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SPECIAL PUBLICATION

September 1980

Basic Music
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of
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Publication were furnished by the courtesy of
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DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

PREFACE
Special Publications (SPs) are manuals or catalogs that provide information of general benefit and career
development. SPs have no associated assignments or tests.
Basic Music provides a basic reference for music theory.

Refer questions about this SP to:

COMMANDING OFFICER
SCHOOL OF MUSIC
ATTN TRAINING OFFICER
1420 GATOR BLVD
NORFOLK VA 23521-2617
DSN:
COMM:
FAX:

253-7509
(757) 462-7509
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Sailors Creed
I am a United States Sailor.
I will support and defend the
Constitution of the United States of
America and I will obey the orders
of those appointed over me.
I represent the fighting spirit of the
Navy and those who have gone
before me to defend freedom and
democracy around the world.
I proudly serve my countrys Navy
combat team with honor, courage
and commitment.
I am committed to excellence and
the fair treatment of all.

BASIC MUSIC
CONTENTS
Page

CHAPTER

1-Nature

Characteristics

CHAPTER

of a Musical

CHAPTER

of Pitch,

3-Meter

The

Beat,

Stress

Notation

............................. .................

or

Time

2-1

of Duration.

........................... ..............................................

Meter

1-1

Sound.

2- Fundamental Notation

Notation

Signature,

Composite

Meter,

3-1

Metrical

Exceptions.

CHAPTER

4-Rhythm

Regular
and

.........................................................

of Sound

............... ..........

Rhythm,

Irregular

Completion,

CHAPTER
Scales,
CHAPTER

5-Scales

and

Tetrachords,
6-Major

Sharp

Scales,

Major

Keys,

Degree

Related

Activity

Meters,

Rhythmic

Equivalent

Scales
Scales,

Enharmonic

Phrase

Construction

Meters.

Using

and

Keys,

Major
Names

Key
of

5-1

Tetrachords.

............................................... ...............
Keys

4-1

Initiation

. .. .. .. . .. . . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .

Tetrachords
Scale

Flat

Rhythm,

................. ....................

Signatures,
Scale

Degrees,

Circle

6-1

of

Scale

in Major.

CHAPTER

7-Minor

Natural

Minor

Minor

Scales

. .. . .. ... . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. ..

Scales
Scale,
and

Harmonic

Keys,

Circle

Minor
of Minor

Scales
Keys,

and

Keys,

Relative

and

7-1

Melodic
Parallel

Keys.
CHAPTER

8-Modal

Lydian,

Ionian,

Comparison
CHAPTER

9-

Chromatic,
Scale,

10 -

Qualities

CHAPTER

and

Overtone

Triads,
Keys.

Minor

of

a Vibrating

and

Timbre.

Transposition

by

Change

Woodwinds,

Percussion,

Compounding

Dissonant

Intervals,

10-1

and
Diatonic

Definite

Diminished

Inversion

String,

Degree,
of Key

of Triads,

The

Bass

Triad,

Series,

by

Pitch

12-1

The

13-1

Interval,

Signature.

(Clarinets,
Clef

11-1

Diatonic

Overtone

Transposition

Woodwinds,

Instruments
Brass,

Triad,

. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. . .. .. .. .. .. . ... .. .. .

Transverse

Clef

9-1

Enharmonic

. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . ... . ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . ... .. ..

Instruments

Reed

........

. . .. ... . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. ... . ... . .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. . .

Series

Scale

Single

Scales

Relationships,

Augmented

Transposition

(Treble

Degrees

Scales.

Intervals,
and

and

by

14 -

Quality

Dissonant

Transposition

CHAPTER

Pentatonic

Locrian,

.......................................................

Triad,

Overtone
Series

13 -

Scale

and Pentatonic

Simple

Chords

Characteristics

CHAPTER

of

Minor

in Major
12 -

to Major

Scale,

Consonant

Triadic

Consonant

Tone

Phrygian,

8-1

Intervals.

Triad,

Triads

Tone,

Inversion

11 -

Major

Whole

Interval

Intervals,

Chromatic

CHAPTER

Degrees

Aeolian,

. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .

of Intervals,

Reducing

Dorian,

Scale

Whole

Intervals

Intervals,
and

Mixolydian,

of Modal

Chromatic
CHAPTER

..............................................................

Scales

Brass),

Percussion),

Double

Reed

Saxophones),
Percussion
Keyboard,

14-1

Instruments,
Brasswinds

(Indefinite
Rhythm

Pitch
Section

Strings.

CHAPTER
Chord

ii

15 -

Chord

Symbol

Symbols

Interpretation,

.. .. .. .. .. .. ... . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Chord

Structures.

15-1

CHAPTER

16 -

Major

Chord

Sixth

and

Minor/Major
Minor

Chord

Scales,

17 -

Swing

Tones,

CHAPTER

19 -

APPENDIX
Clef

Seventh

The

Key
Repeat

Rehearsal

Signs,

Time,

Five)

Diminished
Scales.

Short

Percussive

17-1

Note,

18-1

...... .........................

19-1

The

Chords
Thirteenth,

Flats,

Beams,

Signs,

Signatures,

Dots,

Accidentals,

Specified

Bass

Note.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1

Time

Signatures,

Spacing,
Directions

Leger
Ties,

Lines,

Slurs,

Rests,

for Performance,

Proofreading.

Musical

Abbreviations,

Accents,

Jazz

for

C - Italian

Performance

Melodic

Expressive
Italian

of

.......... ........... ........... .............

Techniques

B - Directions

Explanation

Scales,

Pentatonic

Chord

(Flat

Tones.

and Altered

Stems,

Indications,

in Swing

Eleventh,

Numerals,

APPENDIX

Chord

Scale,

Construction

Approach

Signs,

Blues

Seventh

Seventh

and

. .. .. .. . .. .. . . .. .. .. . .. . . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . . .. .. ..

A - Manuscript

Noteheads,

APPENDIX

Minor

Beat

Extended

Ninth,

Dominant

Scales,

Sixth

16-1

Note.

18 -Melody

Chord

Minor

Scales,

The

Divided

Scales,

Chord

Rhythm

Percussive

CHAPTER

The

Scales,

Chord

Chord

Augmented

Anticipation,
Long

Seventh

Seventh

Chord

CHAPTER

Major

Seventh

Scales,
Seventh

............................. ............. ............. ...

Scales

Terms

Terms

Suffixes,

Devices,
(Three

Ornaments,
Tempo

. .. . . .. .. .. . . .. . . ... . .
Articulations
Indications,

B-1

and
Dynamic

Lists).

. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. .. .. .. . . .. . . .. . .

C-1

Listing.

iii

BASIC MUSIC
PURPOSE
This

AND

SCOPE

training

reference

circular

for

all

conjunction

with

instruction

at

encompasses
musical

is the

Army

Bandsmen.

academic

the
the

US

basic
It

materials,
Army

basic

principal

as

Element,

aspects

of

music

may

be

a text

in

for

courses

of

of

Music.

School

sound,

theory
used,

pitch,

rhythm

It
and

notation.

INTRODUCTION

Users
changes

and

should
text

this

publication

submit

be keyed
which

the

provided

for

each

Form

forwarded
School
ous

directly
of Music,

Base

(Little

page,

is

to

Comments

ATTN:
Creek).

recommend

insure
should

Commandant,

ATTNG-SM-DTD,
Norfolk,

Comments

paragraph

Changes

to the

to

recommended.

comment

(Recommended

encouraged

for its improvement.

specific

change

evaluation.
2028

are

comments

to the

in

complete

iv

of

Virginia

and

line

Reasons

of the
will

understanding
be prepared
to

Publications)
US

be
and

using

DA
and

Army

Element,

US Naval

Amphibi-

23521.

CHAPTER 1
NATURE OF SOUND
Sound

is produced

the physical
energy
The

of vibration.

to the medium

medium,

drum
the

state

by vibration;

in

to vibrate.
ear

to the

turn,
The

brain

there

is no sound

The

vibrating

of transmission

(gas,

transfers
human

where

vibrational

bodys
the

Figure
CHARACTERISTICS

OF

A MUSICAL

in

transfers

vibrational

forcing

it to vibrate.

processes

is interpreted

1.1: Nature

source

source
to the

system

a sound

or solid)

energy

nervous

vibration

sound
liquid,

without

ear,

forcing

the

the vibration

ear
from

as sound.

of Sound.
SOUND

Pitch
The

number

called

frequency.

second

(CPS)

kilocycles

source

referred

frequency

frequency
but

sound

waves

per

is

often

Frequency

or kilohertz

When
when

of

is not

to

as

(1 kHz

(Hz).

= 1000

Hz).

When

produced

expressed

hertz

of vibration

is greater.

second

High

as

by
the

frequencies

is regular,

it is called

frequency

of vibration

a sounding

number

pitch.

are

The

is irregular,

of

body

is

cycles

per

expressed

in

pitch

is higher

it is a sound

pitched.

1-1

regular

vibration

produces

the

pitch

Doubling

the

an

higher.

octave

Halving

440

Hz

(440

CPS)

A.

frequency

the frequency

octave

The

at

(880

(220

Hz)

produces

Hz) produces

A an

lower.

approximate

range

of human

hearing

capacity

is from

20 Hz

to 16 kHz.

vibration

is known

Intensity
The
as

magnitude

intensity.

of force

Intensity,

amplitude

of

the

amplitude

is greater.

Frequency
represented

musically

vibration

and
by

Frequency,
form
greater

1-2

and

the

number

horizontally.
is represented

amplitude

the

amplitude

a simple

wave

indicates

1.2:

of regular

referred

of

Figure

represented

or energy

to as volume,

sound

(pitch

or irregular

source.

and

is determined

The

volume)

sound

is

may

be

by the

louder

when

graphically

form.

Single

of complete

Cycle

Form.

within

a given

Amplitude

is the displacement

from

vertically.

Greater

indicates

greater

cycles

Wave

volume.

frequency

period
center

of time,

is

of the wave
higher

pitch;

Figure

1.3:

Wave

Form

Representation
Amplitude.

of

Frequency

and

1-3

Duration

The

length

of time

of vibration

is called

duration.

Duration

is the length

of

or a musical

instrument

is

produced

by

sound.
Timbre
The
known

distinctive
as timbre.

different
tone

('tam-bar

types

or 'tim-bm)
tone

or quality

Sounds

identical

of instruments

of a singing
in pitch,

are dissimilar

voice

intensity,
and

and

reveal

duration

a difference

in timbre

quality.
Timbre

is affected

method

of sound

physical

nature

by:
production
of instrument

condition

of instrument

individual

performance

(bowed,
(relative

blown,

plucked,

strength

or struck)

of overtones)

characteristics

SUMMARY

or lowness

of the

sound.

Intensity

volume

of the

sound.

Duration

length

of the

sound.

Pitch

Timbre

1-4

highness

quality

of

the

sound.

or

CHAPTER 2
FUNDAMENTAL NOTATION
NOTATION

Pitch

Each

OF

Nomenclature

line

ascending
on

of
and

repeats.

the

staff

with

is used.
staff

are

great

staff

spaces

A note

(Figure

are named

placed

is a theoretical

middle

C as the

Figure
The

great

2.1)

from

on the staff

has

a letter-name.

A through

takes

G. After

the name

In
G, the

of the line

or

it is placed.

great

spaces

space

the lines

series
which

The
ten

and

order,

seven-letter
space

PITCH

staff

A symbol

is not
(clef

to be used

for

used

sign)
the

construction
middle

2.1:

for the

must
notation

consisting

or sixth

Great

notation

be used

of eleven

lines

and

line.

Staff.
of music.

to indicate

Instead,

which

five

a five-line
lines

staff

of the great

of pitch.

2-1

G,

C,

and

The

lower

F Clefs
loop

Converging
The

two

them

of the

arms
dots

of the

of the

as F below

middle

Grand
G clef
staff.

This

2.3:

clef

and

commonly

is known

as

encircles

sign

G above

designate

designate

the

middle

middle
line

C.

C.

passing between

C.

2.2:

G, C, and F Clefs.

F Clefs

Bass
used

treble

Figure
2-2

sign

G, C, and

Staff/Treble
is most

sign

C clef

F clef

Figure

Figure

G clef

on the Great

Staff.

Clefs
to place

G on the

clef.

2.4:

Treble

Clef.

second

line

of a five-line

F clef
This

clef

is most
is

commonly

known

as

used

bass

to place

treble

commonly

and

used

Figure

bass

clefs,

in keyboard

2.6:

line

of a five-line

staff.

clef.

Figure
The

F on the fourth

2.5:

joined
music

Bass
together,

and

The Relationship

Clef.
form

the

grand

staff

which

is

scoring.

between

the

Great

Staff

and

Grand

Staff.
Leger

Lines

It is frequently
staff.

These

necessary

temporary

to write

extensions

pitches

above

Figure

2.7:

above

or below

Leger

or below
the

staff

a five-line

or grand

are

lines.

leger

Lines.

Keyboard

The
Keyboard

keyboard
pitch

may

be used

nomenclature

as a visual
is similar

demonstrator
to staff

pitch

for pitch
nomenclature

relationships.
(Figure

2.8).

2-3

Note
left

that

the black

of each

group

keyboard,
name

keys
of two

the pitch

A at the

are found
black

names

in groups

keys

is found

A through

completion

of the

Pitches
names
symbols,

the pitch

G are used,

three.
C. When

beginning

Immediately

to the

ascending

on the

again

with

between

Additional

2.8:

known

letter

symbols

as chromatic

are

signs,

Sharp

Keyboard.

names
required
are

five

cannot
for

be represented

proper

identification.

in number.

Raises the pitch of the letter name a


half step

Flat

Lowers the pitch of the letter name a


half step.

Double sharp

Raises the pitch of the letter name


two half steps.

Double Flat

bb

Natural

Figure

2-4

the letter

Signs
occurring

alone.

and

series.

Figure

Chromatic

of two

2.9:

Lowers the pitch of the letter name


two half steps.
Cancels a previously used chromatic
sign (including x and bb).

Chromatic

Signs.

by

letter
These

Any
When

two

adjacent

expressing

flats,

the

pitches

keys

on the keyboard

the

pitches

occurring

are

expressed

sound

as chromatic

Sharp

a half

between

the

step

letter

alterations

or semitone
names

of the

apart.

as sharps
letter

or

names.

Alterations

Flat Alterations

Figure
Enharmonic
A single
names

but

pitch
sound

2.10:

Chromatic

Pitch

Names.

Pitches
may
the

have

same

Figure

more
are

than

one

enharmonic

2.11:

Enharmonic

name.

Pitches

that

have

different

pitches.

Pitches.

2-5

Adding

double

sharps

and

double

flats

increases

the number

of enharmonic

pitches.

Figure

2.12:

Enharmonic

Pitches

with

Double

Sharps

and Double

Flats.
Pitch

Nomenclature

Octave
names

designators

in different

without

staff

in the

octaves.

notation

of the

great

staff

grand

staff.

Middle

must

Great

be

This

used

is one

or reference

and

the

to distinguish
way

a pitch

to the keyboard.

imaginary

C or c1 is the

Staff

line
C closest

between
to the

between

maybe

represented

Middle

C is

treble

and

center

of the

keyboard.

Figure

2-6

2.13:

cl

in Great

and

identical

Grand

Staves.

pitch

precisely

the center
bass

clefs

standard

line

in the
piano

From

Cbb

the octave
the

immediately

are designated

number

below
first

octave

The

octave

immediately

is identified

by

lower

2.14:

above
case

octave

and

The
and

octaves
fourth

octave

is identified

are numbered
octave.
immediately
by

lower

the

letters

Figure

The

and

c1,

are identified

all pitches
by lower

spelled
case

within

letters

and

1.

Figure

and

c1 to above

First

first
and

2.15:

Octave.

octave
the

Second

consecutively

The

highest
below

case

Figure

the

pitch
first

is designated

number

second

octave

2.

Octave.

in higher
on

the

octave

octaves
piano

including

keyboard

is designated

a third
is

small

octave

letters.

2.16:

Small

Octave.

2-7

The
and

octave

immediately

is identified

by capital

where

pitches

are

Subcontra

Octave

The

note

lowest

Figure

Treble
but

other

specific

2-8

and
clefs

range

letters.

identified
where

on

the

2.17:

Single-Staff

below
by

pitches
piano

Grand

the small
Below
two
are

the

octave
Great

capital

Staff

and

are used

more

Octave

is the

Great

Octave

Contra

Octave

letters

identified

keyboard

is designated

by three

is Subcontra

Keyboard

capital

letters

A (AAA).

Pitch

Nomenclature.

Clefs
bass
are

clefs
used.

within

the

Their

ranges

compass

frequently
have

of the

than

developed
staff.

any
from

other
the

five-line
need

clefs,

to bring

Figure

NOTATION
Note

OF
and

Duration

are

called

value

and

expressed
common

Rest

of two
notes.
symbol

are

Clefs.

Values
is the building

elements:

sound

Notational
has

block
and

symbols

a corresponding

arithmetically
and

Single-Staff

DURATION

of sound

is composed

2.18:

generally

as

fractions.
a single

for the creation

silence.
for

Notational

silences

rest
The

of rhythm.

value

are
and

symbols

notational

called
symbol.
have

alteration

symbols

Rhythm
for sounds

rests.

Each

These

values

note
are

characteristics
from

an

in

adjacent

value.

2-9

Figure
Notes
When
pitch.

2-10

and

specific

rests
pitches

2.19:
indicate

Note
the

are desired,

and Rest
creation
they

Values
of sound

are placed

and
and

Symbols.
silence

in a given

to form
clef

rhythm.

to indicate

the

Note
and

and

metric

rest

symbols

grouping

are

expressed

by fractional

two

or rests

notes

of the

Notes

Since

only

devices
note

are used
is the

tie.

multiples
to extend
A

tie

indicate

indicated.

names.

Figure

Tied

do not

next

They

A given
smaller

2.20:

duration.

is a curved

note

do

duration

of time

indicate

or rest

value

until

tempo

relative

duration

as

is equal

in duration

to

value.

Note

of two

actual

and

are

Rest

possible
One

line

Equivalents.

with

symbol

joining

basic
used

two

note

and

to extend

or more

rest

symbols,

the duration

successive

notes

of a
of

2-11

identical
rest

pitch.

values

are

Tied

notes

sound

as one note.

Dotted

Notes

Another

symbol

placed

after
note

a note
or rest

and

with

rests

because

used
or rest
has

2.21:

Tied Notes.

Rests

to extend

the duration

increases

a value

Figure

2-12

are not used

cumulative.

Figure

dotted

Ties

2.22:

equal

Dotted

duration
to three

Notes

of a note
by one

half

of the

next

and Rests.

or rest is the dot. A dot


the

original

smaller

value.

value.

Note
after
rest

the
by

and

rest

original
one

half

duration
dot.
the

Each
value

may

be further

additional
of the

Figure

dot

previous

2.23:

increased
increases

by
the

additional
duration

dots

placed

of the note

or

dot.

Multiple

Dotted

Notes.

2-13

CHAPTER 3
METER
Music

exists

duration

and

in time.

are

replaced

duration.

These

durations

possible

to notate

them.

THE

Sounds,
by

interspersed
more

with

sound

of sound

and

silence,

or silence
silence

occur

of the

must

with

same

specific

or different

be measured

before

it is

BEAT
The

standard

of measurement

recurring

pulsations

duration;

they

in music

are of longer

in most

are known

or shorter

the

music.

The

slower

the

music,

the

music,

the

shorter

the

duration

as beats.

duration

the

of the

music,

These

establishing
accented
The
establishes

Beats

is the
in music

the

duration

beat.

Regularly

are not

of fixed

by the character
of the

beat;

the

of

faster

beat.

of beats and beat combinations.


Slow tempi
fast tempi are comprised
of beats of short

Groupings

In most
others.

time

as determined

longer

Tempo refers to the rate of progression


are comprised
of beats of long duration;
duration.

Beat

musical

certain

beats

stronger,
groups

of

and

unaccented

term

metrical

groups

more
two,

tend

accented
three,

pulsations
stress

of two,

to assume
or

beats
four

recur

This

importance
with

than

regularity,

recurring

pattern

of

as meter.

these
stress

relative

may

beats.

is known

describes

the metrical

more

beat

is duple;

groupings.
if three,

If
triple;

the

meter

and

if four,

quadruple.

3-1

Figure

Divided

is

or three.
normally

normally

3-2

Beat

Groupings.

Beats

In addition
two

3.1:

to grouping

Metrical

stress

divisible

by

divisible

by

of beats,
also
two,

three,

most

describes
the

the

metrical

metrical

music

has

the division
stress
stress

beats

regularly

of the beat.
is simple.

is compound.

divisible
When

When

the

by

the beat
beat

is

Figure

METER

OR

The
stress
one

meter

(meter)
beat.

The

TIME

Division

of Beat.

SIGNATURE

or time
and

3.2:

signature

unit

meter

of beat

or time

arranged

vertically

notating

rhythm).

The

numeral

indicates

the

is a musical
(notation).

signature

at the beginning
upper
unit

of beat

unit

which
of beat

is represented
of a staff

numeral

symbol

The

or rhythm

indicates

or division

the

by

indicates

metrical

is the value
two

line
metrical

arabic

(single
stress;

that

gets

numerals
line

used

the

for

lower

of beat.
3-3

In notation,
by placing

the stronger,

a bar

line

precedes

the

note

adjacent

bar

lines

mean

more

vertically

that

beat

in a beat

or through

grouping

a rhythm

group.

The

The

word

space
bar

is indicated

line.

The

bar

between

line

any

is commonly

two

used

to

measure.

Simple

Any

Time

note

unaltered

note,

except

fourth

note

is impractical).

Duple,
numeral

by
and

two

commonly

triple,

or

in a time

may

rest values

the sixty-fourth,

16 or 32, corresponding
most

3.3: Bar

Lines

and

Measures.

Signatures

divisible

Since

3-4

the

beat

as a measure.

Figure

The

on a staff

begins

is known

accented

The

may
lower

to the

be used

be used
numeral

in a time

value/name,

used

numerals,

in order

quadruple

simple

metrical

of 2, 3, or 4

unit

of beat

divisible

as the unit

note

signature

as the

are normally

of beat

signature

and
stress

is

any

(dividing
the
are:

indicated

the sixty1, 2, 4, 8,

unit

of

4, 2, 8,
by

time.

undotted

is always

specifies

of frequency,

respectively.

in simple

by two,

an

beat.

and

16.

upper

Note
time

that

figure

signatures.

symbol

functions

The

called

cut

Figure

3.4: simple Time signatures.

3.4 lists

two

symbol
time

or

In figure
the

divisible
division

(C and

called

common

alla

breve

~) as abbreviations
time,

(according

for simple

functions

to the

breve

as

4/4.

or half

The
note),

as 2/2.

Figure

beat

symbols

C,

3.5, the 2 indicates


by two.
of beat

The

3.5:

Simple
that

4 indicates

represented

by

Time

the music

Example.
is in simple

that

the quarter

eighth

notes.

note

duple

time

is the unit

with

each

of beat

with

3-5

Compound Time Signatures


Any note divisible by three maybe used as the unit of beat in compound
time. Since dotted note and rest values are normally divisible by three, any
dotted note, except the dotted sixty-fourth, may be used as the unit of beat
(dividing the dotted sixty-fourth is impractical). In compound time, the lower
numeral of a time signature will always be 2, 4,8, 16,32 or 64, corresponding to
the note valuelname. These numerals usually specify the division of beat. The
unit of beat is derived by finding the dotted note value that is equal to three of the
notes indicated by the lower numeral. The most commonly used numerals, in
order of frequency, are: 8,4,2, and 16. Duple, triple or quadruple metrical stress is
indicated by an upper numeral in a time signature of 6 (2 x 3 divisions of beat), 9
(3 x 3 divisions of beat), or 12 (4 x 3 divisions of beat) respectively.

Unit

Divided

of Beat

O*

clt4ci

d:

dd

Beat

Duple

Triple

:;y

6
64

9
64

Figure 3.6: Compound Time Signatures.

3-6

Quadruple

12
64

Figure

In figure
each

beat

division

of beat

Some
actual

3.7, the

divisible

6 indicates

into
with

of beats

Figure

COMPOSITE

When
stress
two

unit

Compound

that

3.8:

music

The

of beat

composers
as the

the

parts.

Time

is in compound

8 indicates

represented

indicate

upper

Example.

by

compound

numeral

Contemporary

that

and

the

Compound

eighth

dotted

time
a note

duple

the

time
note

quarter.

signatures
value

with
is the

with

the

below.

Examples.

METER

music

is composite
or three

three

the

contemporary

number

3.7:

with

is composed
or complex.
the

divided

of
The
beats

beats
beats

of

unequal

in composite

having

the

same

beat

lengths,

meters

will

the

metrical

be divisible

by

duration.

3-7

Figure

3-8

3.9:

Composite

Division

of Beat.

Composite
Notes
beat
dotted
three

in

Time

divisible

by

composite
notes

Signatures
two

time.

of the

and

The

same

three

unit

value.

are required

of beat

will

Composite

for

the

representation

be represented

time

by

signatures

may

of the

undotted
be notated

and
in

ways:

the lower
sum
the

of divided
lower

mixed

as the divided
beats

numeral

numeral,

the lower
beat

numeral

in the

as the

beat

measure,

unit

of

beat

and

the

upper

numeral

as the

or
and

the

upper

numeral

as a

or

numeral

as the divided

beat

and

the upper

numerals

as the

composites.

Figure

3.10:

Composite

Time

Signatures.

3-9

Figure

In figure
one

beat

bar

3 and

with

3.11,

divisible

of beat

METRICAL

count

of

one

If tempo
for

two

beat

and

1 & 2). The

per

is slow,
of

Time

the music
the

other

8 indicates

by

the

Example.

is in composite
divisible

the eighth

quarter

and

duple

into
note

dotted

three

time

parts

is the division

with

(2+3 in
of beat

quarter.

EXCEPTIONS

a time

stress

count

that

parts

represented

is fast,

metrical

call

into

STRESS

If tempo

Composite

5 indicates

3+2 in bars

unit

This

the

3.11:

signature

measure,

which

is referred

a time
6,

9,

with
may

require

to as compound

signature
or

an upper

12

with

beats

per

numeral

of 3 may

compound

call

for a

interpretation.

single.

an upper
measure,

numeral
and

of 6, 9,

may

or 12 may

require

simple

interpretation.
If tempo
for

a count
A time

simple

3-10

signature

or compound

A time
composite

is slow,

a time

signature

of 4, 6, or 8 beats

signature
interpretation.

with

per

with

an upper

numeral

of 2, 3, or 4 may

call

measure.

an upper

numeral

of

7, 10,

14, 15, 21,

etc.

may

require

or 12 may

require

interpretation.
with

an upper

numeral

of 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9,

CHAPTER 4
RHYTHM

Rhythm

is the

occurrence

of varying
and

the

pattern

of beat

groupings

not

always

coincide

with

The

sum

note

and

indicated

of

by the

time

be shown

in two

REGULAR
Regular
when
present)
when

rest

meter.

the
The

values

signature,

categories:

lengths
nature

two

of the

must

in each

rhythm

divided

not

measure

Relationships

regular

of sound

silence.

beat.

Meter

Rhythm

is

does

be confused.
equals

between
and

and

the

number

rhythm

irregular

and

of beats
meter

can

rhythm.

RHYTHM
rhythm
long

notes

occur
repeating

occurs:
coincide

with

as non-syncopated
non-syncopated

strong

beats

divisions
divisions

and

shorter

of weak
occur

on

notes
beats;

(when
or

all beats.

4-1

Figure
Uniform

4-2

rhythm

when

the

when

the measure

is regular

measure

is filled
is filled

4.1:

Regular

rhythm

by

that

one

by two

note;

equal

Rhythm.
occurs:

or
notes

in quadruple

meter;

or

when

the

measure

when

the measure

is divided
is divided

Figure

4.2:

equally
into

equal

Uniform

into

units

divisions

of beats;
of the unit

or
of beat.

Rhythm.

4-3

All

uniform

rhythms

IRREGULAR
Irregular

are

regular

not

all regular

rhythms

are

RHYTHM
rhythm

when

long

when

the

notes

occurs:

coincide

rhythm

has

with weak
been

Figure

4-4

but

beats

or weak

parts

syncopated.

4.3:

Irregular

Rhythm.

of beats;

or

uniform.

Syncopated

rhythm

of rhythm,

accent,

Syncopation

may

occurs

or meter

by

when

notes

appearing

alter

the normal

on weak

beats

or expected

or weak

parts

a weak

beat

or weak

part

of a beat

is accented;

or

when

a weak

beat

or weak

part

of a beat

is tied

strong

which

follows

rest

a rest
occurs

of beats.

be created:

when

when

pattern

to the

beat

it; or
occurs

on

any

on a beat
beat

Figure

after

4.4:

after

a note

a weak

part

on a weak

beat

or when

of a beat.

Syncopated Rhythm.
4-5

All

syncopated

rhythms

are

irregular,

but

not

all

irregular

rhythms

are

syncopated.

RHYTHMIC

The

first

thought,
thetic
the

PHRASE

in a measure

normally

two

beginning;

the

down-beat.

conductor
An
upbeat

to four
phrase

measures

unaccented

beat

in a measure

consists

of one

last

measure

measure.

contains

However,

a complete

Normally,
some

measure

the

begins

from
note

is called

that

the

and

of the material

contained

has

called
of

measure.
also

the first

begins
that

beat
stroke

An anacrusis,

end

musical

is also

downward

precede

values

arrangers

thesis

of the

a composition

(a short

on the first
The

an arsis.

notes

rhythmic

composers

regardless

name

or more
when

only

that

A phrase

thetically.

accented

or pick-up,

phrase.

thesis.

long)

its

principally

COMPLETION

the

to begin

derives

the

AND

is called

is said

Down-beat

indicating

of a musical
the

beat

INITIATION

with

will

their

called

down-beat

an anacrusis,

complete

the first

compositions

in the first

with

(incomplete)

measure.

When

the

last

called

a masculine

ending

is called

4-6

attack
ending.

feminine

of

a phrase

If the last
ending.

coincides
attack

does

with

the

not coincide

thesis,
with

the

ending

the thesis,

is
the

Figure
RELATED

signature
rhythm
choice

Rhythmic

Phrase

Initiation

and

Completion.

METERS

Related
related

4.5:

meters

meters,

the

have
upper

numeral
in more
of the

unit

the

is

than

same

time

different.
one

time

metrical

signature

stress
numeral

Therefore,
signature;

it is
the

but

a different

is the same
possible

notation,

unit

but
to

which

of beat.

the lower

In

time

notate

the

differs,

reflects

same
a

of beat.
4-7

Figure

EQUIVALENT
Equivalent
that

have

the

beat.

The

unit

a dotted

4-8

note.

4.6:

Related

Meters

(rhythmic

transcription).

METERS
meters
same
of beat

are

beat

two

different

grouping

in simple

time

and

meters,
the

same

is an undotted

one

simple

note
note

and

one

to represent
and

compound,
the

in compound

divided
time

is

Figure

By

making

division
These
and

use

of beat
borrowed

the

duplet

of

equivalent

in simple

time

divisions

4.8:

Equivalent

meters,

and

of the

in compound

Figure

4.7:

it is

the simple

beat

Meters.

are

possible

division

notated

to use

of beat

as the

the

compound

in compound

triplet

in simple

time.
meter

meter.

Equivalent
duplets

Meters
and

(metric

conversion):

triplets.

4-9

CHAPTER 5
SCALES AND TETRACHORDS
SCALES

A scale
musical

(from

tones

interval

scheme.

depends

on

intervals

used

examples,

The
whole
step.
steps)
that

the
An

the

basic

The

occurs
there

no

used

for

and

scale

adjacent

of two

half

steps

sounds

C and

D, D and

between

of

between

tones.

Music

patterns

be extracted

from

of

musical

as scales.

are the half

keys

on

a whole

E, F and

E and

series

to a specified

measurable

may

analysis

two

according

pitch

certain

expressed

Any

keys

in

patterns

tone).

is a graduated

of pitch

difference

pitches

and

or staircase)

in order

These

in order,

between
are

of

regularity.

intervals

interval

- ladder

is the

succession

with

(whole

scala

or descending
interval

arranged

step

Latin

ascending

F, and

step

(semitone)

the

keyboard

sound

step.

A whole

step (two

G, G and
B and

A,

and

C; these

A and
intervals

and
a half
half

B. Observe
are half

steps.

Figure

5.1:

Keyboard

Half

Steps

and

Whole

Steps.

5-1

The

note

a whole

step

above

are

# , not F. The

E is F

both

whole

Figure

steps

5.2:

note

below

Whole

a whole

F and

step

above

B is

C respectively.

Steps.

TETRACHORDS
The

tetrachord

tetrachord
interval
the

is a device

is a series
of five

major (M),

constructed

half
minor

on

of

steps

used

four

tones

between

(m), natural

any

pitch

in the construction
on

successive

the first
(N),

and

will

and

and

last

and
degrees
tones.

harmonic (H).

retain

analysis
of the

of scales.
staff

Tetrachords
Any

the

interval

half

steps,

tetrachord
relationship

with

an

used

are

may

be

of

the

and

one

tetrachord.
Major

The
half

step

Tetrachord

major

(M)

tetrachord

ascending

on

is composed
four

Figure
5-2

successive

5.3:

Major

of two
staff

degrees.

Tetrachords.

two

half

steps,

Minor

The
half

Tetrachords

minor

steps

(m)

tetrachord

ascending

is composed

on

four

of two

successive

staff

half

steps,

one

half

step,

two

half

steps,

and

two

degrees.

(m - 212)

Figure
Natural

The
half
(N

steps

Tetrachord

natural

on

Minor Tetrachords.

(N)

tetrachord

ascending

5.4:

is composed
four

successive

of one
staff

half

step,

and

two

degrees.

- 122)

Figure

5.5:

Natural Tetrachords.
5-3

Harmonic
The
one

Tetrachord

harmonic

half

step

(H)

tetrachord

ascending

is composed

on

four

of one

successive

half

staff

step,

three

half

steps,

and

degrees.

(H - 131)

Figure 5.6: Harmonic Tetrachords.

SCALE

CONSTRUCTION

Scales

constructed

(abbreviated
adjacent
the

top

that

L). The
staff

of the

with
link

degrees.
scale.

encompasses

an

It is the distance

lower

pitch

with

the

TETRACHORDS

tetrachords

is always

The

The

steps.

5-4

USING

link

composed

may

from
same

An
any

letter

of two

be placed

combination

octave.

combine

of two
octave

pitch
name.

two
half

tetrachords
steps

at the bottom,
tetrachords

is an

of a given

interval
letter

and

(a whole

a link
step)

in the middle,
a link

containing
name

and

form a

scale

twelve

to the next

on

or at

higher

half
or

Figure 5.7: Tetrachords


and Link

in Scale

Construction.

5-5

CHAPTER 6
MAJOR SCALES
The

formula

The

scales

keyboard,

for
half

to a white

the

major

scale

step/whole
key

is MLM.

step

scale

interval

from

relationship

corresponds,

on

C to C.

Scale Formula: MLM

Figure

SHARP

C Major

Scale.

SCALES

To

construct

maintain
follows

6.1:

the

a scale
scale

specific,

fifth

scale

scale

and

has

formula.

recognizable

degree
one

other

ascending

than
The

C major,

addition

patterns,
in the

When

C major

of

chromatic

signs

must

chromatic

signs

in major

a major
scale,

the

scale
scale

be used

is constructed
formed

to

scales
on the

is a G major

sharp:

Scale Formula: MLM

Figure

6.2:

G Major Scale.

6-1

When
scale,

a major

the

scale

scale

formed

is constructed

on the

is a D major

scale

and

fifth
has

scale
two

degree

in the

G major

in the

D major

sharps:

Scale Formula: MLM

Figure
When
scale,

a major

the

scale

scale

formed

6.3:

D Major

is constructed
is an A major

on the
scale

and

Scale.
fifth
has

G#.
Scale Formula: MLM

Figure
The

6-2

pattern

continues

through

6.4:

A Major
the

Scale.

scale

degree

three

sharps:

C#

major

F#,

C#,

scale
G#,

with

all

D#,

A#,

seven

pitch

E$,

and

names

sharped:

B#.

Scale Formula: MLM

Figure
Although
the, scale

a G# major

requires

major

(seven

making

a total

FLAT

SCALES

When
fourth

scale

scale

is the

degree

last

has

one

flat:

major)

sharp

scale.

scale

to

be

is possible,
Therefore,
considered,

sharps.

on the
note)

in C8

a theoretical

practical
with

is constructed
same

ascending

is considered

scales

is the

and

C# Major Scale.

and

major

ascending

is an F major

(fifth

sharp

sharps)

of seven

a major

degree

scale

a double

6.5:

fifth

of the

scale

degree

C major

scale,

descending
the scale

(the
formed

Bb.

Scale Formula: MLM

Figure

When
degree
has

two

a major

ascending)
flats:

scale

is constructed

of the F major
Bb

and

6.6:

scale,

F Major

Scale.

on

fifth

the

degree

the scale

formed

Bb Major

Scale.

descending

is a ~b

major

(fourth
scale

and

~b.

Scale Formula: MLM

Figure

6.7:

6-3

The

pattern

continues

through

the

Scale Formula: MLM

Figure
Although
possible,

an

the, scale

Therefore,
seven
KEYS
In
pitches
is known
within
network

MAJOR

most

music,

in motion
as the
a piece

chromatic

music,
signs

the

key.

flats)

KEY
one

tonic.

This

flat

and

is the last

becomes

it. This
Key

descending

is considered

practical

while
than

more

primary

is the

which

rather
are

degree

flat

in major)

is

a theoretical
scale,

scale.

making

a total

of

SIGNATURES

pitch

around

of music

(fifth

Scale.

flats.

of relationships,

In most

6-4

with

Major

a double

(seven

scales

AND

scale

requires

major

major

indicate

major

6.8:

term

one

arrangement

from

the
the

than

to which
refers

pitch

to interval

of chromatic

and

of the
pitches

signs
placed

signs

other
relate

relationships
A key

involves

list of the pitches

chromatic

scale

any

the other

as the tonic.

is an arranged

notating

extracted

pitch
which

establish
a scale

important

for
after

is a key

each

of a key.
pitch,

a clef

sign

signature.

the
to

The
their

scale

addition

of E major

contains

to sharp

scales.

four
Arranged

Figure

Achromatic
octaves

throughout

measure
after

sign

by

a bar

in a key
the

a different
line

6.9:

for

Figure

6.10:

a note

, C#,

G#,

and

signature

D# in order

of

it is notated:

Signature.

affects

of the

chromatic

F#

as a key

Key

signature

duration

except

sharps:

key

all notes

signature

sign.

The

key

tied

from

an

of that
unless

signature
altered

letter

name

cancelled
is always

note

in

the

in all

within

in effect
previous

measure.

Sharp

Major

Key

Signatures.

6-5

Figure

CIRCLE
Major
sharp
keys

6-6

keys
or the

OF

MAJOR

keys

Flat

Major

Key

Signatures.

KEYS

arranged

clockwise
circle

6.11:

and
of fifths.

in a circle
the flat

starting

keys

with

C and

counterclockwise,

progressing
form

through

the circle

the

of major

Figure

ENHARMONIC
Keys
The

that

have

It is possible
continue

direction
around

Circle

of Major

Keys.

KEYS

enharmonic

either

6.12:

different

major

keys

to start
and
the

names

return

but

sound

the

same

are

enharmonic

keys.

are

on

C major

to C major

and

travel

by using

around
one

of the

the

circle

enharmonic

of fifths
keys

in
to

circle.

6-7

NAMES

OF

SCALE

Traditional
specific
the

names

scale

tonic

DEGREES

degrees.

is called

are
The

the

used
tonic

the

tonic

tonic)

and

is the fourth

scale

is called

the

mediant

pitch

midway

degree.

The

submediant

is called

and

the supersonic

is called

a leading

two

steps

tone

fifth

pitch

(occurring

scale

the
degree.

is the second

The
scale

depending
the

6.13:

Names

scale

and
pitch

The

pitch

degree.

middle)
the

and

on whether

tonic.

Degrees.

above

pitch

a fifth

below

the tonic
is the

immediately

the

and

third

above

it is one

scale
half

the

scale

is called

seventh

to

a fifth

The

subdominant
The

is made

dominant

between

degree.

of Scale

reference

the

midway

in the

tonic

step)

below

degree.

(meaning

or subtonic

Figure

6-8

is the

The

between
and

(a whole

and

when

scale

subdominant
degree.

is the sixth

is called
half

the

identification

is the first

dominant

below
dominant

for

the

the tonic
degree
step

or

SCALE

DEGREE

Some
ranging

scale

ACTIVITY

degrees

from

IN

serve

a restless

as points

sound

Tones

show

a tendency

Active

Tones

want

to move.

Tendency

Tones

of stability

to a tendency

Stable

specific

MAJOR

are active

towards

tones

or rest;

to move

that

others

are more

to a specific

being

active,

pitch.

at rest.

exhibit

a strong

pull toward

pitch.

STABLE

ACTIVE

Tonic

Supersonic

Mediant

Subdominant

Dominant

Submediant
Leading

Tone

Tendency

Figure
Normally,
adjacent

notes

mediant;

the

not

mean

in

tone
in the

move
direction.

to

the
Note

tones

tones
will

scale.
will
always

tend
most

opposite
mediant
that

Scale

keys,

submediant

Tendency

motion

major

in the

active

leading

6.14:

the
That

often

unless
tendency

active

tones

the

to the
in this

a half
to

will

the

Similarly,

but

to an

the

it is

part

of

tones

pull

to stable

to
move

to Mediant)

tend

adjacent

unless

scale

of

tone.

the

two

tonic
This

or
does

to do so regularly.

scale

it is part

subdominant

scalewise

one

to the

or leading

manner

tonic

move
will

dominant

step

Tone

in Major.

supersonic

move

move

(pulls to Tonic)

Activity

move

direction.

(pulls

Leading

Degree

is,

to move

Subdominant

motion

will
in

degree.
of

The

scalewise
most

the

often

opposite

degrees.

6-9

CHAPTER 7
MINOR SCALES
Three

commonly

harmonic,
derive

and

from

the

NATURAL

The
step

used

melodic
natural

interval

of minor
scales.

minor

MINOR

formula

forms

minor

scales

The

are:

harmonic

natural
and

(also

called

melodic

pure),

minor

scales

scale.

SCALE

for the natural

relationship

minor

scale

corresponds,

is mLN.

The

on a keyboard,

scales

to a white

half
key

step/whole
scale

from

A to A.

Scale

Formula:

mLN

Figure

Natural
When
ascending
scale

Minor
a

natural

in the

and
Scale

has

7.1:

Sharp

one

Formula:

Scales

minor

a natural
sharp:

The

scale
minor

a Natural

and
is
scale,

Minor

Scale.

Keys

constructed
the

scale

on
formed

the

fifth

scale

degree

is an enatural minor

F#.

mLN

Figure

7.2: e Natural

Minor

Scale.

7-1

When

ascending
scale

natural

in the

and

has

minor

scale

e natural

two

minor

sharps:

F~

is

constructed

scale,

and

the

on

the

scale

formed

Minor

Scale.

fifth

scale

degree

is a b natural

minor

C#.

Scale Formula: mLN

Figure
This

pattern

If the
minor
natural
from

7-2

pattern

(seven

scales
the

through

is continued,

sharps)

minor
major,

continues

7.3: b Natural

order

is the
with

the

double
last

sharps.

of sharps

sharps

practical
Although
remains

will

sharp
the
the

result.
scale,
tonics

same.

Therefore,
making

a#

a total

in natural

natural
of seven

minor

differ

Figure
Natural

When
descending
formed

Minor

natural
(fourth

is a d natural

7.4: Sharp
Flat

Natural

Scales

minor
degree
minor

and

scale

is

ascending)
scale

and

Minor

Key

Signatures.

Keys

constructed
of the
has

on

the

a natural

one

flat:

fifth

minor

scale
scale,

degree
the

scale

Bb.

Scale Formula: mLN

Figure

7.5: d Natural

Minor

Scale.

7-3

When

a natural

(fourth

degree

natural

minor

minor

scale

ascending)
scale

Scale Formula:

of the

and

has

If the

pattern

pattern

minor

(seven

minor

scales

major,

the

7-4

flats)
with
order

d natural

two

flats:

on

minor

Bb

and

Eb

the

fifth

scale,

the

degree
scale

descending
formed

is a g

mLN

Figure
This

is constructed

continues

7.6: g Natural
through

is continued,
is the last
flats.
of flats

Again,
remains

although
the

Scale.

the

double
practical

Minor

flats
flat

will

scale,

making

the tonics
same.

result.

Therefore,
a total

in natural

ab

of seven
minor

natural
natural

differ

from

Figure
Scale
The
subtonic

Degree

7.7: Flat

Activity

natural

minor

when

compared

Natural

in Natural

scale

has

to the

Key

Signatures.

Minor

a lowered
major

Minor

mediant,

scale

lowered

constructed

on

submediant,
the

same

and

tonic.

Figure 7.8: Comparison of Major and Natural Minor.

7-5

Since
major,

the

the

scale

activity

degree

relationships

of scale

degrees

in

is also

natural

are

different

from

different.

STABLE

ACTIVE

Tonic

Supersonic

Mediant

Subdominant

Dominant

minor

Submediant
Subtonic

TENDENCY
Submediant

Figure
HARMONIC
The
step/whole

7.9: Scale

MINOR

formula
step

for

Degree

SCALES
the

interval

Activity

AND

harmonic

to Dominant)

in Natural

Minor.

KEYS

minor

relationship

(pulls

does

scale
not

is

mLH.

correspond

The
to

scale.

Scale Formula: mLH

Figure

7-6

7.10:

The

a Harmonic

Minor

Scale.

any

scales
white

half
key

Harmonic
on

the

minor

minor

same
scale

tonic,
has

Figure

Harmonic
They

are

formed

tone.

Chromatic

Figure

scales
the

natural

a leading

7.11:

minor
by

derive

7.12:

used

natural
scale

minor

has

scales.

a subtonic

When
while

constructed
the

harmonic

tone.

of Natural

share

a chromatic

signs

minor

Comparison

scales

from

the

outside

Harmonic

key

alteration
the

Minor

and

signatures
of the

key

with

Minor.

of natural

subtonic

signature

Scales

Harmonic

are

Key

minor

upward
called

scales.

to a leading
accidentals.

Signature.

7-7

Scale
The

Degree

Activity

harmonic

tones

in the

better

balance

minor

natural

in Harmonic
scale

minor.

evolved

Using

of tendency

tones

Minor

because

of the

the harmonic
in minor

relative

form of

lack

of tendency

the scale

develops a

keys.

STABLE

ACTIVE

Tonic

Supersonic

Mediant

Subdominant

Dominant

Submediant
Leading

Tone

TENDENCY
Submediant
Leading

Figure
Although
the
has

been

found

has

been

MELODIC

interval

on two

minor

The
for

natural

the

formula
descending

minor

for

in Harmonic

the

has
the

melodic

effect

to Tonic)

Minor.

desirable

harmonic

staff

degrees

(augmented

Therefore,
of this

a third

features,
second)
form

of the

interval.

KEYS
two

ascending
minor

formulas,
melodic
scale

one
minor

is NLm,

scale.

Figure 7.14: The aMelodic Minor Scale.

7-8

to dominant)

(pulls

has

objectionable.

AND

scale

scale

successive

to avoid

SCALES

Activity

of the

to be melodically
developed

melodic

descending.
formula

Degree
form

MINOR

The

Scale

harmonic

three-half-step

scale

the

the

7.13:

(pulls
Tone

ascending
scale
which

and
is mLM.

is the

same

one
The
as

Melodic
melodic

minor

eliminates
lowered

minor

scales

scale

the

Figure

are

formed

the

subtonic

has

objectionable

submediant

Melodic

derive

when

7.15:

minor

scales

by chromatic
upward

Figure

from

raised

Melodic

to achieve

of Natural

the key

alterations
to a leading

7.16:

interval)

descending

share

minor

submediant

melodic

Comparison

natural

signatures

of the

scales.

and
that

leading

return

a more

and

The
to

of natural

submediant

tone

(which

a subtonic

minor

Melodic

ascending
and

sound.

Minor.

minor

upwards

scales.

a half

step

They
and

tone.

Minor

Scales

with

Key

Signatures.

7-9

Scale

Degree

Activity

in Melodic

STABLE

ACTIVE

Tonic

Supersonic

Mediant

Subdominant

Dominant

Raised

Minor

Submediant

Subtonic

(passes

(passes

to Leading

downward

to lowered

Tone)
Submediant)

TENDENCY
Lowered
Leading

Figure
CIRCLE

OF

Since

7.17:

MINOR

the natural,

of key

signatures,

of the

scale.

Scale

Degree

(pulls to Dominant)

(pulls

to Tonic)

Activity

in Melodic

Minor.

KEYS
harmonic,

it is possible

Figure

7-10

Submediant
Tone

and

melodic

to construct

7.18:

Circle

minor
one

circle

of Minor

scales

share

of fifths

Keys.

the same

group

for all three

forms

The

enharmonic

It is possible
direction
around

and
the

to start
return

having

have

the

successive

PARALLEL

the

same

Therefore,

To find

and

by using

travel
one

around

the circle

of fifths

of the enharmonic

keys

in either

to continue

KEYS

Keys

Keys

of C major

are

on a minor

to a minor

AND

Relative

flats.

keys

circle.

RELATIVE

not

minor

same

tonic.

the

key
The

relative

signature
keys

major

are

called

relative.

of a minor

and

C major

of a minor

is C major,

and

Relative
have

keys

no

will

sharps

the relative

or

minor

is a minor.
the relative
staff

minor

degrees,

of any

major

or determine

key,

descend

the sixth

degree

Minor

From

three

half

(submediant)

stepson

three

of the major

scale.

Figure

7.19:

Relative

Major.

7-11

To
three

find

the

successive

minor

Keys

having

signature.

degrees,

any

minor

or determine

Figure

7.20:

the same

tonic

The

the

minor)

bs and

parallel

of C major

keys

of

major

key,

the

Relative

Major

ascend

third

From

are parallel.

C major
of c minor

is c minor.

Note

and

three

degree

half

steps

(mediant)

on

of the

Minor.

Parallel

keys

c minor

have

is C major,
that

their

3 ~s).

Figure

7-12

from

KEYS

Therefore,
tonic

staff

major

scale.

PARALLEL

key

relative

7.21:

Parallel

Keys.

and

do not have
the
the

key signatures

same

parallel
differ

the same
tonic:

C.

minor

(or

(no

#s

or

CHAPTER 8
MODAL SCALES
Scales
positions
used

of
are

eight

tones

called

modes

in many

periods

ecclesiastical
have

modes,

changed,

half

or modal

and
and

they

containing
styles
medieval

retain

their

steps

scales.

of music.
modes.
interval

and

whole

Historically,
They

are

Although
patterns

the
also

steps

called

their

specified
have

church

the techniques
and

in

modes

been
modes,

for their

use

traditional

Greek

or minor.

The

with

it tends

toward

names.

Most

modes

can

be classified

major

predominantly

sound

generally

as major

modes

are

lydian

ionian

mixolydian
The

modes

with

a predominantly

minor

sound

are

dorian
aeolian
phrygian
The

locrian

mode

will

be discussed

sounds
with

neither

minor

major

nor

minor;

minor

and

modes.

8-1

MAJOR

MODES

LYDIAN
The
step

formula

interval

F to F. The

for the lydian

relationship
link

mode

corresponds,

(L) occurs

at the

Figure

The

remaining

ascending
seven
in

sharps

a circle

major

and

and

lydian

lowered

and

flats.

of lydian
minor,

fifth
This

keys
the

order

Figure
8-2

(scale)

beginning

8.1:

are
degrees

creates

fifteen

of fifths).

of sharps

Circle

and

scales

key

scale

from

Scale.

on

fifth

descending

from

lydian

that

keys

Although

of Lydian

step/whole

scale.

constructed

flats

half

to a white

of this

F Lydian

scale

8.2:

The

on a keyboard,

scales

(circle

is LMM.

lydian

remains

Keys.

the

scale

degrees

F lydian

through

can

be represented

tonics
same.

differ

from

C major
lydian

and

and

examples

of

The
parallel

keys.

of the
Degree

lydian
(same

are relative

A lydian

relative

(subdominant)
Scale

Flydian

F major;

The

major

tonic)

relative

and

lydian

C lydian

Db

tonic

and

lydian

and

is the

fourth

G major;
Ab

~b

major

scale

are

degree

in Lydian

has

a raised

major

scale.

Figure

Likewise,

E major;

scale.

Activity
scale

keys.

and

8.3:

subdominant

Parallel

Major

when

and

to

its

Lydian.

STABLE

ACTIVE

Tonic

Supersonic

Mediant

Subdominant

Dominant

Submediant
Leading

compared

Tone

TENDENCY
Subdominant
Leading

Figure

8.4:

for the

ionian

Scale

Degree

Activity

(pulls

Tone

to Dominant)

(pulls to Tonic)

in Lydian.

IONIAN

The

formula

to major

scales.

mode

is MLM,

making

the ionian

mode

identical

8-3

MIXOLYDIAN
The

formulas

for

step/whole

step

scale

G to G.

from

the

interval

mixolydian

Figure

The

remaining

ascending
This

and

creates

mixolydian
as in previous

8-4

mixolydian

descending
fifteen

keys

from

mixolydian

(circle

key

mode

relationship

of fifths).

signatures.

are MML

corresponds,

8.5:

G Mixolydian

scales

are

G mixolydian
keys
The

that
order

or MLm.

The

on a keyboard,

scales

half

to a white

key

Scale.

constructed

on

through
can

be

of sharps

fifth

seven
represented

and

flats

scale

sharps
in
remains

degrees
and

flats.

a circle

of

the same

Figure
C major
is the

fifth

Scale
The
major

and

G mixolydian

degree

(dominant)

Degree

Activity

mixolydian

8.6:

scale

Circle

of Mixolydian

are relative
of the

major

keys.

The

Keys.
relative

mixolydian

tonic

scale.

in Mixolydian
has

a subtonic

(b7)

when

compared

to its parallel

scale.

Figure

8.7:

Parallel

Major

and

Mixolydian.

8-5

STABLE

ACTIVE

Tonic

Supersonic

Mediant

Subdominant

Dominant

Submediant
Subtonic

TENDENCY
Subdominant
Mediant
Subtonic

Figure

8.8:

Scale

Degree

MINOR

(pulls to Mediant)

(can pull to Subdominant)


(pulls to Submediant

Activity

in Mixolydian.

MODES

DORIAN
The
interval

formula

for

relationship

the

dorian

mode

corresponds,

is mLm.

The

on a keyboard,

scales

half

to a white

key

step/whole
scale

step

from

D to

D.

Figure

The
ascending

remaining
and

descending

creates

fifteen

dorian

(circle

of fifths).

The

key

signatures.

8-6

dorian

keys
order

8.9:

scales
from
that

d Dorian

are

d dorian
can

of sharps

be
and

Scale.

constructed
through

on
seven

sharps

in

a circle

represented
flats

fifth

remains

the

same

scale
and

degrees
flats.

of dorian

This
keys

as in previous

Figure

C major
second

Scale
The

dorian
to
scale,

d dorian

degree

Degree

compared
minor

and

scale

the

are

Activity

parallel
dorian

has

Circle

relative

(supersonic)

scale
its

8.10:

of the

of Dorian

keys.
major

The

Keys.

relative

dorian

tonic

is the

scale.

in Dorian
a lowered
major

scale

scale.
has

mediant

(~3)

When

compared

a raised

and

a subtonic
to its

parallel

(~7)

when

natural

submediant

8-7

Figure

Figure

8.11:

8.12:

STABLE

Parallel

Parallel

Major

Minor

and

and

Dorian.

ACTIVE

Tonic

Supersonic

Mediant

Subdominant

Dominant

Dorian.

Submediant
Subtonic

TENDENCY
Submediant

Figure

8-8

8.13:

(pulls

Scale Degree Activity in Dorian.

to Subtonic)

AEOLIAN
The

formula

identical

for

to natural

the

aeolian

minor

scales.

mode

is

mLN,

mode

is NLN.

making

the

aeolian

mode

PHRYGIAN

The
step

formula

interval

for

the

phrygian

relationship

corresponds,

The

on a keyboard,

scales

half

to a white

key

step/whole
scale

from

E to E.

Figure

The

remaining

ascending

and

This

creates

keys

(circle

previous

key

of

phrygian

descending

fifteen

8.14:

phrygian

fifths).

The

e Phrygian

scales
from
keys
order

are

e phrygian
that
of

can

sharps

Scale.

constructed
through
be represented
and

flats

on

fifth

seven

scale

sharps

in a circle
remains

the

degrees
and

flats.

of phrygian
same

as

in

signatures.

8-9

Figure

of Phrygian

and

scale

degree

(mediant)

Degree

Activity

in Phrygian

scale

has

a lowered

and

subtonic

Scale
The
lowered
When
lowered

phrygian
submediant

compared
supersonic

e phrygian

Circle

C major
third

8-10

8.15:

(~6),
to its
(bz).

are relative
of the

parallel

keys.

major

natural

The

Keys.

relative

phrygian

tonic

is the

mediant

(~3),

scale.

supersonic
(~7) when
minor

(b2),
compared

scale,

the

lowered

to its parallel
phrygian

scale

major.
has

Figure

Figure

8.16:

8.17:

Parallel

Parallel

Major

Minor

and

Phrygian.

and Phrygian.

STABLE

ACTIVE

Tonic

Supersonic

Mediant

Subdominant

Dominant

Submediant
Subtonic

TENDENCY
Supersonic
Submediant

Figure

8.18:

Scale degree Activity in Phrygian.

8-11

LOCRIAN

The
interval

formula

for

the

relationship

B. The

link

locrian

mode

corresponds

(L) occurs

at the

end

Figure
The

remaining

ascending
sharps

and
and

locrian
fifth

flats.

circle

of locrian

keys

same

as in previous

(circle

locrian
The

scales

Circle

step/whole

key

step

scale, from

B to

Scale.

order

on raised
from
keys

fifth

b locrian
that

of sharps

signatures.

8.20:

half

to a white

constructed

descending

fifteen

The

scale.

b Locrian

are

of fifths).

Figure

8-12

8.19:

degrees

creates

key

of this

scales

scale

This

is NNL.

on a keyboard,

of Locrian Keys.

can
and

scale

degrees

through
be represented
flats

remain

seven
in
the

C major
leading

and

tone

of the

Parallel

The
dominant
to the

locrian

major
parallel

has

of

lowered

movement.
mode

is used

Scale

and

The

keys.

relative

locrian

tonic

is the

I.ocrian

supersonic

submediant
Only

major

the

Major

a lowered

scale.

a scale,

relative

scale.

(b(j),

(b~),
and

the subdominant

lowered

subtonic
remains

mediant
(~7) when

unaltered

(b;]),

lowered

compared
when

to its

compared

scale.

Figure

As

are

major

Analysis

(bh),

parallel

b locrian

8.21:

locrian

degree

primarily

Parallel

mode
activity

Major

and

is unstable.
in

locrian

as a performance

Locrian.

It exhibits
mode

is not

strong

tendencies

easily

analyzed.

for
The

tool.

8-13

COMPARISON

OF

TO

Charting
same

tonic

Figure

8-14

the

seven

(parallel)

8.22:

MAJOR

modes

shows

Comparison

their

MODAL

SCALE

SCALE

through

their

scale

degree

of Modal

Scale

DEGREES

DEGREES

alterations
relationships

Degrees

as

they

relate

to the

to the

major

scale.

to Major

Scale

Degrees.

CHAPTER 9
CHROMATIC, WHOLE TONE,
AND PENTATONIC SCALES
Chromatic,
tetrachords.

whole
These

key

signatures.

are

used

with

key

steps

whole

consists
in an

tone

keys;
scales

scale.
key

notating

as a chromatic

The

entirely

octave.

are represented

of the

When
written

scale

pitches)

an octave

regardless

and

scales

regular

cannot
therefore,

require

be

analyzed

none

have

accidentals

using
regular

when

they

twelve

half

signatures.

chromatic

is a chromatic

pentatonic

form

SCALE

(thirteen

within

and

do not

Chromatic

CHROMATIC

The

tone,

scales

name

of half

If all

steps.

thirteen

in an ascending
of the chromatic

There

pitches

(twelve

or descending
scale

are

is the first

half

order,
note

steps)

the result
of the scale

signature.
chromatic
alteration

Figure

scales,

any

of the

9.1:

pitch

previous

Chromatic

requiring

an

accidental

is

pitch.

Scale.

9-1

Double

sharps

scales.

Therefore,

double

sharps

The
determines

same
the

and

double

natural
and

signs

double

flats.

Figure

9.2:

chromatic

scale

notation

of the

Figure

9-2

flats

should
on

adjacent

and
can

staff

A Chromatic

be notated

chromatic

9.3: E

be avoided

several

when
degrees

are

used

The

key

chromatic
to

avoid

Scales.
ways.

scale.

Chromatic

notating

Scales.

signature

WHOLE

TONE

The
whole

whole

steps.

SCALE
tone

The

scale,

whole

as its name
tone

scale

implies,

is notated

is a scale
using

arranged

accidentals

to sound

to create

in

whole

steps.

The
often

whole

determines

Since
(including
note.

same

The

anywhere

the

tone

the

notation

whole

tone

the octave),

one

whole
in the

step

scale

that

can

be notated

of the

scale

whole

consists

of the staff
is indicated

degrees

ways.

several
tone

of

The

key

signature

scale.

seven
within

by non-adjacent

pitches

instead

of

eight

the scale

will

not contain

staff

degrees

may

occur

scale.

Figure

9.4:

C and

13b Whole

Tone

Scales.

9-3

PENTATONIC

SCALES

A pentatonic
Two

common

minor.

No

scale

consists

pentatonic
half

steps

of five

scales

occur in

are

tones

(six

pitches

the pentatonic

either

of these

including

major

and

the

octave).

the pentatonic

scales.

Pentatonic Major

When
scale

constructed

contains

scale.

The

scale

from

on

the tonic,

pentatonic
Gb

the

supersonic,
major

tones

leading

major

scale,

dominant,

corresponds,

on

and

apentatonic

major

submediant

of that

a keyboard,

to a black

key

omitted

are

9.5:
the

Pentatonic
tendency

Major

tones

States.

in major:

the subdominant and

tone.

When
minor

scale
minor

lowered

Minor

constructed

of that

to Eb.

on the first

contains
scale.

seventh

pentatonic

9-4

of a

to Gb.

Pentatonic

Eb

degree
mediant,

scale

Figure
The

first

minor

the tonic,
This

scale
scale

degree

mediant,

corresponds

minor

subdominant,

to the first,

degrees
corresponds,

of a natural

on

dominant,

lowered
of the

a keyboard,

scale,

third,
parallel

to a black

a pentatonic
and

fourth,
major
key

subtonic
fifth,

and

scale.

The

scale

from

Figure

The
steps

tones

in natural

omitted
minor:

9.6:

are the
the

Pentatonic

active

supersonic

tone

Minor

and
and

Scales.

the tendency

tone

which

form

half

submediant.

9-5

CHAPTER 10
INTERVALS
An

interval is

according
degrees,

to

the difference

the

number

encompassed

by

of
the

in pitch
letter

interval.

interval
When

tones

interval

sound
tones

or

two
the

tones.
number

Intervals
of

are named

successive

staff

interval.

Figure

When

between

names,

10.1:

Names

of Intervals.

simultaneously,
sound

in

succession,

the

interval
the

interval

is

a harmonic
is a melodic

interval.

10-1

Figure

When
interval.

interval
When

tones
interval

10.2:

Harmonic

encompass
tones

an

and

octave

encompass

Melodic

or less,

a ninth

or

Intervals.

the
more,

interval
the

compound interval.

Figure

10-2

10.3:

Simple

and

Compound

Intervals.

is a simple
interval

is

QUALITIES

OF

To identify
quality

of

minor,

a specific

an

interval

augmented,

may

Intervals

A perfect

prime

A perfect

of the

formed

of a major

The

perfect

steps;

contains

the
twelve

(PI)

fourth

intervals

octave

interval
be

both

its name

described

by

of two

notes

and

one

of

quality
five

must

terms:

be stated.
perfect,

The

major,

or diminished.

Perfect

degree.

half

INTERVALS

consists
(P4),

between

or minor

prime
perfect
half

a perfect

the tonic

(P5),
and

and

pitch

a perfect

on the same
octave

the subdominant,

(P8)

dominant,

staff

consist
and

scale.

contains
fifth

fifth

of the same

no

contains

half

steps;

seven

the

half

perfect
steps;

fourth
and

the

contains
perfect

five
octave

steps.

FigurePerfect
10.4:

Intervals.

10-3

Major

Intervals

A major
seventh

(Maj

supersonic,
The
steps;
eleven

second
7)

(Maj

the
half

second

major

of

consist

mediant,
major

2), major

sixth

the

submediant,

(Maj

intervals
and

contains

two

contains

nine

leading

half
half

steps;
steps;

3), major
formed
tone

10.5:

Major

(Maj

of a major

the major
and

sixth
between

6), and
the

contains

the major

seventh

Intervals.

major

tonic

and

scale.

third

steps.

Figure

10-4

third

four

half

contains

Minor

Intervals

A major
(min

2), minor

intervals
and

formed

submediant

The
steps;
ten

interval

minor

the minor

half

made

3rd (min

3), minor

between
(b6)

smaller

the

by

6th (min

tonic

of a major

a half

and

scale,

second

contains

one

sixth

contains

eight

step

6), and
lowered

and

half

minor

and

third

the minor

A minor
7) consist

(b2),

the tonic

the minor

steps;

minor.

7th (min

supersonic

between

step;

half

becomes

and

2nd
of the

mediant
subtonic

contains
seventh

three

half

contains

steps.

Figure

10.6:

Minor

Intervals.

10-5

Augmenting

perfect

augmented
contains
and

the

Perfect

interval

six

half

Figure

10-6

made

prime (Aug

the

octave

10.7:

greater

1) contains

steps;

augmented

Intervals

by
one

augmented

a half

half
fifth

(Aug

8) contains

Augmented

Intervals

step

step;

the

(Aug

augmented.

augmented

5) contains

thirteen

from

becomes

half

Perfect

fourth
eight

steps.

Intervals.

half

The
(Aug

4)

steps;

Diminishing

perfect

diminished
contains
steps.

Perfect

interval
fourth

six
There

made

(dim

half

smaller

by

4) contains

steps;

is no

Intervals

and

the

diminished

four

a half
half

diminished
prime

step

becomes

steps;

the

octave

because

diminished.

diminished

(dim

fifth

8) contains

it is impossible

The
(dim

eleven

to make

5)

half

a prime

smaller.

Figure

10.8:

Augmenting
A

major

Major
interval

augmented

second

3) contains

five

and

the

Diminished

half

augmented

from

Perfect

Intervals.

Intervals

made
(Aug

Intervals

greater

2) contains

steps;
seventh

the

by
three

augmented

(Aug

a half
half
sixth

7) contains

step
steps;
(Aug
twelve

becomes

augmented.

the augmented
6) contains
half

third
ten half

The
(Aug
steps;

steps.

10-7

Minor
made

intervals

greater

greater

by

by a half
a whole

Figure

minor

the

the

(dim

10-8

sixth

7) contains

becomes

augmented;

become

major;

therefore,

major

a minor

intervals

interval

made

augmented.

Intervals

smaller

2) contains

diminished
(dim

step

from

Major

Intervals.

Intervals

made
(dim

nine

by a half

Augmented

interval
second

diminished

step

Minor

diminished
same;

greater

step become

10.9:

Diminishing
A

made

third

6) contains
half

steps.

by

a half

no half
(dim
seven

step

steps
3)

half

becomes

because

contains
steps;

and

diminished.

the two
two

half

pitches
steps;

the diminished

The
sound
the
seventh

Major

intervals

made

smaller

made

smaller

by
by

Figure

made
a

half

a whole

10.10:

smaller
step
step

by a half

become
becomes

Diminished

step become

diminished;

minor;

therefore,

minor
a major

intervals
interval

diminished.

Intervals

from

Minor

Intervals.

10-9

INTERVAL
The
when

QUALITY
following

moved

diagram

by

half

Intervals
intervals.

the

relationships

Interval

Quality

of

various

intervals

10.11:

Relationships.

INTERVALS
that

have

Enharmonic

but different

notation.

enharmonic

intervals.

10-10

illustrates

steps.

Figure

ENHARMONIC

RELATIONSHIPS

different
intervals
For
Both

names
will

example,
intervals

but

always
the Aug
contain

sound
have

the

the same

5 and
eight

min

same

number

6 shown

half

are

steps.

enharmonic
of half

in Fig.

steps

10.12

are

Figure
INVERSION

OF

Inversion
interval.
lower

is

When
note

SIMPLE

the

upper
the

in
note

the

relative

in a simple

upper

by moving

Enharmonic

Intervals.

INTERVALS

a change

becomes

accomplished

10.12:

note,

the lower

the

position
interval

interval

note

of

the

becomes
has

up an octave

been

notes

in

the lower
inverted.

a simple

note,

or the

Inversion

or the upper

note

is

down

an

octave.

Figure
Three

simple

augmented

10.13:

intervals

Inversion
do not

invert:

Interval

the

perfect

because

there

(P5).

prime,

perfect

octave,

and

octave.

The

perfect

prime

will

not

invert

The

perfect

octave

will

not

invert

which

of Simple

has

no

upper

or lower

because

this

is no

would

upper

create

or lower

a perfect

note.

prime,

note.

10-11

The
the

augmented

upper

The
interval

note

The

the

its

will

lower

of inverted

qualities

perfect

10-12

and

names
and

octave

minor

minor

becomes

major

because
remain

intervals

2 becomes

3 becomes

4 becomes

5 becomes

6 becomes

7 becomes

8 becomes

1 (when

augmented

becomes

diminished

diminished

becomes

augmented

the

upper
lower

note

intervals
invertable)

are

The

invertable)

invertable)

also

would

remain

note.

NINE:
8 (when

(when

the

are predictable.

1 becomes

simple

perfect

becomes

would

is always

of inverted

major

invert

note

simple

inversion

remains

not

predictable:

sum

of a simple

Figure

COMPOUNDING

AND

Compounding
relative

and

position

accomplished

of the

Moving

reduces

a compound

the

ly,

but

reduction

reducing

inversion

rules

the name

note

interval.

control

Interval

intervals
note

down

are

further

of the interval

only

an

octave

until

movement.
changes

other

methods

Compounding

up an octave

Compounding

continue

Inversions.

INTERVALS

in an interval.

the upper

upper

can

Simple

REDUCING

notes

by moving

octave.

intervals,

10.14:

or the lower

or the

intervals
the

while

lower
may

interval

When

of changing
a simple
note

note

down

an

indefinitesimple,

compounding

the quality

is

up an octave

continue

becomes

the

interval

remains

or

then

reducing
the same.

10-13

Compounding

When
added
the

Intervals

compounding

to the

interval

name

a simple

of the

remains

the

interval

prime

10-14

perfect

compounds

prime,

for

each

interval,

octave

the number

displacement.

SEVEN

is

quality

of

The

same.

Figure
The

or compound

10.15:

which

to a perfect

Compounding

is not
octave

inverted,
(P1+7

Intervals.
maybe

equals

compounded.
P8).

The

perfect

Reducing
When
from
interval

the

Intervals

reducing
name
remains

a compound

of the
the

interval

interval,
for

each

the

octave

number
displacement.

SEVEN
The

is subtracted
quality

of the

same.

Figure

10.16:

Reducing

Intervals.
10-15

Two

simple

augmented
perfect

intervals

prime

prime

(Aug

(P8

-7

CONSONANT
The

to

be

Seconds,
generally

intervals

requiring

dissonant

1) and

may

are

tend

to remain

and

P1,

consonance
The

octaves

are

augmented,

minor

steps,

(tonic),

eb

(supersonic).
major
mediant).

10-16

are

Aug

both

belong

However,
G

as

intervals

tend

primes,

thirds,

intervals.
intervals

are

the

intervals

5) and

(Maj

musical

are

second
the
3 and

context

(3 half

other
dim

as

4, dim

determines

enharmonic.

fourth

Since

referred

both

(Aug

4) contain

these

intervals

to as the tritone

six half
contain

(abbreviated

TT).

INTERVALS

or key
The

ascending
pitch

augmented

consonance,

The

augmented

enharmonic.

Intervals.

intervals

when

are

the
a

enharmonic
6, etc.).

to a scale

the

and

min

chromatic.

lydian

intervals

steps)

are commonly

minor

intervals

All diminished

classified

CHROMATIC

called

All augmented

5 and

(dim

and

melodic

(subtonic),

is

of several

P5,

AND

that

one

fifth

whole

or

diminished

and Dissonant

(3 half

dissonance

three

or key

Consonant

third

is true

dissonant,

as consonant

min 2, min 7

10.17:

diminished

Pitches

and

Maj 2, Maj 7

are

to a

consonant

Maj 3, Maj 6

steps,

scale

Perfect

generally

P4,

6 and

to an

reduces

Dissonant

P1, P5, P8,

and

DIATONIC

stable.

Dissonant Intervals

the

reduces

octave

described

Consonant Intervals

This
dim

perfect

to a consonance.

perfect
sevenths,

enharmonic,

dissonance.

octave

intervals.

Figure

steps)

the

be generally

min 3, min 6

Although

augmented

INTERVALS

movement

and

fourths,

The

P1).

of intervals

sixths,

perfect

Aug

DISSONANT

Consonant

fifths,

be reduced.
equals

equals

sound

unstable,

perfect

8-7

AND

basic

dissonant.

may

are called

pitch

(raised

C is chromatic

(lowered

diatonic.

C is diatonic

Pitches

submediant),
(not

subdominant),

foreign

to the keys

diatonic)
and

to a

of C major

and
to the
minor

~b

minor

keys

of D

(raised

Intervals
are

found

interval
~b

are

diatonic

in the

key.

are foreign

is a diatonic

is a chromatic

when

Intervals

to the key.

interval
interval

Figure

both
are
The

in ~b

Major,

in

major,

Gb

10.18:

the

upper

and

chromatic

simple

Diatonic

lower

when

interval

formed

mixolydian,
e minor,

and

and

notes

one
and

or both

of the

interval

notes

by the pitches
c natural

minor,

of the
G up to
but it

D lydian.

Chromatic

Intervals.

10-17

CHAPTER 11
TRIADIC CHORDS
A chord

is a combination

ly or in succession

of three

(broken

or more

chord).

Chords

Figure
A triad
any

is a chord

combination

of three

of

these

tones

triad

because

it is a third

tones

is called

the fifth

The

is called

two

written

triad

is notated

line

or a space.
Four

a major

the

uses

on adjacent

lines

of

The

middle

major

and

often

simultaneousspelled

It maybe

minor
tone

triad.

it is a fifth

staff

or spaces,

and

of the

because

alternate

are

in thirds.

major
root

sounded

in thirds.

Chord.

spelled

of the triad.

above

of the triad

combinations

construction

11.1:

tones

tones

in music

superimposed

the root

triad

different

constructed

thirds.

The

is called
The

above

in its notation,

depending

on whether

thirds

are

of

of the

of the

the root

degrees

minor

lowest

the third

highest

of

three

of the triad.
That

the root

possible

is, the
is on a

in

the

of triads:
third

as the

lower

interval

with

a minor

third

as the upper

third

as the

lower

interval

with

a major

third

as the upper

interval,
a minor
interval,
major

thirds

as both

upper

and

lower

intervals,

minor

thirds

as both

upper

and

lower

intervals.

11-1

Triads

have

Major

(Maj)

minor

(min)

the

following

Augmented

(Aug)

diminished

(dim)

qualities:

Figure

MAJOR

major
steps)

interval.

The

triad
as the
interval

When

constructed

tonic,

mediant,

and

11-2

Triad

qualities.

TRIAD

The
(4 half

11.2:

fifth

has

three

lower

interval

between

on the first
and

(1, 3, and

dominant
5) scale

tones

the

on alternate
and

a minor

root

and

degree
of that
degrees

of that

degrees

with

third

(3 half

steps)

fifth

of a major
scale.

staff

is a perfect
scale,

This
major

a major

corresponds
scale.

fifth
triad

a major

third

as the upper
(7 half
contains

to the first,

steps).
the
third,

Figure

MINOR

(3 half

minor
steps)
The

triad
as the

constructed

tonic,

mediant,
third,

has

on
and
and

three

lower

interval

When

lowered

Major

triads.

TRIAD

The

interval.

11.3:

tones

on alternate

interval

between

the

the first

degree

dominant
fifth

(1,

and

a major

root

and

Figure

minor
5) scale

11.4:

degrees

with

third

(4 half

steps)

fifth

of a minor

of that
b 3, and

staff

Minor

is a perfect
scale,

scale.

a minor

This

degrees

fifth
triad

corresponds

of the parallel

a minor

third

as the upper
(7 half
contains

steps).
the

to the first,
major

scale.

triads.
11-3

AUGMENTED

The
major

TRIAD

augmented
thirds

between

(4

the root

on the first
contains

half
and

degree
the

steps)

the

and

first

degree

and

dominant

and

lowered

11-4

the

upper

tone

mediant,

scale
and

third,

alternate

and
fifth

whose

raised

lower

fifth

steps).

is raised,

of

degrees

intervals.

(8 half

dominant

and

staff

that

(1, 3, and

Augmented

triads.

The

When
tone

~ 5) scale

two

interval

constructed

the augmented

whole

fifth

with

triad

scale.

This

degrees

of the

11.5:

TRIAD

diminished

thirds

root

on

scale.

DIMINISHED

minor

tones

for

Figure

The

three

is an augmented

of a whole

to the first,
major

has

fifth

tonic,

corresponds
parallel

triad

triad

(3 half
fifth

steps)

three

of that

tones

for the upper

is a diminished

of a locrian
fifth

has

scale,
locrian

(1, ~ 3, and

the
scale.

on

and

fifth

lower

(6 half

diminished
This

b 5) scale

alternate
interval.
steps).
triad

of the

degrees

The

When

contains

corresponds

degrees

staff

interval

the

tonic

on the
mediant,

lowered

major

two

between

constructed

to the first,
parallel

with

scale.

third,

Figure 11.6: Diminished


triads.
CONSONANT
The

AND

basic

dissonant.

DISSONANT

sound

of

Consonant

unstable

requiring

triads

triads

consonant

dissonant

triads.

Consonant

triads.

may

tend

movement

generally

TRIADS
be

generally

described

to remain

stable.

to a consonant

triad.

Augmented

and

quality

of

the

usually

occurs.

11.7:

of the
third.

tend

Major

minor

triads

and
triads

are

or
to be
are

generally

Triads

Aug
dim

Figure

quality

triads

diminished

Maj
min

The

consonant

Dissonant

Dissonant

Triads

as

fifth

When

Consonant

affects
the

fifth

and

Dissonant

consonance
is augmented

and

Triads.

dissonance
or diminished,

more

than

the

dissonance

11-5

INVERSION

OF

When

the

Inversion
When

TRIADS

root

of

is a change
the

third

regardless

of

a triad

is its

in the

relative

a triad

of the placement
note,

the triad

the root

third

above

position.

The

same

Figure

11-6

lowest

is in second

it. The

is true

Figure

the

11.9:

root

of the

11.8:

note,

position

of the root

is the lowest
and

is

lowest

and

fifth

the
above

inversion

and

Inversions

Inversion

of the

note,

of the triad

third

the

chord

is in

root

position.

notes

from

root

position.

triad

is in first

it. When

regardless
remains

the fifth

the root

regardless

of C Major Triad.

Types

of a triad

of the placement

fifth.

of the Four

inversion

of Triads.

of
of its

DIATONIC

Writing
will

TRIADS

the

IN

diatonic

construct

the

Diatonic

Triads

Constructing

MAJOR

third

triads

and

diatonic

AND

fifth

above

KEYS

each

to a particular

scale
scale

degree

of a given

scale

or key.

in Major

diatonic

triads

on

major

triads

on

the

tonic,

minor

triads

on

the

supersonic,

a diminished

MINOR

triad

on

the

Figure

major

scale

subdominant,

leading

11.10:

mediant,

degrees

and

and

produces:

dominant

submediant

tone

Diatonic

Triads

in Major.

11-7

Diatonic

Triads

Constructing

in Natural

diatonic

triads

minor

triads

on the

tonic,

major

triads

on

mediant,

a diminished

the

triad

on

Figure

11-8

the

11.11:

Minor
on

natural

minor

subdominant,

and

submediant,

scale

degrees

produces:

dominant

and

subtonic

supersonic

Diatonic

Triads

in Natural

Minor.

Diatonic

Triads

Constructing

diatonic

minor

triads

on

the

tonic

major

triads

on

the

dominant

diminished
an

The
minor
The

in Harmonic

augmented

harmonic

scale
third

triads

on

triad

use

its name.
of the

triads

of the
Altering

dominant

on
and

the
on

Minor
harmonic

major

and

degrees

produces:

submediant
and

leading

tone

mediant

quality

the third
chord

scale

subdominant

supersonic
the

minor

is the

dominant

of the dominant
leading

tone

chord
chord
of the

gives

the harmonic

creates
minor

this

scale.

key.

Figure 11.12: Diatonic Triads in Harmonic Minor.


11-9

Diatonic

Triads

Constructing

in Melodic

diatonic

Minor

triads

on

ascending

melodic

minor

scale

degrees

scale

degrees

produces:

minor

triads

on

the

tonic

major

triads

on

the

subdominant

diminished

an

triads

augmented

Constructing
produces
augmented

triads

triad

triad.

subdominant

triad,

in

the

Using
resulting

and

and

descending

of the

ascending
the

dominant

leading

tone

mediant
on

to those
the

supersonic

submediant

triads

identical

second

the

on

diatonic

subdominant

11-10

on

and

descending

in a more

melodic

natural
form

minor
of

form
minor

the
of

sound.

minor
scale.

scales
the

scale

Eliminating
creates
creates

the
major

a minor

Figure

11.13:

Diatonic

Triads

in Melodic

Minor.

11-11

CHAPTER 12
OVERTONE SERIES
A sound
sixths,

etc.,

source

vibrates

continuing

vibrations

as a whole

on indefinitely

produce

are

called

unit,

in halves,

thirds,

by fractions.

The

and

generally

overtones

are

fourths,

sounds

these

fifths,

fractional

present

in varying

strengths.
The

vibration

of

generates

overtones)

produced

are

lowest

above

depending

on

The
whole

(pitch)
the

also

the

and,

vibrates

in

decreases

producing

producing
with

the

the

the

of the

vibrating

(second

el ; in sixths

higher

pitches.

higher

partials.

illustrate

C is set into

C (fundamental

partial)

producing
(fourth

(sixth
Lower

It has

the
The

in amplitude

source.

string

g; in fourths

pitches

(intensity).
vary

it

STRING

to Great

Great

the

partial.

amplitude
and

(because

All

first

frequency

sound

tone

fundamental.

greatest

A VIBRATING

tuned

generating

is the

are of greater

the pitch
small

the

fundamental

commonly,

a string

halves

producing

sections

of

When

produces
is called

nature
OF

characteristics

partial)

pitch
The

physical

producing

(fifth

unit

fundamental

unit,

partial)

its

partials.

CHARACTERISTICS

relationships.

whole

and

called

frequency

partials

the

partials

and

it vibrates

- first

partial).

small

c;

partial)

partial)

partials
motion

in

producing

The
thirds

as a
string
(third

c1 ; in fifths

producing

gl ; and

have

amplitude,

more

their

in smaller
which

12-1

12-2

Figure 12.1.

THE

OVERTONE
Although

it is necessary
sixteen

The
12.2

partials

SERIES

the

overtone

to put
are

relationship

and

12.3.

series

continues

with

an upper

limit

on the series

the

most

commonly

ones

between

Understanding

partials
their

groupings, individual
from which

and

complex

for practical
used

scale

relationship
partials

vibration

indefinitely,

purposes.

The

first

in music.

degrees

is illustrated

in figures

allows

the formation

of partial

can

be

extracted for musical

performance.

Figure

12.2:

C Overtone

Series.

12-3

Figure
Tonic
The

first,

second,
the

Dominant

The

third
upper

12-4

third,
of

partial

Degrees

of Partials.

The

first

and

partial),

degrees

starting

(Major)

The

and
(5th

twelfth

sixteenth
are derived

tenth
partial)

is derived

partials

third

series.

Mediant

partial

and

partials

are the tonic

by doubling

partial

degrees
numbers

partial.

(3rd

numbers

octave

tonic

sixth,

a given

fifth

eighth,

Partials

octave

partial)

fourth,

octaves.

with

second

Scale

Partials

in successive
starting

12.3:

The

are the dominant

octave

(6th

dominant

with

the

third

partial),

degrees

are

and

degrees

found

in the

fourth

octave

(12th

derived

by

doubling

the

partial.

Partials
partials
and
by

are

fourth

doubling

the

mediant

octave
the

(major)

(10th
lower

partial)

partial.

degrees
of a given

found
series.

in the
The

Subtonic
The
found

Partials

seventh

and

in the third

series.

The

a minor

The

Fourth

the

partial
mediant;

subdominant
the

twelfth

equals
reduction

21st

fourth

by doubling

the

octave

subtonic
(14th

the lower.

to remember

partial)

It may

its scale

degrees
of a given

help

degree

to think

of

although

it

fundamental.

Partials
fourteenth

intervals,

partials

the scale
2) is the

eleventh

partial

(the

only

the

time

subtonic.
it is

fifteenth

considered

numbers

and

the tenth

- 7 equals

is not

is the

out-of-tune

it is raised

and

partial

carried

tone

and
That

to

3) is
raised

out of tune);
partial

(13 -7

(14 -7 equals

through
the

then
is, the

(10 -7 equals

the thirteenth

the fourteenth
leading

partial

4)

occurs

partial
the

of as intervals
are produced.

5) is the dominant;

(major);
The

(11

subdominant

(12 -7 equals

6) is the submediant

are thought

degree

supersonic;

the

process;

are the out-of-tune

and

interval

from

(9 -7 equals

partial

the out-of-tune

partial)

is derived

through

to simple

partials

as a simple

Octave

If the ninth

ninth

(7th

partial

partial

is actually

reduced

octave

upper

the seventh

fourteenth

7) is

the interval

sixteenth

partial

(tonic).

12-5

Figure
Converting
Overtones
Therefore,
number;

12-6

do not

to convert
from

comparing
will

Partials

always

overtones

overtones
be one

to

include
from

12.4:

Partial

Overtones

less

partials

partials

than

and

the fundamental

the

Overtones

add
in an

partial

one

to Partials

as a numbered

to overtones,

to partials,
and

Relationships.

subtract
to get

overtone
number.

the

series,

one

part

to get the overtone

partial
the

of the series.

number.
overtone

When
number

Harmonics

The
the first

term

harmonic

partial

the

term

harmonic

the

first

harmonic.

intended

THE

relative

the

factor

overtones
quality

of the

For
overtones

most

from

Figure

term

the

clarinet

the

These

may

a musical

varies

the
as

That

is, the

mean

partial

timbre

first

That

is,

often

use

overtone

is

or overtone,

of

the

are

the

its

Overtone

(3rd

is a

Usually,

variations

in

on the

saxophone

are the

partial),
in

alternate

Prominence

instrument.

as

partial),

decrease
and

and

the

the

tone

fundamental.

(6th

second

overtones

but

timbre,

instruments

a particular

overtones

fifth

affects

different

pitches

prominent
partial),

instrument

with

individual
pitch,

fundamental

12.5:

as overtone.

as partial.

instrumentalists

TIMBRE

of

overtones

most
(4th

the same

string

harmonic

AND

prominent

third
etc.

same

nature

heard

as being

However,

specified.

producing

not

on the

partial),

removed

of

example,

partial),

the
be

physical

in

are

the

SERIES

prominence

major

(7th

Since
must

OVERTONE

interpreted

harmonic.

as being

meaning

Because

(2nd

is often

is the first

etc.

The

fourth

intensity

most
(5th

as

partial),

they

first

prominent
are

sixth
further

indefinitely.

of Saxophone and Clarinet.

12-7

CHAPTER 13
TRANSPOSITION
Transposition
higher
or

at

is the

or lower

pitch

a different

process

level.

pitch

of moving

To transpose

level.

Pitch

a note
is to write

relationships

or group

of notes

or perform
must

to a specific

in a different

remain

intact

key
during

transposition.

TRANSPOSITION
The
to identify
write

the

most

BY
direct

the

means

pattern

pattern

SCALE DEGREE
of organizing

of scale

in a different

degrees
key.

pitch
in the

Using

relationships
original

numbers

key,
will

for transposition

is

then

or

help

to perform

identify

the

scale

degrees.

Figure

13.1:

Scale

Degree

Transposition

(diatonic

major).

13-1

Transposition
that
pitch

differ

in minor
from

Transposing
many
The

13-2

the accidentals

relationships

Figure

that

have

accidentals

in the original

may
music.

require

The

chromatic

purpose

signs

is to keep

the

intact.

13.2:

diatonic

accidentals
pitch

keys

Scale Degree Transposition

melodies

because

relationships

maybe

chromatic
must

be kept

easier
signs
intact.

(harmonic minor).

than

maybe

transposing
different

after

melodies

with

transposition.

Figure

TRANSPOSITION

BY

Transposing
has

many

degree
step

by

transposition
above

Scale

Degree

Transposition

intervals

creates

a complex

Interval
easier.

or below

(chromatic).

INTERVAL

individual

accidentals,

relationships.

interval

13.3:

transposition
A

the

transposition
original

will

may
key

increase

accuracy

relationship,
may

also

written
keep

the

make
or

pitch

in music

or has

complex

a half

played

the

relationships

step

that
scale

or whole

same

exact

intact.

13-3

Figure
Melodic
melodic

13.4: Interval Transposition

intervals

intervals

in

in the

Figure

TRANSPOSITION
When
remain

13-4

the

13.5:

BY

a transposition

on the

same

transposed

original

staff

(harmonic).

music

will

correspond

to

the

same

key.

Interval Transposition

(melodic).

CHANGE OF KEY SIGNATURE


desired

is a half

step

degrees,

transposition

higher

or lower

by key

signature

and

the

maybe

notes
used.

This

is accomplished

staff

degrees,

The

same

accidental
chromatic

and

by imagining
correcting

accidentals
(raising

will
or

the different

accidentals
not

be used

lowering)

must

key

to keep

signature,

the

pitch

in the transposed
be

created

reading

key,
by

the same

relationships

intact.

so the effect

means

of

of the

different

sign.

Figure 13.6: Key signature Transposition.


13-5

CHAPTER

14

INSTRUMENTS
Copying

instrumental

parts

requires

that

a copyist

know

the

following:

clefs

keys

and

written

transpositions
ranges

sounding

While
more

than
actual

ranges

one

instruments
clef.

sound;

are

as

only

visualized

when

copying

a complete

likely

a single

clef,

instruments,
their
much

by

ranges

must

the

ranges
for

from

concert

to be

instruments

is written

with

in

for

the

transposing

that

pitches
Wind

instrumentalists

(particularly

ranges

are

be transposed.

upper

differing

as

registers)

qualified

use

instrument

ability

by

the

cannot

be

instrumentalist

instruments

should

are

be clearly

pitches.

list of instrumental

instruments

there

music

parts

minimum

sounding

Although
most

some

Extreme

definitely;
The

use

therefore,

itself.

presented.

the

For

determined

instrument
stated

ranges

most

from

of instruments

classification

encountered

would

be far longer,

are:

woodwinds
keyboard
brasswinds
rhythm

section

strings

percussion

WOOD

Woodwinds

may

be

woodwinds.

Single

saxophones.

When

name

instrument

E b

of the

instruments

reed

divided

sound

into

woodwinds

a woodwind

WINDS

transverse,
may

player

sounds:
E b . The

for

double

be further
plays

example,
interval

written

reed,

divided
C on

into
the

B ~ instruments
between

the

and

written

single

reed

clarinets

and

instrument,

the

sound
and

B b , and
sounded

14-1

pitches

determines

instrumentalist
following

its
to use

list

Name

the

same

(Remarks

and

individual

sounding

range

WOODWINDS

- Treble Clef.

Sounds an 8ve higher than written.


Written an 8ve lower than it sounds.

Sounds

(C) - Treble Clef.

as written.

(Some flutes have a low B extension).

DOUBLE
Oboe
Sounds

REED

INSTRUMENTS

(C) - Treble Clef.

as written.

(Some oboes do not have low ~&) key).

14-2

for

Clef(s)

woodwind
more

normally

relationship

about

TRANSVERSE

Flute

fingerings

instrument-

Transposition

C Piccolo

the

Transposed

than

gives:

of

Written

transposition.

instrument)

used

parts
one

allow

instrument.

the
The

F English

Horn

- Treble

Clef.

Sounds a P5th lower than written.


Written a P5th higher than it sounds.

Bassoon
Sounds

SINGLE

(C) - Bass or Tenor

Clef.

as written.

REED

INSTRUMENTS

CLARINETS
Eb

Clarinet

- Treble

Clef.

Sounds

a min 3rd higher

Written

a min 3rd lower than it sounds.

Bb

Clarinet

- Treble

than written.

Clef.

Sounds a Maj 2nd lower than written.


Written a Maj 2nd higher than it sounds.

14-3

E b Alto

Clarinet

- Treble

Clef.

Sounds

a Maj 6th lower than written.

Written

a Maj 6th higher

(Most

alto clarinets

Bb Bass

than it sounds.

have a low ~b

key).

Clarinet

Sounds a Maj 9th lower than written.


Written a Maj 9th higher than it sounds.
(Most bass clarinets

have a low ~b

key).

SAXOPHONES

~b

Soprano

Saxophone

- Treble Clef.

Sounds

a Maj 2nd lower than written.

Written

Maj 2nd higher

Eb

Alto

than it sounds.

Saxophone

- Treble

Clef.

Sounds a Maj 6th lower than written.


Written a Maj 6th higher than it sounds.

14-4

Bb

Tenor

Saxophone

-Treble

Clef.

Sounds a Maj 9th lower than written.


Written a Maj 9th higher than it sounds.

Eb

Baritone

Saxophone

- Treble Clef.

Sounds a Maj 13th lower than written.


Written a Maj 13th higher than it sounds.
(Some baritone
a low A key).

saxophones

do not have

14-5

Figure

14-6

14.1:

Woodwind

Comparative

Range

Chart.

BRASSWINDS
Most
than
the

brasswinds

one

overtone

same

purpose.

name

or more

allowing

maybe

clef

brasswind

player

instrument

sounds.

of

sound

as

position

an

instrument

written.

The

sounding

are

Cylindrical

conical

tubing

Name

affects

the

the

TREBLE
Bb

its

brass
C

on

Trombones

and
the

between

the

transposition.
clef

to produce

bass

use

clef

slides

brass.

instrument,
written
Bass

brasswind

is its

for

When

the
and

clef

more

pitch

sounded

brasswinds
open

or first

series.
with

conical
timbre

various
are

more

ratios

of cylindrical

cylindrical

than

than

cylindrical.

The

of the

instrument.

The

(open/first

position

ratio

and
conical;

conical

of cylindrical

following

sounding

conical

list

to

gives:

series)

relationships
about

and

CLEF
Trumpet,

interval

of a bass

instrument

Transposition
(Remarks

name

clef

written

The

brasswinds

more

in combination
pitches.

treble

plays

constructed

are

of

Written

pitch

bore

brasswinds

into

determines

overtone

Brasswinds
bores.

valves

chromatic

grouped

of the

pitches

bore

three

series,

Brasswinds
a treble

use

individual

sounding

instrument)

range

BRASS
Cornet,

and Flugelhorn.

Sounds a Maj 2nd lower than written.


Written a Maj 2nd higher than it sounds.
Trumpet

- Cylindrical

Bore (3 valves).

Cornet - Conical Bore (3 valves).


Flugelhorn
- Conical Bore (3 valves).

14-7

Horn

l?/Bb

(called

Double

Horn).

Sounds a P5th lower than written.


Written a P5th higher than it sounds.
Conical

Bore (3 valves).

Baritone

Horn.

d
*

Sounds

a Maj 9th lower than written.

Written

a Maj 9th higher

Conical

Bore (3 valves).

BASS

CLEF

Bb

BRASS

Baritone

Horn.

Sounds

as written

Conical

Bore (3 valves).

B~

9:

(non-transposing).

Euphonium.

Sounds

as written

Conical

Bore (4 valves).

14-8

than it sounds.

(non-transposing).

13b Tenor
Sound

Trombone.

as written

(Makes

use of

Cylindrical

(non-transposing).

tenor and

alto clefs).

Bore (Slide).

13b Tenor

Trombone

with F Attachment.
Sounds

as written

(Makes

use of tenor and

Cylindrical

(non-transposing).
alto clefs).

Bore (Slide).

Bb /F/D

Bass

Trombone.

Sounds

as written

(non-transposing).

(Makes

use of tenor and alto clefs).

(high extreme of instrument


infrequently
used).
Cylindrical

Bore (slide).

C Tuba.
Sounds

as written

Conical

Bore (4 valves).

B~b

(non-transposing).

Sousaphone.

Sounds

as written

Conical

Bore (3 valves).

BBb

(non-transposing).

Tuba.

Sounds

as written

(non-transposing).

Conical

Bore (4 valves).

14-9

Figure 14.2: Brasswind


Comparative

Range

Chart.

PERCUSSION
The
pitch

percussion
percussion.

grouping,
pitch

14-10

Due

placement

drums

percussion)

instruments

(timpani)
instruments

may

to the large
in notation
are
are

be divided
number

is very

notated
normally

in

into

indefinite

of instruments
irregular
bass

notated

and

clef.

pitch

and

in the indefinite
will

Mallet

in treble

vary

greatly.

percussion
clef.

definite
pitch
Definite

(keyboard

INDEFINITE

The

PITCH

following

Name

list

of

the

PERCUSSION

of indefinite

in notation

Tools

for

(Remarks

Snare

percussion

gives:
symbol

instrument

Placement
used

pitch

performance

about

individual

instrument)

Drum.

3rd space bass clef,


Rhythm Line.
Sticks,

mallets,

brushes.

Bass Drum.
1st space bass clef,
Rhythm Line.
Sticks,

mallets

(May be played

vertically

or horizontally).

Cymbal(s).

Below,

1st space,

4th space,

or

above bass clef


Rhythm Line.
Hands
mallets,

(in pairs),

sticks,

brushes,

etc.

(Sometimes notated
or x head notes).

with diamond

14-11

Triangle.
3rd space, 4th space, or above
bass clef,
Rhythm

Line.

Triangle

beater,

stick.

Tambourine.
3rd space, 4th space,
bass clef
Rhythm

Line.

Hands,

sticks,

mallets,

Tam-tam

(Gong).

or above

thumb.

Below or 1st space bass clef,


Rhythm Line.
Gong beater

DEFINITE
The

PITCH

following

list

Name

of

PERCUSSION

of definite

the

instrument

pitch

percussion

(symbol)

Transposition
Tools

used

(Remarks

14-12

for

about

performance

individual

instrument).

- clef

gives:

Written

range

(Ranges

Timpani

of instruments

may

vary

depending

the

manufacturer.)

- Bass Clef.

Sounds

as written.

Mallets

(felt, wool, wood).

23 inch Timpano

(I)

26 inch Timpano

(II)

29 inch Timpano

(III)

30 inch Timpano

(IV)

Timpani are fully chromatic


and have a minimum
timpano depends on its condition.

Sounds

on

a P15th higher

range

of a P5th; the upper range

of a

than written.

Brass or hard mallets.

14-13

Sounds

a P15th higher

Hard plastic

Sounds
Chime

mallets.

as written.
hammer

of wood or rawhide.

(Some instruments

Sounds
Wood,

do not extend

a P8ve higher
rubber,

as written.

Rubber,

wood, plastic,

as written.

Yarn or cord mallets.

14-14

beyond

than written.

or plastic

Sounds

Sounds

than written.

mallets.

yam,

or cord mallets.

KEYBOARD
With

the

exception

of

the

depending

on the manufacturer.

treble

bass

and
Name

clefs.

of

the

The

standard

piano,

Keyboard

following

list

keyboard

instruments
of keyboard

ranges
make

vary

widely

use of notation

instruments

in

gives:

instrument

Transposition
Method

of sound

(Remarks

about

Written

Piano
Sounds

production
individual

instrument)

range

(Pianoforte).

as written.

Struck strings.

Electric
Sounds

Piano.

as written.

Range Varies Widely

(Method of sound production varies


depending
on the manufacturer)

14-15

Celeste.
Sounds a

P8ve higher

than written.

Struck metal bars.

Range Varies Widely


Organ.
Sounds

as written

Compressed
electronically
The organ

air through
generated.

pipes or

uses an extra staff for

the pedal register

as needed.

Synthesizer.
Unlimited

Range and Layout


Depend on

transposition.

Manufacturer
Electronically

RHYTHM

generated.

SECTION

Rhythm
Normally,

section
they

instruments
rhythm

14-16

section

are

sound

STRINGS

strings
used

in a rhythm

a perfect

string

include

octave

instruments

guitar,
section
lower
gives:

bass
with

than

guitar,
piano

written.

and

string

and

drums.

The

following

All

bass.
three
list

of

Name

of

the

instrument

- Clef

normally

used

Transposition

Remarks

Open

about

individual

instrument

strings

Guitar

written

- Treble

range

Clef.

a P8ve lower than written

Sounds

Base
Sounds

Guitar

a P8ve lower than written

String
Sounds

- Bass Clef.

Bass

- Bass Clef.

a P8ve lower than written.

Tuned in P4ths.
The instument
or plucked

may be bowed

(arco)

(pizzacato)

14-17

CHAPTER
CHORD
Vertical
piece

may

expression
tones

combinations
be

indicated

for

those

are

included

combination

are

CHORD

The

in the

lower

may

a chord

it does

not

is the

root

framework

symbols

are

symbol

indicates

indicate

how

of the

chord.

of

a shorthand
which

the tones

in the

name

of a chord

symbol

15.1:

of a Chord

Determining
from

a Chord

the
Symbol.

Third
chord

includes

is qualified

it a half

qualifiers

harmonic

INTERPRETATION

Root

The

Although

combination,

the

Chord

used.

Figure

the third

create

symbols.

Root
letter

The

that

chord

combinations.

SYMBOL

The

SYMBOLS

of tones
by

15

that

the pitch

a major

by the chord

step

(minor

lower

third).

the third.

be expressed

in other

Indicators

for Minor

Indicators

for Diminished

third

symbol.
Minor,

The

above

Qualifiers
diminished

preferred

the root
that
and

abbreviations

of the chord

affect
half

diminished
are min

unless
always
are the

and

dim

but

ways.
min, -, m, mi, minor
dim, 0
@

Indicator for Half Diminished


Figure

the third

15.2:

Indicators

for

Qualified

Thirds.

15-1

Third not qualified:

Third qualified (lowered):

Figure

15.3:

of a Chord

The
The
the fifth
fifth

and

chord

includes

is qualified

a half

flat

step

is the
five

dim

the pitch

qualifier

are qualifiers

and

a perfect

by the chord

(augmented

b 5) but

symbol.

Third

Symbol.

that

raises

that

lower

for Raised Fifth

Indicator

for Lowered

above

Qualifiers

or lower the fifth

maybe

15.4:

fifth

fifth)

Indicator

Figure

15-2

the

a Chord

Fifth

Augmented

(Aug,

Determining
from

the
the

expressed

fifth.

fifth.

the root
that

affect

the fifth

a half

step

(diminished

Diminished,

The

in other

preferred

half

unless
raise

abbreviations

Aug, +, (+5), (#5)

for

Qualified

Fifths.

the

fifth).

diminished

ways.

Fifth

Indicators

of the chord

are

Fifth not qualified:

Fifth raised:

Fifth lowered:

Figure
The
The
the

15.5:

Determining

the Fifth

of a Chord

from

a Chord

Symbol.

Sixth
chord

numeral

Figure

includes
6 is part

15.6:

the

pitch

of the

Determining

a major

chord

sixth

above

the root

of the chord

when

symbol.

the sixth

of a Chord

from

a Chord

Symbol.

15-3

The

Seventh

The

chord

includes

(subtonic)

unless

affect

seventh

the

seventh

a half

qualifier

that

the

seventh

the
step

a minor

is qualified
seventh

(diminished

seventh
are

may
chord

Maj7

and

Indicators

for

Raised

Indicators

for Lowered

Figure

Seventh not qualified:

seventh
by the

a half

seventh

seventh.

the tone

a diminished

15-4

the

the

abbreviations

Seventh raised:

pitch

seventh

raise

raises

and

the

may
dim7

be
but

chord

step

sixth).

Major

seven

qualifier

that

as the sixth.

enharmonically.

be expressed

in other

that

or lower

is the

spelled

chord

Qualifiers

seventh)

The

is the

Pitches
preferred

ways.

dim7, 7

for

Qualified

Sevenths.

the

lowers

Maj7, M7, Ma 7, (+7), (#7)

Seventh

Indicators

of the

seven

Seventh

15.7:

root

symbol.

(major

enharmonically
may

the

or major

Diminished

be spelled

above

of

Seventh lowered:

Figure

15.8:

The

Delta

The

Delta

Determining

Sign

(A)

has

CHORD

STRUCTURES

nine

of a Chord

from

a Chord

Symbol.

Sign

meaning

In

the Seventh

come

addition

to

commonly

major,

used

major

sixth

major

seventh

minor

sixth

minor/major
dominant

was

originally

to include

chord

chords

minor,

used
of the

augmented

to indicate
sixth

and

and

the
major

diminished

use

of a triad.

Its

seventh.

triads,

there

are

structures:

seventh
seventh

minor

seventh

minor

seventh

(flat

augmented

seventh

diminished

seventh

five)

15-5

Major

The

Sixth.

chord

indicated

by

Chord

formula
a root

for the major

name

and

Figure
Major
The

Seventh

chord

is indicated

The

chord

is indicated

15-6

Sixth

of a major

scale.

It is

15.9:

Major

Sixth

Chords.

name

and

seventh

Maj

15.10:

chord

is 1,3,5,7

of a major

scale.

It

7.

Major

Seventh

Chords,

Chord

formula
by

is 1,3,5,6

6.

for the major

a root

Figure
Minor

chord

Chords

formula
by

sixth

a root

for the minor


name,

rein,

Figure

15.11:

sixth
and

chord

is 1,

b3, 5, 6

6.

Minor

Sixth

Chords.

of a major

scale.

It

Minor/Major
The
major

chord

scale.

Seventh
formula

for

Dominant

scale.

by

15.12:

Seventh

chord

formula

It is indicated

for
by

The
scale.

Seventh
chord

a root

seventh

name,

min,

Minor/Major

chord

and

Maj

Seventh

is
7.

Chords.

the

a root

15.13:

dominant
name

seventh
and

Dominant

chord

is

of a major

7.

Seventh

Chords.

Chord

formula

It is indicated

minor/major

Chord

Figure

Minor

the

It is indicated

Figure

The

Chord

for
by

the

a root

Figure

minor

seventh

name,

min,

15.14:

Minor

chord

and

Seventh

is

of a major

7.

Chords.

15-7

Minor
The
a major

Seventh

chord
scale.

is also

called

(Flat

formula

The
major

chord

scale.

The
major
seventh

15-8

chord
scale.
chords

seventh

It is indicated by aroot
a half

15.15:

Seventh
formula

min,

chord

chord

7, and

is
This

type

of chord

(47).

(flat

Seventh

the
by

augmented
a root

five)

seventh

name,

Augmented

Chords.

chord

Aug,

and

Seventh

is

1,

3,

$5,

bT of a

of

diminished

7.

Chords.

Chord

for the diminished

It is indicated
are

Minor

15.16:

Seventh

formula

seventh

five)

Chord

for

It is indicated

(flat

name,

diminished

Figure
Diminished

Chord

for the minor

Figure
Augmented

Five)

by

often

spelled

Figure

15.17:

a root

seventh
name,

enharmonically

Diminished

dim,

chord
and
for

Seventh

is
7. Notes

ease

of identification

Chords.

CHAPTER
CHORD
Chord
however,
melodic

symbols
their

indicate

use

may

application.

be

A given

the

16
SCALES

vertical

expanded
chord

or harmonic

by

using

symbol

framework

chord

scales

normally

implies

for

of

a piece;

horizontal

or

use of a particular

scale.
MAJOR
The

SIXTH
major

seventh

chords.

seventh

chords.

AND
or

ionian

The

Figure
MINOR
The
descending

SIXTH

minor

scale

lydian

scale

16.1:

AND

ascending
on

MAJOR

SEVENTH
(MLM)

is used

(LMM)

Major

is used

Sixth

and

MINOR/MAJOR

melodic
sixth

minor
and

Figure
Minor/Major

SCALES

for

major

tonic

for all other

Seventh

scale

(mLM)

Minor

Seventh

is

used

Chord

sixth
sixth

or major
or major

Scales.

CHORD

seventh

Sixth

major

Chord

SEVENTH

minor/major

16.2:

CHORD

both

SCALES
ascending

and

chords.

and
Scales.

16-1

DOMINANT

The
which
all

SEVENTH

mixolydian

move

other

scale

from

minor
seventh

dorian

seventh

16.3:

The

is used

for dominant

lydian

seventh

scale

Seventh

Chord

Scales.

Dominant

(LMm)

chords

is used

for

SCALES

scale

(mLm)

is used

chords

should

take

for

other

minor
scales,

seventh

chords.

the dorian

scale

chords.

16.4:

seventh

chords.

CHORD

Figure

16-2

SCALES

or MLm)

to tonic.

seventh

SEVENTH

The

(MML

dominant

dominant

Figure
MINOR

CHORD

Minor

Seventh

Chord

Scales.

Although
will

some

fit all minor

MINOR

SEVENTH

The

locrian

scale

Figure
AUGMENTED

The

tone

DIMINISHED

chords

CHORD

(NNL)

is used

for

16.5:

scale

Figure

The

FIVE)

Minor

SEVENTH

whole

(222222)

16.6:

scale

a whole

scale
may

step

(flat five)

is used

for

(flat

Chord

augmented

Seventh

CHORD
(21212121)

seventh

five)

chords.

Scales.

SCALES

Augmented

be thought

SCALES

minor

Seventh

CHORD

SEVENTH

diminished

diminished

(FLAT

Chord

seventh

chords.

Scales.

SCALES
is used

of as

two

for

diminished

superimposed

seventh
diminished

chords.
seventh

apart.

Figure

16.7:

Diminished

Seventh

Chord

Scales.

16-3

THE

BLUES

The
cannot

blues
be

are

scale

is a scale

analyzed

subdominant
third

SCALE

with

(4), and

( b 3), lowered
frequently

used

tetrachords.

dominant

fifth

primarily

(5) plus

( b 5), and

lowered

PENTATONIC

and

The
substitute

16-4

major

seventh

pentatonic
for

scale

blue

notes

seventh

contains
which

playing
the

blues.
tonic

It
(1),

are the lowered

( b 7). Enharmonic

spellings

The Blues

Scale.

SCALES

pentatonic

dominant

The
the

while

used.

Figure 16.8:

The

as a device

the

may

be used

with

major

sixth,

major

seventh,

chords.

minor
blues

scale

scale

scale.

may

be used

with

minor

seventh

chords

or as a

Figure

Figure

16.9:

16.10:

Pentatonic

Common

Scales.

Chord

Scale

Usage.
16-5

CHAPTER
SWING

17

RHYTHM

ANTICIPATION
Anticipation
early.

The

result

occurs

when

is melodic,

a note

normally

harmonic,

and

on the beat
rhythmic

is attacked

syncopation

a half

beat

(usually

sometimes

Figure

17.1:

Anticipation.

17-1

An

off-beat

eighth

note

followed

by

rest

is

method

of

notating

anticipation.

Figure

DIVIDED
The

BEAT
divided

it is notated.

Tempo
In extremely

is often

17-2

IN

beat

The

performed

dotted

tempi,

as:

Anticipation

SWING

TIME

in swing

determines
slow

17.2:

time

is often

eighth/sixteenth

the

interpretation
the

notation:

Created

by Rests.

interpreted
or eighth

of the

differently
note

divided

pattern

beat

from

the way

in notation:

in swing

time.

In

double

time,

the

same

notation

is often

performed

as:

In medium
earlier

tempi,

and

notation

is often

In extremely
sounds

The

portion

compound

performed

fast

earlier

notation

the second

requires

tempi,

and

of the beat

sounds

interpretation.

The

as:

the

requires

is often

performed

following

graph

second
simple

portion

of the beat

interpretation.

The

as:

illustrates

how

the

second

portion

of the

divided

beat

moves.

Figure

the

Normally,

in rhythmic

beat,

is a breath

there

17.3:

Divided

passages
accent

Beat

in Swing

containing

or push

on

Time.

repeated

regular

divisions

of

off-beats.

17-3

SHORT

PERCUSSIVE

Normally,
to eighth)

in swing

is a short

determined

NOTE

by

quarter

(usually

with

portion

of the

time,

the

percussive

style

and

note

on

beat.

note.

note

The

or its tied

duration

equivalent

of a short

(eighth

percussive

tied

note

is

tempo.

the

a legato

quarter

beat

mark).

A cap

is a short

percussive

It is performed

accent

is often

note

unless

the

duration

with

used

to indicate

marked

a short

of the

long
first

percussive

note.

Figure
A quarter
note
the

unless

note

marked

Short

Percussive

(quarter

note

equivalent)

long.

It is performed

with

Notes
off

the

on the Beat.
beat

the duration

is a short
of the first

beat.

Figure

17-4

17.4:

17.5:

Short

percussive

Notes

off

the

Beat.

percussive
portion

of

An
short

anticipation

percussive

that
note.

is an off-beat

It is performed

eighth
with

note

the

followed

duration

by a rest is usually

of the first

portion

of the

beat.

Figure

LONG

An
percussive

17.6:

PERCUSSIVE

anticipation
note

Short

Percussive

duration
second

beats

that

in swing

maybe

of the second
portion

of the

as Anticipations.

NOTE

is not
time.

a short

A long

performed

with

percussive

percussive
An

or more

Notes

note
note

anticipated

its full

portion

of the divided

divided

beat.

value
beat.

is normally

is often,

long

percussive

or it may
The

but

along

not

note

be shortened

anticipation

always,

occurs

of two
by the
on the

17-5

is performed:

is performed:

Figure

A note
long

that

may

duration

of the

17-6

occurs

percussive

duration,

17.7:

note
be

Long

beginning
that

on the

begins

performed

second

Percussive

portion

with

on
its

of the

Notes

beat

as Anticipations.

is often

a long

the

beat,

and

full

value

or it may

divided

beat.

is

of

percussive
more

than

be shortened

note.

a beats
by

the

Figure

17.8:

Long

Percussive

Notes

on the Beat.

17-7

quarter

percussive
long

note.

percussive

Figure

17-8

note

(or

equivalent)

It is performed
quarter

17.9:

note

Quarter

with
occurs

Notes

that

is

marked

the duration
on

the

second

as Long

long

is

usually

of the full beat.


portion

Percussive

of the

Notes.

An

long

off the beat

divided

beat.

CHAPTER
MELODY
Pitches

used

to construct

18

CONSTRUCTION
melodies

may

be chord

tones

or approach

tones.

CHORD TONES

Many
Curcaracha

melodies

are

is composed

constructed
of chord

primarily
tones

in all

of chord
but

the

tones.
third

For
and

example,
seventh

La
bars.

Figure 18.1: Chord Tones in La Cucaracha

18-1

Chord

tones

of a given

chord

with

any

rhythm

pattern

against

the

harmony

is also

that

played
chord.

in any
When

anticipated.

Figure

18-2

maybe

18.2:

Chord

Tone

Melodies.

order,

the

in any

melody

octave

and

is anticipated,

APPROACH

TONES

Approach
are

tones

usually

approach

tones

Scale
Scale
approach

of

are

beat
scale

Approach

that

approach

tones

are

tones

of that

Figure

18.3:

tones

chord
~

tones

and

tones

by step.

, sometimes
chromatic

Approach
. Two

J)
approach

tones
types

of

tones.

Tones

chord

approach

into

(usually

approach

of the

lead

duration

the

Notation
scale

half

are tones

chord

non-chord

Scale

scale

chord

tones
by

Approach

for

a given

within

a given

chord

scale

that

step.

Tones

chord

in La Cucaracha.

will

make

the identification

of

easier.

18-3

Figure

18-4

18.4:

Scale

Approach

and

Chord

Tone

Melodies.

Chromatic

Approach

Chromatic
or scale

approach

approach

Figure
A scale
if

the

approach

chromatic

tones

tones

18.5:

Tones

by

are

half

Chromatic
tone

approach

may

non-chord

tones

that

approach

chord

tones

steps.

Approach
move

tone

goes

Tones

in La Cucaracha.

to a chromatic

approach

tone

by half

immediately

to a chord

tone

in the

step
same

direction.

Figure

Notation
chord,

will

18.6:

Scale

of the
make

their

Approach

chromatic

Tone

approach

identification

easier.

to Chromatic

tones,
The

with
result

Approach

the
will

chord

Tone.

scale

of a given

be a chromatic

scale.

18-5

Figure
Scale

18-6

18.7:

Approach,

Chromatic
and

Chord

Approach,
Tone

Melodies.

Figure

18.7:

(continued).

18-7

Figure

18-8

18.7:

(continued).

CHAPTER
EXTENDED
A chord
and

symbol

seventh.

root

often

When

in ascending

chord.

indicates

These
The

ALTERED

pitches

additional

thirds.

of the

AND

19

pitches

pitches

other

than

are required,

are expressed

extensions

are the

CHORDS
the

first,

the basic

as compound

ninth,

eleventh,

third,

fifth,

chord

is extended

intervals
and

sixth,

from

thirteenth

the

above

a root.

Extended
in the

chords

are

created

when

eleventh

or thirteenth

are present

chord.

Figure

Altered

the ninth,

chords

chromatically

are

created

19.1:

when

the

Extended

fifth,

Chord.

ninth,

eleventh,

or thirteenth

are

altered.

19-1

THE

NINTH

Natural

The
the

Ninth

chord

chord

includes

when

the

the pitch

numeral

9 is part

Figure

Lowered

Ninth

The

includes

chord

seventh

19-2

indicator,
type

chords.

19.2:

the pitch
is

preferred

but

part
(-9)

a major

ninth
of the

Natural

a minor
of

is also

the

chord

Ninth

ninth

chord

used.

(major

above

the root

of

symbol.

Chords.

(minor
symbol.

This

second)

second)
The

alteration

above

the root

symbol
occurs

on

dominant

of

Figure

Raised

The
usually

Flat

Nine

Chords.

Ninth

chord

includes

spelled
but

the

pitch

enharmonically

is
indicator,

19.3:

part

of

the

(+9) is also

as
chord

used.

This

an

augmented

a minor
symbol.

ninth

third)
The

alteration

(augmented

above

the

root

second,

of the

chord

symbol

occurs

on

dominant

seventh

type

chords.

Figure

THE

Sharp

Nine

Chords.

ELEVENTH

Natural

The
root

19.4:

of

Eleventh

chord
the

includes

chord

when

the
the

pitch

a perfect

numeral

11

eleventh
is

part

(perfect
of

the

fourth)
chord

above

symbol.

the
This

19-3

extension
ninth

usually

occurs

on

minor

Suspended
The
when

sus

third

as

major

Fourth

chord

a chord

sixth

(Sus

includes

4 is part
and

19.5:

If the symbol

and

diminished

the

of the

tone.

pitch

chord

This

major

sus

Natural

a perfect
symbol.

extension

six/nine,

is present

Eleven

Chords.

fourth
The

above

perfect

occurs

on

and

major

seventh

19.6:

sus

in a chord

the

fourth

of the

chord

the

major

replaces

dominant
and

root

seventh
ninth

and

ninth,

chords.

4 Chords.
symbol,

it is usually

interpreted

as

4.

Raised
The

19-4

ninth

4)

Figure

above

minor

chords.

Figure

Sus

ninth,

the

Eleventh
chord
root

includes
of the chord

the

pitch

when

an augmented
is part

eleventh
of the chord

(augmented
symbol.

The

fourth)
symbol

is the
occurs

preferred

on dominant

chords.

The

seventh

type

altered
chord.

indicator,

but

ninth,

augmented

ninth

and

Both

the

(+11)

ninth,

raised

altered

is also

major

eleventh
ninth

used.

This

alteration

six/nine,

may

be

and

used

and
on

usually

major
the

are indicated

ninth

dominant

in the chord

symbol.

Figure
THE

19.7:

Sharp

Eleven

Chords.

THIRTEENTH
Natural
The

of the
usually

chord

chord

Thirteenth.
includes
when

occurs

on

-should
included
in the

be
on the
chord

the

the pitch

a major

numeral

13

dominant
indicated

dominant

thirteenth

is part

of the

(major
chord

sixth)

symbol.

above
This

the root
extension

ninth
in

the

chord

symbol.

The

lowered

ninth

may

be

thirteenth

symbol.

Figure

19.8:

Natural

Thirteen

Chords.

19-5

Lowered
The

Thirteenth

chord

includes

the pitch

is

a minor

part

preferred

indicator,

dominant

seventh

but
type

(-13)

of the

is

chords

also

with

and
on

dominant

(minor

symbol.
This

altered

The

and

eleventh

type

chords

Flat

Thirteenth

above

the root

symbol

alteration

ninth

seventh

sixth)

usually

raised

eleventh.

chords.

should

occurs

The

on

It also
altered

be indicated

SPECIFIED
A bass

BASS
note

to notate

Chords.

NOTE

which
this

19.9:

is not

the root

is to indicate

the

of the chord
chord

is often

structure

over

required

in music.

the

note.

bass

9,

in the

symbol.

Figure

19-6

chord
used.

diminished

chord

way

thirteenth

One

Figure

19.10:

Specified

Bass

Note.

19-7

APPENDIX

MANUSCRIPT
The
fine,

importance

of producing

well-prepared

performer.

score

No matter

bound

to make

read.

Composers

manuscript

and

should

with

a reasonable

manuscript

can

technically

correct

confuse

and

for

rate

personal

attention
score

attractive

students,

it mandatory,

the

or part

is

easier

to

and

who

from

expect

their

an act of professional

possible.
the

greatest

the

and

Like

ordinary

of

thought

straight

clarity

speed.

are recommended.

other

more

characteristics

lines,

be overestimated.

more

try to be, a fine


or

of copying

conveying

vertical

slurs,

consider

manuscripts

strive

pencils

straight

accidentals,

effect.

and

the student,

(freehand)

Clef

show

may

by being

professionals

should

best

cannot

receives

a reader
simply

arrangers,

writer

Every

CLEF

objective

the

manuscript

immediately

impression

to supply

compatible

For

how

a better

good

or part

to be performed

courtesy,

TECHNIQUES

of the

the

horizontal

musical

symbols.

purpose

and

penmanship,

writer

musical

Practice

attractiveness
while

content.

manuscript
lines,

being

by drawing

circles,

ovals,

clefs,

SIGNS
Signs

have

a definite

Strive

for

consistent

the

reader.

Clef

design

signs

Figure

should

A.1:

and

are not inserted


avoid

appear

Clef

merely

over-embellished
at the

beginning

for decorative
designs
of every

that
line.

Signs.

A-1

KEY

SIGNATURES
Key

Signatures

written

in an

are

unchanging

Sharps:

Flats: B

following
the

signatures

signatures

are

G
written

Signatures
the
first
are

key
note

are

sign.

Sharps

at the

beginning

Key

signatures.

A2:

placed

signature.
of

written

within

A bar

the

first

when

the

Figure

A-2

clef

and

flats

are

always

of every

line.

SIGNATURES

Time
and

the

order.

Figure
TIME

after

CGDAEB
E

Key

placed

line

the

is not

limits

placed

measure.

In

meter

changes.

A.3:

Time

of

the

between

addition

Signatures.

to

outer
the time

the

staff

lines

signature

beginning,

time

LEGER

LINES

The

distance

printed

staff

between

lines.

leger

A series

lines

must

of leger-lined

be the same

notes

as the distance

inaccurately

placed

between

is difficult

to

read.

Figure

A.4:

Leger

Lines.

NOTEHEADS
Noteheads
within

the

Noteheads
precise
notes

are

space.
should

location,

nor

in any

slightly

size

never

to be played.

allowed

oval,

The

of the

be so large

should

Strive

slanted,

they

that

that

should

Figure

clearly

centered

is determined
they

be so small

for noteheads

notehead

and

notehead

confuse
that

of uniform

on

by the size
the reader

they

look

size.

like

the

line

regarding
cues

or

of the staff.

rather

No daylight

their
than

should

be

be solid.

A.5:

Noteheads.

STEMS

Stems

are always

octave

in length,

above

the center

vertical,

and normally

never

slanting

extend

line, stems go down

left or right.

Stems

at least to the center

are approximately

line of the staff.

and to the left of the notehead.

For notes

one

For notes
below

the

A-3

center

line,

stems
group
group

may go up or down depending


on musical
to be beamed,
stem direction
is determined
and distance
from the center line.

stems

go up and to the right of the notehead.

Figure

A.6:

For notes

on the center

line,

context.
When stemming
notes in a
by the position
of the majority
.
. in the

Stems.

FLAGS

Flags

always

embellished
Flags

are

connected

of the

flag

curving

slightly

go to the right

designs

which

easily

to the stem.

Flags

inward

to accommodate

of the stem

can

toward

Figure

A-4

begin

the

additional

regardless

be confused

at the end

notehead.

flags.

A.7:

with

Flags.

The

of stem
rests

direction.
or other

of the stem
stem

may

with

Avoid
symbols.
the end

be lengthened

BEAMS

Beams
the

link

proper

least

that

beaming

of

confusing

the width
figure

notes

of the

normally

use flags.

a specific

to the

reader

space

between

note

are best.
staff

Although

group,

Beams

beams

should

lines.

Some

A.8:

Beams.

many
that

factors
look

be approximately

general

guidelines

determine

good

and

are

one-half
are shown

in

A.8.

Figure

A-5

DOTS
Dots
as the

are

placed

note.

above

and

single

dot.

to the

If the

note

right

is on

to the right.

of the notehead

a line,

Double

dots

the

dot

affected

is placed

are placed

Figure

A.9:

and
in the

in the same

in

the same

space

relative

space

immediately
position

as the

Dots

SPACING
Spacing
rests

must

of notes

accomplished
(quadruple
into

two

measure,
positioned
performed

is generally

be placed

in each

by visually
meter
parts).
not
at

into
This

from
least

on beat

in proportion

measure

dividing
four

bar-line
one
1 are

each

parts,

division

measure

into

triple

meter

into

from

beat

bar-line.

notehead
written

The

distance
on beat

Figure

A.10:

values.
they

not

beat
the

Notes

belong.

imaginary

parts,

1 to beat

first

and

equal

three

from

one,

time

to which

is made
to

On individual
parts, measure
written within it. Thus, a measure

to their

on the beat

in

and

bar-line.

in the center

is

segments
duple

1 of the
each

and

This

meter

following

measure
Whole

is

notes

of a measure.

Spacing.

length is determined
by the amount
of music to be
containing
just a whole note should not be as long as

another
measure containing
running sixteenth
notes. A good average line will contain
four measures. Avoid crowding.
The wise copyist plots the length of each measure on a
line, using as a basis the measure with the most notes. A certain amount
of give-andtake has to be allowed,
and
allow

A-6

that all measures


too

much

room

so that the last measure


are more-or-less
than not to allow

on each line ends at the end of the line,

proportionate
enough.

in length.

It is always

better

to

TIES

Ties

are usually

placed

question

as to position,

notehead

to notehead.

on the notehead

the

side

tie is inserted

Figure

of the notes

above

A.11:

affected.

the notehead.

Ties

If there
extend

is a
from

Ties.

SLURS

Slurs
slurred
slurs

are
are

are

placed

on the

stemmed

placed

in

above,

acceptable

to stem

slurs

a specific

from

beginning

and

notehead

the

side

when

same

direction.

regardless

of the

a note

incorrectly

note

to

all notes

division

to justify

a specific

within

If stemming
of

stem

slurring

note

so

that

the

group

is in both
direction.

below
each

It is not

the

slur

to be

directions,
staff.

has

Draw

a definite

ending.

Figure

A.12:

Slurs.

RESTS
Rests
measure
fourth

single

specific

proportionate
line

Rests
indicate

have

to

of a staff,

are
one

symbol

not

tied.

whole
which

time
and

their

values
value.

half

rests

A whole

rest

measure

of rest

is placed

and

must

Normally,

sit

on

the

regardless
middle

given

whole
third

is positioned

in the

be

rests

or middle

in the

of time

space

middle

signature.

within
hang

from

each
the

line.

of a measure
This

to

is the only

of a measure.

A-7

Normally,
meter,

rests

multiple
are

not

rests

within

combined

from

Figure

When
number

it is necessary
of

combined

whole
must

to indicate

measures
be of the

are
same

Figure

a measure
the

A.13:

A.14:

to the

together.

third

In quadruple

beat

of a measure.

Rests.

more

combined
metric

are added

second

than

one

as

figure

in

whole

measure

A.14.

All

of rest,
the

the

measures

value.

Combined

Measure

Rests.

NUMERALS

Numerals
quadruplets)
location

that
are

depends

indicate

enclosed
upon

artificial

in brackets
space

together

need

not be grouped

slurred.

Curved

lines

are

A-8

indicate

articulation

on either

limitations

beamed

may

divisions

sometimes
as well

substituted
as artificial

side

and

together

(e.

g.

of the

notes

readability.

again

with
for

division.

duplets,
affected.

Groups
a bracket,

brackets.

triplets,

The

Their

normally
except
curved

when
line

Figure
REPEAT

measures

measure

1. If the

measure

must

should

measure

be written

If the

repetition

be numbered,

is to be repeated
at the

Figure
of a two

Single

measure

with

the

on the

beginning

A.16:

subsequent

of the

new

Measure

repeat

notated

measure
line,

the

being
notated

line.

Repeats.

occurs

more

than

once,

the repeats

be numbered.

Figure

Signs
line

Numerals.

SIGNS

Repeated

should

A.15:

with

indicating
dots

placed

repetition

A.17:

Two

Measure

of a complete

in the second

and

third

Repeats.

section
spaces

are made
of the staff.

with

a double

Normally,

bar
when

A-9

the repeat
is not

is to be made

needed.

more

than

number

If the

twice),

of times

from

the beginning

repeated

the number

of Da Capo

the end of the measure


Coda
they

( $
take

) are

is to be repeated

of times

the section

it is to be repeated,

Figure
Abbreviations

section

in which

placed

above

of a composition,

must

A.18:
(D.C.)

than

is to be played,

once

rather

sign

(played
than

the

Repeats.

Dal

they take effect.


the staff

more

repeat

be indicated.

Section
and

the first

Segno
The

are placed
signs

below

the staff

for Dal Segno

at the beginning

( #

of the measure

at

) and

in which

effect.

Figure

A.19:

Accidentals

appear

before

they

The

Da

Capo,

Dal

Segno

and

Coda.

ACCIDENTALS

which
line

alter,

or be entirely

to remind

open

within

the performer

the

portion

the space.

note

on

the

same

of an accidental
To avoid

of an accidentals

confusion
cancellation

parenthetically.

Figure

A-10

A.20:

Accidentals.

line

should

or space
either

as the

note

be bisected

it is sometimes
in the following

advisable
measure

by

DIRECTIONS

FOR

Directions
system,

for

depending

Tempo
above

the

staff

such

are

of the

the

intent

on

such

score

directions

become

and

Marks

Ornament
has

performance
on

Indications

Metronome
follow

PERFORMANCE

Signs
customary

Allegro,

to
the

such

above,

below,

or

within

a staff

direction:
Bouncy

4, Grave,

etc.,

are

located

parts.

used
above

as

placed

supplement

tempo

indications

immediately

staff.

as those

for

a mordent

to write

out

ornament

inserted

on

the

or turn

figures

go above

the

to avoid

confusion

of a note

directly

staff.

It

as to

interpretation.

Articulations
under

the

sforzato

note
the

Fermatas

forte

piano

the
the

directions,

staves
are

Dynamic
between

exact

affect.

@#+ and

or between

below

are
they

Marks

first

note

whether

terminal

of

VP) are placed

above

are
the

written

volume

the

below
music.

passage
one

Figure

below

staff

out verbally

level,

side

directions

such

the staff

as

over

sforzando

or
(s~),

on instrumental

parts

music.

placed

keyboard
of

notehead

accent

of keyboard

placed

staves

Heavy

level

A.21:

regardless

the
The

of stem

staff

on

signs

should

affected.

If

Dynamic

instrumental
be

crescendo

or by the sign,
change

direction.

parts

carefully
and

>,

and

placed

diminuendo

do not show

an

is understood.

Marks.

A-11

REHEARSAL

SIGNS

Rehearsal
These

signs

signs

bar-line

are

musical

phrases

Often,

rehearsal

attention

of

the

to place
at

at points

every

staff

measure

arbitrarily

signs

be placed

above

every

it is better

than

may

or circles

numbering

rather

to place
special

or numbers)

in boxes

The

necessary.

advisable
require

written

affected.

sometimes

(letters

for

eight

and

directly

rehearsal

rehearsal

signs

eight-measure

within

measures.
over

the

purposes

is

according

to

intervals.

the arrangement

It

that

is

might

in rehearsal.

PROOFREADING
Proofreading
must
will

proofread

mind

is

be carefully
reads
Proofread

an

absolute

checked

before

a part
what

and

should

for

necessity.

overlook
be there

omitted

All

it is submitted
certain
rather

than

Beams,

signatures

Chord

signs

Dynamics

for

Beats

within

because

is actually

any

the

seen

flags,

stems

errors
omitted
measures

omitted

for

performance

musical

by the

or dots

symbols

kind

a copyist

measures

Directions

signs

Measures

of

Often

Articulations

signatures

Transposition

work

or incorrect

Key

Repeat

simply

what

Rest

Rehearsal

A-12

errors

Accidentals

Time

Also check

manuscript
for performance.

eye.

APPENDIX
DIRECTIONS

MUSICAL

PERFORMANCE

ABBREVIATIONS

Divided
into

FOR

Notes.

equal

lesser

A stroke
values

on

through
the

the stem

pitch

of a note

or pitches

given.

Divided

Notes.

is used

to divide

that

note

written

performed

written

performed

Figure

Repeated

Beats.

B.1:

Cross-strokes

indicate

repeated

beats

within

a measure.

written

performed

Figure

B.2:

Repeated

Beats.

B-1

Repeated
repeated

Measures.

Single-and

Repeated

head)

Capo

and

play

B.3:

Repeated

indicate

Sections
al Fine

(D.C.

to the end

al Fine)
(fine),

Figure
Segno

(D. S.) means

Figure

B-2

signs

Measures.

means

usually

to repeat

indicated

from

B.4:

Da

to repeat

B.5:

Dal

Capo

- Performed.

from

the

Segno

the beginning

by a double

line.

Dal

repeat

measures.

Figure

Da

double-measure

sign.

- Performed.

bar with

(from

the

one heavy

The

coda

to indicate
be made

sign

a skip
to the

( +$ ) is used

in conjunction

to a different
coda

(tail),

ending.

and

Figure
Repeat
otherwise

signs

are

indicated,

the

used

Octave
an

octave

Signs.
higher,

Octave
an

another

B.6:

octave

B.7:
signs

lower,

at the

D.C.

where

and

D.S.,

the skip

is to

coda.

- Performed.
repeated

sections

Repeat

the directions,

is put at the point

is put

Coda

to indicate

repeated

Figure

One

with

are

Signs

are used
or with

phrases
played

strains.

(repeated

Unless
once).

- Performed.

to indicate
the

twice

and

upper

that

a part

or lower

is to be played
octave.

B-3

Figure

MELODIC

Acciaccatura

or Grace

through

must

be subtracted

the beat,
As

Handel,
from

the

Octave

it. Its time


from

taking

its time

used

in music

etc.),

this

succeeding

grace
note

Note.

value
one

This

is not

- Performed.

is an eighth

counted

of the adjacent

value

from

of the
note
and

Figure

B-4

Designations

ORNAMENTS

slash

B.9a).

B.8:

the

Baroque

usually
is very

B.9:

note

in small

in the rhythm
notes.

preceding
and

It is usually
note

Classic

occurs

on

short

(Figure

Acciaccatura

the

and

B.9b).

- Performed.

with

performed

is very

periods
beat,

type

of the measure,

taking

before

short

(Haydn,

(Figure
Mozart,

its time

but

value

Appoggiatura.
rhythm
from

of the
the

A note
measure.

succeeding

If the
two,

in small
It always

note

one-half

If the

appoggiatura

three,

it receives

below
beat,
them

note)

depending
before

on the
the

notes

usually

performed

on

the

whose

value

beat

is not

and

takes

counted

in the

its time

value

time

a note

time

Two

may

character

time

is divisible

by

B.10a).

value

is divisible

(Figure

B.10b).

by

- Performed.
notes

be performed

of the

value

(Figure

value

Appoggiatura

(Disjunct).
which

value

whose

of the

B.10:

time

music.

(usually
either

The

one

above

on the beat

usual

practice

and

one

or before

the

is to perform

beat.

Figure
Multiple

a note

precedes

Note

the principal

on

of the

two-thirds

Figure
Grace

time

occurs

precedes

it receives

whose

as follows:

appoggiatura

Double

type

Grace

B.11:
Note

performed
the

beat,

Figure

Double
(Conjunct).

before
depending

B.12:

Grace

the
on

Multiple

Note

A scalewise
beat;
the

series

although,

character

Grace

- Performed.

Note

of the

of two
they

or more
are

small

sometimes

music.

- Performed.

B-5

Mordent.
neighbor,

A single

or with

it is written

or double

its upper

above

alternation

neighbor

or below

the

of the principal

when

inverted.

When

note

with

its lower

an accidental

applies,

sign.

SINGLE MORDENT

DOUBLE MORDENT

INVERTED

MORDENT

Figure

Turn
lower
written

or Gruppetto.

neighbor,

If the

sign

neighbor

principal

on the

sign

note;

the

the

principal

its time

between
part

with

accidentals

note,

value

two

notes

of the first

between

of the turn
second

When

note

its upper

apply,

they

the

from

turn
the

begins

first

on the

part

of the

B.14a).

last

is placed

notes.

principal

sign.

takes

(Figure

is placed

notes

over

- performed.

of the

four

the

and

If the sign

three

of

is placed
note

Mordent

alternation

below

performed

(Figure

two

notes

are performed

same

pitch

of different
(principal)
of the

on the last

becomes

the

pitch,
note

same
part

fourth

the turn

(Figure
pitch,

is

B.14b).
the

first

of the principal
note

of the

turn

B.14c).

If the sign

B-6

An

and/or

upper

If the

B.13:

consisting

above

(Schneller)

is placed

after

it were

between

two

notes

another

way

of writing

a dotted
of the
a second

note,
same

it is performed
pitch

similar

since

note

the same
the

(Figure

as if

dot is simply
B.14d).

and
are

If the turn
(Figure
the

is inverted,

B.14e).

same

the upper

With

as the

this

regular

Figure

Trill. A
which
the

rapid,

lasts

waved

even

line,

if used.

exception,

lower
the

neighbors
inverted

change
turn

places

is performed

turn.

B.14:

Gruppetto/Turn

alternation

for the entire

and

of the

duration
When

- Performed.

principal

note

of the principal

an accidental

note

applies,

with

its upper

or continues

neighbor

to the end

it is written

above

of

the trill

sign.

Often

a trill

leading
notes

are

should
trill.

by

next

not

present,

a single

be played,

in most

trills

must

long

one

to the

still
All

is followed

close

tone

with

or more

short

notes

as a completion
alternation
cases,
the

or grace

to the

with

trill.

the lower

notes
If these

neighbor

as an after-turn

to complete

principal

therefore,

tone;

the
trills

B-7

beginning
tone

by

with

the

on the principal
means

tone

of a triplet

after-turn

prior

(Figure

incomplete

with

the

followed
trills

trill

has

upper

neighbor.

by

unaccented

an

(Figure.

trilled

waved
the

trill;

may

in conjunction

Trill - Performed.

after-turn.

The

It is simply

incomplete

note,

continues

if not,

the

B.15b:

be tied
over
trill

Figure

B-8

to the principal

trill

or in rapid

an

may

alternation

be used

passages

when

or chains

of

15b).

note

line

a return

to, or a quintuplet

B.15a:

no

Figure
The

require

B.15a).

Figure
An

will

Trill - Performed.

to a second

the second

stops

at the

B.15c:

note

note,
second

of the same

it is performed
note

Trill - Performed.

(Figure

pitch.
as part
B.15c).

If a
of

The
the

number

of notes

length

of the

in a trill varies

note

being

Figure

Sometimes,

in

performance
notation

An

for

such

inverted

principal

(Figure

used

in music

strictly

classic

written

prior

written

trill

(Figure

with

This

their

should

as a grace

Figure

time.

note

In
be

neighbor

is no

Its
special

more

It may

recent

used

Inverted

instead

triplet

Mozart,

preceding

B.15f:

accelerates.

there

before

interpretation

(1770).

of Haydn,
only

and
and

without

the trill

to Beethoven

readings

B.15d).

slowly

upper

itself

was

and

Trill - Performed.

the

completes

of the music

B.15e).

begins

prior
to

begins

B.15e:

B.15f).

(Figure

interpretation

Figure

and

the tempo

Trill - Performed.

trill
of

a trill

trill
tone

turn

inverted

solos,

trilled

B.15d:

is a matter

with

when
the

trill

most
be used

Handel,

upper

the

after-

generally
in certain

etc., and

music,
the

of
the

music

however,
neighbor

the
is

note.

Trill - Performed.

B-9

ARTICULATIONS

When
the

AND

the composer

performance

controversy
large

part

to the

to contrasting

the

case,

the

markings

simply

In

music

rather

Several
suggestions
combination
Legato
tion

for

between

and
of

wind

only

a very

emphasis

of special

signs.

of

many

by some

be applied
There

of these

to

is much

signs,

due

composers/arrangers

in

and

of the

music

and

any

or suggestions

in

and

for

general

must

be regarded

symbols

or

as the

interpretation

performance.

and

practices

have

markings

and

for

the

been

military

adopted

band

and

in

show

acceptance.

common

articulation

as to their
with

performance.

accents

- Slurred.
notes.

slight

Maximum
the

break

with

first

Figure

note

- Leggiero.
between

notes

B.16b:

break

B.16c:

follow

along

symbols

with

are used

in

indication.

To be performed

without

interrup-

is attacked.

- Performed.

Held

full

to allow

Articulation
Duration

between

accents

articulation

precise

Articulation

- Staccato).

a slight

a more
duration.

B.16a:

Legato

(Mezzo

Sometimes

to give

Only

- Non

Portato

B-10

character

instruments

Figure

performed

of them

performance,

standards

Figure

Tenuto

a group

specific

performers.

as reminders

certain

universal

style

that

interpretation
use

among

determinants

intends

he uses

indiscriminate

essential

particular,

music,

particular

views

In any

or arranger

of his
over

ACCENTS

the

Articulation

value.
for

To be performed

the

with

attack.

- Performed.
slightly

more

notes.

- Performed.

than

half.

To

be

Staccato.
with

the

Duration

character

about

and

tempo

Figure
Staccatissimo.

half.

B.16d:

Usually

Performance

of the

varies

from

short

to very

short

music.

Articulation

performed

- Performed.

as

short

as

possible,

with

a slight

emphasis.

Figure

Horizontal
decrescendo.
on

Accent.
Performed

B.16e

Articulation

Attacked
louder

with

than

- Performed.

force,

usually

surrounding

followed

dynamic

level.

by
Has

a slight
no effect

duration.

Figure
Vertical
dynamic
performed

Accent.

level.
with

Performed
a slight

B.17a:

Attacked
louder
lessening

Figure

Accents

- Performed.

with

force,

than

surrounding

usually

followed
dynamic

by
level.

a retention

of

Occasionally

of duration.

B.17b:

Accents

- Performed.

B-11

JAZZ

EXPRESSIVE

Scoop.
taken
used.

DEVICES

A short

from

the

glissando

previous

Saxophone:

Lip

Trumpet:

Lip

Trombone:

Rip
any

Lip

or Flare.

value.

Its

Half

does

not

Plop.
value.
or

Its

a definite

A glissando
time

is normally

Trumpet:

Trombone:

B-12

Half

Slide

down

valve

is

note.

note

usually
from

or half

starts
the

valve.

a fourth

previous

series

lip

a note

The

of

symbol

slur.

beginning

it is notated

below

or rest,

scale.

or overtone

at the

or fifth

note

or diatonic

movement

usually

is taken

Lip

value

is normally

or

series

lip

of a rip

at a particular

slur.

or flare
place

from

starts
the

a fourth

previous

or fifth

note

above

or rest.

used.

Saxophone:

Its time

to indicate

on the staff,

it

pitch.

which

value

grace

grace

or overtone

Although

value.

symbol

chromatic

is used

begins.

indicate

that

slide

or

The

of any

movement.

is taken

valve

Longer

Sometimes
the effect

slide

up with

to a note

lower

lower

or short

Lip

Trombone:

where

or finger

finger

value

below

or rest.

A glissando

time

Saxophone:
Trumpet:

note

up

up,

from

with

chromatic

or overtone

movement

series

or overtone

or diatonic.
lip

slur.

series

lip

slur.

The

a note
symbol

of any

Sometimes
effect

is used

begins.

No

A glissando
the first

definite

is often

of the two

Saxophone:

Drop

Slide

or Fall.

of any

value.

Saxophone:

or diatonic

A descending

half

Slide

No

definite

pitch is

Doit,

Doik,

Saxophone:
Trumpet:

Trombone:

two

where

the

notes.

Its time

value

is taken

is normally

from
used.

scale.
scale

or half

glissando

value.

or overtone

movement

value.

Chromatic
Half

Slide

begins

on the

second

half

of a

used.

scale.
series

or overtone

at the end

slur.

series

of a drop

to indicate

where

the effect

intended.

or Doink.
of any

that

is normally

or diatonic

valve

Trombone:

of a note

to indicate

symbol

symbol

is used
ends.

of a plop

or scale.

The

Half

The

or diatonic

Chromatic

Trumpet:

between

notes.

Chromatic

Trombone:

at the beginning
is intended.

required

connected

Chromatic

Trumpet:

note

pitch

valve

An

ascending

The

symbol

or diatonic
or overtone

movement

glissando
that begins
on the second
is normally
used.

scale.
series

or overtone

lip

slur.

series

lip

slur.

B-13

Flip
occurs

or

Turn.

between

a note

is

usually
Saxophone:
note,

available
series

Bend.

An

pitch

tightening

using

An
Its

Shake.
primarily
shake

Saxophone
trill.

B-14

a brass
is

lip

by

trill

normally

or gruppetto.

follows

it. The

The

effect

symbol

is notated.

note,

slur to the note

written

the

principal

attacking

above

the principle

note.

principal
note,

the

the embouchure,
The

by

and

value

turn

note,
and

lip

slur
slur

to

the

the

first

overtone

note.

produced

effect.

symbol

effect

embouchure.

instrumentalists
The

the

written

by relaxing

is normally

that

Perform

produced

time

note

second

above

the

classical

the

to the

embouchure

embouchure.

the

the principal

second

effect

a relaxed

symbol

the

when

Trombone:

effect

the pitch

Smear.

used

overtone
to the

lowering
by

a lower

glissando

and

of

and

Perform

and

Trumpet

lip

variation

and

in the

bringing

symbol

attacking

bringing

is not

note

from

manner,

the note

backup

is normally

the

the note

taken

normal

note

below

up to pitch

the

previous

to

used.

normal

pitch

by

by tightening
note

the

or rest.

The

above.

It is

used.

from
The

the
shake

note

marked

is normally

determined
simulate
is normally

by
the

up

to an

the

section

shake

with

used.

overtone

measured. The
leader
a keyed

width
or
trill

and

speed

of

bandleader.
instead

of the

Subtone.
relaxing

A saxophone

the

Muting.

effect

embouchure.

Brasswind

that

consists

It is usually

sound

of a soft,

marked

is altered

by

airy

the

following

Hat

Cup

In stand

Harmon

Bucket

Plunger

H. O. B. (hand

required

False
fingering

using

harmon,

to alternate

between

Fingerings.
or slide

plunger,

position

hat,

closed

Used

to

or H. O. B., the

(+) and

change

is marked

above

open

the

produced

mute

Straight

When

sound

by

subtone.

the

note

over

bell)

instrumentalist

(0) sound

timbre

effects:

of

produced

a note.

or the

maybe
by the hand.

The

alternate

symbol

B-15

Swallowed
performed
by

are

dynamic

the

and

usually

Straight
swing
marked

B-16

Used

at a lower

fingering

notes

Notes.

eighth
straight

note
used

Eighths.
notes.

level

change
than

decreasing

the
air

the

effect.

In swing

time,

the

are

indicated

timbre

surrounding

the

to indicate

They

eighths.

to

stream.

straight
with

the

of

notes,

note.

They

Parentheses

eighth

effect

traditional

They

are

are produced
around

the

often

replaces

tenuto

sign

or

TEMPO

INDICATIONS

Slower

Tempi

Largo

Slow,

Broad

Lento

Slow,

Dragging

Adagio

Slow

Medium

Tempi

Andante

Going,

Moderato

Moderate

Faster

Walking

Tempi

Allegro

Cheerful,

Vivace

Lively

Presto

Fast

Momentary
Tenuto

Changes

in Tempo

held

(Ten.)

Rubato

sustained

robbed,

stolen

- deliberate

tempo,

a slackening

and

for

sake

the

stay,

General

Pause

(G.P.)

Quick

unsteadiness

quickening

of

of tempo

of expression

stop

- unmeasured

a rest

for

the

Grand

Pause

entire

band,

pause

or hold

sometimes

called

B-17

Lunga
Cut

Pausa

Off

long

(/()

an

Increasing

pause

abrupt,

- a long

short

pause

pause

Tempo

Accelerando

accelerating

Incalzando

hastening,

Stringendo

suddenly

Piu

more

Mosso

Decreasing

Calando

slowing

(rall.)
(rit.)

broader,
and

slower

gradually

slower

less

Mosso

slower

decreasing

gradually

suddenly

Ritenuto

Meno

accelerating

Tempo
becoming

Ritardando

forward

moved

Allargando

Rallentando

pressing

in loudness

slower

moved

Morendo

slowing

and

decreasing

in loudness

Smorzando

slowing

and

decreasing

in loudness

Returning

Tempo

B-18

Tempi
in (original)

Tempo

Primo

to Previous

Tempo
I

first

tempo

first

tempo

tempo

No

Listesso
Lo

in

Change

Tempo

Tempo

Stesso

Stesso

Tempo

Tempo

Metronome
minute

remains
note

unit

in the

changes
from

4/4

same

tempo

may

be indicated

90 quarter

notes

indicates

60 dotted

quarter

Markings.

half

notes

When

indication

the beat

is made

unit

in terms

of beat

units

per

example:

indicates

the

second

For

120

Tempo

represents

per

minute

per

notes

the

meter

with

special

in the first

minute

meter

per

minute

changes
signs

and

but

the

(Figure

the second

tempo

B.18).

note,

The

the beat

meter.

examples
(2/4

tempo

indicates

Figure

The

same

markings).

constant,

first

tempo

Markings. Tempo

(metronome

Special

same

B.18:

Special

B.18a

might

at Figure

to 6/8,

6/8

to 3/4,

etc.).

Tempo

Markings.

be encountered

For example,

assume

when
that

the

beat

a change

value
is made

to 6/8:

if, in the

first

meter,

then,

in the

second

meter,

B-19

The

examples

the same

(4/4

from

to 3/4:

4/4

at Figure

to 3/4,

if, in the

6/8

first

to 9/8,

Those
dynamic

would

etc.).

in the

be used

For example,

meter,

then,

DYNAMIC

B.18b

second

90,

when

the

assume

beat

that

value

a change

is made

is indicated,

and

meter,

INDICATIONS

terms
indications.

and

signs
The

which
most

deal

common

Symbol

Term

with

intensity

of these

or loudness

follows.

Translation

soft
Pianissimo

very

soft

soft

Piano

Mezzo

Piano

medium

soft

Mezzo

Forte

medium

strong

Loud

B-20

remains

Forte

strong

Fortissimo

very

(loud)

(loud)

strong

(loud)

are

called

Increasing

the

Dynamic

Crescendo
Forzando,
Sforzando,

Translation

Abbreviation

Term

Forzato
Sforzato

cresc.

gradually

fz

forced,

strongly

accented

sfz

forced,

strongly

accented

sudden

stress

rfz,

Rinforzando

Decreasing

the

Level

rinf.

Dynamic

increasing

loudness

or emphasis

Level
decreasing

Calando

cal.

Decrescendo

decresc.,

Diminuendo

loudness,

slowing

gradually

decreasing

loudness

dim.

gradually

decreasing

loudness

Morendo

mor.

decreasing

loudness,

slowing

Smorzando

smorz.

decreasing

loudness,

slowing

Dynamics
The
increase

dec.

Signs
may

also

be changed

dynamic

level

loudness

for the length

of the

loudness

for the length

of the

by

the

use

of signs

as follows:

sign.
decrease
sign.

B-21

ITALIAN

TERMS,

PART

1
Moto.

a. To,

at, for,

Alla.

According

Assai.

Very.

by,

in,

etc.

to.

Motion.

Non.

Not.

Piu.

More.

Poco.

Little.

Ben.

Well.

Primo.

Con.

With.

Quasi.

Like,

Secco.

Dry.

Da,

di.

Of,

Doppio.

from.

Double.

Sempre.

e. And.

Senza.

Il.

Sotto.

The.

Ma.

But.

Meno.

First.

Always.
Without.
Under.

Stesso.

Less.

as.

Same.

Tanto.

As

much,

Mezzo.

Half.

Troppo.

Too

Molto.

Much.

un,

una.

Mosso.

Moved.

Vote.

Voice.

Solo.

Alone,

ITALIAN

TERMS,

Attacca
Div

Subito.

a 2(3).

Colla
Segue.

the

(three)

subito

part.

Soli.

(s).

(V. S.) Turn

an,

one.

(page)

performed

by

a single

performer.

player

(i). Mute

immediately.

B-22

With

suddenly.

in two

A,

Follows.

Sordino
Volta

Attack

Divide

Parte.

PART

uno,

so much.

(much)

Plural
plays

Tutti.
All
Ensemble

of

solo,

more

solo

parts.

the
together.
(Ens).

Full

band.

than

one

ITALIAN

TERMS,

Agitato.

Agitated.

Animato.

Spirited.

Bravura.

Bravery.

Brilliante.
Brio.

PART

Brillant.

Brilliance.
Singing.

Cantando.

As

Dolce.

if sung.

Decisive.
Sweet.

Dolcemente.
Dolore.

Sweetly.
Grief.

Doloroso.

Pained.

Dolente.

Grieving.

Energico.

Energetic.

Espressivo

(Expressivo).

Expressive.
Forza.

Force.

Fuoco.

Fire.

Giusto.

Just,

Grave.

Heavy.

Lacrimoso.

strict,

precise.

Tearful.

Maestoso.

Majestic.

Marcato.
Marcia.

Cantabile.
Deciso.

Marked.
March.

Marziale.
Passionate,

Martial.
Appassionato.

Impassioned.
Pesante.

Heavy.

Piacere,

a piacere.

Pomposo.
Ponderoso.
Religioso.
Scherzando.
Sostenuto.
Strepitoso.
Vigoroso.

At

pleasure.

Pompous.
Ponderous.
Religious.
Playful,

joking.

Sustained.
Loud,

noisy.

Vigorously.

B-23

APPENDIX

ITALIAN

large

literature
and

of the

reflects

Italian.
able

the

In order

to translate
An

word,

portion

Italian
but

list shows

do not
some

of

18th

the

and

music

19th

traditional

word

for

centuries.

practice

to understand
them

into
may

change

band
Most

is

words

inherited

of this

of expressing

these

from

music

the

orchestral

is of European

directions

or phrases,

the

origin

for performance

in

performer

be

must

English.
have

different

the basic

of the more

TERMS

common

endings

indication
suffixes

which

or level
and

change

the

of intensity.

their

normal

form

The
or usual

of the

following
English

equivalents.

-abile

.. . .. .. . .. .. .. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. .. . .. .. . . -able

-ando

. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . . .. . . . . .. .. . .. . . . . .. . .. . . . .. .. . . . .. . .. .. . .. -ing,

-ful

-endo

. .. ... . . . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . . . . .. . .. . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. .. -ing,

-ful

-ato

.. . .. . . .. . .. . . . .. .. . . .. . .. . .. .. . . . . .. .. .. . . .. . .. . . . .. .. . .. .. . . . . .. .. . .. .-ed

-Uto . .. .. . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . .. .. .. . . . . .. . . . .. .. . .. . -ed
... . . .. .. . .. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . .. .. . . . . .. .. . . . .. . .. . . . .. .. . -y, -ly

-amente
-mente

... . .. . . .. .. .. . .. .. . . . . .. . .. .. . . . . .. .. . . . . .. . .. . . .. . . . .. . .. .. . -y, -ly

-atamente

.. .. . .. .. . .. . . . .. .. . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. .. . .. . . . .. .. . .. . . . -edly

-utamente

.. .. . . .. .. . . . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . . . . .. .. . . . . .. . . .. . .. . .. . . . .. -edly

-enza

. .... . .. . . .. .. .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . . . .. .. . .. .. -ence

-evole

. .. .. . . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. .. . .. . . . . . . .. .. . .. .. . -ing,

-ezza
-mento

. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . ... . . . .. . . . .. . .. . .. . . . .. . . .. .. .. . .. .. . . . .. . -ity,
.. .. . . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . . . . .. . .. . . . .-ment,

-oso . .. . .. .. . .. .. . . . .. .. . . .. .. .. .. . . .. with

-tion,
-ful,

-ful

-ness
-ness
-ate,

-y

C-1

Examples:

Some

suffixes

do

change

-issimo.
the

the

level

Superlative

basic

-ino,

the

-etto.
basic

of intensity

suffix.

of the

Increases

the

basic

indication:

intensity

of

the intensity

of

indication.
Diminutive

suffixes.

Lessen

indication.

Examples:

piano
very

soft,
largo

etto

In

the

repertoire
a. to,
a-2.

section

have

at, for,
two

on

by,
the

accarezzevole.

been
in,

acciacato.

crushed,

C-2

or extremely
means

large,

means

less

slow.

which

follows,

selected

and

the
their

etc.

caressing.
accented.

performed

adagietto.

soft;

part.

accentato.

gether,

means

less

means

soft.
broad,

slow;

words

translations

most

largh-

often

extremely

addolorato.

grieved,

the

band

slow.
melancholy.

of dolore).

affannoso.

angered,
anxious,

less.
affetto.

in

given.

adagissimo.

(form

to-

therefore,

found

adirato.
jammed

violently.
slow.

therefore

affection.

irritated.
distressed,

rest-

affettuoso.
affettuosamente.
afflizione.

afflicted,

affrettando.

agevole.

easy,

asprezza.

easily,

aggiustatamente.

assai.

lightly.
strictly

agiatamente.

(in

time).

agitation,

agitatamente.

agitatedly,

hurriedly,

agitated,

agitazione.
alla.

hurried,

less

allegrezza.

liveliness.

allegria.

cheerful,

very

allegrissimamente.

ben.

lively,

amabile.

sweetness,

amarevole.

bitter.

amarezza.
amaro.

time

tenderness.

bitterness,
bitter,

amorevole.

(encore).

tender.

amabilita.

ancora.

again,

andantino.

less

yet,

still

walking,

faster

angoscia.
anima.

time.

boldness.

brilliant.
with

brilliance,

spirit.

pressing,

hastening.

singable,

songlike.

cantando.

as if sung.
capricious,

parte,

colla

indicates
to yield

parte.
to

to and

free.
with

the

accompaniment
not

overshadow

soloist.

comodo.

accommodating,

comfor-

table.

andante.
andare

bravery,

a second

cantabile.

the
than

play

calcando.

parts

(encore).

time.

brilliance.

part,
loving.

sign.

a duet.
to repeat,

brioso.

col.

grieved.

amorous,

in strict

sign.

natural

a second

capriccioso.

grief.

loving.

amoroso.

again,

brio.

flat

the

brillante.

another

sweet,

the

bravura.

slowing.

another.

volta.

beat,

well.

biscanto.

fast.

retarded.

altro.

the

beauty.

bissare.

retarding,

allentato.
altra,

lively,

slowness.

allentando.

a. with

biquadro.
bis.

fast.

allentamento.

bold.

beat.

bimmolle.

very

sec-

dance.

bellezza.

quick.

liveliness.

allegrissimo.

next

time.

to.

allegretto.

the

dancingly.

battatura,

agitation.

according

altra

audacious,

ballabile.

battuta.

excited.

begin

immediately.

ballo.

excitedly.
agitato.

absolute.
subito.

audace.

excitement.

articulation.

very.

assoluto.
tion

agility.

manner.

harshness.

attacca

easily.

agitamento.

in a singing

articolazione.

light.

agevolmente.

ardent.

arioso.

hurried.

lively.

distressed.

ardente.

sorrowful.

spirited,

impassioned.

appenato.

sorrow.

hurrying.

affrettato.

animated,

appassionato.

affectionately.

affliction,

afflitto.

agilita.

animato.

affectionate.

diritto.

go

anguish.
animation.

straight

on.

compiacevole.
con.

pleasing.

with.

consolante.
corrente.

consoling.
running.

C-3

cupo.
da.

dark,
of,

dal.

obscure,

of the,

from

franchezza.

the.

decisive.

delicatezza.

delicacy.

delicato.

delirium,

desto.

brisk,

frenzy,

excitement.

sprightly.

devozione.

disaccentato.

easily.

distinto.

divided,

staff

are

to

two
be

parts

played

on the same
by

separate

instruments.
divozione.
dolce.

devotion.

sweet,

sweetly,

dolente.

due.
e.

giusto.

just,

strict,

grave.

heavy,

with

solemn.

grace.

grazioso.

graceful.

il. the.
indeciso.

undecided.

inquieto.

restless,

uneasy.

intrepidity,

boldness.

tearful.
broadly,
less

slowly.

broad.

largeness,

broadness.

extremely

broad.

light.
increasing

slowness,

slowed.
listesso.

energetic.

ma.

enthusiasm.

esecuzione.
espirando.

expiring,

espressivo.

dying

away.

estinto.

hushed,

facilmente.

all

easily,

fantastico.

but
with

fantastic,

fastoso.

proud,

stately.

forza.

force.

mancando.

facility.

marcia

dying
funebre.

martellato.
marziale.

mezzo.

away.
funeral

hammered.
martial.

medesimo.

meno.
concluded.

seductive.

marked.

same.

melodioso.

end.
finished,

silent.

whimsical.

fierce.

finito.

coaxing,

majestic.

marcato.

expressive.

same.

but.

maestoso.

execution.

same.

the

lusingando.

introduction.

entusiasmo.

the

lo stesso.

emphasis.

entrata.

preci-

precise.

somber,

lentando.

two.

enfasi.

C-4

strictly,

leggiero.

after.

energico.

fine.

merry.

joyous.

largissimo.

and.

feroce.

playful,

larghezza.

pathetic.

double.

dopo.

giocoso.

larghetto.

painful,

doppio.

firey.

largamente.

grief.

doloroso.

boldness.

gay.

lacrimoso.

softly.

grieving.

dolore.

gaio.

intrepidezza.

soft.

dolcemente.

fire.

grazia.

distinct.

divisi.

empha-

sion.

away.
unaccented.

disinvolto.

fuoco.

giustamente.

of, from.
fading

haste.

gioioso.

devotion.

diluendo.

forced,

freedom,

fretta.

fuocoso.

delicate.

delirio.

forzato.

sized.

from.

deciso.

di.

forzando,

reserved.

melodious.

less.
half.

militarmente.

militarily.

march.

misterioso.

mysterious,

misurato.

rabbia.

measured,

mobile.

in strict

time.

movable.

modo.

mode,

mollemente.

softly,

molto.

very.

morendo.

replicate.

slower,

dying

murmuring.

moved.
etc.).

ordinary,

partitura.

full

pastorale.

pastoral,

pauentoso.

fearful,

common.

score.
rural.

heavy,

marked.
smooth.

full.
more.

very

pochissimo.
poco.

little.

dry,

segue.

follows.

senza.

vigorously

impressive.
precise,

prestamente.
prestissimo.

as fast

volta.

ornament.

simple.

serene,

tranquil.

sforzando.

first

silence,
suave,

forced,

empha-

al.

solo.

a rest.

soft.

as usual.

plural

of

solo,

plays

the

alone,

sonabile.
as possible.

first.

pointed,
like,

without

more
solo

performed

than

one

parts.
by

single

performer.

exact.
rapidly.

prima

neat.

without.

performer

ponderous,

primo.

plain,

always.

solito,

pompous.

prima,

joking.

of tune.

plain,

semplice.

soli.

ponderoso.

puntato.

secco.

soave.

little.

little.

precise.

out

silenzio.

little.

very

pomposo.

in volume.

sized.

very

pochetto.

(tone).

rural.
playful,

sforzato,
placid.

resounding,

diminishing
simple,

sereno.

pochettino.

supplementary

or full

rustic,

sempre.

pleasing,

placido.

rustico.

schietto.

a. at pleasure.

piacevole.
piena.

heavily

round

scordato.

perpetual.

pesante.

time).

romance.

scherzando.

timid.

disappearing.

perpetuo.

or

resonant,

scemando.

for.

perdendosi.

(the

ringing.

rotondo.

ordinario.

time.

resolute.

romanza.

not.

piacere,

fill-in

risonante.
(instruments,

noble.

non.

quasi.

relaxing

risoluto.

change

nobile.

piu.

rilasciando.

exact

part.

motion.

muta.

per.

repeated.
rigorous,

ripieno.

mormorando.

religiously.

religious.

rigoroso.

away.

moto.

rapidly.

religioso.

gently.

gradually

mosso.

fury,

religiosamente.

manner.

much,

rage,

rapidamente.

time.
detached.

sonare.
sono.

sounding,
to sound,

sound,

sorda.
sordino.
sostenuto.

resonant.
play

upon.

play.

muffle,

veil.

mute.
sustained.

as.

C-5

sotto.

under.

spianato.
out

smooth,

level,

even,

with-

stormily,

passion.

spiccato.

separated,

detached

(stac-

stabile.

stable,

firm,

staccato.

separated,

stentato.

forced,

stesso.

detached.

stretto.

drawn

gliding,

term

for

a smooth

suave.

soft,

what

is

The

commonly

together,

usually

tace,

tacit.

taci,

as much,

be silent.

una,

uno.

variamente.

so much.

follows

when

a, an,

band
solo

one.

variedly,

freely.

vigorous.

voce.

voice.

volti

subito.

ately.

full

equal.

vivacissimo.

on.

with

ends.

uguale.
un,

reiteration

(much).

all,

vigoroso.

sweet.
animated.

C-6

soli

hurried.
smooth.

glissando.

svegliato.
tanto.

too

section,

noisy.

together,

strisciando.
correct

loud,

value.

trembling,

tutti.
very

full

speed.

troppo.

emphasized.

same.

strepitoso.

called

great

tenderly.

held

tremolo.

steady.

tempestuously,

passionately.

teneramente.
tenuto.

cato).

sul.

tempestosamente.

extremely

turn

fast.

(page)

immedi-

or
or

INDEX
-A-

Accidentals
Active

6-6

Minor

7-10

Mixolydian

7-7

Clef

6-9

Minor

7-10

Modal

8-3

Baritone

Mode

2-9

Bass

8-9

1-2

Contra

Anacrusis

4-6

Mezzo

17-1

Melody/Harmony
Approach

18-2

Tones

Beat

Line

2-9

Treble

Tenor

2-9

2-9

2-9

Composite

Meter

3-7

Compound

Meter

3-3

(Cycles

Per

Second,

Hz)

1-1

-D-

3-4

3-1

Division

3-3,

Division
Blues

Super

CPS

-B-

2-9

2-9

Treble

18-3

4-6

Bar/Bar

Bass
Soprano

Soprano

Anticipation

Arsis

2-9

2-9

Amplitude

Swing

8-9

2-2

Alto

Aeolian

8-4

Phrygian

Tones

Major

Major

3-5,

3-6,

(Swing)

Scale

Brasswinds

3-8

17-2

Delta

Sign

Dorian

15-5

Mode

16-4

Duple

Meter

14-7

Duple

4-9

Duration

8-6
3-1

1-4

-CChord

Scales

Chord

Structures

Chord

Symbols

16-1

Enharmonic
15-5

Specified
Circle

Bass

19-6

Signs

2-4

(see

Dorian

8-6

Ionian

(see

Locrian
Lydian

Pitches
Meter

2-5

4-8
-F-

19-1

of Keys

Aeolian

Equivalent

15-1

Altered/Extended

Chromatic

-E-

minor)

Feminine

Ending

Frequency

1-1

Fundamental

4-6

12-1
-G-

major)

8-12
8-7

Generating

Tone

12-1

INDEX-1

-H-

Half

Step

(Semitone)

Harmonics
Hz

-L2-5,

5-1

12-7

(Hertz,

Leger
Link

CPS)

1-1

Lines

2-3

5-4

Locrian

Mode

Lydian

8-12

Mode

8-2

-I-MIntensity

1-2

Interval

5-1,

10-1

Augmented

Masculine

10-6,

Compound

10-7

Measure

10-2

Compounding

Meter
10-13,

Consonant

& Dissonant

Diatonic

& Chromatic

Diminished

10-7,

Enharmonic

10-14
10-16
10-16

10-9

3-1

Composite

3-7

Compound

3-6

Duple

3-1

Equivalent

10-10

Related

Inversion

10-11

Simple

10-4

Perfect
Simple

10-13,

Mode

Italian

Terms

Stress

10-15

Modes

Mode

B-22,

C-2

8-4

8-1

Aeolian
8-3

3-1
3-10

Mixolydian

10-2

Ionion

3-1

Exceptions

10-3

Reducing

3-7

Metrical

10-5

3-1
3-4

Triple

10-1

Minor

4-8

Quadruple

10-1

Major

4-6

3-4

Harmonic

Melodic

Ending

8-9

Dorian

8-6

Ionian

8-3

Locrian 8-12
Lydian
-J-

8-2

Mixolydian
Phrygian

Jazz

Devices

(Symbols)

B-12

Muting

8-4
8-9

B-15

-K-

Keyboard
Ranges
Keys

(see

Parallel
Relative

INDEX-2

2-3,

Octave

5-1

& Transposition
circle

-O-

14-15

5-4

Designation

2-6,

2-8

6-6,

7-5

of keys)

7-12

Order

of Flats

7-11

Order

of Sharps

6-5,

7-3

Overtones

12-1

Overtone

Series

Scale
12-3
-P-

12-1,

12-3

Pentatonic

Scale

Percussion

14-10

Phrygian

Mode

Pitch

2-1,

1-1,

16-4
8-9

2-6
-Q-

6-9

Minor

7-5,

7-8,

7-10

Modal

8-3,

8-5,

8-7,

Meter

Degree
Meter

Sound

1-1

Stable

Tones
6-9

Minor

7-6,

7-8,

7-10

Modal

8-3,

8-6,

8-8,

6-8

8-11

2-1
2-2

Great

2-1

Strings

-R-

8-10

3-4

Major

Grand

3-1

Names

Simple

Staff
Quadruple

Activity

Major

Scale
Partials

Degree

14-6

Suffixes

C-1

Ranges
Brasswinds
Keyboard

14-15

Percussion

14-16
14-1

Meter

Rhythm

4-7

4-1

Irregular

Syncopated
Rhythm

4-5
4-2

line

Major

6-9

Minor

7-6,

7-8,

7-10

Modal

8-3,

8-6,

8-8,

5-4

Major

5-2

Minor

5-3

Natural

3-4

Thesis

15-1

Timbre

5-3

4-6
1-4,

12-7

Transposition

-S-

13-1

Brasswinds
Scale

5-1

Strings

Minor

(Harmonic)

Woodwinds

Minor

(Melodic)

7-8

Minor

(Natural)

7-1

Pentatonic
Whole

Tone

9-4
9-3

14-15

Percussion

9-1

6-1

Major

14-7

Keyboard

Chromatic

7-6

Triads

8-11

5-2

Harmonic

4-1

Uniform

Tones

Tetrachords

4-4

Regular

3-1

Tendency

Woodwinds

Root

Tempo

14-10

Strings

Related

-T-

14-7

14-10
14-16
14-1

11-1

Augmented
Consonant
Diatonic

11-4
& Dissonant

11-5

11-7

INDEX-3

Diminished

11-4

Inversion

11-6

Major

11-2

Minor

11-3

Triple

Meter

Triplet

4-9

3-1

-V-

Values

(Note

Dotted
Tied

& Rest)

2-12
2-11

Vibration

1-1,

12-1

-WWoodwinds

INDEX-4

14-1

2-9

TC

12-41

29 SEPTEMBER 1978

By Order of the Secretary

of the Army:

BERNARD W. ROGERS
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff

Official:
J. C. PENNINGTON
Brigadier General, United States Army
The Adjutant General