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LTE Radio Access,


Rel. FDD-LTE 15A,
Operating Documentation,
Issue 02
Monitoring and Measuring
System in LTE RAN
DN0958759
Issue 04
Approval Date 2014-11-21

Monitoring and Measuring System in LTE RAN

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Monitoring and Measuring System in LTE RAN

Table of Contents
This document has 34 pages
Summary of changes..................................................................... 7
1

Introduction to monitoring and measuring system in LTE RAN......8

Architecture of the monitoring and measuring system in LTE RAN.


10

3.2

Functional description for monitoring and measuring system in


LTE RAN.......................................................................................11
General concept........................................................................... 11
Design approach.......................................................................... 11

3.2.1

Versioning.................................................................................... 12

3.2.2
3.2.3

Triggers........................................................................................ 12

3.1

3.2.4

Cell approach............................................................................... 12
Format.......................................................................................... 12

3.2.5

KPIs..............................................................................................12

3.2.6
3.3

Fault causes.................................................................................13

3.3.1

Performance monitoring areas.....................................................13


Quality of Service (QoS).............................................................. 13

3.3.2

Capacity monitoring..................................................................... 13

3.3.3

Troubleshooting............................................................................15

3.3.4
3.3.5

Traffic model verification (traffic profile)........................................16


Network planning......................................................................... 16

3.3.6

Network optimization....................................................................17

3.3.7
3.3.8

Cost-optimized network topology design..................................... 17

3.3.9

Improvements of grade of services and quality of services......... 17


Acceptance tests/verification tests............................................... 18

3.3.10

Benchmarking.............................................................................. 18

3.3.11
3.3.12

Reliability......................................................................................18

3.4

Network operation........................................................................ 19
PMO measurement communities.................................................19

3.5

Mapping of PMO functional areas to PMO data...........................20

3.6

Mapping between procedures and measurement areas..............22

4.1.1

Operating tasks related to monitoring and measuring system in


LTE RAN...................................................................................... 25
PMO operational procedures....................................................... 25
Network supervision.....................................................................25

4.1.2

Network analysis.......................................................................... 25

4.1.3
4.1.4

Traffic analysis............................................................................. 27

4.1

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4.1.5

Troubleshooting............................................................................27
UE validation and interception..................................................... 29

4.1.6

PMO administration......................................................................29

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4.2
4.2.1

PMO measurement procedures................................................... 30


Categories....................................................................................30

4.2.2

Procedure areas...........................................................................30

4.2.3
4.3

Technology Specific Performance Indicator Groups (PI Groups) ....


31
eNB monitoring procedures......................................................... 31

4.3.1

Performance supervision of the LTE RNL and TNL..................... 31

4.3.1.1

Monitoring capacity license/number of active users per BTS...... 32

4.3.2

Localization of sources of insufficient performance, capacity, or


quality...........................................................................................32
Troubleshooting and network optimization at the eNB with the
performance data......................................................................... 33

4.3.3

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List of Figures

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Figure 1

Architecture of PMO operational concept...........................................10

Figure 2

Performance monitoring design concept............................................ 11

Figure 3

Blocking time...................................................................................... 15

Figure 4

PMO measurement communities....................................................... 20

Figure 5

PMO functional areas......................................................................... 21

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List of Tables

Table 1

Main functions of performance monitoring........................................... 8

Table 2

Mapping..............................................................................................22

Table 3

Network supervision........................................................................... 25

Table 4

Network analysis................................................................................ 26

Table 5

Traffic analysis....................................................................................27

Table 6

Troubleshooting.................................................................................. 28

Table 7

UE validation and interception............................................................29

Table 8

PMO administration............................................................................ 30

Table 9

Performance supervision of the LTE RNL and TNL........................... 31

Table 10

Localization of sources of insufficient performance, capacity, or quality


............................................................................................................33

Table 11

Troubleshooting and network optimization at the eNB with


performance data............................................................................... 33

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Summary of changes

Summary of changes
Changes between issues 03 (2012-08-02, RL40) and 04 (2014-11-21,
RL70)
Introduction to monitoring and measuring system in LTE RAN (1): Updated Main
functions of performance monitoring to identify the LTE Radio Access exclusive data
KPIs (3.2.5): Added reference for Flexi Zone end to end KPIs document is added
Quality of Service (QOS) (3.3.1): Updated Examples of relevant measurement types and
Related KPI groups to identify the LTE Radio Access exclusive data
Troubleshooting (3.3.3): Updated Examples of relevant measurement types and Related
KPI groups to identify the LTE Radio Access exclusive data
Cost-optimized network topology design supporting MDT (minimization of drive test)
(3.3.7): Added reference for the LTE953: MDT (minimization of drive test) feature
document

Changes between issues 02A (2011-03-24, RL20) and 03 (2012-08-02,


RL40)
Introduction to monitoring and measuring system in LTE RAN (1): Updated Main
functions of performance monitoring to identify LTE Radio Access exclusive data

Changes between issues 02 (2010-12-15, RL20) and 02A (2011-03-24,


RL20)
Introduction to monitoring and measuring system in LTE RAN (1): References to LTE and
NetAct documentation added.
Operating tasks related to monitoring and measuring system in LTE RAN (4): section
eNB monitoring procedures added.

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Introduction to monitoring and measuring system in LTE


RAN

Monitoring and Measuring System in LTE RAN

1 Introduction to monitoring and measuring


system in LTE RAN
This document explains the generic design concept of the Performance Monitoring
(PMO) system for LTE Radio Access Network (RAN).
It mainly describes the process of defining and designing performance measurements,
what is defined in 3GPP, and what can be defined with common rules valid for all radio
technologies.
In the life cycle of a mobile communication network, there are important reasons to carry
out performance measurement for different applications. The main goal of the network
operator is to achieve profit. Therefore, it is very essential to have many subscribers,
good network quality, and low costs. The usage of performance measurement supports
many tasks and processes under these aspects. With the help of performance
monitoring, it is possible to collect information on:

networks traffic intensity


traffic distribution (if it is spread out evenly, or concentrated in certain spots)
events happening in certain spots of the network (and how often do they occur)
planning efficiency (that is, if the instructions are fulfilled, or when any additional
changes are needed )
locations where frequent failures are reported
subscriber behavior (if it corresponds with the assumed model)

The operator is able to supervise the performance, capacity and quality of the network
and increase the subscriber's satisfaction.
Performance monitoring is mainly used for:

supervision of quality, capacity and performance


verification of network planning and optimization
forecasts for future network planning
error detection and correction
troubleshooting
implementing services and features
customer behavior identification

Table 1: Main functions of performance monitoring shows how performance monitoring


can be subdivided into functions and sub-functions.
Table 1

Function

Measuring

Main functions of performance monitoring

Sub-function

Tools

Performance measurements:

NetAct Administration of
Measurements

counters
counter-based KPIs

BTS Site Manager: PM function

Threshold-based PM alarms

NetAct Thresholder and Profiler

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Table 1

Function

Tracing

Introduction to monitoring and measuring system in LTE


RAN

Main functions of performance monitoring (Cont.)

Sub-function

Tools

Subscriber and equipment trace

NetAct TraceViewer

Cell traffic trace

NetAct TraceViewer

Trace-based, real-time monitoring

Traffica

Sub-function and tool exclusive for LTE Radio Access


External interface trace

3rd party analyzer

The Measuring function means collecting and analyzing various performance data.
These data are gathered in the form of counters/registers updated when a specified
network event occurs. Counters are grouped into administrative entities called
measurements, which represent a certain aspect of the performance area. The counter
values are viewed locally by using the BTS Performance Monitoring application in the BTS
Site Manager or globally by using the NetAct Reporting tools. For information on
the measurement administration, collection, storage, and so on, see Performance
Management. For information on the performance data content, see LTE Performance
Measurements.
Counters are the building blocks for key performance indicators (KPIs). A KPI is basically
a formula that consists of one or several counters. These formulas are calculated at
NetAct level. The KPIs are used to create top-level reports, which indicate the network
performance. For information on the KPI content, see Specifications of LTE RAN Key
Performance Indicators.
With the NetAct Thresholder and Profiler application, it is possible to define thresholds
based on collected counters/KPIs. When this threshold is exceeded, an alarm is raised.
For details, see Using NetAct Applications (Report) and Reporter and Performance
Management Principles in NetAct operating documentation.
The Tracing function in practice means collecting and analyzing trace records that are
created for certain calls within a cell or for certain subscribers/equipment. The traced
data can be viewed using the NetAct TraceViewer application. For information on the
tracing area, see Tracing LTE RAN System. For information on the NetAct TraceViewer
application, see Tracing Principles and Tracing Subscribers and Equipment documents in
the NetAct documentation. With the introduction of LTE1340: Trace-based Real Time
Monitoring feature, the data collected using the cell trace feature can be forwarded to
Traffica for visualization. Traffica is a real-time traffic monitoring and analyzing tool that
allows the operator to immediately detect network and service failures. Data forwarded to
Traffica can be presented as a real time graph (using the Traffica Views client). It can
also be stored for further analysis. For information on Traffica, see the Traffica
documentation.

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Monitoring and Measuring System in LTE RAN

2 Architecture of the monitoring and measuring


system in LTE RAN
Nokia provides a complete PMO system with a large number of functions and
performance measurements. Therefore, the operator must be guided on how to use this
performance monitoring system. Mainly for that reason, the PMO operational concept
has been defined with three levels of operation for supervision of a mobile radio network.
Figure 1: Architecture of PMO operational concept shows the three level concept.
Figure 1

Architecture of PMO operational concept

L Permanent supervision of performance, quality, and capacity


E with most important KPIs and QoS alarms to detect weak
V points in the network (technical report, worst cell list)
E
L
Permanent operation of main measurements
1

L Analysis of detected problems, such as radio quality, call processing


E features, with detailed measurements
V (root cause analysis)
E
L
Analysis of many detailed PM counters on request
2

L
E
V
E
L
3

Deeper analysis of detected problems and features for network


optimization and troubleshooting with other PM features (cell trace,
subscriber and equipment trace) and external equipment
(K1297, test drive, and so on)

To evaluate the network performance and check if a set of defined Quality of Service
(QoS) goals are fulfilled, the network and performance data collected must be monitored
from many elements. The QoS requirements define, for example, the
measurements/KPIs that should be monitored with the PMO tools and added to
particular reports. To help find and eliminate problems more quickly, it is important to
precisely select the items to be monitored and filter only the relevant information.

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Functional description for monitoring and measuring


system in LTE RAN

3 Functional description for monitoring and


measuring system in LTE RAN
3.1 General concept
The design of performance measurements is mainly based on:

top-down approach that defines the necessary KPIs based on procedures. The KPIs
consists several elementary counters that are provided by different subsystems of
the eNB.
PMO operational concept, which is already described in the Architecture of the
Monitoring and Measuring System in LTE RAN.

Starting with procedures, the intention is to focus on the main radio procedures, which
have to be supervised by each operator to guarantee that the LTE radio access network
works properly. KPIs can be used to monitor and optimize the system performance.
Counters are used to proactively identify network abnormalities and possible
configuration faults. Measurement results are the input for network planning and
optimization tasks.
Figure 2

Performance monitoring design concept


PM Customer requirements / Use cases

Standardization
requirements
(3GPP)

- Network operation
- Network planning
- Network optimization

- Customer care
- Management
- Marketing

Call processing
feature
requirements

(Key) Performance Indicators


(KPI)
Common
Specific

GERAN
Formulas

UTRAN
Formulas

LTE
Formulas

GERAN
Counters

UTRAN
Counters

LTE
Counters
Requirements
and further
implementation

3.2 Design approach


The definition of performance measurements follows a general design approach. This
approach is valid for all RAN technologies.

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3.2.1 Versioning
The versioning principles are as follows:

Backward compatibility is ensured so that the impact on PM evaluation tools (NetAct)


can be reduced.
Defined PM counters must not be deleted in the subsequent releases. (Exception:
the case where a certain functionality is no longer supported).
PM counters are designed to fit to licensing requirements.

3.2.2 Triggers
The (n-1) out of n approach (as defined in 3GPP TS 32.404) is used to avoid redundancy
in the measurements. The missing nth value is calculated by post-processing.

3.2.3 Cell approach


The proposed cell approaches are:

The usual events are counted for the source cell, for example, outgoing handovers.
For neighbor cell relations, it is counted for a pair of source cell-target object (target
object can be a cell or target NE).
If needed, it can also be counted for the target cell, for example, incoming
handovers.

3.2.4 Format
The formatting rules are:

The percentage value is calculated at NetAct level. The definition of percent values
are omitted at NE.
Counters representing percentage (average) values are calculated and reported at
the NE only when the denominator is not constant (for example, the CPU Load).
Percentage is done in the NE for implementation or performance reasons.
Percentage values are reported in real percentage (for example 55.22%).

3.2.5 KPIs
KPI design rules:

KPIs are calculated at NetAct level based on raw counters.


The average measurements are calculated at the NetAct level and at Traffica if the
LTE1053: Real-time KPI-monitoring with Traffica feature is used. This allows to
present a wider perspective from the network point of view. The detailed
measurements are calculated on a particular NE-level. This rule applies for example
to RRC connection setup success and Handover success rates.

For more details on KPI definitions and procedures, see Flexi Zone end to end KPIs
document.

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3.2.6 Fault causes


Rules for fault monitoring:

The following types of counters are provided for different types of events (for
example RRC connections, handovers):
-

number of attempts

number of successful attempts


number of failed attempts

These counters are useful for NetAct and PM evaluation tools.

For most important failure causes additional 'per cause' counters are provided. Other
failure causes are calculated through KPIs.

3.3 Performance monitoring areas


3.3.1 Quality of Service (QoS)
Network operators use performance measurements to obtain statements about the
quality of service of the network. To improve the performance, it is even necessary to
obtain QoS data provided by each cell and to find the worst ones. If a predefined quality
threshold is exceeded, the operator uses the results of the measurements to trigger
further investigations and actions.
For this purpose, basic procedures on a mobile application level are observed in terms of
their success or failure. In this sense, the most important procedures are procedures that
are observed from the subscribers and used as basis for customer satisfaction.
Monitoring of quality is necessary, as perceived by the subscribers, with regards to
accessibility, retain ability and quality of the connection. Additional aspects for subscriber
perception are the call setup time and the throughput rate in case of packet services.
Examples of relevant measurement types:

Measurement: S1AP (M8000)


Measurement: EPS Bearer Measurement (M8006)
Measurement: Radio Bearer (M8007) for LTE Radio Access only
Measurement: RRC (M8008)

Related KPI groups:

E-UTRAN E-RAB related KPIs


E-UTRAN S1AP related KPIs
E-UTRAN Radio Bearer related KPIs for LTE Radio Access only
E-UTRAN RRC signaling related KPIs

3.3.2 Capacity monitoring


Performance measurements are said to monitor the utilization of provided resources and
capacity within the network (capacity monitoring) on a regular basis. The goal of capacity
monitoring is to detect potential bottlenecks within the network in time. In this sense, the

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most important procedures are procedures that are observed from the subscribers and
used as basis for customer satisfaction. For example adaptation of network configuration
or HW upgrade. Typical targets to monitor the network are:

load on links, connections between network elements, and their resources


load on potential bottlenecks
amount of traffic and the load during the busy hour

Examples of relevant measurement types:

Measurement: Cell Load (M8001)


Measurement: Transport Load (M8004)
Measurement: Cell Resource (M8011)
Measurement: Cell Throughput (M8012)
Measurement: eNB Load (M8018)

Related KPI group: E-UTRAN Capacity related KPIs.


The basic intention of capacity monitoring is to provide sufficient information that allows
network operators to act before resources get exhausted and before Grade of Service
(GoS) to mobile users can no longer be maintained (proactive approach). In case of
failures because of lack of resources or capacity, appropriate performance measurement
counters allow the identification of relevant bottlenecks. Since appropriate actions are
triggered after the GoS has been degraded, this is a reactive approach.
Performance measurements are regularly used to monitor the load and the quality of the
mobile network. As a result, network operation actions are executed depending on the
result of the monitoring process. The typical targets of monitoring the network are:

utilization on TNL connections between network elements


load potential bottlenecks within the network elements
amount of traffic and the load during busy hour
usage of resources of the network element

In E-UTRAN, the following capacities are monitored:

equipment capacity
radio network capacity
transport layer capacity
resource capacity

The basic approaches used for capacity element measurement are proactive and
reactive.
Methodology for capacity monitoring (proactive and reactive)
The diagram below (refer to Figure 3: Blocking time) demonstrates the concept of the
general methodology to monitor the trend of a key capacity element in order to detect a
suitable time for starting a network expansion activity. The following steps are required to
predict the time of the expansion:
1. Choose the key capacity element that appears or expects to form a primary
bottleneck of system resource, causes service blocking or quality degradation.
2. Determine the limit against blocking, which is the value of the key capacity element
at which service blocking or quality degradation is experienced.
3. Monitor the actual trend of the key capacity element at sites during daily operation.

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4. Estimate the time to reach the limit against blocking using Figure 3: Blocking time.
5. Estimate the time required for the expansion activity and the threshold for expansion
by considering the implementation plan of the system expansion (for example stock
status and availability of spare parts, lead-time for delivery of parts, installation &
testing period etc.).
Figure 3

Blocking time

Key capacity
element

Re-active approch:
service blocking/degradation
(call block/drop, setup failure,
quality drop)

Pro-active approch:
actual service/resource usage
under expected condition

Time

3.3.3 Troubleshooting
Network operators monitor the quality of their networks in different ways, such as the use
of performance measurements to obtain statements about the QoS and the GoS of the
network (refer to ITU Grade of Service concept of ITU E.720). This means that the basic
procedures on the mobile application level are monitored in terms of success or failure of
these scenarios. Typical examples of these are call success rates, call drop rates, or
handover success rates. Once the failure (or failure ratio) exceeds a defined threshold,
the operator uses the results of the measurements to trigger further analysis.
In addition, performance measurement counters provide more detailed information on
the failure, such as indications about the specific error cause or an indication about the
network element that caused the failure (fault localization). For this purpose, the provided
performance measurement counters are based on a suitable set of failure causes.
Examples of relevant measurement types:

Measurement: S1AP (M8000)


Measurement: EPS Bearer Measurement (M8006)
Measurement: Radio Bearer (M8007) for LTE Radio Access only
Measurement: RRC (M8008)

Measurement: LTE X2AP (M8022)


Measurement: Intra eNB Handover (M8009)
Measurement: Inter eNB Handover (M8014)
Measurement: LTE Handover (M8021)

Related KPI groups:

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E-UTRAN E-RAB related KPIs


E-UTRAN S1AP related KPIs
E-UTRAN Radio Bearer related KPIs for LTE Radio Access only
E-UTRAN RRC signaling related KPIs
E-UTRAN Handover related KPIs

In general, it is assumed that performance measurements are not enough means to


support detailed fault detection or detailed fault localization. This task is due for further
investigation by the technical service personnel using other means than performance
measurements (for example: tracer, external monitoring equipment, error notebook
information, and so on).

3.3.4 Traffic model verification (traffic profile)


Performance measurements are used to obtain the traffic profile of a real network. For
this purpose, the measurements for the elementary mobile network procedures, during
busy hours per subscriber level, are provided.
For the network operator, the measured real traffic profile is used to verify the
assumptions for its traffic model.
The result of the traffic profile analysis influences a variety of activities on the network
operator side, such as the network planning process, the definition of charging models,
or the instruction of new services.
In addition, the operators can observe how the subscriber behavior varies over time. For
marketing purposes, the traffic profile is used to verify the forecasts on a subscriber base.
For an equipment vendor, real traffic models can be used as input for the network
element planning, in particular, for developing a strategic performance roadmap that
meets network operator requirements.

3.3.5 Network planning


During the planning process for the individual network element, the measured traffic
demand/traffic model is used to verify created assumptions.
Since network elements cover different geographical areas, network related
measurements can be provided by the network elements on different levels (for example
cell, controller, location area).
The derived traffic model serves several verification purposes. For the network operator,
the real traffic demand is used to verify the assumptions made during the network
planning process.
The operators also observe how the subscriber behavior changes over the time. For an
equipment vendor, real traffic models are used as input for the network element planning
to develop a strategic performance roadmap that meets network operator requirements.
Network dimensioning, planning, and configuration of the network element and
the surrounding network
Performance measurements are important input for the planning process of single
network elements in an operator's network. Two aspects influence the planning process
and its activities of dimensioning and configuring the network element.

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One aspect is that new traffic figures are considered as derived from traffic forecast
or traffic roadmaps. Performance measurements provide the necessary information
for the next planning steps in existing networks and network elements, and on how to
dimension and configure the network element and their interfaces to the surrounding
network. Performance measurements that serve this purpose are basic load
measurements, grade of service measurement, and measurements that verify the
network configuration.
Another aspect is the reconfiguration of the network element when new features are
introduced, new software or hardware has been installed, or new or modified
redundancy schemes are applied. This can be done together or independently from
the normal network planning process as described above. Basic load measurement
s
and grade of service measurements are means to evaluate the new network eleme
nt configuration.

3.3.6 Network optimization


Network optimization is composed of two parts: the improvement of the GoS and QoS
and the introduction of a cost-optimized network design.

3.3.7 Cost-optimized network topology design


This procedure comprises the verification and modification of the network design or the
network plan. The goal is to reduce operational and capital expenditures by maintaining
or even improving the same current GoS.
Usually, an initial network design is done first. Later on, this initial design is subjected to
modifications with the goal of finding an optimal solution, (for example trade-off) for
CAPEX and OPEX. The entire process can be described as a loop to optimize the
current network design and network plan. The final result of each optimization loop is
influenced by several parameters.
One type of input parameters is the current traffic profile from the current network, which
is obtained by analyzing appropriate performance measurements. Another input is the
traffic forecast for the existing network. Traffic forecast includes the number of
subscribers served by the network in the upcoming period of time, the traffic per
subscriber in that timeframe, and the planned network coverage of a given geographical
area. In addition, marketing forecasts and expectations will be considered and used as
input parameters for this process.
Similar to the previous section, performance measurements are used for verification of
the implemented improvements by analyzing the same performance measurements
beforehand and afterwards.
For more details on MDT (minimization drive test), see LTE953: MDT (minimization of
drive test) feature.

3.3.8 Improvements of grade of services and quality of services


One of the major goals of network optimization is the improvement of the GoS and QoS
without extending the network or single network element. Thus, network optimization is
focused on:

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maintaining and improving mobile user satisfaction related to GoS and QoS of
offered services
improving network quality for operators in competition
meeting requirements of official regulations

An appropriate performance measurement is provided to obtain the current status of


QoS and GoS of the relevant network scenarios and procedures before optimization
activities start. Implemented improvements are verified by analyzing the same
performance measurements afterwards.
A typical example for an optimization task in the UTRAN is the analysis of performance
measurement data provided by each cell to find the worst ones. In case a predefined
quality threshold is exceeded, the operator uses the results of the measurements to
trigger further investigations and actions.

3.3.9 Acceptance tests/verification tests


Acceptance tests are conducted to verify contractually agreed performance targets. This
is the case when a vendor has to approve performance and network quality values under
field conditions after the network rollout or the network upgrade.
Depending on the type of measurement during acceptance, PM counters are used to
obtain the requested measurement result. Appropriate performance measurement
counters provide the necessary information by collecting data for the supported
measurement objects and scenarios.

3.3.10 Benchmarking
Benchmarking of the supplied network elements and the network itself is the comparison
used by different vendors with the same measurement methodology. Performance
measurements serve the purpose of benchmarking by providing measurement data of
comparable network scenarios and procedures. In order to execute performance
measurements for benchmarking purposes, the following requirements are met:
First, the measurements on equipment of different vendors are implemented by using the
same trigger points for the same scenarios. Ideally, the measurements follow the
definitions from the standardization bodies.
Second, the performance measurements must be executed in similar network
environments. This means that comparing different equipment requires an equivalent to
a traffic environment (for example local traffic profile) with equivalent network
configurations.
Consequently, standardized or commonly used performance measurements for the most
important scenarios within the RAN are supported.

3.3.11 Reliability
Network operators must assure reliability of their network elements to provide stable
communication services for their customers. Reliability is typically represented by the
mean time between failure (MTBF) and the mean time to repair (MTTR) of the network
elements. However, current implementation and 3GPP TS 32.403 does not address
reliability as a part of performance management objectives. Nokia recognizes that
reliability is monitored in the context of fault management (FM) instead of performance
management (PM).

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3.3.12 Network operation


Network operators use performance measurement results to keep track of the current
network operating condition. If one or more QoS (KPI) values exceed the predefined
thresholds, the network operator might want to diagnose the network problem that leads
the QoS (KPI) degradation. Certain performance counters for failed network events per
error cause are provided to diagnose the network problem and select corrective actions.
Examples include counters for failed RAB establishment, failed RRC connection
establishment, and radio link failures. Note that such performance counters for failed
network events are not mandatory for equipment vendors to implement. To calculate the
call setup success rate, it is enough to measure the call setup request counts and the
successful call setup counts. This is called the (n-1) out of n approach in the 32.403
specification. Nevertheless, many network operators find it useful to diagnose network
problems by analyzing performance counters of failed network events. Network problem
diagnosis is further facilitated by linking the performance management failure trend with
the fault management system logs.

3.4 PMO measurement communities


Performance monitoring based on PM counters is one of the most important PMO
functions for permanent supervision of the mobile radio network.
Depending on the scope of performance measurements, network monitoring can serve a
different purpose for different measurement communities, as defined by 3GPP.
These measurement communities can be understood as categories of users that
outlined their needs and requirements for measurements taken from their wireless
telecommunication network.
The most important measurement communities are as follows:

Network Planning Community


Network Operation Community
Network Optimization Community
Marketing Community
Customer Care Community
Management Community

The basic intention of this information model is to implicitly define a methodology and
workflow for the useful performance measurement counters in the core network
products.
Any new requests for performance measurement counters must fit into this concept.
Figure 4: PMO measurement communities shows the concept.

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Functional description for monitoring and measuring


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Figure 4

Monitoring and Measuring System in LTE RAN

PMO measurement communities

3.5 Mapping of PMO functional areas to PMO data


Mapping of PMO functional areas to PMO data is of major importance for design of the
PMO system. The following PMO data types based on different characteristics are
defined for the PMO functional areas.
Figure 5: PMO functional areas shows the relation between PMO function and PMO
data.

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Figure 5

Functional description for monitoring and measuring


system in LTE RAN

PMO functional areas

The PMO data can be collected with reports, records and files.
A PMO report

consists of several PMO records. Each report is sent


separately to the NE or NetAct.

A PMO record

can contain a group of information related to one event, for


example tracing IEs, PM counters.

The content of these PMO records is defined as PMO data type. Different PMO functions
provide different PMO data types that can be separated into:
Subscriber related records

subscriber and equipment trace records


cell trace records
interface trace records

Non-subscriber related records

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Monitoring and Measuring System in LTE RAN

3.6 Mapping between procedures and measurement


areas
In Table 2: Mapping, there are several measurement areas per procedure. The same
measurement area applies to several procedures. The table defines the mapping
example between the particular measurement areas and the procedures that use these
measurement areas.
Table 2

Mapping

Procedure

Measurement area

acceptance / verification

accessibility
NE availability
integrity / reliability
retainability

network planning

service availability
access time
accessibility
integrity / reliability
retainability
resource utilization / usage
traffic distribution

traffic model verification

service availability
accessibility
traffic distribution

benchmarking

NE availability
service availability
access time
accessibility
integrity / reliability

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Table 2

Functional description for monitoring and measuring


system in LTE RAN

Mapping (Cont.)

Procedure

Measurement area
retainability

troubleshooting

NE availability
service availability
access time
accessibility
integrity / reliability
resource utilization / usage
accessibility

capacity monitoring

integrity / reliability
retainability
resource utilization / usage
traffic distribution
accessibility

O&M: monitoring of QoS

mobility
integrity / reliability
retainability
network optimization: GoS /
QoS

service availability

access time
accessibility
integrity / reliability
retainability
network optimization: optimized
network design

accessibility

integrity / reliability

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Table 2

Monitoring and Measuring System in LTE RAN

Mapping (Cont.)

Procedure
Measurement area
retainability
resource utilization
traffic distribution
reliability
fault management
network operation

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4 Operating tasks related to monitoring and


measuring system in LTE RAN
4.1 PMO operational procedures
PMO operational procedures are activities executed by the operator to supervise the
mobile network. It includes all performance management functions to collect, administer,
plan, execute, store, and evaluate performance monitoring data for the following areas:

4.1.1 Network supervision


Table 3: Network supervision shows procedures relevant for network supervision.
Network supervision

Table 3

Procedure
title

Procedure description

PM data
category

Procedure
trigger

Online
Network
Supervision
(Thresholdbased PM
alarms)

Permanent supervision of
specific PM data to detect
problems in the network
(for example: anomalies,
sleeping cells, high drop
Rates, and so on).
Notification is generated if
the collected PM data
exceeds the defined
threshold. Operator is
able to define thresholds
for notification generation.

Performance,
Capacity,
Quality

Short-term
Network
Supervision

Permanent supervision of
specific PM data to detect
problems in the network.
Short-term reporting of
PM data.

Performance,
Capacity,
Quality

Mid/Longterm Network
Supervision

Permanent supervision of
specific PM data to detect
weak points and
performance in the
network (for example:
technical report, worst cell
list). Mid or long-term
reporting of PM data.

Evaluation Target
interval
group

PM function PM tool

permanent

online

Network
operation

Threshold
-based PM
alarming at
NetAct level

permanent

short-term

Network
operation

Performance BTS
measuremen SM PM
ts
Data
viewer
Reporte
r

midterm
long-term

Network
operation

Performance Reporte
measuremen r Global
ts
reporter

Performance, permanent
Capacity,
Quality

NetAct
Reporte
r
(Thresh
older
and
Profiler)

4.1.2 Network analysis


Table 4: Network analysis shows procedures relevant for network analysis.

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Table 4

Network analysis

Procedure title Procedure


description

26

Monitoring and Measuring System in LTE RAN

PM data
category

Procedure
trigger

Evaluation
interval

Target
group

PM function PM tool

Online
monitoring
based on PM
counter
reports

Online Network
Analysis

Analysis of detected Performance on demand


problems in case
, Capacity,
threshold-based PM Quality
alarm was received.
Triggered by the PM
alarms, the PM data
of the predefined
measurements are
reported online.

real-time

Network
operation

Short-term
Network
Analysis

Analysis of detected
problems with
detailed PM data for
troubleshooting.
Short-term reporting
of detailed PM data.

short-term
operation

Network
Performance BTS SM
Measuremen PM Data
ts
viewer
Reporter

Mid/Long-term
Network
Analysis

Analysis of detected
problems with
detailed PM data for
trouble shooting.
Mid/long-term
reporting of detailed
PM data.

Performance on demand
, Capacity,
Quality

midterm/long Network
-term
operation
Network
optimization

Performance Reporter
measuremen Optimizer
ts

Network
Optimization

Analysis of detected
Performance on demand
problems with
, Capacity,
detailed PM data for Quality
network optimization
(including fine tuning).

midterm/long Network
-term
operation
Network
optimization

Performance Reporter
measuremen Optimizer
ts

Deep Network
Optimization

Deeper analysis of
Performance on demand
detected problems
, Capacity,
with any PM data for Quality
network
optimization.

midterm/long Network
-term
operation
Network
optimization

Subscriber
and
equipment
trace/Cell
trace

Reporter
Optimizer
Trace
viewer

Radio Network
Planning
Verification

Checking radio
coverage and using
drive test before
placing a BTS into
operation.

Trace
records

short-term
and

Subscriber

Trace

Multi Vendor
Benchmarking

Getting
performance,
capacity, and quality
indications for multivendor
benchmarking.

Performance
, Capacity,
Quality

Performance on demand
, Capacity,
Quality

on demand
operation

Network
viewer

Online PM
Visualizer

equipment
trace

on demand

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Management Performance Reporter


Network
measuremen
operation
t
Network
optimization

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Table 4

Operating tasks related to monitoring and measuring


system in LTE RAN

Network analysis (Cont.)

Procedure title Procedure


description

PM data
category

Procedure
trigger

Evaluation
interval

Target
group

PM function PM tool

Acceptance and Getting


performance,
Verification
tests
capacity, quality
indications, and
message flows for
acceptance tests
and feature
verification, for
example before
rollout.

Performance on demand
Capacity
Quality trace
records

online short
term

Network
operation

Performance Reporter
measuremen Trace
ts
viewer
Subscriber
and
equipment
trace
Cell trace

4.1.3 Traffic analysis


Table 5: Traffic analysis shows procedures relevant for traffic analysis.
Table 5

Traffic analysis

Procedure
title

Procedure
description

PM data
category

Procedure
trigger

Traffic
Localization
(Hotspot
detection)

Using GPS or
CI/RTT data of the
traced connections
to determine traffic
localization for
dedicated areas.

Trace records on demand


mid-term

Traffic Model
Verification

long-term
Performance,
performance and
Capacity
capacity
observation to
verify the traffic model.

on demand

Evaluation
interval

Target group

PM function

PM tool

short-term
operation

Network
viewer
Network
optimization
Network
planning

Cell Trace

Trace

mid-term long- Network


term
planning

Performance Reporter
measurement
s

4.1.4 Troubleshooting
Table 6: Troubleshooting shows procedures relevant for troubleshooting.

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Table 6

Troubleshooting

Procedure
title

Procedure
description

PM data
category

Procedure
trigger

Evaluation Target
interval
group

PM
function

PM tool

Online
Trouble
Shooting

Deeper analysis of
detected problems
with any PM data for
troubleshooting. Uses
the trace function to
get more detailed
information on
connection level.
Both PM data and
connection level
information are
reported online or in
real time.

Performance,
Capacity,
Quality, Trace
records

on demand

real time or
online

Performanc
e
measureme
nts

NetAct
Applicatio
n (Online
Monitor)

Cell trace
(online)

Reporter
TraceView
er

Deeper analysis of
detected problems
with any PM data and
trace data for trouble
shooting. shortterm/midterm
reporting of PM data
and connection level
information.

Performance
Capacity
Quality trace
records

Subscriber
Complaint

Checking how the


complaining
subscriber's services
are working, to get
information at
connection level in
order to find out the
reason for the
complaint

trace records
monitoring
records

on demand

online
short-term

Network
operation

Subscriber
and
equipment
trace

Trace
viewer

Radio
Coverage
Check

Using Cell Traffic


Trace without sending
out the drive tester

trace records

on demand

online
short-term

Network
operation

Cell Trace

TraceView
er

External IF
Trace

Trace of at least L3
information on
external interfaces to
get advanced
symptom data for
trouble shooting

trace records

on demand

short-term

Network
operation

external IF
trace

3rd party
tools

Short-term /
midterm
Trouble
Shooting

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Monitoring and Measuring System in LTE RAN

Network
operation
Network
optimization

Subscriber
and
equipment
trace
(online)

on demand

short-term
midterm

Network
operation
Network
optimization

Performanc
e
measureme
nts

Reporter
TraceView
er

Cell trace
Subscriber
and
equipment
trace

monitoring
records

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Table 6

Operating tasks related to monitoring and measuring


system in LTE RAN

Troubleshooting (Cont.)

Procedure
title

Procedure
description

PM data
category

Internal IF
Trace

Trace of all necessary trace records


information on
internal interfaces to
get advanced
symptom data for
service activities.

Procedure
trigger

Evaluation Target
interval
group

trace records short-term

PM
function

Service (no Internal IF


operability
trace
feature)
developmen
t

PM tool

Diagnosis
workbenc
h

4.1.5 UE validation and interception


Table 7: UE validation and interception shows procedures relevant for UE validation and
interception.
Table 7

UE validation and interception

Procedure
title

Procedure
description

PM data
category

User
Equipment
Validation

Checking how different


vendor's UEs are
working (for example
in field testing) in the
mobile network or
getting detailed
information on the
UEs. Observation of
the UE that is not
working within
specifications or on the
grey or black EIR list.

Interception
of UE

To get the user


behaviors of particular
subscriber, also
including the location
information (as
alternative for lawful
interception).

Procedure
trigger

Evaluation
interval

Target
group

PM
function

PM tool

trace records on demand

online shortterm

Network
operation

Subscriber
and
equipment
trace

TraceVie
wer

trace records on demand

online shortterm

Network
operation

Subscriber
and
equipment
trace

TraceVie
wer

4.1.6 PMO administration


Table 8: PMO administration shows procedures relevant for PMO administration.

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Table 8

Procedure
title

Monitoring and Measuring System in LTE RAN

PMO administration

Procedure
description

Trace
Configuration of
administration subscriber/UE trace
parameters (IMSI/IMEI,
trace depth, trace
schedule)

PM data
category

Procedure
trigger

Evaluation
interval

Target
group

PM
function

PM
tool

administratio
n

on demand

online

Network
operation

Subscriber
and
equipment
trace

TraceV
iewer

Cell trace

Subscriber trace
activation: SBA, MBA
Configuration of cell
traffic trace parameters
(list of traced cells,
trace depth, trace
schedule, maximum
number of traced
connections) Cell traffic
trace activation: MBA

4.2 PMO measurement procedures


The PMO measurement use cases describe the measurement targets of certain PM
KPIs and PM counters to understand the added value for certain KPIs and counters, for
example why, how, and when to use certain KPIs and counters.
The PMO measurement procedures can be either subdivided into categories, procedure
areas, or into certain technology specific performance indicator groups (PI groups).

4.2.1 Categories

accessibility
retainability
mobility
integrity
network usage
availability

4.2.2 Procedure areas

30

troubleshooting
traffic load
resource availability
quality of service, grade of service
performance

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4.2.3 Technology Specific Performance Indicator Groups (PI


Groups)

connection setup procedures


release procedures
handover procedures
HW and Platform indicators
interface utilization
quality of service
transport
availability

For the design of a performance monitoring system, these PMO measurement


procedures are of major importance to understand the related KPI and PM counters.

4.3 eNB monitoring procedures


This section gives an overview about procedures to monitor and optimize an LTE
network by using performance measurements collected inside the eNB.
For permanent supervision of the LTE network, performance measurements at the eNB
are taken into account. Additionally, those eNB performance measurements are used for
troubleshooting and network optimization.
The most important procedures are as follows:

Performance supervision of the LTE Radio Network Layer (RNL) and Transport
Network Layer (TNL)
Localization of sources of insufficient performance, capacity, or quality
Troubleshooting and network optimization at the eNB with performance data

4.3.1 Performance supervision of the LTE RNL and TNL


Table 9: Performance supervision of the LTE RNL and TNL gives an overview of the
relevant procedure.
Table 9

Performance supervision of the LTE RNL and TNL

Procedure #1

Performance supervision of the LTE RNL and TNL

Objective

To supervise the performance, capacity, and quality of the network by


permanent supervision of PM KPIs.

Description

The operator must be able to monitor the LTE network for all cells
permanently with the PM based KPIs of the following PM categories:

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retainability
mobility

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Table 9

Procedure #1

Monitoring and Measuring System in LTE RAN

Performance supervision of the LTE RNL and TNL (Cont.)

Performance supervision of the LTE RNL and TNL

integrity
network usage
quality

The operator must be able to:

4.3.1.1

see the overall performance for a certain cell


compare the performance and quality of the LTE network with other
technologies
compare the performance and quality of an eNB with another eNB
supervise the performance, capacity, or quality of the transmission lines
between eNBs and the core network
see performance degradations over time
see on a high level whether the offered quality is sufficient for the end
customers
monitor the network usage to enhance the network resources in time

Frequency

Every 60 minutes

Observed
object

per eNB

Monitoring capacity license/number of active users per BTS


Because of licensing, it is required to monitor the maximum number of active UEs. In
case a licensing mechanism is available in the eNB, the maximum number of active
users per Flexi Multiradio BTS is controlled by a capacity license. The measurements
allow the operator to supervise the eNB load in case of active users.
The following measurements are required:

number of UEs with buffered data


number of active UEs per cell
number of active UEs per eNB

4.3.2 Localization of sources of insufficient performance,


capacity, or quality
Table 10: Localization of sources of insufficient performance, capacity, or quality gives an
overview of the relevant details of the procedure:

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Table 10

Operating tasks related to monitoring and measuring


system in LTE RAN

Localization of sources of insufficient performance, capacity, or quality

Procedure #2

Localization of sources of insufficient performance, capacity or


quality

Objective

In case of insufficient performance, capacity or quality of procedure


#1, the operator must be able to find out the location of the problem,
such as cell or interfaces, capacity, or quality based on Performance
supervision of the LTE RNL and TNL.

Description

In case of procedure #1, if it turns out that a certain eNB has


insufficient performance, capacity or quality, then the operator must
be able to find out the location of problem (for example cell, interface,
and so on). Therefore, the operator must be able to evaluate
performance measurements per cell and/or per interfaces to find the
source of the problem with PM-based KPIs of the following PM
categories:

accessibility
retainability
mobility
integrity
network usage
quality

Frequency

Every 15 minutes

Observed object

per eNB / cell / interface

4.3.3 Troubleshooting and network optimization at the eNB with


the performance data
Table 11: Troubleshooting and network optimization at the eNB with performance data
gives an overview of the relevant details of the procedure:
Table 11

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Troubleshooting and network optimization at the eNB with performance


data

Procedure #3

Troubleshooting and network optimization at the eNB with


performance data

Objective

To evaluate the eNB performance measurements for troubleshooting


purposes to detect and locate the problems, and to optimize eNB
configurations.

Description

The operator must be able to evaluate eNB performance


measurements or diagnostic data in case a customer complains
(subscriber), for example, if it is not possible to setup a connection.
The operator must be able to find out the location and reason of the
problem, for example, determine whether the problem is located at

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Table 11

Monitoring and Measuring System in LTE RAN

Troubleshooting and network optimization at the eNB with performance


data (Cont.)

Procedure #3

Troubleshooting and network optimization at the eNB with


performance data
the air interface, eNB, S1 interface, transmission line, or MME / SGW. The operator must be able to retrieve historical performance
data or diagnostic data regarding:

accessibility (for example: connection setup)


retainability (for example: connection drop rate)
quality of the air interface

The upload and evaluation are performed for troubleshooting of a


certain eNB.

34

Frequency

Every 15 minutes

Observed object

per eNB / cell / interface

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