (QOS)
Clinical Investigator Brochures (CIBs)
Integrated drug development reports
Release testing monographs for APIs and drug products
Interaction with other disciplines such as toxicology and drug metabolism to ensure
consistency of dossier sections

Review of technical CMC documents either authored in house or as a service

to increase your probability of success with the regulatory agencies
Consultation and response to questions from agencies
Responding to regulatory CMC questions from global health authorities
Preparation of position papers and responses for potential regulatory questions

Production of IMPDs or INDs for the clinical administration of radiolabeled


Drug development is a blanket term used to
define the entire process of bringing a new drug
or device to the Market. It includes drug
discovery/product development, pre-clinical
research(microorganisms/animals) and clinical
trials (on humans).
Few people still refer to the drug development as
mere preclinical development.

New chemical entities (NCEs) are compounds which
emerge from the process of drug discovery. These will
have promising activity against a particular biological target
thought to be important in disease; however, little will be
known about the safety, toxicity, pharmacokinetics and
metabolism of this NCE in humans.
It is the function of drug development to assess all of
these parameters prior to human clinical trials. A further
major objective of drug development is to make a
recommendation of the dose and schedule to be used the
first time an NCE is used in a human clinical trial "first-inman" (FIM) or First Human Dose (FHD).


In addition, drug development is required to establish the

physicochemical properties of the NCE: its chemical
makeup, stability, solubility. The process by which the
chemical is made will be optimized so that from being
made at the bench on a milligram scale by a synthetic
chemist, it can be manufactured on the kilogram and then
on the ton scale. It will be further examined for its
suitability to be made into capsules, tablets, aeresol,
intramuscular injectable, subcuteneous injectable, or
intravenous formulations. Together these processes are
known in preclinical development as CMC (Chemistry,
Manufacturing and Control).


Many aspects of drug development are focused on

satisfying the regulatory requirements of drug
licensing authorities. These generally constitute a
number of tests designed to determine the major
toxicities of a novel compound prior to first use in
It is a legal requirement that an assessment of major
organ toxicity be performed (effects on the heart and
lungs, brain, kidney, liver and digestive system), as
well as effects on other parts of the body that might
be affected by the drug (e.g. the skin if the new drug
is to be delivered through the skin).


While, increasingly, these tests can be made

using in vitro methods (e.g. with isolated cells),
many tests can only be made by using
experimental animals, since it is only in an
intact organism that the complex interplay of
metabolism and drug exposure on toxicity can
be examined.


The process of drug development does not stop

once an NCE begins human clinical trials. In
addition to the tests required to move a novel
drug into the clinic for the first time it is also
important to ensure that long-term or chronic
toxicities are determined, as well as effects on
systems not previously monitored (fertility,
reproduction, immune system, etc). The
compound will also be tested for its ability to
cause cancer (carcinogenicity testing).


If a compound emerges from these tests with an

acceptable toxicity and safety profile, and it can
further be demonstrated to have the desired
effect in clinical trials, then it can be submitted
for marketing approval in the various countries
where it will be sold. In the US, this process is
called a New Drug Application or NDA.
Most NCEs, however, fail during drug
development, either because they have some
unacceptable toxicity, or because they simply do
not work in clinical trials.


As this drug discovery process becomes more expensive it

is becoming important to look at new ways to bring
forward NCEs. One approach to improve efficiency is to
recognize that there are many steps requiring different
levels of experimentation. The early phase of drug
discovery actually has components of real innovation,
components of experimentation and components that
involve set routines.
This model of Innovation, Experimentation, and
Commoditization ensures that new ways to do work are
adopted continually. This model also allows the discipline
to use appropriate internal and external resources for the
right work.

Studies published in 2003 report an average pre-tax cost of
approximately $800 million to bring a new drug (i.e. a drug with
a New Chemical Entity) to market.
A study published in 2006 estimates that costs vary from around
500 million to 2,000 million dollars depending on the therapy
or the developing firm.
These figures relate only to new, innovative drugs (drugs with a
New Chemical Entity NCE, also called New Active Substance
NAS). Each year, worldwide, only about 26 such drugs enter the
market (2005: 26, 2004: 24, 2003: 26, 2002: 28). The
development cost of the thousands of other drugs are much
smaller. The $800 million quoted include the cost of all drug
development which did not result in a new drug. It also includes
some $400 million of opportunity costs.

Clinical trials are conducted to allow safety and
efficacy data to be collected for new drugs or
devices. These trials can only take place once
satisfactory information has been gathered on the
quality of the product and its non-clinical safety,
and Health Authority/Ethics Committee approval
is granted in the country where the trial is taking


Depending on the type of product and the stage

of its development, investigators enroll healthy
volunteers and/or patients into small pilot studies
initially, followed by larger scale studies in
patients that often compare the new product with
the currently prescribed treatment. As positive
safety and efficacy data are gathered, the number
of patients is typically increased.
Clinical trials can vary in size from a single center
in one country to multicenter trials in multiple


Due to the sizable cost a full series of clinical

trials may incur, the burden of paying for all the
necessary people and services is usually borne
by the sponsor who may be a governmental
organization, a pharmaceutical or biotechnology
Since the diversity of roles may exceed
resources of the sponsor, often a clinical trial is
managed by an outsourced partner such as a
contract research organization.

Drugs of the future

Small-chemical drugs will be te principal
pharmaceutical tools for the foreseeable
future, though with monoclonal antibodies
and proteins making an increasing impact.

Gene therapy
In the 1980s, there were high hopes that gene therapy would
open up a wealth of new treatments, particularly for inherited
conditions. The idea is that a gene is delivered into cells and
begins to make a therapeutic protein. So people with cystic
fibrosis, who lack a working version of a protein known as
CFTR, would receive a copy of the CFTR gene.
Unfortunately, the promise has yet to be realised. It has proved
difficult to get active DNA into the nucleus and stably active.
Progress has been slower than expected, and also suffered after
the death of a patient, Jesse Gelsinger, in a clinical trial in 1999.
A further setback came in 2003, when French patients developed
cancer linked to the integration of a viral vector into their DNA.
Nevertheless, clinical trials are underway in a number of
conditions, including muscular dystrophy and Parkinson's
disease. Gene therapy is also being tested in some cancers,
though the aim is to kill cells rather than repair them. Routine
use, however, remains a long way off.

RNA interference (RNAi), which gained a Nobel Prize for its
discoverers in 2006, is a new and highly promising strategy.
RNAi is used to eliminate (or 'knock down') specific proteins
from a cell, such as those causing a disease. It is based on an
unusual phenomenon: short RNA molecules triggering highly
specific destruction of messenger RNA molecules containing the
same RNA sequence. Its normal role is probably to protect
against viruses invading the cell.
The medical possibilities are very broad. Examples include
knocking down the receptor for a virus, or an overactive protein
causing cancer or messenger molecules promoting inflammation.
A small number of clinical trials have begun, for example for
macular degeneration (a form of blindness). But it is early days.
As in gene therapy, it is difficult to deliver the RNA and there are
worries that other, useful proteins might be eliminated. One
study in mice led to severe liver damage in animals, possibly
because large doses of RNA were used.

Nanotechnology-based solutions are being tested in a variety
of conditions.
Some applications depend on the unusual properties of
materials at the nanoscale. Nanoscale silver is toxic to bacteria
and is being used in wound dressings (silver-impregnated
pyjamas have been suggested for hospitals). Gold
nanoparticles can convert some wavelengths of light into
intense heat, and are being tested as a possible cancer
treatment (a 'thermal scalpel').
Critical to many applications will be targeting. Antibodies
could target a toxin-linked nanoparticle to a cancer cell.
More generally, because they are so small, weight-for-weight
nanoparticles have a very high surface area. There is interest
in using this property for controlled release of drugs.

Nanobased structures are being explored as molecular scaffolds for tissue

repair. Some exciting applications combine a physical support role for
nanomaterials with bioactive molecules attached to a nanoscale scaffold. This
approach could be used to encourage bone or nerve growth following tissue
Nanotechnologies also show significant promise in diagnostics (for example,
through 'lab-on-a-chip' technologies, or by detection of very low
concentrations of key metabolites) and medical imaging. Another exciting
possibility is to link detection to treatment - so a diagnostic device
automatically delivers the required medication. In animal studies,
nanoparticles have been used both to detect blood glucose levels and to
release insulin.
Nanotechnologies are undoubtedly an area of great promise. Given the
diversity of approaches they encompass, they could have a profound impact
on healthcare. Initially they may enhance current treatments, but entirely new
agents could soon become available.
However, nanotechnologies also raise challenging regulatory issues - the
properties of nanomaterials differ fundamentally from their everyday
counterparts; can they be considered the same substance? And there are
concerns about the possible environmental impact of nanoparticles.

A living thing
As well as chemically produced agents, researchers are also looking at living organisms.
In doing so, they are reviving a long and colourful medical history.
Leeches may not be everyone's cup of tea, but they produce a very useful anti-bloodclotting agent (hirudin) and are very effective at draining blood. They are used clinically in
microsurgery, helping to improve blood flow when digits are reattached.
Maggots may be similarly repellent to most, but they have long been medicinally useful. In
World War I, infections with maggots kept bacterial infections in check. Experiments have
been carried out with maggots to clean wounds; they also seem to secrete compounds that
promote wound healing. They have been shown to be just as good (and cost-effective) as
conventional medications for chronic wounds, and greenbottle larvae are commercially
available for use in medicine. The main obstacle to their wider use is patient
An area of growing interest is the use of parasites or their secretions or eggs to manipulate
the immune response. There is a school of thought that the current high incidence of
asthma, inflammation and allergy in the West is due to a lower parasite burden. In parts of
the world where parasites are common, asthma is rare. Various trials have been carried out
of parasitic worm eggs for inflammatory bowel disease, with some success. In the UK,
hookworms are being tested as a treatment for asthma.
Much effort is being put into identifying the active substances produced by parasites, so
that they can be given medicinally without a patient having to be infected with the real thing

Teori Dasar untuk Memahami Filosofi

Riset dan Pengembangan Obat
[Drug R&D]
I. Cell Communication and Cell Signaling
II. Molecular Drug Receptor Interaction
III.Biocatalytic Mechanism of Enzyme


Cell signaling is part of a complex system of
communication that governs basic cellular activities
and coordinates cell actions. The ability of cells to
perceive and correctly respond to their microenvironment is the basis of development, tissue repair,
and immunity as well as normal tissue homeostasis.
Errors in cellular information processing are
responsible for diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity,
and diabetes.
By understanding cell signaling, diseases may be
treated effectively and, theoretically, artificial tissues
may be yielded.

Traditional work in biology has focused on studying

individual parts of cell signaling pathways. Systems
biology research helps us to understand the underlying
structure of cell signaling networks and how changes in
these networks may affect the transmission and flow of
information. Such networks are complex systems in
their organization and may exhibit a number of
emergent properties including bistability and
ultrasensitivity. Analysis of cell signaling networks
requires a combination of experimental and
theoretical approaches including the development and
analysis of simulations and modelling.


Cells receive information from their environment
through a class of proteins known as receptors. Notch is a
cell surface protein that functions as a receptor. Animals
have a small set of genes that code for signaling proteins
that interact specifically with Notch receptors and
stimulate a response in cells that express Notch on their
surface. Molecules that activate (or, in some cases,
inhibit) receptors can be classified as hormones,
neurotransmitters, cytokines, growth factors but all of
these are called receptor ligands. The details of ligandreceptor interactions are fundamental to cell signaling.


While many receptors are cell surface proteins,

some are found inside cells. For example,
estrogen is a hydrophobic molecule that can
pass through the lipid bilayer of cell surface
membranes. Estrogen receptors inside cells of
the uterus can be activated by estrogen that
comes from the ovaries, enters the target cells,
and binds to estrogen receptors.


A number of transmembrane receptors for

molecules that include peptide hormones and of
intracellular receptors for steroid hormones exist,
giving to a cell the ability to respond to a great
number of hormonal and pharmacological
stimuli. In diseases, often, proteins that interact
with receptors are aberrantly activated, resulting
in constitutively activated downstream signals.


For several types of intercellular signaling

molecules that are unable to permeate the
hydrophobic cell membrane due to their
hydrophilic nature, the target receptor is
expressed on the membrane. When such
signaling molecule activates its receptor, the
signal is carried into the cell usually by means
of a second messenger such as cAMP.

Within endocrinology (the study of intercellular signalling in animals) and the
endocrine system, intercellular signalling is subdivided into the following

Endocrine signals are produced by endocrine cells and travel

through the blood to reach all parts of the body.

Paracrine signals target only cells in the vicinity of the emitting

cell. Neurotransmitters represent an example.

Autocrine signals affect only cells that are of the same cell type
as the emitting cell. An example for autocrine signals is found in
immune cells.

Juxtacrine signals are transmitted along cell membranes via

protein or lipid components integral to the membrane and are
capable of affecting either the emitting cell or cells immediately

Many cell signals are carried by molecules that are released by one
cell and move to make contact with another cell.

Endocrine signals are called hormones. Hormones are produced

by endocrine cells and they travel through the blood to reach all
parts of the body. Specificity of signaling can be controlled if only
some cells can respond to a particular hormone.

Paracrine signals target only cells in the vicinity of the emitting cell.
Neurotransmitters represent an example. Some signaling
molecules can function as both a hormone and a neurotransmitter.
For example, epinephrine and norepinephrine can function as
hormones when released from the adrenal gland and are
transported to the heart by way of the blood stream.
Norepinephrine can also be produced by neurons to function as a
neurotransmitter within the brain. Estrogen can be released by the
ovary and function as a hormone or act locally via paracrine or
autocrine signaling.

Juxtacrine signaling is a type of intercellular communication that is

transmitted via oligosaccharide lipid, or protein components of
a cell membrane, and may affect either the emitting cell or the
immediately-adjacent cells.
It occurs between adjacent cells that possess broad patches of
closely-opposed plasma membrane linked by transmembrane
channels known as connexons. The gap between the cells can
usually be between only 2 4 nm.
Unlike other types of cell signaling (such as paracrine and
endocrine), juxtacrine signaling requires physical contact
between the two cells involved.
Juxtacrine signaling has been observed for some growth factors,
cytokine and chemokine cellular signals.

Autocrine signaling is a form of signalling in which a cell

secretes a hormone or chemical messenger (called the
autocrine agent) that binds to autocrine receptors on
the same type of cell, leading to changes in the cells.
This can be contrasted with paracrine signaling,
intracrine signalling, or classical endocrine signaling.


Signal Transduction
In biology, signal transduction refers to any
process by which a cell converts one kind of
signal or stimulus into another. Most processes
of signal transduction involve ordered
sequences of biochemical reactions inside the
cell, which are carried out by enzymes and
activated by second messengers, resulting in a
signal transduction pathway.

Such processes are usually rapid, lasting on the order of

milliseconds in the case of ion flux, or minutes for the
activation of protein and lipid-mediated kinase cascades,
but some can take hours, and even days (as is the case
with gene expression), to complete.
The number of proteins and other molecules participating
in the events involving signal transduction increases as
the process emanates from the initial stimulus, resulting
in a "signal cascade," beginning with a relatively small
stimulus that elicits a large response.
This is referred to as amplification of the signal.

Signaling molecules
Most signal transduction involves the binding of extracellular signaling
molecules (or ligands) to cell-surface receptors that face outward
from the plasma membrane and trigger events inside the cell. Also,
intracellular signaling cascades can be triggered through cellsubstratum interactions, as in the case of integrins, which bind
ligands found within the extracellular matrix. Steroids represent
another example of extracellular signaling molecules that may cross
the plasma membrane due to their lipophilic or hydrophobic
Many, but not all, steroids have receptors within the cytoplasm, and
usually act by stimulating the binding of their receptors to the
promoter region of steroid-responsive genes.
Within multicellular organisms, there is a diverse number of small
molecules and polypeptides that serve to coordinate a cell's
individual biological activity within the context of the organism as a

These ligand molecules have been functionally

classified as:
Hormones (e.g., melatonin),
Growth factors (e.g. epidermal growth factor),
Extra-cellular matrix components (e.g., fibronectin),
Cytokines (e.g., interferon-gamma),
Chemokines (e.g., CCL5 or RANTES = Regulated upon
Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed, and Secreted),
Neurotransmitters (e.g., acetylcholine), and
Neurotrophins (e.g., nerve growth factor).

CCL5 is an 8kDa protein classified as a chemotactic cytokine or

chemokine. CCL5 is chemotactic for T cells, eosinophils, and
basophils, and plays an active role in recruiting leukocytes into
inflammatory sites.
With the help of particular cytokines (i.e., IL-2 and IFN-) that are
released by T cells, CCL5 also induces the proliferation and
activation of certain natural-killer (NK) cells to form CHAK (CCChemokine-activated killer) cells. It is also an HIV-suppressive
factor released from CD8+ T cells. This chemokine has been
localized to chromosome 17 in humans.
RANTES was first identified in a search for genes expressed "late" (3
5 days) after T cell activation. It was subsequently determined to be
a and expressed in more than 100 human diseases. RANTES
expression is regulated in T lymphocytes by Kruppel like factor 13


Lihat: Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery