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DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TENAGA NASIONAL

CEVB211 Surveying
Practical Training
Experiment No. 1:
Introduction to Surveying Equipment
Section

: 04
NAME
Hana Alisa binti Zulkifli

Date of Laboratory Session


Due date of Report Submission

STUDENT ID
CE095254

: 19/10/2016
: 25/10/2016

Lab Instructor: Dr. Al Mahfoodh Ali Najah Ahmed

No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Criteria
Appearance, Formatting & Grammar
Cover Page
Summary
Objective(s) & Problem Statement
Procedure
Result/Discussion
Conclusion
References

Marks

TABLE OF CONTENTS
No.

Content

Page

Cover Page

Summary

Objectives & Problem Statement

Procedure

Result/Discussion Surveying Instruments

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Result/Discussion Fieldwork Regulations

Result/Discussion Fieldwork Report Requirements

Conclusion

References

SUMMARY
The report comprises of a brief explanation about the equipment that will be used for the
subject Surveying Practical Training.
The subject provides basic knowledge about the principles of surveying for location, design
and construction of engineering projects. As students, we will develop skills using surveying
equipment including measuring tapes, theodolites, etc. The importance of identifying sources
of error as well as the procedures to mitigate them are emphasised. Planning ahead and
applying fundamental concepts are necessary to obtain accurate surveying data.

OBJECTIVE
To introduce the available surveying instruments at the College of Engineering, UNITEN.

PROBLEM STATEMENT
Engineering Surveying involves the use of Surveying to work out the best option to construct
tunnels, bridges, buildings, etc. as well as to provide records for future use regarding said
structures or new ones around them.
As a civil engineer, the relevant surveying equipment and their corresponding functions in the
fieldwork were studied and their functions summarised in this report.

PROCEDURE
We were briefed with full explanation and a basic / rough demonstration of all the equipment
available before being presented with as well as searching for external reading or
explanations to analyse on our own.

RESULT/DISCUSSION SURVEYING EQUIPMENT


Automatic Level

Digital Theodolite

A professional levelling tool used by an engineer


to obtain an accurate reading of the difference
between two points on the ground
Checking Accuracy
Place 2 levelling staffs on either end (in a
straight line) of the auto level. Take the
readings.
Move the levelling staffs.
The difference in the readings are the error.
Errors:
May be affected by the Earths magnetic field
A surveying instrument with a rotating telescope to
determine horizontal and vertical angles.
Combines plumb bobs, a bubble level, and
graduated circles to find vertical and horizontal
angles in surveying.
The one provided has a digital screen to take more
accurate reading

Traversing Target

Tripod

To mark an accurate point of reference in a vertical


or horizontal measurement
Errors
Markings may wear off

To place measuring equipment such as the


Theodolite and Auto Level
Has 3 adjustable legs with steel spikes at the ends
to allow mounting of the equipment into the
ground and drastically reduce any random errors
The tribrach is a universal attachment component
that should be attached to the tripod and many
other kinds of surveying (ie. Measurement)
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equipment

Levelling Staff

Staff Bubble

Indicator of a difference in height between two


points based on a reference point.
E-faced Staff
Errors
Markings may have faded or scraped off

To ensure the equipments standing is absolutely


vertical

When the pond bubble is centred, that means


the instrument is perfectly vertical
Measuring Tape

Hammer & Nails

In case there is a need to fix something to a surface


To remove things fixed by nail
Ie. The placing and/or removal of a temporary
benchmark (TBM)

Spray Paint

To create any necessary temporary marking or


labelling that is durable or permanent parking

To measure the length between two distances


Comes with differing end loops, usually the claw
Errors
Markings may have faded or scraped off
(especially the 0 mark)
Tape may have expanded over time

FIELDWORK REGULATIONS
1. The planning and execution of fieldwork should consider the nature of the work and
the level of knowledge and experience of the participants.
2. Fieldwork should be planned so that the work proceeds efficiently and that the
participants are not exposed to any unnecessary risk. Avoid lone work, particularly in
disaster prone areas.
3. All equipment must be tested for accuracy and error before taking any actual readings.
Faulty equipment should be sent for repairs.
4. The equipment must be taken care of accordingly. It should be dry when placed in its
case, should not be dropped, mishandled, etc.

FIELDWORK REPORT REQUIREMENTS


1. Results reported should match exact results obtained in the field.
2. Contents of the report should be complete with relevant detail and references,
including appropriate labelling where necessary.
3. Report should be formatted for the ease of the reader and general Civil Engineering
workers.
4. Any errors must be reported. In case of big errors, the fieldwork may need to be
repeated. Having created a plan beforehand may mitigate the chance of this
happening.

CONCLUSION
All the basic equipment necessary for a fundamental understanding of Surveying has been
provided by UNITEN. The skill for use of the Surveying instruments are a result of
theoretical study in the classroom as well as practical application in laboratory sessions.
It is learned that Surveying instruments are sensitive, but only to produce the most accurate
results. This is important to a Civil Engineer so a project can be completed at its optimal
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quality levels ie. Reducing cost, creating accurate structures that wont fail, etc. Each piece of
equipment should be checked and maintained on a regular basis to ensure their accuracy is
unharmed.
1.

REFERENCES
1. Open Ended Lab Handout for Surveying Practical Training CEVB211, Oct 2013,
UNITEN Dept. of Civil Engineering, COE.
2. Surveying for Engineers CEVB213 notes Semester 1 2016/2017.
Given by Mr. Wong Jee Khai.
3. How to Use Auto Levels, New England Laser & Transit Company.
http://newenglandlaser.com/index.php?n=how_to_use_auto_levels
4. Photos
a. Nikon AS-2C http://yardoptic.ru/catalog/388/1165#.WA-POvSo2tY
b. NE-203 Nikon Digital Theodolite http://sitechnorcal.com/ne203.htm
c. Secos Traverse Kit for 196 mm
http://www.surveying.com/Products/Tribrachs-and-Adapters/TraverseKits/2159-03-BLK
d. Leica CTP103 Aluminium Tripod
e. Nedo 5m 5-Section Telescopic Aluminium Staff
f. Fieldwork Group Staff Level Bubble
http://www.fieldworksupplies.co.nz/product/193-Staff-level-Bubble-2393
g. Draper Expert Fibreglass Surveyors Tape #ST0883
http://www.sibbons.co.uk/product/4088/1145/draper_expert_fibreglass_survey
ors_tape_/2d0448fce26e0f612f4da4bafffde626