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UNIVERSIDAD SANTO TOMAS

DIVISIN DE INGENIERAS
FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Asignatura: MATERIALES INDUSTRIALES I
Autor 1 (L. F. Clavijo), autor 2 (J. D. Mendoza), autor 3 (J. S. Reyes)

MEGALODON-SHARK BETWEEN THE


HISTORY
Autor 1 (L. F. Clavijo), autor 2 (J. D. Mendoza), autor 3 (J. S. Reyes)
(Recibido: 19 de noviembre de 2016)

ABSTRACT
This article has the principal mission to talk about the mhit of the megalodon. A shark that
probably existed a lot of time ago, but nobody have a confidential or either a true proof that
the megalodon exist. To collect this information, it had to investigate in books and website
pages for the kind of specie that the shark was and put it together to conclude this
investigation.
Keywords: Shark, Megalodon, History, Research, Investigation, Proofs.

RESUMEN
Este artculo tiene la funcin principal de hablar acerca del mito del Megalodon. Un tiburn
que probablemente existi hace mucho tiempo pero nadie tiene una prueba real o confidencial
de que el megalodon abundo en este mundo. Para recolectar esta informacin, se tuvo que
investigar en libros y pginas web del tipo de especie que este tiburn era y toda la
informacin relacionada con lo que era para as poder concluir esta investigacin.
Palabras claves: Tiburn, Megalodon, Historia, Investigacin, Pruebas.

INTRODUCTION:
The cinema has been responsible for turning the shark into a terrible animal, intelligent enemy
of man, who stalks from the marine environment and attacks without mercy, however, the
reality is very different and cannot do these ancestral inhabitants of the oceans front to the
annihilating action of humans. By themselves, sharks are fascinating creatures about which we
still have many things to discover, but if we add the possibility of the survival of gigantic
primitive species, such as megalodon, expectations would skyrocket.

M Materiales Industriales I - 1, Ensayo No. 1, Grupo XX, Agosto de 2016, pg. xx de pg. xx

UNIVERSIDAD SANTO TOMAS


DIVISIN DE INGENIERAS
FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Asignatura: MATERIALES INDUSTRIALES I
Autor 1 (L. F. Clavijo), autor 2 (J. D. Mendoza), autor 3 (J. S. Reyes)

DEVELOPMENT:
The megalodon or megalodon (Carcharodon megalodon or Carcharocles megalodon), a
name that means "big tooth", derived from the Greek terms (mega, "great") and
(odon, "tooth"), is an extinct shark species that Lived between 19.8 and 2.6 million
years ago, during the Cenozoic (from the early Miocene to the end of the Pliocene).

The taxonomic allocation of C. megalodon has been debated for about a century, and is
still in dispute with two main interpretations: Carcharodon megalodon (under the
Lamnidae family) or Carcharocles megalodon (under the Otodontidae family).

C. megalodon is considered as one of the largest and most powerful predators in the
history of vertebrates. Studies suggest that C. megalodon appeared in life as a corpulent
version of the current great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, reaching to reach 18
meters Of maximum total length.3 2 The fossil remains indicate that this giant shark had a
cosmopolitan distribution, with breeding areas in warm coastal areas.3 C. megalodon
probably had a very important influence on the structure of the marine communities of his
time.
* Anathomy:
Because of the fragmentary remains, estimating the size of C. megalodon has become a
challenge. However, the scientific community recognizes that C. megalodon outnumbered
whale sharks (Rhincodon typus). The researchers directed their studies toward two aspects
of size: total length (LT) and body mass (MC).
The first attempt to reconstruct the jaw of this shark was made by Professor Bashford
Dean in 1909. From the dimensions of the reconstructed jaw, it was assumed that C.
megalodon could have approached 30 meters in total length (LT), but The light of new
fossil discoveries and scientific advances on the understanding of vertebrates is now
considered that this reconstruction is inaccurate. The main reasons cited for this inaccuracy
are: (1) the relatively poor knowledge of C. megalodon dentition in the Dean era, and (2)
inadequate muscular structures. Experts suggest that a rectified version of Bashford Dean's
C. megalodon jaw model could have about 70% of its original size, a size more consistent
with modern findings. To correct the errors, scientists, aided by new fossil findings of C.
megalodon and improved knowledge of the anatomy of their closest modern analogues,
introduced more quantitative methods for estimating size based on statistical relationships
M Materiales Industriales I - 1, Ensayo No. 1, Grupo XX, Agosto de 2016, pg. xx de pg. xx

UNIVERSIDAD SANTO TOMAS


DIVISIN DE INGENIERAS
FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Asignatura: MATERIALES INDUSTRIALES I
Autor 1 (L. F. Clavijo), autor 2 (J. D. Mendoza), autor 3 (J. S. Reyes)

between tooth size And body length in the great white shark. Some of the methods are
listed below.

Researchs:

Megalodon is dead. This shouldnt come as a shock. The fossil record is clear that after
about 14 million years of feasting on marine mammals, the 50-foot-long, mega-toothed
shark exited the evolutionary stage by two and a half million years ago.
But the monstrous shark is too good to let go. If a great white shark is scary, the supersized
version is even more thrilling, and despite our ancient fear of sleek, hungry shapes slicing
through the water, people really want Carcharocles megalodon to still be alive somewhere
in the deep. Peter Benchley toyed with the idea that the great shark might still be out there
in JAWS, cryptozoological lorehas often spoken of massive sharks, and nature
documentaries traditionally state that the prehistoric leviathan is extinct maybe. Unlike
the shark itself, the legend of living megalodon just wont die.
Discovery gave audiences what they wanted. Megalodon had taken up recurring roles in
many of their Shark Week programs including a life-sized Sharkzilla solely employed
smash stuff and last year the channel dipped deep into their burbling chum bucket to
dredge up Megalodon: The Monster Shark Lives. The program was a shark version
of Forrest Gump, with fabricated evidence showing the shark popping up through human
history, and had just enough polish to convince many viewers that megalodon is still
chomping whales and snaffling up the occasional boat.
The fauxumentary was popular enough that Discovery hastily threw together a sequel for
this years Shark Week carrying the unimaginative title Megalodon: The New Evidence. To
quote Marty McFly, The shark still looks fake. But I dont want to simply despair over
Discoverys penchant for trading in on their reputation to peddle attention-grabbing sludge.
Bit by bit, were getting a closer look at megalodon. Paleontologists are continuing to
investigate the life of prehistorys most famous shark, including some new, real evidence
about when the celebrity selachian slipped into extinction.

M Materiales Industriales I - 1, Ensayo No. 1, Grupo XX, Agosto de 2016, pg. xx de pg. xx

UNIVERSIDAD SANTO TOMAS


DIVISIN DE INGENIERAS
FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Asignatura: MATERIALES INDUSTRIALES I
Autor 1 (L. F. Clavijo), autor 2 (J. D. Mendoza), autor 3 (J. S. Reyes)

C. megalodon teeth from a nursery found in Panama. From Pimiento et al., 2010.
M Materiales Industriales I - 1, Ensayo No. 1, Grupo XX, Agosto de 2016, pg. xx de pg. xx

UNIVERSIDAD SANTO TOMAS


DIVISIN DE INGENIERAS
FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Asignatura: MATERIALES INDUSTRIALES I
Autor 1 (L. F. Clavijo), autor 2 (J. D. Mendoza), autor 3 (J. S. Reyes)

University of Alabama paleontologist Dana Ehret is one of the researchers who has been
poring over the remains of megalodon. Hes helped figure out that the huge carnivore was
actually a relatively distant cousin of todays great white shark that should be properly
called Carcharocles megalodon, and hes also worked on a trove of teeth that preserve a
nearshore nursery for the infants of this imposing species. Hes among the scientists who
are showing that megalodon doesnt need the reality TV treatment to inspire awe.
Most often, C. megalodon is portrayed as a pumped-up great white. Thats because of
shared habits. Megalodon were large macropredatory sharks that ate marine mammals,
Ehret says, and white sharks are a good model for that. The teeth of the extinct shark are
distinct from those of any living shark, and the fact that the megatooth lineage split from
the great white lineage over 66 million years ago indicates that the megatooth sharks
probably had other anatomical differences, but, at least in terms of lifestyle, a huge white
shark is really the closest thing we can imagine megalodon to be, Ehret says.
That megalodon preferred meals of whale and seal fat comes from more than analogy. We
find lots of broken or partial whale ribs that have nice scrape marks or drag marks across
them, Ehret says, adding Ive actually taken meg teeth [to compare to the bite marks]
and the serrations match up perfectly. Megalodon may not have been above cannibalism,
either. Ive seen a tooth with the same scrapes running down the surface of the tooth,
Ehret says, although he cautions that this could be a sign of the tooth sliding past another
while being shed rather than one shark biting another in the mouth.
Even if they werent regularly eaten by their own kind, though, megalodon had to cope
with competition. Their fossils are found all around the world, Ehret says, in the remnants
of coastal environments patrolled by sand tiger sharks, lemon sharks, and other species,
including ancient great whites that grew to be 30 feet long. Even at six feet long as
estimate Ehret calculated from a well-preserved vertebra a newborn megalodon had to
cope with similarly-sized neighbors who were chasing after the same food sources.

M Materiales Industriales I - 1, Ensayo No. 1, Grupo XX, Agosto de 2016, pg. xx de pg. xx

UNIVERSIDAD SANTO TOMAS


DIVISIN DE INGENIERAS
FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Asignatura: MATERIALES INDUSTRIALES I
Autor 1 (L. F. Clavijo), autor 2 (J. D. Mendoza), autor 3 (J. S. Reyes)

A reconstruction of C. megalodon jaws, based on those of modern great whites. Credit:


Spotty11222

Striving to find meals may explain a key difference between C. megalodon and modern
great whites. From the same vertebra he used to calculate the sharks birth size, Ehret
calculated that megalodon grew comparatively faster than great whites. They just wanted
to get a big as they could as fast as they could, and they were a big shark to begin with,
Ehret says. Packing on the pounds would have allowed young megalodon to start taking
larger prey, and would have prevented them from ending up in the stomachs of their sharptoothed cousins. They were trying to get big and get out into more open waters to not
have as much competition for resources, Ehret says.

M Materiales Industriales I - 1, Ensayo No. 1, Grupo XX, Agosto de 2016, pg. xx de pg. xx

UNIVERSIDAD SANTO TOMAS


DIVISIN DE INGENIERAS
FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Asignatura: MATERIALES INDUSTRIALES I
Autor 1 (L. F. Clavijo), autor 2 (J. D. Mendoza), autor 3 (J. S. Reyes)

Even with an amped-up growth rate, though, megalodon were never truly able to fully
escape early life rivalry. This may have been part of their ultimate demise.
Researchers have traditionally pointed to a cooling global climate as the principal C.
megalodon killer, the temperature dip spoiling the sharks warm, nearshore haunts as the
water chilled and whales started to migrate towards polar ice. But Ehret suspects that
megalodon was able to maintain a high body temperature, much like modern great whites,
and would not have been as restricted in range as scientists previously supposed. I have a
bit of a problem saying meg couldnt follow resources to colder waters, Ehret says.
Instead, megalodon might have suffered a one-two punch related to growth and food
supply.
The evolution and extinction of megalodon tracks the proliferation of prehistoric whales.
You see a peak in whale diversity in the mid-Miocene when megalodon shows up in the
fossil record and this decline in diversity in the early-middle Pliocene when meg goes
extinct, Ehret says. Without a rich supply of fatty, medium-sized whales, Ehret says,
Meg mightve gotten too big for its own good and the food resources werent there
anymore. On top of that, huge great white sharks were still around and vying for the same
remaining food sources as juvenile megs. Rather than a victim of temperature, megalodon
might have been a victim of diversity, abundance, and competition, Ehret says.
So when did the last megatoothed shark go extinct? Some sources say that megalodon
persisted into the Ice Age, or even into the last 10,000 years. That would make the idea of
modern megs seem plausible, but, Ehret says, these late dates are based on faulty evidence.
These teeth get moved, they get tumbled, they get washed down, washed around, Ehret
says, and so its not surprising that dredgers sometimes pluck up megalodon teeth
alongside mammoth or mastodon bones. When paleontologists look at in situ megalodon
teeth, still in the sediment they were originally buried in, they come up with much older
dates.
Robert Boessenecker, a paleontologist at the University of Otago, has led a new study with
Ehret and other authorities that pins down the disappearance of megalodon along the
California coast. (The research has not yet been published, but soon will be.) The research
started with a lucky find.
In late 2007, on the day before Christmas Eve, Boessenecker found a big, bluish green C.
megalodon tooth in the Purisima Formation along Californias coast. I got lucky,
Boessenecker says, but I also wondered why we dont find C. megalodon in younger
deposits, and why its so damn rare in latest Miocene/earliest Pliocene deposits. While
amateurs and collectors pick up hundreds of megalodon teeth from East Coast sites every
year, Boessenecker notes, only about 150 teeth have ever been found in California and the
Baja Peninsula.
M Materiales Industriales I - 1, Ensayo No. 1, Grupo XX, Agosto de 2016, pg. xx de pg. xx

UNIVERSIDAD SANTO TOMAS


DIVISIN DE INGENIERAS
FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Asignatura: MATERIALES INDUSTRIALES I
Autor 1 (L. F. Clavijo), autor 2 (J. D. Mendoza), autor 3 (J. S. Reyes)

Comparing the occurrence of the shark along the California coast to records of teeth found
elsewhere, Boessenecker and colleagues found that the Carcharocles megalodon did not
survive past the end of the Pliocene, about 2.5 million years ago. No credible records of
Pleistocene (or Holocene) C. megalodon exist anywhere, Boessenecker says, and if we
cannot even prove that a giant shark survived past 2-3 million years ago, the case for C.
megalodon survival is hopelessly poor. Much of the ocean has yet to be explored, its
true, but itd be really difficult to miss a 50-foot-long, nearshore shark with a taste for
whales. The shark is long gone.

CONCLUSIONS:

All the research that was used in this project point to a real existence of the
megalodon, long time ago, but some evidence explain that the megalodon was not a
shark but it was exactly a aquatic species.
The megalodon was a gigantic shark, that, if he still live in our time, probably will
ended extinct for our unconscious generation, or will ended the other species of sharks
and aquatic species that are living in the sea right now.

BIBLIOGRAFY

[1] Carcharodon megalodon, 2014. [En lnea]. Available:


https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carcharodon_megalodon
[2] Megalodon: The Monster Sharks Dead, 2010. [En lnea]. Available:
https://www.upv.es/materiales/Fcm/Fcm11/trb11_2.html
[3] D. Heylen, El Gran Libro De La Criptozoologa Edaf, Santiago de Chile.

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