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Grade Eight Science Outcomes

2016 2017 Trimester 01


Concepts Outcomes
MATTER (Page 2)

8M

Learning
Outcomes

Assessment Criteria

Students will be
able to:

Emerging

8M3 Use pH
measurement
to classify
substances as
acidic, neutral
or basic

Identify
various
substances
as acids or
bases.

8M4 Explain
everyday
applications of
neutralization.

Define the
process of
neutralizatio
n.

Developing
Measure
the pH of
various
acids and
bases.

Describe
the process
of
neutralizati
on.

Mastered
Use pH
measureme
nt to
classify
substances
as acidic,
neutral or
basic.

Explain
everyday
applications
of
neutralizati
on.

Explanatory Notes
(the development of these concepts in C2 is shown in the
G6-9 Continuum)
This is the first time students will study the concept of
acids and bases although they may have used the
term acid when learning about simple chemical
reactions in G7.
The pH scale is used to classify substances as being
neutral, acidic or basic.
Examples (Evidence for E, D and M needed to award
Mastery):
E - use litmus or a homemade indicator such as red
cabbage to identify various everyday substances
as acids or bases (could include soap, toothpaste,
milk, baking powder, vinegar, lemon juice etc.).
D - use universal indicator liquid or paper or a pH
probe to measure the pH of various everyday
substances.
M - use pH values to classify substances as either a
strong acid, weak acid, neutral substance, weak
base or strong base.
This is the first time students will study neutralization
reactions.
Examples (Evidence for E, D and M needed to award
Mastery):
E - define neutralization as a reaction between an acid
and a base where one cancels out the other.
D - carry out neutralization reactions using an
indicator to show the end point and describe what
has happened.
M - explain why antacids and toothpaste are basic.

PHYSICAL WORLD (page 1)


Learning
Outcomes
Students will be
able to:
8P1 Calculate
the average
speed of an
object.

8P

Assessment Criteria
Emerging

Developing

Identify
Calculate the
quantities speed of an
for
object.
calculating
speed.

Mastered
Calculate
the
average
speed of
an object.

Explanatory Notes
(The development of these concepts in C2 is shown in the
G6-9 Continuum)
This is the first time students will have encountered the
terms distance, speed and time and then developed a
relationship between them.
Students are required to be able to measure and use
the quantities in a variety of everyday contexts,
including on foot, in vehicles and for journeys.
Examples (Evidence for E, D and M needed to award
Mastery):
E identify distance and time both as quantities and
with units (meters, kilometers, seconds, minutes
and hours). Distance is measured using rulers, tape
measures, odometers or similar. Time is measured
with stop watches, clocks, phones, or similar.

D calculate speed using: = . Units


should be included e.g. m/s, km/h. Conversion of
units such as km to m or minutes to seconds is not a
requirement at this level. Similarly calculation of
distance and time by rearrangement of the formula
is not a requirement. Expression of the unit
ms-1 is not required.
M when given a journey in which the object changes
speed on at least two occasions, the student can use
of the concepts of total time and total distance to
calculate the average speed at which the object
travelled.
e.g. =

Total distance travelled


PHYSICAL WORLD (page 2)


Learning
Assessment Criteria
Outcomes
Students will be
Emerging
Developing
able to:
8P2 Calculate
Identify
Interpret a
speeds
features of distancerepresented by a a distance- time graph.
distance-time
time
graph.
graph.

8P
Explanatory Notes
(The development of these concepts in C2 is shown in the
G6-9 Continuum)

Emerging
Calculate
speeds
represente
d by a
distancetime graph.

This learning outcome builds on 8P1. Students will have


minimal experience with line graphs from grade 7. This
is a skill that will need to be taught discretely. Graphs
limited to constant speed in one direction so
displacement-time graphs are not included.

Examples (Evidence for E, D and M needed to award


Mastery):
E label features of a distance-time graph
[limited to: stopped, faster speed, slower speed].
D tell the story of a distance-time graph. This should
be in the form of a narrative which describes a
journey represented by the graph. E.g. the car
started the journey and travelled quickly to the
shop, travelling 10km in 10 minutes. It stopped at
the shop for 5 minutes etc.
M use the gradient to calculate speed (limited to
straight lines).

LIVING WORLD
Learning
Outcomes
Students learn
to:
8L1 Compare
the structure of
plant and
animal cells and
the functions of
their
organelles.

8L2 Relate the


structure of
specialized cells
to their
function.

8L

(Page 1)

Assessment Criteria
Emerging

Developing

Mastered

Identify
componen
ts of plant
and animal
cells.

Describe
the
function of
cell
componen
ts.

Compare
the
structure
of plant
and animal
cells and
the
functions
of their
organelles.

Identify
specialized
cells.

State the
function of
specialized
cells.

Explanatory Notes
(The development of these concepts in C2 is shown in the
G6-9 Continuum)
During G6&7, students progressed from looking at the
characteristics of life and the whole organism, to
looking at organ systems and then the role of each
organ in those systems. This is the first time they will
learn about the structure of cells.
The cell is the basic unit of life; all cells come from preexisting cells; all living things are made up of one
(unicellular) or more (multicellular) cells; plant and
animals cells have similarities and differences in their
structure [limited to: cell wall, cell membrane,
cytoplasm, nucleus, vacuole, mitochondria and
chloroplasts].
Examples (Evidence for E, D and M needed to award
Mastery):
E label the parts of plant and animals cells (diagram
or student-made models)
D relate the basic parts of plant and animal cells to
their function (e.g. describe the function of each
part labelled on their models).
M identify the similarities and differences between
animal and plant cells (e.g. using a Venn diagram)
describing the basic function of the major
organelles (see range above).
This builds on 8L1 and is the first time students will learn
about specific types of cells within organs. Students
should be reminded about the hierarchy in the structure
of an organism from organ system down to cell. A large
group of cells which work together to perform a
specific function is called a tissue.

Relate the
structure
of
specialized
cells to
their
function.

There are many types of plant and animal cells. The


structure of the cell relates specifically to its function,
e.g. in its shape or number/type of organelles it
contains. [Limited to: red blood cells, nerve cells,
muscle cells, leaf palisade cells, root hair cells]. Cell
specialization helps plants and animals to be more
efficient.
Examples (Evidence for E, D and M needed to award
Mastery):
E from a list, students can correctly identify a number
of specialized cells or label diagrams.
D match statements listing the function of specialized
cells with its picture.
M explain how the structure of a cell enables it to
complete its function e.g. a nerve cell is long and
has connections at each end to help transfer nerve
signals from one place to another.
4

LIVING WORLD
Learning
Outcomes
Students learn
to:
8L3 Explain
examples of
diffusion and
osmosis.

8L

(Page 2)

Assessment Criteria
Emerging

Developing

Describe
the
process of
diffusion.

Describe
the
process of
osmosis.

Explanatory Notes
(The development of these concepts in C2 is shown in the
G6-9 Continuum)

Mastered

In G6, students were taught about solutions and the concept of


concentration. This is the first time they will consider the
concept of a concentration gradient and its effects. This
outcome also builds on 8L1 and 8L2.

Explain
examples
of
diffusion
and
osmosis.

Diffusion is the passive movement of gases and liquids from an


area of high to low concentration resulting in an even
distribution. Examples include the movement of gases in the
lungs and of water and other solutions in the small and large
intestine. Osmosis (a special case of diffusion) is the movement
of water from a less concentrated solution to more
concentrated solution through a semi-permeable membrane.
Examples include the movement of water into a root cell of a
plant and wrinkling of fingers when placed in water for a
prolonged period. (Vocabulary: semi-permeable membrane,
concentration gradient, turgid, flaccid).

Examples (Evidence for E, D and M needed to award


Mastery):
E describe (e.g. with diagrams) the net movement of
particles when given an example of diffusion in gases
(perfume in the air) or liquids (dye in water).
D describe (e.g. with diagrams) the net movement of
water particles across a semi-permeable membrane,
given the relative concentrations of the solutions
either side.
M apply diffusion and osmosis to transport in cells (given
a wilted plant, explain how it can gain water through
osmosis; explain what will happen if a red blood cell is
placed in water).

EARTH AND SPACE (Page 1)


Learning
Outcomes
Students will
be able to:
8E1 Explain
how fossil
data is used in
science.

8E

Assessment Criteria
Emerging

Developing

Mastered

Identify
different
ways in
which
fossils are
used in
science.

Describe
different
ways in
which
fossils are
used in
science.

Explain
how fossil
data is used
in science.

Explanatory Notes
(the development of these concepts in cycle 2 is shown in the
G6-9 Continuum)
In G5, students were taught that fossils are remnants of
extinct species.
Students learned about the rock cycle and about layering
during sedimentary rock formation in G7. Students will
need a recap and review of what fossils are and how they
are formed as a prerequisite for this outcome, which is also
linked to 8E2 (fossils as part of the evidence for
continental movement).
Fossil evidence provides information about survival of
species and extinction. In addition to this, fossil data has
many uses in science [limited to: age determination of
rocks and other fossils (principle of superposition),
providing information about the environment at the time
the fossils were formed, evidence for continental drift,
location of natural resources].

8E2 Explain
the evidence
for the motion
of tectonic
plates.

Describe
tectonic
plates.

Explain
the motion
of the
tectonic
plates.

Explain the
evidence
for the
motion of
tectonic
plates.

Examples (Evidence for E, D and M needed to award


Mastery):
E state some uses of fossil data or select from a list.
D describe two or more of the above examples in detail
(e.g. marine fossils providing evidence for a marine
environment).
M - explain how each of the above examples uses fossil
evidence.
Students learned about the structure of the Earth (core,
mantle and crust) in G6 and about convection currents in
G7. This is linked to 8E2 and now students consider
additional evidence for the Tectonic Plate Theory.
Heat radiating from the Earths core results in convection
currents in the mantle which cause the tectonic plates to
move. Evidence for tectonic plate theory includes:
The shape of some continents fit together like a puzzle
Fossils of the same species are found on different
continents
There are patterns of seismic, volcanic and geothermal
activity along plate boundaries
Ridges and trenches are found at plate boundaries
The sea floor is younger near the ridges than near land
Patterns in sea floor magnetism are symmetrical either
side of the ridges
Examples (Evidence for E, D and M needed to award
Mastery):
E state what tectonic plates are.
D describe the cause of tectonic plate motion.
M describe how each piece of evidence supports tectonic
plate theory.

EARTH AND SPACE (Page 2)


Learning
Outcomes
Students will be
able to:
8E3 Describe
causes and
effects of
earthquake and
volcanic activity.

8E

Assessment Criteria
Emerging

Developing

Mastered

Identify the
locations of
earthquake
s and
volcanoes.

Explain the
location of
earthquake
s and
volcanoes.

Describe
causes and
effects of
earthquake
and
volcanic
activity.

Explanatory Notes
(the development of these concepts in cycle 2 is shown in
the G6-9 Continuum)
Students learn about the Earths core, mantle and
crust in G6. They have learned about the rock cycle in
G7. This is linked to 8E1 and 8E2.
Earthquakes and volcanoes tend to happen at plate
boundaries, e.g. Ring of fire. The movement of plates
relative to each other creates ridges, (mountains, midoceanic ridge), trenches (Marianas Trench, or Rift
Valleys) or Volcanoes. Tsunamis are caused by plate
movement at boundaries under the sea.
Examples (Evidence for E, D and M needed to award
Mastery):
E label, on a map showing tectonic plates,
earthquake and volcano zones.
D relate the location of earthquakes and volcanoes
to plate boundaries.
M explain how plate movements lead to earthquake
and/or volcanic events and their effect on
humans and their environment.