You are on page 1of 116

1

qe+sY, 2014

l'
z+ >+ z+ >D|jT qeT'

C
|<q d+b<\T : k$T nsTq+<

X
u

\T

|P
]
eT
<<XeseTT
n&T&TTq C
n_q+<q\T

|X\T

nsTq+< |_wH
nsTq+<dt ` l \*q+<XeTeTT
y&se, Ns\ ` 523157, |X+ , J 08594 ` 248237
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1

C
d+|{ ` 12 d+ `1

$wjTd

1 qe+sY 2014
| d+K

l eTV>D| kyT
l XseDuek$T <qyT
l u>eBZ ucs|qTy<eTT
>CqqkyT
Sri Aravinda Sarith Sagara

` l es+eTT qT+&
` d+Jy, s
-Dr. Prema Nandakumar.

>D+
l |sXeTTeTVeT'kyT
` yU ` <s\ $XH<Xs
eTT<\T
k$Ty] d+<XeTT
q+<k>sde'
` yU ` & .$.jTdt.eT]
lw#]eTT
` & >* >TDXKsY
edT>sDeTT ` edeqeTT ` nX<{eyT ` yU ` >]yT keTjE\TXs
Vd\T
` yU ` yT#sT y+dTVDXd
>eTTF e#yT
es<sde'
` yU ` & .\HsjTD
q*dVdHeTkyT
~V<jT+
` yU ` & .@.+>s#sk$T
=+&=
` yU ` & b|H eX+sY
eTVus+ ` eqedueD
` & n|C&T y+dTjT
+<HjT X k+<seTT
` & . ]C\
Xb\q
` & &sT |uss&
$<TskseTT
` yTTe ec~|
>e
` & ds<es s$esY
q #e<
` & +\|P& y+fXsT
l<MK&Ze
j>d\T
` yU ` +>T+ dTuse
y<qeTTe+sZ s|wY
` l u\+=+&seTsjT$syT
eT$dyT
` yU ` y\eT $XH<
l<M K&Ze bXdeTT
` #s V] eesY
eDeTT
` yU ` sys
nqTuy\ yT*$T eTT~$T
` #s >H j>|uer<$
eT+<<]
` eT~ VqTeT+se
eT*\T
` k$T nsTq+<
eseTT y|#T
RNI :

New Delhi, APTEL 08725/01/12004-TC

3
4
5
17
18
23
24
27
28
30
32
36
39
42
43
47
63
66
68
70
72
75
77
82
86
90
92
94
96
102
105
109
110
112

Rc.No.: C3 1789/2004

+<T |#T]+#&q ydeTT\+<* n_bjTeTT\T j s#sTT\y


1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
2
D.T.P. by SANJAY GRAPHICS, Chirala. 9966156263

Printed at : SOWMYA OFFSET, Chirala, 9848088156

1
qe+sY, 2014
z+ >+ z+ >D|jT qeT'

l eTV>D| kyT

l u>D|<qeTT
X

H*seT<>T&bjTd<]DyT
Xs#+<ue|w+ uC u>D~|yT
Xs\yT|TeTTe \ Xs >\y&TqT, =]jTqT, e$T&
|+&TqT, ns{|+&TqT, u\+ #jT&q sqbqT ` <]+q (4 #T\T
>\) u>D| u+TqT.
H*s R =]jT eT R e$T& |+&T < R ns{|+&T
>T&bjTd R sqeTT.

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
3

l XsDuek$T <qeTT

X+ |T+{+ <dsdC + bX<+&


++ uD+ es<eTujT+ sT+ #<V+yT
|+ keT+ ~<XqjTq+ <ed+|TsTbd+
d~' |P+ XseDue+ wDTK+ uej$T
` les +eTTqT+&
d\ <edeTVeTT# bd+|&Ty&TqT, dqT\# |P+|&T
y&TqT, s \T>& j
T +<T<$ +qy&TqT n>T iTyeTT\k$T u$+#T#THqT.

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
4

1
qe+sY, 2014

l u>eBZ ucs |qTy<eTT


leT<>eBZ n|sX+s _sT<+T&>T
lu\+=+& seTsjT$ s+q ucs
| uweTT |seTbeDyTq~>
| iT# |s=q& q ~. B 1956
Vl eTe\
sa y+dTseTXd>sT
+<qTy< eT+~+#>, < Vl $
dTVD+ >sT n#=+ |\T >+<\jTeTT
\+<T +<<XeT+{ |eTT >$+
nK+&yTq yTq]+]. n\ueT>T n<
H&T C bs\ n+~+#T#Tq+<T neT+<q+<yTT+<T#THqT.
` sys
(8)

~rj<jTeTT
X

Hd $< uy Huy $< d'


ujs| <cq dqjd<]_'
16
n. nd uT$, u dj+, nqT <Te\T s+&TqT deHseTT\T.
n+<T nd <Teq X|jTeTTqT CjT> dH n s|eTT. u <Te+f
|Tx |jTeTTqT Cs> ue' n s|eTT. dH nqT |*+> s|eTTqT q|+d
*+>eTTqT CjT> dY nqT s|eT>TqT. dY ~ ndY nq&TqT. (d') dT
jTT <seTT d (deTT). ueeTT ~ nueeTT. >qT ueeTq> djTjTT
(deTjTT), nueeTq nd jTjTT (ndeTjTT) u<eTT. T+& dY
|<se TTq+<T d eTqT <s eTT+&TqT. @ |<se TTjTT <s eTT |<se TT q+<T+&T
dV eTT. d eTqT <s eTT\~jT dY |<se TT eq, ndY |<se TTq+<T eeTT
d eTT+&Hs < T , nd yT jTT+&TqT. dsV eT>T |<sy T ndY |<se T |d~ .
~ jT+jT TqT eTTq dT\ue TT> <*jTT $wjT eTT. eq nd|Y < se TTq+<T
deTT<jTT, dY |<seTTq+<T ndeTT<jTTqT w&T|<+#T eseTT.
eTTq+ <e&TqT dY |<seTTq+<T ndeTqT <seTT+&Tq> ndY
|<se TTq+<T d eTqT <s eTT+&Tq> <\#T<T . nT <\+#Tys\ | w
jTT|<XeTT d|\eTjT&. @ |sTw&TqT +<{=eTTqT qT\qT, q
e=eTTqT qT\qT <\#T<T. eq XeTTq qsTqTq Cd c|<XeTT

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
5

C
eseTqTX+ s> uwsT\T de<qeTTqT C|#THsT. nd' n$<eqd
nqT >+<eTT#, qTe+{ oc~ <+< |<seTT\ deTT eT&T
\eTT\jT+<TqT <T. jT |<seTTq \jTeTT q+<TqT ndeTT+&< n~jT
dY |<se T|+#T=qTqT. jT |<se TTq |r deTjTeTTq+<T (>V +#TdeTjTeTT
q+<T) eeTT deTT+& jT{ deTT \jTeTTq+<T+&< njT~ jTdY
|<s eTq&TqT. d<dTeq+ <q&TqT ndeTT+&T jTTeTT><T. nT>
|r deTjTeTTq+<T >qT|&T |<se TT>& d<|eTq# |r deTjTeTTq+<T+&T
sE dseTT>& d<|eTT >e\d e#TqT. eq \jTeTTq+<Tq |<syT
d <se TjTT, \jT eTTq+<T |<se TT nd <se TjTTqT >V +|e\jTTqT.
$TT *d=qT<T. |reT>T edTeqT d<|eTT>qT, |reTT> edTeqT
nd<|eTT>qT eTT *d=qT#Tq~, eq w jTT|<XeTT d|\yT>
$|\eTT >Hs<T.
nd' R n$<eqeT>T, oc~ <+<|<seTT\, ue' R deTT, q
R <T n deTqjTeTT.
sDeTT\>T ><T \T+&> seTT\>T oc~ <+<eTT\T +&T
fT? n jTqs<T. oc~ <+<eTT\ sDeTT\>T ><T\T >&
n$<eqeTT\T (ndT\T) > d<|eTT\T>e. f dTK<T'U<T\T >&
n$<eqeTT\ >V+|e\jTTqT.
nd<|eTT (n$<eqeTT) \>T XXX+><T\T |r>#seTT\>T <T.
oc~ <+<eTT\T se TT\>T ><T\T>, |r$wjT eTT \>T#Tq$.
n+<Te\q qjT~ d<|eTT\T> jTd<|eTT\T >Hse nq# q~jTTe TT><T.
sDdV eT>T oc~ |<sC eTT X|eDeTT\#q T, XqT>VeTT\sTTq
s eTT\# q T $#]+| > d eTsTTq~>< d ~ + # T # T q~. ( )
>B+~jT|eDeTT\# s|+| &T#Tq (>V+|&T#Tq) oc~eTT
jT<seTT >< \T#Tq~.
@\jTq oc~ |<sC eTT ss|eTsTTq~. nq> $seTTqT C+<Tq~
s|<s yT|&TqT e_#] +#Tq~. # e_#seTq> seTT sDds|eTT+f
_qeTT> +&T.
n. #sBjTeTT\# >V+|&T#Tq |TXsy<s dyXeTTqT
eTqeTT dT~# |]o*+q# >sDeT>T eTs|eTT +f _qs|eTT
>qT|+#+&Te\q |TXsy~$seTT\T ss|eTT q$<eqeTT
(qd<|eTT) \jT C| e\jTTqT. f $seTT\jTT sDs|eTT, >qT#T qy
> ~qs|eTT >qT|&q +<Tq ss|eTT# qjT$ jTd<|eTT jT>T#Tq$.
oc~ s|<se TT |Ps\eTTq+<T HXs \eTTq+<TqT >qT|&q +<Tq
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
6

1
qe+sY, 2014
H s+&T\eTT\ jT+<TqT nd<|eTT \sTTqqT eseq\eTTq+<T eeTT
>q|&T#T+&Te\q d<|eTT\jT jT+^]+|e\jTTq jTq<><T. seTT
eseq\eTTq+<T>& sD ds|eTT >qT|&T #Tq~ > ~qs|eTT
>qT|&T<T. n+<Te\q qjT~ eseq\eT+<TqT nd<|yT jT>T#Tq~. nf
|T{<T\ sDeT>T eT<~eTT, sDeTT>& dsDeT>T <T\+f
_qs|eTT ese q \eTTq+<T >qT|& +&Te\qqT, |Ps\eTTq+<T,
HXs\eTT q+<TqT +&T e\qqT n$jTTqT nd<|eTT\jT sjTeTT.
T |~y~ u |+ #e TT $seT>T# (seT>T#) nd<| eTq#
eTTq+<T d<|eT>T edTy q+<Tq XSqy<eTT |d+#TqqT |eTT s>
uwsT\T de<qeTTqT C|#THsT. ds T~<j|\u' nqT >qeTT#
sdV eT>T eT<~ sD ke jTd<|eTsTTqqT |T |{~ ds eeVseTT\
jT+<TqT d<T ~ jTd<T ~ jTqT s +&T T<T\ T |\u eqeTT \>Te\q XSqy<eTT
|d+#<T. dY |<seTT $wjTeTT> >\ T~ d<T~, ndY |<seTT $wjTeTT>
>\ T~ nd<T~. T~ jTq> n+'sDeeT>T CqeTT. $wjTeTT <
$wsTTjT jTT+&<T. eq $wsTT jT>T d<T~# $wjTeT>T d<s eTTqT\
}V+#&T#Tq+<Tq XSqy< |d <T. @ |<seTT $wjTeT>T T~ jTq{
esTqT #+<< |<se TT d <se TT. jT |<se TT $wjT eT>TT~ jTTH=| &T
q+#TH (esTqT #+<TH) |<se TT nd <se TT. jTq |T eTTq+<T |T T~
\T>T#Tq~. njT~ |TeTT q+q &H q+ n+<T b\T~ jTT<sTT+#T
#Tq~. eq |T$wjTeT>T T~ q+q+<Tq |TeTT nd<s eTq&T#Tq~.
T n< |TeTTq+<T |TdH nqT eeVseTTe\q \T>T d<T~ jTq{
q+#T<T . |T eTT q+qqT |T eTTHXsTT+ d<T ~ jTT<sTT+#T#TH jTTq~.
eq d<T ~ q+#q+<Tq <Z#s e T>T d <se TT d<|eTT> jTd<|eTT><T.
eq T<T\T esTqT C+<T, esTqT C+<+&TqT { |<seTT\jTT
d<|d<|eTT\T sjTeT>T #Tq+<Tq d<d~u>eTT T~ qeT
j#sb<T\T s+]. \eTT\yT nqT eeVseTTe\q |<seTTq+<T
\T~, jTT\ T~ *qT dH|T', dH|' ~ eeVseTTe\q
|T|{~ |<seTT\ jT+<T d<T~, |TT~ nqT s+&T T<T\T \T>T#Tq$.
\eTT\+ nqT |j>eTTe keH~sD d++<eTT# dH|T', dH|',
dHVd ~ eeVseTT\ jT+<+qT s+&T T<T\T *jT&T#Tqe
ucqjTeTT. keH~sDeTq nu<deTqeT jTseTT. \eTT\ eTqT#
\\eTT \ keH~s D eTT e\q _qeT>T \eT Xu< #| qT
dH |T ' <T\jT+<T>& d |T eTT\ keH~s D eTT+&Te\q d<_ q
eT>T |TeTT n Xu< #|e\jTTqT. \eTT\e d<eTT\
keH~sDeTT \T>T#T+&> <T<T\>& keH~sDeTT d+u$+#TqT.

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
7

C
\|<seTTq+<T \T~jTT, \T~jTT |{qT, |TeTT q+<T
d<T~ |TT<T\T *q+<Tq T<T\>& keH~sDeTT jTTeTT.
n. T+& d<T~, |TT<T\ |TT~ e_#]+#T#Tq~. d<T~
|T<T\ |T~ e_#]+#T#Tq~.
d<T~ VdT<T\ VdT~ e_#]+#T#Tq~. (e_#]+#T jTq>
HXeTTqT #+<T esTqT C+<T n jTseTT) T<T\jT+<T $wjTeTT\>T
|T |{<T\T e_#] +q+<Tq T<T\ T L& e_#] +qe eTT. |T |{<T\T
\jT eTTq+<T q+<Tq ~wjT eT>T T<T\ T>& \jT eTTq e. n+<Te\q
T<T\ e_#seT jXjTeTT.
|TeTT +f |PseTT eT<| eT>Te\q eT<T~ $wjTeTTqT
HXqqseTT #ss|eT>Te\q #sT~ $wjTeTTqT n>T#Tq~. eseq
\eTTq+<T |Ts|eTT> (+T^y<seTT \~>) qT+&Te\q |TT~
$wjTeT>T#Tq~. T |T <T<T\T njT $wjTeTT\sTT njT s|eTT\T>
qTq+<Tq e_#]+#T#Tqe jXjTeTT.
@ edTe jT\|&TqT @s|eTT> qT+&TH qjT~ e_#seTT ~
(HXeTT ~). mjT~ njTs |eTT> qT+&TH n~ e_#] +#TqT n d<+eTT.
d<T~ jT\|&TqT jTeT>T d<syT $wjTeTT> >\<>T e\q jTs|
eTsTTq~ >qT e_#]><T. |T |{~ T<T\ T e_#] +#T#Tq+<Tq ~wjT eTT\>T
|T|{<T\T nd<|eTT\T. d<T~ e_#]+#q+<Tq ~wjTeT>T d<seTT
ndY><T d<|yT jT>TqT.
eq nd<T~$wjTeT>T |T{~sCeTT, eT<~sDCeTT
nd<|eTT\sTTqqT, d<T ~$wjT eT>T |se TsDeTsTTq V|<se TT d<|eT>T
e\q XSqy<eTT |d + #< *q~. # jT~ >V +|e\jTTqT. sD<s eTT\T
seTTq+<T d+$T+#TqT. eT<s eT>T ]qH ~eTT |T eTTq+<T d+$T+#T
#Tq~. f q XdeT' ~ X |eDeTTe\q ds>sDeTTqT
d<q+< s|&TqT n>T jTT <s eTT>\ d# H q+<eTT\T seT>T >T
jT+<T>& d+$T+#T#Tq$. qTH |T eTT \<T. |T eTT |+#T#Tq~. |T eTT
|jTeTsTTq~ nqT eeVseTT bd>T#Tq~. eeVs\eTTe\q |T{~
sCeTTq+<T $q&T#Tq duyq+<eTT\qT <seTT\T _qeT>T
sCeTTq+<T q$e #T#Tq$. eTT> $#]+q# sCeTTq+<T
e. eT<seTT\>T ]H<T\T |T{seTT> |]D$T+q eTTjT+< jTTq$>
+T^e <seTTq+<T e. nf |T{<T\jT+<T |rjTeqeTT\>T#Tq
d#H` q+<eTT\T, |T{<eq#qeT>T HjT+< \e. eq |TdH
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
8

1
qe+sY, 2014
n |TeTTq+<T *jT&T#Tq d djT > |Td ><T. d+f
|TeTTqT ysT|sq# qd<|eT>T |TyT $T*jTT+&TqT. f >+jTTqT
sDeT>T #qd#H dY n #|&T#Tq~. #qd# >T nd<|yT
jT>TqT. eT]jTT eT<' nqT |j>eTT e dH|T' nqT |j>eTTL&
ssDeTT\ jTT nu< |jTTeTsTTq~. >qTH # d#eTT |T{_qeT>T
H u~+#T#Tq~. eT<' nqT# eT#eTT |T_qeT>T eTTH jTT
u~+#T #Tq< nf, <w ys\T eeTT # u+C+~ |TeTTH
d<|eTsTTq <> \#T#THsT.
n. $<eqeT>T |T eTTq+<T dH| T nqT eeVseTTe\q d<T ~ |T T~
jTqT T~<jTeTT \T>T#Tq~. n+<T |TeTTq+q&H |TT~ q+qT
|T eTTq+<T*q d<T ~ L& q+#T#TH jTTq~. |T HXqqse TT |T dH nqTT~
jT] jTT<sTT+|<T. eq |TT~e d<T~L& e_#]+#T #Tq+<Tq
|TT~$wjTeT>T |TeTT nd<|eTqT d<T~ $wjTeT>T dY |<seTTL&
nd<|yT e\djT T+&TqT n X+s> uwsT\T q |{<e| d<T ~ <s HY
n de<qeTTqT C|#THsT. |{<T\jT+<T>& d<T~ qT|+#T#T+&Te\q
d<T~ e_#]+|<T n jTqjTeTT. |THXeTTe\qH |TT~ q+qT
|T eTTq+<T *q d<T ~ L& q+q# |dH n |T~ keH~s D eTT#
d<T~ jTT<sTT+| Hs<T. |{< eqT uw|+ |T~ keH~sDeTT#
q jTseTT C|e\jTTqT. jT<XseTTqT n+^]+q# |eTT d<T~jT+<T
$wjTeTT e\d e#TqT. njT~ jTw eT>TqT. |THXeTTe\q d<T~
q+#+&T sD+seTT>& >\<T. dH|T ~ |j>eTT\ jT+<T
d#useTT $XwDeTT, |T{<T\T $XweTT\T, eq d<T~ $XwD $wjTeT
jT+^]+| e\jTTqT. \+ +s+ eTTq>T |j>eTT\jT+<T $Xw
$wjTeT>T ~T~ q+qqT, $XwD $wjTeT>T ~T<T\T jTT
q+#T< nf dH| T <T\jT+<T $Xw $wjT eT>T |T {~T<T\ T q+qqT
$XwD$wjTeT>T d<T~ eeTT q+|<T.
|THXqqseTT d<T~ |{<T\jT+<T >qT|&qT |TT~L&
|T{qseTTq+<T >qT|+#T#Tq+<Tq |TT~ eeTT e_#]+qf\jT>Tq
X++|s<T. |TT~ |T{+seTT\+<T >\T>T#TqqT d<T~e |{<T\jT+<T
qT|&T<T. d<T~eeTT |T{qseTT\ jT+<TqT |{<T\ jT+<TqT>&
qT|\u eqeT>T#Tq~. n+<Te\q |T T~ d<T ~ keTeTT<T . n+<Te\q |T T~
e_#]+q<jT sjTeT ueeTT.
n. zsTT! $<eq|TeTTq+<T dH |T' n d<T~ |TT<T\T
\T>T#Tq$. |THXqqseTT qc |T' n qw|TT~ eyT \T>T#Tq~,

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
9

C
> jT# d<T~ \T>T <T. nT \T>T# dqw' |T' n eeVseTT+&
eqT. n{ eeVs yT#qT <T. eq d<T~ qw|TT~ keH~sDeTT
q+<Tq d<T~L& qw|TT~ e_#]+qf< jT j|eTT, de<qeTT.
d<T~ $XwD $wjTeT sTT+eTTH #|&q~. $XwDeTT jT|&TqT
$XweTTq|&T> |d+#<T. qw|Td\eTTq $XweT>T |TyT q+q+<Tq
$XwDeTTq |djT <T. eq q# $XwD$wjT eT>T d<T~ |T<T.
+jT > $Xw eT>T |T eTTe $XwD eT>T d <se TT L& q+q+<Tq eeTT
><T. d<T ~ $wjT eT>T d< dTe VyT. njT~ eTT, jT|&TqT q+#Tq~><T.
>qT d<T~ e_#seTTqT X++#T jTTeTT><T. eT>T d<dT
edqeTsTTqqT nCq |jTTeT>T eeVseTTe\q |T|{<T\ $XwD
eT>T#Tq~.
n. zsTT! Hd $< ue' nqT HjTeTTe\q nd<|eTT\>T |T {<T\
d eTT# q{ jTd<|eTT\>T |T {<T\ d<|&>T V dH| T ', dH| ',
dHVd ~ |j>eTT\e\q <*jT&T keH~sDeTT jTT||qeT>TqT?
n jTqs<T. (nq> $Xw eTT\>T |T {<T\T q|&T $XwD $Xw eTT\>T d< eTT\
keH~sD eTjTTeT X+XjTeTT) <eTT<+, <+ s+, njT+ ds'
<T\jT+<T nqse T>T < s ds<T\T qqT n~cqeT>T <eT+XeTT
keH~sDeTT <weT>T#Tq~. nq> eT<+ Xs+, sEds'
nqT |r jT#qT <T. n~cq$Xw CqeTT# s|$XwCqeTT u~+|&TqT.
eTseTq <+ s+, <eTT<+, njT+ds' njT |r \<T. n~cq
keqCqeTT ns|$XwCqeTTqT u~+|C\<T. >qT | |rT\jT+<T
n~cqeT>T < eT+XeyT \<T. s|eTT\>T <<+XeTT\T e. ds~
|r |PseTT ds~u<qqseTTqT sC<T jTT+&Te\q, ds~ |r
\eTTq+<T >& jT<seTT> sC<T jTTq+<Tq \jTeTTq+<TqT ds<T\T
q+<TqqT, ds<T\T e_#]+#Tq{, ds<T\ e_#]+#q{, <eT+XeT>T n~cq
keH+XeTTq keH~sDeTT njT+ ds' ~ |rT\e\q *jT&T
#Tq~. nf V|T ', V|', VVd nqT |r jT#qT <T . dH| T ',
dH| ', dHV d njT |r \<T. +<T $XwD eT>T d<+ XeTT eyT d<|eTT.
$XweTT\>T |T{<+XeTT\T nd<|eTT\T. $XwDeT>T d<| |<seTTq+<T
$Xw eTT\>T |T |{<T\T *+|&q+<Tq n~cqeT>T d<|$XwD +XeTT |T {~
$Xc+X eTT\qT u~+|C\<T. >qT Hs+{ keH~sD eTT||qeT>TqT.
XeTT jTT |<eT b<seTTqT eTT+|#THsT. k<V<' nqT yeTTe\q
sCeT+jT T nd<T ~$wjT eT>T#T e_#] +#Te\q, sDdV eT>T oc~
<+< |<seTTq, sDdVeT>T <V+~jT eTq ~eTTqqT deTT<
ueeTT. |T{~eTT |PseTT HXqqseTTqT, nd<|eT>T#T eT<\eTT

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
10

1
qe+sY, 2014
q+<T>& sDeT>T eT<<T\+f _qs|eTT q+<Tq jTT nd<|eT>T
#Tq<, nf <V~eTT >&, q+f |PseTT, eTsDqqseTTqT nd<|eT>T#T
eT<\eTTq+<T >& sDueT>T |~y<T\+f _qs|eTT q+<Tq
<V<T\T >& e_#]+#Tq$, jT >V+|e\jTTqT.
n. Xe TTjTT ~rjTb<eTTq nse TTqT #| #THsT. < ~ >+<e TT#
< XeTT |Psysde| \T|qT. n<y nd<seTTq deTT jTT<
nT n <c+eTTqT u~+#TqT. d<q+<s| &>Te\q d<seT
ueeTT. ds ne_#seTq> ds \eTT\jT+<T, ds <Xe TT\jT+<T, ds edTe \
jT+<T +&T jT jTse TT. { j nueeTT < jT~wj T~s e_#s
Y nqT yeTT# uwsT *+ eTTH #|jTT+&s ueeTT.
n. XeTTjTT rjT #Ts b<eTT\ seTTqT C|#THsT. @e e
HH' nqT uw>+<eTT# sTTT d<d<|eTT\>T H |<seTT\
s+&+{jTTjTT sjTeTT y\# <*jT&q~, n XjseTT d<syT
qjTT, nd <se TT nd <sy T qjTTqT, y\ T *d=]. d<d <se TT\
keH~s D CqeTT eeTT nCq$\de T ueeTT. dH| T ', dH| ', dHV d
~eTT keH~sDCHseT >V+|e\jTTqT.
XeTTq+<* nqj' nqT XeTTq uwsT\T jT<j' nqT
|<e TT# qse TTqT #| ]. nq> nuesV eTsTTq<jTT, uesV eTsTTq <jTT,
XeTTjTT ~rjT |<eT b<eTT\# |b~+|&q d<d<seTT\ jTT n
jTse TT <] Xe TTq se TTqT #| #THsT. ~ ds HeT ~ >+<e TT#
#eTT# |seT]+|<q j>>\ |eT>T jTedTe q+<Tq #eTT
dsHeT eT #|&q~. dsHeT XeTTq seTTqT C|#THsT. ds+ # V
~ yeTT# R (dsd G HeT) dseTT jTT HeTeTT >q dsHeT n ww
dedeTT. ds+ K*<+ V nqT Xe\q ds eTT VseT>T# sDeT>T
V q_qeT>T e\q ds eTT VyT. n<y ds eTT VjT+<T *+|&T#
*eT>T >T n~cq eT>T V q_qeT>Te\q dseTT VyT.
fq # # e TT ds HeTeT>T# VHeTeTsTTq jT&\ (VqT #| H&\ )
u, uj
T , s , e ~ Xe TT\T >& ds HeTeTT\>T# Vy#e TT \ >L&<T ?
c| jTq# u, uj
~ Xe TT\qT m#qT VjT+<T j+|q+<Tq q~
jTTeTT ><T, n j | e TTs> de<qeTT C| &T#Tq~. dsB ds He
nqT ysD |]uw HXsTT+ # e TTq sTT# ds HeTeTTqT jTT| jT+<Te\q
# e TTq Vy# eTTqT C| q# q|&T | <web~+#e#TqT. sTT#
keqeTT> ds edTe \qT C| q{< > T e\qH Hs &q ds HeTeTTqT |sd ]+#T=
# e TTq Vy# eTT #| &q+<Tq |< w eb~+|<T . d ue' +

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
11

C
n uw|+ R zsTT! V ss eT>T#T+&> V y#e T>T # e TT+f
<s se TTq+<T (uyse TTq+<T) | jTeTT HT jTT|]? nqT |X de<qeTT
VD j<+ n, # uys e T>T | jTeTT# VjTT jT<s ds|eTT
#| &T#Tq~. njT~ V]e T>T <s eTT ><T. j< eTq> jT<sd s|eTT.
njT~ VjTT d<q+< s|eTT. ss eT>T VjT+<T d<q+<s | eTqT
<s eTT eeTT jTT+&TqT? n jTqs<T. q+< $wj qTuy + # <s ',
n|< -| # H Y |< V u nqT |eDeTTe\q q+<eTT, $wjT eTT\
qqTu$ +#T eTT nqT <s eTT\T jT+<T >\e. jTjT$ # q eTT
q_qeTT \sTTqqT _qeTT\e >#]+#TqT n #| &T#Tq~. eq d,Y Y q+<eTT
\qT <sjTeTT V+f ysT>qqT ejTe\q ysT> ud+#TqT. >qT
ss eTTq u+ >eTT <T .
zsTT! V d<q+<s |eT>T >. V<s eTT\>T d, T, q+<eTT\T
V-_qeTT\>T>. d<q+<s|&>T VeTTq+<T d<q+<s|
eTqT <seTT+&> V ss yT>Tq? yTeT&T>T#T+{$T ` nq# nT><T.
V<seTT\>T dq+<eTTT V-_qeTT, d<q+<s|<seTT
>& qf V_qeT>T#Tq~. d<q+<s | eTqT <s eTT dq+<eTT\+f
ysT ><T. eq d<q+<s|eTTqqT sseTTq u+>eTT <T.
XeTTq+<T VjTT d<|yT $e]+| &q~. ($|\eTT> C|&q~.)
<|q+<s|eTT *+<T C|&<T. s+&TqT eTT+<T >+<eTTq+<T
$|\eTT> #| &>\ e >V +|e\jTTqT. <]H+ <we u|+ sTT#
<wj
T q eTeT jTse TT. nq> CqeT Xjse TT. V]e T>T ||+ #eT+jT T
| >_q eTjTT VyTT& d<|eTjTTqT CqeTTqT <#T = Xy VeTT\qT
$&TeeT ueeTT.
q+<]eTeTT : XeTTjTT |<eT b<s$esD|sDeTTq
lXvsuweTTq+<T ds <TB dssT|\u keH~sDq \eY
nqT |+ \<T. n+<T q+<]|+&T\T keH~sDq nqT #
deH~sDq nqT bseTT HXsTT+ deH~sDq n |<$u>eTTqT
Cd n+<T deH~sD nqT |<eTTqT TB nqT ~e#H+|<eTTq $XwD
yTTq] dH|T' dH|' dHVd n |seTT eeVsu$TjT+ <+qT
deH~sDeTT\>T @edT u<eTT\>T s+&T T<T\T n+<]#qT <*jT&T
#Tq$. q ~eY ~T<T\e ><T, n jTqjTeTTqT *+].
eT]jTT |<e TT\jT+<* keH~s D eTT T<T\ jT+ <s|+|&T#Tq~. kjT+
<e< ~ keH~sDeTT e |TdH ~ keH~sDeTT @edT
u<eTT. edTu< eTTq|&T keH~sDeTT bd><T. |sdseTT _qedTe\>T
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
12

1
qe+sY, 2014
|T|eTT\ keH~sDeTT d+u$+#T <T. eT]jTT \eTT\ eTqT
keH~sDeTT \eTT\ >\ <s <]ueeTTqT u~+#TqT dH|T'
~ keH~s D eTT\T>& <s <] ueu< e TT\T> #]se TT\>T#T+&, kjT+
<e< <T\e @edT u< e TT\ jTqH\? jT X++|s<T. keq$Xwe TT\
+ u<eTTqqT, n+u<eTTqqT, keq$XwueeTT bd><T. $sT<eTT\>T
u< u< e TT # qT+&Hs e . eq Ce\ keH~s D eTT \eTT\
e >DeTT <T. eTseTq yeeTT\T nqTe|<seTTq+<T *+|&qeqT
HjTeTT# # keH~sDeTT @edT wyT jT>TqT. keHq$XweTT\
C|q HjTeTTqT >TD>TD<T\jT+<T >& uws \T|<+#T#THsT. @e
eTqT|<e TT e\q n jq+<]|+&T \T yUqeTTqT Cd] . yUqeTT q+<*
jTTjTTeTT\T $#]+|&T#Tq$.
deq+ n~sD+ jTj' jse' keH~sDyT nqT e
e\q @|<seTT\ n~sDeTT {j |<seTT\T deH~sDeTT \q&T
#Tq$. y{jTT <seTT keH~sDeTT. ee\q keH~sDeTT
jT|&TqT edT< jTeTTq+< jTT+&TqT. njT~ s +&T |<e TT\ >\ $XwD $Xw ue
d++<e TT# nu< qjTeTTq >sD eT>T#Tq~. \eTT\ eTqT # _qyT
\yT nqT Xu< \T>Te\q, \ \eTT\T @~s D eTTq+<T+&T#
y{ keH~s D eTT \ |<s< jTeTTq+ <T+&qT. |<se TT\ HXjT
eTTq|&T > |<eTT\ HXjTeTT d+u$+|<T. |<eTT\ keH~sDeTT
|<se TT \+ _qeTT\sTTqqT n+_qeTT\sTTqqT d+u$ +|<T . qTH |T '
|' n > |T{ |T' n > eTTq+ <#qT |j>eTT <T. nfq#
>TD>TDT\>T \eTT\ |sds u<eTT+&Te\q \eTT\yT n
keH~s D |j >yT T *q~? n |+|s<T. # \ |<e TT \>TDeTT>\
<eeTTqT u~+#T#Tq~. n< w <y nqT qeTsXeTT >& ~|<eTT\T
<ey#eTT \sTTq|&T eT&T *+>eTT\ jT+<T+&T q Xd+#T#T >TDy#eT>T
~ |<eTT\ <eyeTTqT >& H=|q~. \De# qsTTqqT \
|<e TT \ >TDeTT >\ <eeTTqT u~+|e#TqT. n+<Te\q \>TDeTT>\ <eeTT
q_qeTsTTq~ jTT\eTT nqT Xu< d~+#T#Tq~. eq |<seTT\ jTT
keH~sDeTT n+qT keq$XwuyBqyT> edTe jTT nu<BqeTT
>< dweTT.
n<q \eTT\ eTqT # \|<eTT \>TDeTT>\ <ekeqeTT
qT C|qT. \|<eTT <e$XweTTqT C|qT. s+{ keH~sDeTT
>sTD' nqT# >|<eTT >eTqT keq<seTT >\ e eeTTqT C|qT.
eTTD|<eTT e $XweTTqT C|#Tq~. f eT<' nqT# eT<eTT
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
13

C
eTeqeTTqT C|qT. |T |<eTT +T^y<s $XweTT>\ eT~XweTTqT
C|#Tq~. njT+ ds' nqT # <yTXeTT jT<TqTq edTkeqeTTqT
C|qT. dsXeTT edT$XweTTqT C|#Tq~. dq' nqT# d#eTT d>\
edTeeTTqT C|qT. |TXeTT ~XweTTqT C|#Tq~.
n<y eT<' <T\jT+<T eTT sDeTT, |TeTT, seTT >q
s +{ ssDueeTT e\q keH~s D eTjTT, s d\ eTT\ jT+<T eeTT
keq $XwueeTTe\qH keH~sDeTjTTqT jTq# >e#T
<s <] ueeTTe\q> >TD>TDu eeTT e\q > keH~s D yT#qT jTT+&<T .
>TD>TDT\T <s <s T \T n+eTT |sd s_q eTT \>Te\q. nfq # ssDeTT\
> keq$XweTT\ > $T* u<yTq jTqs<T. eT<<T\ |T{<T\
+u< e TT >qT<T . nHu< e TTqT >qT|+#T<T . n Hu< e TTq# seTT
sDeTT nqT u<eeVsyT q+#TqT. >qT _qeTT\ > jT_qeTT\ >
s|+| q\$> |<se TT\ keH~s D eTT. { keH~s D eTT dH| T '
nqT #e \eTT\ eTqT# >& deqyT >eq Hq+<]|+&T\T q
\eY n \keH~sDeTTqT es<cqeTTqT> jTT C|s
*jTq~.
k-jT+ <e<' nqT keH~sD yTT keq $Xw ueeTTqT
u~+| edu<eTTqT u~+#T#Tq< nf dH|T' nqT keH~sDeTT >&
keq$XwueeTTqT u~+| edu<eTTqT u~+#Tq <\ >L&< jTqs<T.
k-jT+ <e<' nqT# keH~sDyT d+u$+|<T. n+<Te\qH n#
u>>\D jT+^]+|&q~. k-jT+ <e<' nqT# <e<T q_qT&T
<e<T&T n yseTTqT C|<T. eTseTq <e<T &jT yseTT
C|&T#Tq~. dH|T nqT# qT dHeT ys eT+^]+|&T<T.
eTseTq d<_qeTT|T eTjT ys eT+^]+| &T#Tq~. #us, <yT
XuseTT\e d|TeTT\ |sds$s<eTT <T. $s<eTTq|&T >< \D
HXsTT+#T? V|TeT C|q# $s<eTT dT]+#TqT. eq \eTT\yT
nqT d\ eTTq+<T eH dH| T nqT #>& keH~s D eT+^]+|e\jTTqT.
n+jT> k-jT+ <e<' nqT d\ eTTq+<Te keH~s D eT+^]+|<> < T .
k-jT+ <e<' nqT# keH~sDyT u~+|&q~.
zsTT! nqTeeT>T d<seTTq+<T yeeT>T |TeTT *+| &T#
dq' nqT# nqTe yeueeTT HXsTT+ keH~sD eT+^]+|
&q~. \eTqT# qT nqTe yeueeTT >#]+#T<T ><. n{]
dH|T' nqT d\eTTq+<* keH~sDeTT \ eTqT d\eTTq+<*
keH~sDeTT e+{< C| jT\ bd>Tq |+|s<T. eTTq+<e&TqT

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
14

1
qe+sY, 2014
d<seTTq+<T |TeTT *+|&q<qT q_bjTeTT dq' n |j+#T
<T. nfq# H|TeTT <seTT q+<T >& *+|&q< eq <' n
L& |j+|e\de#TqT. X|e jT|&TqT sBqeTsTTq~. eTseTq
|TeTT $<eqeT>T# |TdH n jT+<sT eeV]+#T#THsT. n{
$<eqeTT () |{<T\jT+<T >& qTq+<Tq deTT |{<T\jT+<T
>& qqT> eT>T#Tq~. nf \eTT s<T\ jT+<T >& \<T>q s<T\jT+<T
>& qqT> eT>T#Tq~. eq qTeyeueeTT ~ d\eTTq+<T
>& qT+&> dq ' ~ d\ eTTq+<* keH~s D eTT ~ d\ eTT+<*
keH~sDeTT e+{~ >< jq+<] jT\C|s <*jTq~.
>sTD' R dH| T ' R eT< ' ~ d\ eTT\jT+<T >s|eT>T edTe >,
d<|eT>T edTe>, eT<|eT>T edTe> @s|eT>T e\q q#
keH~sDyT weT>T>. ~ d\eTT\ jT+<T \s|eT>T edTe
@s|eTT>q+<Tq q# keH~sDeTT @weTT>< jTqs<T. \
d\eTTq+<T >& \>TDeTT>\ <eeTT @s|eT d<+|s#Te\q u<weTTq
eXyT <T.
eT]jTT dq' nqT# keH~sDeTT d$T<s|eT>T
edT<jT>eTjTT, \eTqT d\eTTq+<* keH~sDeTT $T<ueT>T
edT<jT> eTjTT, >eq s+{ u<eTTq+<Tq dq' nqT d\eTTq+<*
keH~sDeTT ~ d\eTTq+<* keH~sDeTT e+{~><
|+|s<T. V|T' nqT# keH~sDeTT d$T< edTweTsTTqqT,
dq' nqT d\eTTq+<* keH~sDeTT eeTT d $T<edTweTT><T.
eT]jTT eTT q+<|sTw&qqT dq' nqT d\eTTq+<T d#eTT deT>T
VeTTqT u~+#TqjTT, |TXeTT $T<ueT>T |TeTTqT u~+#TqjTTqT
<*d=qjT&\, d$T<edTe\ keH~sDeTT d+u$+#q+<Tq dq'
n deH~sD XeTTqT j+|&T. d $T< edTe\>T \qudT\
keH~s D eTT q_bjT|& \+ du' n deH~s D Xe TTqT |j +qT
dq ' nqT# L& qf keH~s D |j > eTT||q eT>T> jT X++|s<T.
\+ qu' nqT |r ueeTT. dq' nqT |r eeVseTTq+<T q+es
|eeTT. n+<Te\q s +{ keTeTT bd>< T . eTTq+ <esTqT ds eTTq+<T
dsT~jTT, sEeq+<T dsT~jTT s+&TqT T\eTT\ <\+#sT. eq
keH~sDq nqT bsyT k<TeqT, nqjTX sVeTTqT nsTTjTTq~. >,
q+<] |DT \_bjT|&q deH~sDq nqT bseTT dMTNqeTT><T.
seqTeTeTT : Xe TTq seqTE +~ $<e TT> qse TTqT C| ].
nd<|eT>T <V eTTq d<eeTT<T . d<|&>T H nd<eeTT (nueeTT)q

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
15

C
< T . nqTu $ +| & T # T q < V \ s +& + { j T T s j T eTT y \ #
nqTuyqTkseTT> >V+|&q~. s|DeTTq sjTeTT |sekq eT>Te\q
# nqXeTT sjs eT >V+|e\jTTqT. n<dTe>T <VeTTq nueyT
(ndyT) ds|eTjTT, #qT&>T dyT ds|eTjTTqT, y\#
ssTT+| &q< ueeTT. q+#T dueeTT ndeTjTT, q+# dueeTT
d eTjTTqT $ye TT. n +<* <c<weTT\qT $#]+eTT. d<|&>T XsT
e\q T{q |]<Xeq eT>T ||+#eTT d<|yT jTqT dsy~ jT>T
seqTE\T nd<|eT>T <VeTTq d<eeTT+& Hs< jTseTTqT e]+#T,
eT eTeTTqT <eTT M&TjTT |seTeTTq+<T y+#TjTT qqT <weTT\qT
u+<T#THsT. eT]jTT nd<|eTT\>T oc~ <+< |<seTT \T+&>, <VeTTqT
eyT nd<|eTT> |]>D+#T seqTE\jTT eT>T#Tq~. eT\eTTq+<T
Hd $< ue' n $q&T#Tq ue|<e TTq d<eeT jTse TTqT e]+#TjTT
njTTeTT. nf nue' nqT |<eTTq nd<eeT jTsesqeTT CjTTL&
qqTyT jT>TqT. eT]jTT uyue|<eTT \ d<yd<eeTT\ jTseTTqT
C|q# j> nj>eTT\qT nsqseTT >& |rjTeq eT>TqT. njT~
jT|eTT >q qd+>eT>TqT. d<eeTq> d jTjTT, nd<e eTq> nd
jTjTT nseTTqT >V+#T nXeTT. eT]jTT seqT eTeTTq+<T
||sTwXsT\T eTTesT dds|\T, T\T q>T#T+& d' nqT |<eTTq
jTjTseTTqT C| ndMTNq eT>TqT ` eT]jTT y] eTeTTq+<\H\
d<+eTT+& HeTTqT C|jTT qd+>eTT. eT]jTT <VH
s|\ueqj' n <V\T s+&TqT nqTu$+|&T#Tq e C| L&
nqTeTT. <V eTT|\ueq eTsTTqqT (nqTu$+|&T#TqqT) |e
jTsTTq+<Tq qT|\ > jTT|\ueqT&T >Hs&T. >& qT|\ueqT&
jTsTTq# <V<T\e H>& &|<syT jT>TqT. <]_' nqT |<eTTq
jT<|\_ nqT |<e TTqT Xw| P sDeTT CjT T njTTe TT. n{ Xw| P sDeTT +&>H
|seTT \_+#T#Tq~. |T Xw|PsDeTT eT\sT\ deTeTT ><T.
n<dTe >T <V eTTq nd yT ds|eTqTjTT <>< T . nd yT|&TqT >TDeTT>
ds|eTT >Hs<T. ndyTe nqT @ eseTT e\q dsbqs w<eTT >&
<#T#Tq~, njT~ nwe TT. n<dTe \ ns| eTT >& qT+&TqT. njT~
w~+| q\$><T. nf d yT ds|eTqTjTT <>< T . , CH sT&>T
e\q $HXdueeTT ndeT C|jTT qTeTT ><T.
seqTeTeTT q+<T d eTT\T s+&T _qeTT\ jT+^]+|
&q~. |]<Xeq eT>T ||+ #eTT d eTjTT, n eTjTT y] d<+eTT.
>qTH q+# dueeTT deTqTjTT deT+deTT <T. eq seqTE\
yUq eTH <w<w eT>T# |]>VeTT >< jXjTeTT.
16

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
16

1
qe+sY, 2014
kjTD#s$s

>Cqq kyT
n>Cqq|<s+
>CqqeTV]XyT
nH<+ + uH+
@<qeTTbdV
` d+Jy, s.
n> C qq| < s y T , > C qqy T ,
nV]XyT, nH<yT, yT, uHyT,
@<qyT, bdV
n>Cqq|<syT ` q ># n>',
nsY |s', n>q CjT n>C,
n>Cj' qqyT ` n>CqqyT, n>CqqyT @e |< n>Cqq|<, n>Cqq
|<q' ns' e jTd d' n>Cqq|<s', yT n>Cqq|<syT
>CqqyT ` >d qq' e qq' jTd d', + >CqqyT
nV]XyT ` nV' # X # nV]X j' deVs+ nV]XyT
nH<yT ` q @' nH', nH+ << nH<', + nH<yT
@<qyT ` @' <q' jTd d' @<q', + @<qyT
bdV ` | G dt G eTV (eseH \{ \s', H|<', eT|sTw'
nqjT' ` (nV+) nV]XyT n>Cqq|<s+ uH+ nH<+ @<q+ +
>Cqq+ bdV

s#sTT\T eT s#q\qT 30 sE\T eTT+<T> ~>Te sTHe


#sTqT\ |+|>\sT. C ed| |H\ ` 1e KT $&T<\>TqT.

sTHe :

s$ yVqse, M.Sc., M.A., (Sanskrit)


>sed+b<\T C

404, +q+ +|, 1 {H bdtdwH m<TsT,


Ns\ ` 523 155, |X+ , +<|<X.
Cell : 9440115411, E-mail : ramorasans@gmail.com

Website : www.samskruti.org/people/ramora/ramoraindex.html

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
17

C
SRI ARAVINDA
SARIT SAGARA

- Dr. Prema Nandakumar,


Srirangam.

2. The Sterling Patriot


Sri Aurobindos wide reading in
England had familiarized him with the
weak points of western culture, so he
was never anglicized, inspite of
spending fourteen impressionable years
of his life in England. Involvement with
associations like the Indian Majlis made
him aware of the Indian conditions even
before he returned to India. He took a
special interest in following the Irish
liberation movement and even wrote a
poem on Charles Stuart Parnell which shows that he admired heroism in the
face of adversities, for such was the Irish leaders personality.
O pale and guiding light, now star unsphered,
Deliverer lately hailed, since by our lords
Most feared, most hated, hated because feared,
Who smotst them with an edge surpassing swords!
Thou too wert then a child of tragic earth,
Since vainly filled thy luminous doom of birth.
With such stirrings in him, Sri Aurobindo returned to India in 1893.
His Cambridge friend,K.G. Deshpande, who was editing Indu Prakash at
Bombay got in touch with him and invited him to write to his paper as he knew
by then about Sri Aurobindos writing skills. When he agreed, Deshpade
introduced him to his readers as a gentleman of great literary talents, of liberal
culture and of considerable English experience, well-versed in the art of writing
and willing, at great personal inconvenience and probable misrepresentation,
to give out his views in no uncertain voice and .. in a style and diction
peculiarly his own. A perfect critique of the 21-year old young man!
With the very first article on the state of the Indian National Congress,
Sri Aurobindo arrived with a bang in Indias world of political journalism. And
the opening? The first line he wrote for his first article (August 7, 1893): If the
blind lead the blind, shall they not both fall into a ditch? So or nearly so runs an
apopthegm of the Galilean prophet whose name has run over the four quarters
of the globe. His criticism of the methods of Indian National Congress were
biting in the extreme. After the first two articles appeared Mahadev Govind

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
18

1
qe+sY, 2014
Ranade threatened court action against the paper. Though this plan of unveiling
the hypocrisies of the Congress had to be abandoned, on Deshpandes request
Sri Aurobndo agreed to continue in a more subdued manner. Along with politics,
Sri Aurobindo also wrote a series of articles on Bankim Chandra Chatterjee.
He was now very comfortable with reading Bengali and he was also discovering
new ways (or tried old ways) of resisting a foreign government from the novels.
This is reflected in his occasional barbs at the Indian National Congress of the
day. When will we ever be free, if we remain beggars like the Moderates?
Bankim had shown the right way: revolution! His novel, Ananda Math,
especially, captured the imagination of Sri Aurobindo. He translated the novel
into English, but it remains unfinished. He also translated the poem Bande
Mataram in the novel; actually he made two translations, both literal and
poetic at the same time which reflect his enthusiasm to take to revolution as
the sannyasis do in the novel.
Mother, I salute thee!
Who hath said thou art weak in thy lands
When the swords flash out in seventy million hands
And seventy million voices roar
Thy dreadful name from shore to shore?
With many strengths who art mighty and stored,
To thee I call Mother and Lord!
Though who savest, arise and save!
To her I cry who ever her foeman drove
Back from plain and Sea
And shook herself free.
The first few years at Baroda about a decade were thus spent in
preparing himself by mastering the Indian political situation. Wide reading,
writing, close observance, meeting political activists and even drawing up
programmes of action went on silently. He had got married, he was writing
poetry and he was being looked upon with admiration by those who came into
contact with him. From the Gaikwar of Baroda to those who worked for him at
home, from political leaders like Ranade to his own students, the admiration
was total. Who would not when they drew near to Sri Aurobindo and noticed
how quickly he could master languages and literatures? Everyone admired
him for boldly setting aside his European make-up (literally too!) and readily
learning to love his motherland passionately. K.M. Munshi has recounted an
incident when he got up in the class room and asked his Professor, Sri Aurobindo:
How can nationalism be developed? Pat came the reply, the speaker pointing
to a wall-map of India:
Look at that map. Learn to find in it the portrait of Bharatamata. The
cities, mountains, rivers and forests are the materials which go to make up Her
body. The people inhabiting the country are the cells which go to make up Her
living tissues. Our literature is her memory and speech. The spirit of Her

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
19

C
culture is Her soul. The happiness and freedom of Her children is Her salvation.
Behold Bharat as a living Mother, meditate upon Her, and worship her in the
nine-fold way of Bhakti.
Thus when the twentieth century dawned, Sri Aurobindos
consciousness was full of Mother India, her shackled condition which was
deplorable, and the need to gain freedom for her from the fetters of foreign
rule. There was the way of logical argument and convincing the English to
leave India for their own good, as in the long run numbers would be against
them, India being a vast country and heavily populated even one hundred years
ago. Then there was also the way of forcing the British to leave India by striking
terror into their hearts. This would definitely be a swifter way. Already Bengals
youth were in search of this solution and Sri Aurobindos own younger brother
Barindra Kumar was one of them. He had had a rather difficult beginning
having lost his father at a very young age. His mother was sick and it was his
uncle who helped him study upto the College level. He had a mind of his own
and came to Sri Aurobindo in 1901. By now Sri Aurobindo himself was in
contact with Bengal revolutionaries and so the days sped fast. We learn that
Barindras interest in sances was not frowned upon by Sri Aurobindo. In one
of the sances, Sri Ramakrishnas spirit clearly said: Mandir gado! Mandir
gado! (Build a temple! Build a temple!)
For Sri Aurobindos intense mood, this seemed to be a firm pointer to
the course of future action to be undertaken by the revolutionaries. Already
Indian social discourse was agog with the Sri Ramakrishna Mission that had
been initiated by Swami Vivekananda. Swamiji knew that the Sannyasi Revolt
in late 18th century was still fresh in British memory. According to the British,
the sannyasis came in the way of collecting tax from landowners and in one
instance in1771, 150 ochre-clad monks were put to death for no reason. Hence
Swami Vivekananda had kept the Mission scrupulously away from any political
association. He was himself deeply patriotic and was anxious for a free India,
but he knew that the Missions altruistic motives will not be understood by the
government.
The well-organized Mission itself was an inspiration for the activists
now. Sri Aurobindo prepared a blueprint for a political association on the same
lines of self-less sacrifice put forward by the monks of the Sri Ramakrishna
Mission. This is now known as the Bhawani Mandir Scheme. One can
comprehend the firm manner in which Sri Aurobindo had readied himself for
plunging into the political fray by studying the ground situation. It is a call to
the children of Mother India:
Om Namas Chandikayai
A temple is to be erected and consecrated to Bhawani, the Mother,
among the hills. To all the children of the Mother the call is sent forth to help in
the sacred work.

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
20

1
qe+sY, 2014
Who is Bhawani?
Who is Bhawani, the Mother,
and why should we erect a temple to her?
Bhawani is the Infinite Energy.
That is it. Here was nothing of Hindutva or whatever the terms of
abuse pseudo-secularists use to run down the great Indian culture. Sri Aurobindo
had zeroed in on to this Shakti-tattva and prepared a scheme to revitalize the
nation. If the Sri Ramakrishna Mission was out to teach us the forgotten truths
of the Daridra Narayana concept by its social work and re-educated the Indians
about their great culture, the Bhawani Mandir would wake up Indians to their
birthright of freedom and the heroism which had made this land a veera-bhoomi.
Bankim Chandras Anand Math had gone directly into Sri Aurobindos soul.
Bhawani Mandirs location would be in the deep forests, suggestive of
the monastery described in Ananda Math. Sri Aurobindo proceeds to explain
the need to evoke the image of Bhavani as the times called for energetic
soldiers, not ease-loving bureaucrats created by English education. Indians
should not seek comfort anymore! Shivaji had invoked Bhavani and had
successfully called a halt to the aggrandizements of the Moghul rulers. He had
worshipped at the ancient temple of Bhawani in Tuljapur, a shakti-peetha, that
is located upon a hill of the Sahyadri range, and is known as Yamunachala.
Indians have enough in their past to light their future. Western science
and industrialization is not the answer, says Sri Aurobindo and calls strength
physical, strength mental, strength moral, but above all strength spiritual which
is the one inexhaustible and imperishable source of all the others. If we have
strength everything else will be added to us easily and naturally. In the absence
of strength we are like men in a dream who have hands but cannot seize or
strike, who have feet but cannot run.
To regain our energy, we must first learn to adore our motherland as
Mother Energy. The Bhawani Mandir says:
For what is a nation? What is our mother-country? It is not a piece of
earth, nor a figure of speech, nor a fiction of the mind. It is a mighty Shakti,
composed of the Shaktis of all the millions of units that make up the nation,
just as Bhawani Mahisha Mardini sprang into being from the Shakti of all the
millions of gods assembled in one mass of force and welded into unity. The
Shakti we call India, Bhawani Bharati, is the living unity of the Shaktis of three
hundred million people.
Bhakti does not mean just prayers and visits to the temple. Bhakti
towards our motherland is karma yoga, and this is what the banded
brahmacharis and the sannyasins of the Bhawani Mandir would do. Sri
Aurobindo also explains the need for renunciation (at least for a few years) in
the Indian context to achieve total concentration on the work on hand. Such
was the message of Sri Aurobindo for the unification of Indians.

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
21

C
Necessarily Sri Aurobindo had to be increasingly absent from Baroda
as he was invited for giving speeches and getting the intellectual as well as the
common man to wake up and do the needful to gain Indias freedom. During
these long absences Mrinalini had to be away at her parents place or with her
husbands people in Deogarh. But they remained in touch through letters. It
was not a pleasant situation for her but her love and reverence for him was that
of a girl nurtured in the true Sanatana Dharma tradition of Sita and Savitri. A
handful of letters written by Sri Aurobindo to Mrinalini have survived, because
they were produced as prosecution exhibits in the Alipur Bomb Case. In a
letter written on 30th August, 1905 he speaks of the three madnesses that have
caught hold of him. The first is the firm conviction that whatever he has
money, talents etc. is given to him God and so they belong to God. He should
not keep for himself more than he needs for a bare existence. Secondly, he
wants to have a direct vision of God, not mere religious ecstasy but the
experiencing of God. His third madness is that he can see his motherland only
as a living mother:
while others look upon their country as an inert piece of mattera
few meadows and fields, forests and hills and riversI look upon Her as the
Mother. What would a son do if a demon sat on his mothers breast and started
sucking her blood? Would he quietly sit down to his dinner, amuse himself with
his wife and children, or would he rush out to deliver his mother? I know I have
the strength to deliver this fallen race. It is not physical strengthI am not
going to fight with sword or gunbut it is the strength of knowledge.
What quickened his work to write in this vein was the Partition of
Bengal in 1905. He came into the open as the people of not only Bengal but
the entire sub-continent seethed with anger. Sri Aurobindo resigned his job at
Baroda and took up the Principalship of the newly started National College at
Kolkata (the present Jadhavpur University) for a fraction of the kingly salary he
was getting in Baroda. He also became the de facto editor of the nationalist
paper Bande Mataram. His writings in the paper literally roused the nation.
The two terms, Swadeshi and
Boycott became mantric syllables thanks to
his explaining the twin movements which were a direct offshoot of the Partition
of Bengal.
His writings in the paper which included creative literature and
translations suited for the times, have become classics. The journalism of Sri
Aurobindo is indeed great literature for his articles sound utterly
contemporaneous. And they are educative, when one reads and re-reads them.
Well, that is the mark of sublime literature!
That such journalism was bound to anger the British government was
well known. Warrant for the arrest of Sri Aurobindo was issued on 16th August,
1907. It seems Sri Aurobindo did not wait for them but presented himself in
the police station. The case went on, witnesses were examined and nothing
could be proved, and he was acquitted. The government bided its time, and
arrested him on the midnight of 2 nd May, 1908 as being involved in the

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
22

1
qe+sY, 2014
Muzaferpore bomb outrage when two Englishwomen were killed. Sri Aurobindo
was kept in a solitary room in Alipore Prison in Kolkata. Already well known as
the leader of the Nationalist congressmen and a close fellow-worker with Bal
Gangadhar Tilak, the arrest and the subsequent prosecution catapulted him to
all-India fame. The famous trial went on for one whole year. The one person
unperturbed by all that was going on around him was Sri Aurobindo. He was
like the Yogeshwara Shiva whether in the court or in the prison. 4000 documents
were filed, innumerable exhibits (revolvers, bombs etc.) were presented and
300 witnesses were examined. The prosecution was led by the celebrated
Eardley Norton. Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Dass speech defending Sri
Aurobindo went on for eight days. His peroration was memorable and prophetic:
My appeal to you is this, that long after the controversy will be hushed in
silence, long after this turmoil, the agitation will have ceased, long after he is
dead and gone, he will be looked upon as the poet of patriotism, as the prophet
of nationalism and the lover of humanity. Long after he is dead and gone, his
words will be echoed and re-echoed, not only in India but across distant seas
and lands. Therefore, I say that the man in his position is not only standing
before the bar of this Court, but before the bar of the High Court of History.
The two Assessors found the accused not guilty and Judge Beachcroft
acquitted Sri Aurobindo on 6th May 1909.
....to be Contd.

>
D

+
s+&+\ esZ\qT dTHjd+> k~+# |<T\qT |]o*<+.
5.
182 382 ............ 982 yTT<q y{ >TD+# |< s+&+\
d+K kq+ 8 q|&T de<q+qT kq+ |d]>
4 e+T+~. |X d+K\ qT+& 2 qT rdyd, |* |<T\kq+
n+ s |< n+ >TD+#*.
< :`
28 I 28
kq+
4
|<T\ e+<\ kH\T (28`2) I 3 R
78
784
eTs <VsD
68 I 68
kq+
4
|<T\ e+<\ kH\T (68`2) I 7 R
462
4624
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
23

C
l <skeTT $s

l |sXeTTeTVeT' kyT
yU ` <s\ $XH<Xs, sejT+|.

b<|sDyT
ne] : | XeTTq e\ yueeTT l|s~ e+\ yueeTT e]+|
&q~. Xe TTq ~ es |Dj
T >T l|sX jTT yu e eTT e]+|&T
#Tq~.
X j c& |+#< # |{$uy l|s <e Xy!
de ldT+< X_s_qT #sCdqk
dsH{|{>DH jsXyH
C-q]>& s#jT >e~eT<+H
10
||<seTT : z XeTT<y!, j R @, l|s R l|s<$, c& R iT
$<eTT\T>, |+#< # R nsTT<T $<eTT\T>qT, |{$uy R yueeTTqT
|{+q<, k @e R yTjT, X_' R y<eTT\ #, #sCdqk R
#seTT nqT dqeTTq+<Tq, l dT+<] R l dT+<]jT, n_qT R
b>&&q<, ds R n#, nH{|{>DH R nH T>
|{+|&q, j' R jqT\qT, eXyH R b+<T#Tq<, Cq]
`>& R eTT|\ <jTTq<, >yT R >T\jTT, ~eT<+
H R ~ eT<+\eTT\qT, s#jT R s+#T#Tq~.
seTT : iT $<eTT\T>, nsTT<T $<eTT\T> q yueeTTqT H
|{+#T=q l|sXjT XT\# #sCdqdjT, l dT+<]jT
b>&&q< n # nH T> >D+|&q jqT\ y|+q< l
XeTT<e eTT|\ <jTTq< >T\jTT ~eT<+\eTT\qT
s+#T#Tq~.
$esDeTT : Jy |+#XeTT\, w{XeTT\ e]+|&jTTq~.
nqbDeTHT<q+<eTT\T |+#XeTT\T, v+dsT~syT< eTCd\T
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
24

1
qe+sY, 2014
w{XeTT\T, e]+#T \DeTT\T \$ eqH nqbD<T\T XeTT\
|\Te&q~. esDeTT ~ sDeTT> *q $|eTT. $ s+&TqT l|s<$
jTT X \ T $deTT\T. nq> |+#XeTT\T> w{XeTT\T> neTy]
jTT ds|eTT\T. #Tww { jqT\T neTy] s|eTT. e, |w,
$<, X+, X+r nqT <T\\ s|eTTqL&, neTys<T $<eTT\T>
qTq~. y n+{ jT+<eTys y|+ jTTq~. yT eeTTq
<jTT+&jT dwd\jTeTT\ H=qsT#Tq~. y >T\jTT ~
eT<+\eTT\ $ #|H&T. ~ \eTT nq> dw, eT<\eTT nq>
d, n+\eTq> \jTeTT. nK+&\eTTq+<T K+&\qeTT qeTysT
#jTTjT dwd\jTs| jT s#qeTT. 2. |s<$ y<eTT\T
#sCdqd n, ldT+<]jT y<eTT\T b&q$. #seT+<* sK\T
*jTT#T j>eTT \q&TqT. j>~c<e\T jqT\T. y]
=\~ |]#]\T L& jqT.
<TqT HiTT\T> e dTyuejTqX l
y~ qT+& dT+<]> y<eTT# qTT \+<T=q<
<>T dT|XeTTqT *jTT q+ {j
U~jT >eTT\ \eTT\H ssTT+#T #T+&&H.
ne] : | XeTTq >eTT\ ~eT<+\eTT\ qq> dwd\jTeTT\
H=q]q l |s<$ e]+|&q~. Xe TTq yTjTT ]D (\d+]D)
nqT X |\jT yTTqsTjT> u \ n$<qT q+|Cj
T Tq #| &T#Tq~.
X j X' |+#yV|eVD\V eHC'
d+es|MuTeq\~' \d+]D
~reTs |se! eTV+ uuCeT$<`
eT T+ $Cq<HVs $<Tc+ qV+ yTe 11
||<se TT : j R @, |+#yV R <TeTT\ qT+&, |eVD R |eV+#T,
\V R s+>eTT\#, e R *jT&q, H R q, R jTT, '
R dH&, d+es R |\jT#, |M R >&q, uTeq R
jTeTH&, \~' R deTT<eTT >\, \d+]D R ]D nqT |sT>\,
R jTT, X' R X, ~reTs R <X \eTT\ryT q ds|eTT>\,
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
25

C
|se R @ |sy!, eTVyT R >=|ysq, u uCyT R u >&q y]
jTT, n$<yT R n$<jTqT, eTTyT R eTTeqT, $Cq<HY R $CqeTT
H=d>T e\q, |Vs R =\+#TqT. $<TcyT R $<+dT\, Y R ,
eTVyT R >=|qeTT, yT @e R y.
seTT : ~rT&yq z |sy! @ ]D nqT |sT>\ X
nsTT<TeTT\ qT+& |eV+#T |yVs+ >eTT\# *jT&q q eTT
nH& |\j# uT eqjT eTT nqT deTT<eTTqT ydq < X >=|ysq
u\ n$<eTTeqT =\+ CqT\T> #jTTqT. $<+dT\ >=|qeTT
y.
$esDeTT : |<seTT ~ (<XeTT), \eTT, edTe, n eT&T $<eTT\T.
eT&TqT ej s|eTT\T | (ne) s|eTT\T. jT<seTT VyT.
n~jT edTe n #|<q~. ej |]DeTs|eTTq V $eseTT\T
Hq &eTT\T $T< jTqqT yeV]eTTq q$ edTe\ #|&T#Tq$. ~
(<X) \eTT\ ~ (<XeTT) Xs|eTT>, \eTes|eTT> =+<iT
n<<s\T (eT<Td<qdsdT\T) |s=HsT. eeVseTTqqTd]+
|PsMTe+d\T HjsTT\T yXw\T ~\eTT\T XeTT <eeTT\
#|HsT. $uT|<seTT\jTT #|HsT. eT&+{ <X\eTT\T>
d+>V+#e#TqT. XeTT yjTT>TDeTT n |PsMTe+d\ qqTd]+q#
XeTT <XeTT _q |<seTT\T> n+^]+|e\dq eX |+|<T.
ndT. |se&T ~rT&T. 2. CH+~jTeTT\T n+'sDeTT <eq
#qeTT jT y |j>|&T eTT\ e+{$. nT jT y&*q
#H ||+#eTT q+qT $T+yjTTqT. n+jTT CHseTT> H=qsTqT.
b|+ $wjT eTT\qT qT\qT, +~jTeTT\T nqT keT+sE\T &
>= be>H n$ njTT CH s|yTq jT+<T $qeTT |<>deTT
qT eqT. T~ y d]+q|&T n$ n+'sDeTT\H +ei
qe|+#TqT. ||+#eTTjTT d$T+ |sBqeTT> qTq~.
ese HqTue eTT\T u \d T\>TqT. u$ w|+#eTTqT ese q\eTTq
j>T\T <]+q <]+#<sT >. n+eeTTq y deTT nq>
u<eTT d+u$+|<T. T ||+#eTTqT <]+| CjTTq~
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
26

1
qe+sY, 2014
XeTTe jTT ]D nqT X. XjT |\jT\eTTq deTd ||+#eTTqT
eq+<T $\jT yTTq]+#TqT. nf ||+#eT+jTT eeTjTeTT> <]+#T
CqeTTqT u\ y] nCqeTTeqT =\+ CqT\T> H=q]+ k\
jT+< eeTT qqTu$+|CjTTqT. ]D eX eq CqT
\qTu$+ eqTueeTT e eTVeTjT n>TqT. 2. |sd X]$<e
XSjT nqT X qqTd]+ e |sXjTT |syT ]D.
|+#eTV|yV>yV C eTV\j |
+ $X+~deTjT|$]D <TX >
$+ |u<eTTH seT$! eTVe! ujTT\H
d+ eTT<sT\T> d\T eTVeTT e eyT.
.... (dXw+)

eTT<\T
8. APANA MUDRA - MUDRA OF DIGESTION
Method:
The tips of middle finger and ring finger touch the tip of
thumb while the other two fingers are stretched out.

Speciality:
It plays an important role in our health as it regulates
the excretory system.

Time Duration:
Practice it daily for 45 minutes, but practice for longer
time yields more benefits.

Benefits:
It regulates diabetes.
It cures constipation and piles.
It helps excreting the normal waste regularly.

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
27

k$Ty] d+<XeTT
k$TysT eTTd* e #d #&qT> eTq+> Ls=HsT.
=~ d|{ esL jTq k$Ty]H >eTd HsT. s q # q
T\d <\qT k$Ty] # |{ qTe |]|Ps+ #+<Te n #|
y[bjsT. neTy] nqT nsTTq~. eTs=k] +CePsT y* n
nqT+ k$TysT q w >T]+ +#sT. q w&T L& ed
<s T jT\T<se #T n nqTHsT. q # d+ d]#dT jT\T<sT
d<eTT> q deTjTeTT w&T k$T e< e y] d+ eTq+>
m<TsT #d HsT. n|&T k$TysT qTe d<+ ne, eTq+ <s+
+CePsT y* n #bsT. ysT <s jT\T<s deTjTeTTq
<y\jTeTT k|\T eT]jTT >eT |<\T e k$Ty] b< qeTkseTT
#d eTsT + = sE\ bT & +&+&, MT e\dq kseTT\T
@sT #keTT. e, >e eTsT & +f eT+ sT>TT+<
e n+<] qeTeTT. eT s e\ e >e $y#q+ \T>TT+~.
eTsT q =~ sEH >e #TT |\ >e\ qT+& |\T
se+, eT] <sq+ #dTe+ e\ >e |d~, >se+ \_+q~.
~ e ] ] eyT <T. >eTdT\+<] ] n $q$+HsT.
n|&T k$TysT }sT |d~ b+<T, $TeT*, MT >eTeTTqT eTT+<T
rdTse{ neTys me]qsTTH s |+|ksT . HqT +CePsT y*.
MTs+<s d\ ku>\ +&T, >eT+ n_e~ #+<T neTy]
odT\T d< MTjT+<T +&TqT ` n #| k$TysT eT]jTT y] w\T
+CePsT jT\T<]HsT. eTq+> + @++ d+c nqTu$d
dTK<T'KeTT\qT mTe+{ nqTu +& nqTu$d eq k$Ty]
>eT+ qT+& jT\T |&+ $<eTsTTq |X+qT q~. w
| eTqdT u<. qe >TsTe>sT q+ eT< bjs.
eTs= | qT >TsTe>] e< qT+& HsTe\dq~ + m+ +~.
n+<Td+ k$TysT { ejT#|+ qT jT|&T #|q
bjTe! nH d+<VeTT L& eq~. >TsTw\T <s *d +CePsT
#sT VBXs\jTeTTq y[ <sq+ #dT <y\jTeTTq yqT
y|q q yTM~ >T+& {qs MTsT q& ysT. n& eT&T
<y\jTeTT\T |+#sTT. es> +>sT e ds e nH |sT
<y\jTeTT |+q~.
neTy] $>V+, eTT+<T | m&eTy| eT{ neTy] $>V+
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
28

1
qe+sY, 2014
q$. qyT\ \eTT + q e neTy] <y\jTeTT
eeT] nsTTq e neTy] +>sT $>V+ n|{ + eT{
|s+ 4e X+s#sT\T rdTe yTT< eTb\jT+ nH # +
s +CePsT |w+ HsT. $>V eTTq +>seTT |+# +&
= egeTT #T{ eTTKeTTq |qT>T |PdHsT. k$T >+<+ |PdqT>
& neTy] eTTKeTTq |qT>T sd +&+ e\ $>V+ q\> |dT+~.
<y\jTeTT b\TZD edeTT sq+, XsqesT\T, eT]jTT
eTK qeTT\ sE\T, yX|T ed+ $XK q+, c& edeTT
|w$T qeTT sE\ $Xw |P\T sT>TqT. +>sT e neTy]
<y\jTeTT eTT+<T q >D| >T&e< wD LseT #| k$TysT
s |\ ysT. n& q \jT ns\ k$TysT mes *jT<T.
eT\kH m<TsT> neTy]H #d Ls=HsT k$TysT. k$Ty]
eTqdT y<q me nsTTq~. eTq+>, qd+#s+ |<XeTT
|X++> +&\H #q deTT<| n\\ e s+s+> ed q~.
qT+& neTy] eT\kq+ qT+& d+<X+ $|++~. eT&T sE\
bT & +&T. |< q ns\T ed @sT #ksT , s #TqT
nH~ < ks+XeTT. n~ $q s L& k$TysT <\<T. +
|<q ns\T e \jT <seTT\T eTdyd deTjTeTT nsTTq~.
sE MTsT e sTT+{ eTT+<T q nsT>T| |&T s| <jTeTT neTy]
<sq+ #dT ye#T n #bsT. k$TysT, w&T sTes ns
+{ eTT+<T q nsT>T| eT d+ |T Ls=HsT. ns us
<] Vs+ |{q~. k$Ty] ns us eTTK+ kT eT{
neTy] eTTK+ e |+q~. |k<+ rdT sE s n& d
#d eTs&T <jT+ \eTT\T rsT neTy] >T& e< y[ eTs\
n< d\+ Ls=HsT. ns&T s+&T |P\ e\\T k$Ty] #
MTs djTeTT> e\\T neTys yjT+& n #| neTysT
$TeT* & eT&T sE\T +&eT #sT. { eT&T sE\T
MTsT & +&e#T n #bsT. neTys k$T e\\T yXsT. s+&T
#T\ neTy] b<eTT\T qeTd]+#sT. ds $>VeTTqT
qT +& dVd<eTsTTq XseTTqT qT> q~. { >T&e<H
s+&T sE\T >&bsTTq$. eT&e sE s k$Ty] \ neTysT
|+ w ds B, Cq B |+|+#T, eT<Ts dMT|eTTq >\
n>sY sTT <>Zs y. >eTeTT <{ \b+ q~. n&
|dT #sTT. @+ dTK+ nqTu$+#T. ds+ d~+#TqT. HqT d<
H +{qT. bsq |]|Ps+ neT+~. ds JesX\ d+, ds
dT_+ d+ e b]ke n #| ejT+ nsTTHsT.
$T*q $eseTT\T e# d+...

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
29

123456789012345678901234567
123456789012345678901234567
123456789012345678901234567
l \DB$s
123456789012345678901234567
123456789012345678901234567
123456789012345678901234567
123456789012345678901234567
` yU ` & .$.jTdt.eT], u|
123456789012345678901234567
ne] : ne! eTD] |T+ bD\T bsTT
Xs+ |&b, Je |syTXsT& djT+>
eT+|<X+ #d eTTk& $H+, qT
n<c |k~+#e! n $ y&T+TH&T.
X d< uyY dTHeTT|<Xu'
bbH+ VQ< deTjT er
~_' \ |sDe#_seT!
ysDdeT| q jeTTT-d
27
|<$u>eTT : d<', uyY, dTHyT, |<Xu', bbHyT, VQ<,
deTjT, er, ~_', \ |sDe#_', neT!, ysDdyT , n|, q, jTyT,
T', nd.
nqjTeTT : neT!, dTHyT |<Xu' d<' uyY bbH+ VQ<
deTjT er (uyY) \ ~_' |sDe#_' ysDdyT n| jTyT
T' q nd.
nseTT : neT! R z ne! dTHyT R eT+|qT\T #dqy] |<Xu'
R eT+|<X+ b+<T d<' R yqTy+H uyY R n>TqT bbHyT R
#&|qT\T #dqy] VQ< R nH <T\ L&q deTjT R \eTT
er R <{q sTyH uyY R |<Xu+ @s&TT+~ \ R <!
~_' R $ yTT<\T>>\ |sDe#_' R |sDeTT\+<* y\#, |<\
e\# ysDdyT G n| R o q>seTTqT L& jTyT R b]+#T
T' R eTeTTqy&qT Hd R n>T <T.
ueeTT : |DT\ eTD] |T+ y+H e<s seT+|<X+
\_dT+~. bbT\ # \+ >&# |<X+ \_+#<T. +{
|sD y\T $q&+# eT oyk nqT>V+#e\d+~> ysDd

q+<k>sde'

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
30

1
qe+sY, 2014
L& b]+#qe! n+THsT \+sBT\ysT.
$Xwe TT\T : | V+<Te <]+#\, n#f Xs $&y\ sT&T.
<+> oq>sq |sT |UT\T #]+< qT+& HjT
|<\T #|T+{sT. sTq |y&T o y>\&, n#f Xs+ $&
|&& }V+#+ nX! n# ed+ @< +<+ yq eq
d+<s\T #H HsTT. qTH BT\ysT eTsDdeTjT+ eTD]
|T+ +&\ b]dTHsT =+\+ ed+#\ oq>s L&
b]+#+ <T nHsT. ~ $ \X~ *jT#dT+~. \X~ qy&
sk<&e&T.
ysD$Xc\T : d+<T\T :
d<' G uyY, ' G u > zGu R d< uyY, $dsZ`zs<Xd+~.
G ~_', G > jYT G R ~_', jTD<Xd+~
e#_' G neT, ' G n > sY G n R e#_seT, s<Xd+~ ($dsZd+~)
T' G nd, ' G n > z G n R d, zs<Xd+~( )
dek\T : |<Xd u' R |<Xu' ` wwTsTw dedeTT.
Ve' <jT' jTdH d' VQ<' dH VQ< ` VQMV dedeTT
(nH <T\T *Zq deTjTeTT ` n nseTT)
|sDH+ e#+d |sDe#+d, ' |sDe#_' ` wwTsTw dedeTT.
j |<\T : 1. uyY ` uy+ ` uyjTT' $~*v |<eT |sTw @e#q+.
u dj+ ` n <Te, +&T n nseTT.
2. nd ` d' ` d' R \{, eT|sTw @e#qeTT. nd uT$ n <Te
.... (dXw+)
+&T` n nseTT.
All was gold and gold and gold, a torrent of golden
light pouring down in an uninterrupted flow and bringing
with it the consciousness that the path of the gods is a sunlit
path in which difficulties lose all reality. Such is the path
open before us if we choose to take it.
- The Mother.

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
31

lw #]+
& >*>TDXKsY, sT|.
eT&e d+<+
#TsTKT dw s+
V HqT dwkqT n d+*+#>H
yV+, eTVyV+, n+<$Td+, $Td+,
$ueT+ yTT<q n$<|+#+ *dq
u{ |{+~. ~ b|s+> u$+ u>e<q+ #d dq, dq+<q,
dqTes, dqTCT\H eTTqT* dw+#&T. y] |* |{+#eT
<+#&T. y neVq #jT >, |+q jTq qTueT\ qT+ sT<T&T
+#&T. n&T sT<>D\qT dw+#&T. V $$< nejTy\qT+& <,
Hs<, |\V, |\d, u>T, Te, n+sd, edw, eT, n nH |~eT+~
|{sT. qT+ eTq<T&T +#&T. <V+qT+& dsd ++~.
V H\T>TeTTU\ qT+ H\T>T y<\T, #T sXe\T <$ +#sTT.
n, sT, ys, <+& nH H\T>T HjT$<\T, u', uTe', dTe' nH
yVT\T |{sTT. + es\T, #+<dT, d|ds\T yTT<qe
$$<ejTy\ <s y\Te&sTT.
m+ #dH |C_e~ sD+> <yqTL\ d+ <+#&T.
jTq Xs+ s+&T u>\sTT+~. n+<T { dsT nsTTq kjT+uTe
eTqTe>, eTs={ n& us Xs|> sb+<sTT.
kjT+uTe eTqTe - |C_e~
=*+ nsTTq Xs| kjT+uTe\ |jTeT&T, qb<T&H
<sT esT\T L, <eVA, |d nH eTT>TZsT es\T +#sT.
y] L sT |C|, <eVA seT |C|, |d
< |C| $yV+ #XsT. y]e\ *q d+q+ sD+> |C_e~
*+~. kjT+uT e eTqTe Ve< y[ n\ +TC <su yT q
u$T |&T eTVdeTT<+ eTT +~. q, q d+q+ ed+#{
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
32

1
qe+sY, 2014
#T sD+> u$T <]+# bjT+ #|eTH&T.
V $we d]+#&T. y+H jTq eTT+ jTesVeT]
uqy\+ |]eD+ |{, D+H @qT>+ syT, yqTy+H
|s seT+ sb+<&T. deTT<+ #=s& VsD D d+V]+ u $T
<]+#&T. uV~<e\T jTesVeT] nes+ <*q $weT]
|]|]$<\T> dT+#sT.
d+<s + > $<TsT&T n&q |X de<q+> yT jT T&T VsD
VsD|\ e+ *jTCX&T.
VsDVsD|\T ~X|\ n\ d+j>+
<|C| es ~. yT eTqdT d+q+ |\T_+~. yT
X|& e< dsdeTjT deTjT+ y[+~. q ]qT y\&++~.
X|&T ~ d+< deTjT+. eTTVAs\+ >T. eTq<T& XTyq HT&T
ewuy Vq+ MT< u >D \ *d $V]d +{&T. >y de>eT+
deTT+ <T n q##b&T.
~ us e* |{+#T, dVq+ sTT jTq ek |{
+~. yT s+< e~*+#T XsT& qeTd]+ X|&T yT
]qT rs&T. d+j>q+s+ X|&T eTq \sTTe\ <TssTZq
|T\T ksT. +\esT. $we # e~+|&sT nH&T.
~ b<jT|&> lV] b<\qT XsTT+ d]+#T. =&T\
VsD|&H y& |f d+q+ <s T&T, $wu |sjTDT&T k&T .
n& sD+> e+XeT+ |eTeT+~ n X|&T nqT>V+#&T.
~ >s+ <*+~. n~ eTVdT ~q~H_e~ #+<T e+~.
qs+& |s++ q >s+ qT+ seTDjTyTq dT ds y|+
ds#+<+T* d + |d+~. N{ y|++~. uj
T + +|+q
<e\T VqT XsTT+#sT.
dq dq+<H<T\ X|+
V y] $e]+#sT. dq dq+<H<T\T MT+f eTT+<T
+q y. H eqd |T\T. s|+ <*q e\+ e+{ysT. deT>
Cq ds|\T. lV] b<|<\qT =\y\q d sE ysT y+s+

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
33

C
ysT. sT eTV<s\qT <{ @&eeTV<s dMT|+#sT.
n& deTejTdTq <s T <sb\* #XsT. dq dq+<H<T\T
$T* e<TH nsTT< u\T] +{sT. y <s dMT|+#>H
<sb\\T n&T= |L\yTq e\T |*sT. < >V+q dq
dq+<H<T\T eT<u\H XT>TD\ bT u+ +#+&
n X|+ #sT.
jT`$jTT\T
<sb\\T jT $jTT\HysT eT |< >V+ MT]q
Xb nqTu$dTH leTHsjTDT& HeT+ $d]+#+& +&T
nqT>V+#+& n b<jT|&sT. n& \\+ $ $we <s+ e<
e#&T. \<$ L& y+e+~. $wjT+ >V+q $we q de\
| qL #+<TT+<, yqT nqT>V+#eT dq dq+<H<T\
$q$+#&T. n+<T\ ysT n+^]+#sT.
jT $jTT*<s sd T ksT . + \T> |e]ksT . H
jTT< dq<T, H dT<sq#+ # e~+|&sT. eT&T qq
|<| M] q n+ +&<T n $we nqT>V+#&T.
jT $jTT |&T ~>s+ HsT. y] ndeqyTq d
MT dT\+{ eeTT#d+~. V#|q e+ $ <e\T
yqT]>sT.
sdT\ qq+
~ <sT esT* q~. deTjT+ u$T +|++~. \
|s\T eDsTT. deTT<\T \ #+<sTT. q\T H\ssTT. X+
<\sTT+~. nw ~>ZC\T }>k>sTT. u$TMT< |&T>T\T |&sTT. mH
n|XH\T, eTV\T d+u$+#sTT.
X||C| ~>s+ qT yTT< +q dT e\ |{q y&
VsD|&T n, qT deTjT+ ~>s+qT+ =\T |{ dsdT
|+#y& VsD&T n |sT |{&T.
VsD &T V<e&e\ b+~q es\ qqT m~]+#>\ yTTq>&
d+ n# y&T. nD #d n+<s b]bjTy m~]+#>\

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
34

1
qe+sY, 2014
y s +#<T. es deTT<+ Cs&, esTDT&T b*+#
$ue] q>s y[ nD bsT V+#&T.
esTDT&T eT ujTT\ n+#H ydT= VsD& k{
|se de<q+ #| >\ MsT&T $wy =&. |> jTq |jTT>+qT
|sTws|+ <* sdT* e~+, eTTqT* sdT+{&T. qTe n& jTT<+
#jT&+ deT+d+ nH&T.
y+H y +s+ es+Z |{q VsD & Hs<T &T m<TsTe $wjT +
>V+ $we y+s+ &T. uus |Pq& ~esVs|+ <*
.... (dXw+)
sk\+ H&T n& y nH&T.

d+d uc|P]eT

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
35

C
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901

l |+&+< >H< $syT

nX

<

ey
T
yU ` >]yT keTjE\TXs,
$jTy&.

edT>sDeTT ` edeqeTT

8. edT>sDeTT ` edeqeTT
ne] :@qT">T\T, >TieTT\T, yTT<\>T d+|< \jTT XXeTT\T
e. eq d+kss" &q |seTeH d$+|eT jTT|<+#T#TH"&T`
X <+e-Xu`+|s-d `+ e? e< |\+
V+-\+ #q`>+ < <<`d+| eT+#d |syT
+ ! uejT! <T`s+ se- qes`+ eTd' d|V e
d+s+ $q`d+q+ d|~`+ e <XjT! eyT 8
yK : R +&! eTTd*y s>T \T qy s>T eT eTqTeT\qT u!
HH! ! jT eTT<T|" _\T#T dueeTT. + R e <+e\
R @qT">T\T nX R >TieTT\T yTT<\>T y u R u]+#T +|s'
G nd R #HsT"&y jTTHe. R zsT! n d+u<qeTT.
U<qT+bd+w$djeT+D n jTeTseTT. e R <e\q
+ |\ yT R @$T|* eTT \< e< R #| eTT. V+! R nj!. V+V sqT+bj+ ys+u $c<j' ` n jTeTseTT. Y G @Y G n\yT
<<\yT R d+|< jT+jTT #q R m& >+ R bjT&<. n<
R n~ bsTTq sTy |s+d+|yT R $T* <T'KeTTqT n+#d R
b+<T#THe. se R \ (d+|<) <Ts+ R <Tw]DeTeTT >\~ jT
uejT R u$+|eTT. nqesy T R m\| &T eTd' R eTdT"&y ` y >TD
|< qT"&y e d|V R ~+| eTT. nCH+<T "&e e\<ue eTT. eTi$T
#jT e\jTTH #|#TH"&T ` d+syT R d+ksdeTT<eTT qT+&
]+|"CjTT y $q R e+ qeTd]+q u\ d+qyT R \e
yTq y
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
36

1
qe+sY, 2014
X

|+# <esy eT+<s' b]C'


d+q' \eX |+d y V]#+<qyT n jTeTseTT.

d|~ R y+H
k>&+kVjT <v+ d|~ <T ` n jTeTseTT. + eyT R
eH eY R d+|PseTT> XjT R XsTT+|eTT.
jee# k- e< eH- e<sD ` n jTeTseTT.
seTT : z jTusT! y\| &T HqT">T\T, >TieTT\T yTT<\>T d+|<\ qT
d+b~+#T b"&T #THe. + y |H jTTq~. n~ eT+ |
<T. d+|<\ e\q H$T |\eTT >\< #|eTT. nj! sT d+|< \jTT
H| & jTT| & & beqy. n$ q+q |eT eTi\ we dT $j>eTT#
d+|eTTH b+<T#THe. \ #+#\jTq~. es <T'KeTTH $T>T\Tq
< XsTT+|eTT. eTdT"&y $yeTT $&|{ ~+|eTT. deTdJe\qT
<]+|"CjTTy"&T, qT qeTd]+#T u\" >\eyT jT\ ]\qT
BsTy"&Tq>T l|seTeH jXsTT+|eTT. deTdDeTT\T \TZq
ueeTT.
X nsHesH <T'Ke]H+ # sD
jT <T'K+ ejT <T'K+ ~>q+ <T'KuqyT
d+|<\ H]+#T <T'KeTT >\<T. d+b~+q y s+#T
<T'KeTT >\<T. n$ _+qqT <T'KyT. q+qqT <T'KyT. T <T'KeTT\"
uyTq jTseTT eseTT ><! jT bNqdTuweTT.
eTd\DeTT :
(1) deTT (2) seTT (3) eTeTT ` n >TDeTT\T eT"&T $<eTT\T.
X d+ sdeT >TD' |d+uy'
<+ eTVuVA! <V <VqeTejTyT
d+ s\Y |XeTHeTjTyT
dTKd+|Tq < Cqd+|Tq #q|T
X sC s>+ $~! cd+>deTT<eyT
< +jT! sd+>q <VqyT
eTdCq+ $~! yVq+ ds<VHyT
|e<\d<_d< us (u. ^`14`5`8X.)

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
37

C
(1) nsTH! deTT, sdT eTdT qqT eT"&T >TDeTT\T | qT+&
|T#Tqy HXsVT"&q jqT <VeTT +~+#T#Tq$. (2) y
d >TDeTT s\yTq <>T e\q $ssVyT |XeTTqT CqeTT #TqT.
dTKeTT" >&q <>Te\q, CH_eqeTT e\q Je +~+#TqT. (3)
sC>TDeTT s> yTq< *d=qTeTT. ~ ]\ L&#" TTqT. ~
Je" >sd+>eTT +~+#T#Tq~. (4) y>TD eTCqeTT qT+& |{q
< *jTTeTT. ~ dsJe\qT yV+|"CjTTq~. ~ |e<eTT, \deTT,
< yTT<\>T y# Je +~+#TqT. n u>eBZ.
y>TD yTe>" >\ y"&T eTdT"&T. n+<Te\H sT XeTT
d+|< \dseTT\, eTdT"&y ~+| e\< CqeTT eHXsTT+| eT
$ jTT<~+H"&T. 8

d+d uc|P]eT

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
38

1
qe+sY, 2014

Vd\T

(9)

VdXvsuwyT
qucqTy<q deTxyT
yU ` yT#iT yv dTVDXd, H*.
CdTe\ =i VdeTT\ ><TZsT l X+s#sT\ysT
n+~+q uweTT, < yT#sTysT #dq +<qTy<eTT ` C
bs\ n+~+#&TTq$. Xg>+<eTT eq dT <w n<jTqeTT
#d k~+#e\dq< u$d....
` sys.
k<q>+<eT+&*, H* y] <s >+<s|eTT d+]+#T=q~. nedsyTq
d+|~+#>\sT. bH H+. 7799804683. y\ : s. 650/`
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901
uwyT 35 : n q |sTwybsH V$< + ]? |~ |eD
$wjT edTC qeY edT H. @e+ u d VD' <C qd # q j <T
X' sqT|yX' \sTTTyT. q # $~jsq sqT|yX VD'
nq<e ~~<<-$~<~ (..1.3) $~js|w<Y.
jTH<+ ds+ $CH + q $CjY (..2.4.13) #. <bd
j s |w<| ue - jT<#quT ~+ jTq y>uT < $wjT +
VD |qd <e V + $~ H<+ jT~<eTTbd (..1.4) .
n$wjT VD' XgjqT||] #Y, q. n$< *u<e
|s#dd. q V Xg$T<+j $wjTu+ V ||b<sTTw +
]? |>H$wjTj |b<jT< $<*+ y<y~y<H~u<
eT|qjT. < # XgyT - jTkeT+ d eT+ eT+ jTd q y< d',
n$C+ $Cq+ $CeT$CqyT (..2.3), q <wscs+ |X', q
$C]Cs+ $Cj' (..3.4.2) #ee~. n-$<*
d+k]esHq eTTds| s|Dq yk<w'.
nqT 35 : qT V$< |sTw ybs nBqeTsTTq~ <T. eTssTT
@$T{? |~ |eD\ eTq+ >V+# |T{~ Cq+ > n~ edTe
nBqeTsTTq~. edTe sTTq VeTT >, n{ VCqeTT> @ jTT #q sTTH

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
39

C
s+>+>H s+>H <T. *d=qT nH jT s+>qsTTH
VeTTqT #| + <s< T . *d=q&q <q *jT<q n~ _qeTT
() n X VeTTqT CqjTs< #|q~. < <+
*d=+TH& < < *d=H* () njTT X. n> bdH
jT L& V+ d++~+#<T. @~ y # #|&<, <e\q y
#|&TH () n n< V+. < bddTHs n~ V+ <T ()
n y n$wjTeT, bdq #jT&Tq~ < X #|q~. nj!
n < $wjT+ b Xgj (Xg+# *jT<q~) n m
n+{eTT? - de - Xg+ VqT e]+ q n$< e\q eTq eq
u< <w y]dT+ ~. Xg+ <T> n y\T |{ #|qT VqT $wjT +>
|b~+#>s<T. nsTT @$T #jT<\+~? - |> (n+{
nreTsTTq ) n, < $wjT+ < s|d CjTeTT, C, CqeTT
yTT<\>T u<eTT\qT =\dT+~. Xg+ n> q~. #&+& me
*jT< y \TdT. me \Tk y~ *jT<T. n~ *dq y]
*jT~. *jTy] *dq~ () (nq> *jT qT \TdTqqy&T
|qf Cq$wjT+<T ><!) <w k nsTTq y #&e (),
Cq+ jTT k \TdT=qe (), +{e qT/VeTTqT Cq$wjT +
< #|HsTT. qT XgeTT n$<e\q eTq+ *+=q d+k] ueTqT
=\+#+ <s eTTeTsTTq dsb s|dT+~. qT yeTT
n+ <T. (Xg+ # V+ *+|&<T. #|+|&<T. n&T>
q n$<esD+ bT+~. n|&T d<eTsTTq + \TdT+~. n< y+.
qT y+ + <T eTT).
uwyT 36 : jTd< yd d eqd+, y+, sTT+ y seT|
jTTyT. < $s #. j' |jsd <TeeTyT. q V
<<~ $s eTT<+ y |T{~ + <w+ . q #|H| s|,
ks| d H|Y. ds|e ] -| VD H|yT ds > q
|ds|Y dsD uVD' Xde. H| d+ks y', jTq
ybseT| d+ks V HeT d+ksd >TD<Hq y k<c|qjTHq
y. q e<TZD<Hq d+ue nH<jXjTVds|Hd. H|
<c|qjTHq X<V ds| Hd. k <s @e d+dsu
y' jTj d+djTeD-_e, jT<<s |TsDjTj
d+djTeD uds+ <s #Y, q jXjTqT|| sVD'.
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
40

1
qe+sY, 2014
jT<Xj V j eT$sr Hy q+ \u . jT< jT j $jT
neq' |dC . n$s-jTeTT# #e eB y u< sH.
#wy T . kq kXj j q' d+ue . nHXj jdT j j
n$wjTq j d+djT.
nqT 36 : mesT yeTTqT |&T+<+{s y] yeTT |{\+f eTqdTH
yH XseTTH jT neds+ e#TqT. n> yeTT $seTT\
(esT\) e\q \_dT+<+f, esT\T k~+#{ @< jT
nedseTeT+~. n+<Te\q yeTT eTT qT neTeT+~.
<eTsTTq |T{~eTT >, $seTsTTq (b\ esTe\q e#) |sT>T
yTT<\>Tq$ + +> +&e><! eT]. n~ |eT (b+<<q~)
<T. (+eTT+<T < eTq |&T b+<<q<eT+~) n+<TsTTqqT
b+<+<T jTy* (|+&Tb+<{ #sTT ##+ jT). y+
jTqT < jT neds+<T. y V+ ysT - ysT n
y~+H V+ dsy|+ qT n~ b+<& +T+~. X n+<s
b+< +{sT ><! yeTT d+kseTT #jT<qB <T. n+<TsTTH jT
y*. y jT>& neds+<T. d+d]+|<q edTeq+<T @<
>TD+ *+#+ (sT>e e+{$) < <jT+<* <w+ =\+#+
(n< T&e+) > d+ks+ n+{sT. yeTq> VyT. <jT+<T
eTq+ *+# = nXjT>TD\T e. <jT+<T =\+#e\dq <c\
e. n~ X<VyT. nj! yeTT <syT. nCq+ e\q
eTsT>Tq&+~. qT d+ksjT \ X<| ] d y+ ee TeT+~. m>+f
n<+ u> T&d < <seTsTTq yTsT| jT|&TT+~ >< - den<T. VeTTq+<T @ jTjT #s<T. @<sTTH edTe|sTTq
jT]|q|&T edTe esT <eTT. n< $<+> MT< @<sTTq
d+dsDjT ]| esTsy*. e] (|Pss|+ bsTTqf qT)
neTeT+~. $sreTT yTT<\>T X yeTT\T deTqjT+
e. n~ Vse TT. qT jT+<{ jT \T |#jT e. eTs= <jT+<Tq
jT (VQX' eTqdTqT d+d]+#T=q+ e+{$) #+<<T. qT y{
(eTqd+ks+ yTT<\>Tq$) e\q d+kseTTs<T. (n<e TTq+<T e*q+
> eTqdT e*q+ +T+~. n~ T&d |_++ q&qT eTqdT
d#eTsTT <sqeTeT+~. qT d+kseTT eTqdT > <T.
ds|+ esT<T.)
.... (dXw+)
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
41

C
l'

>

eTTF

e
#
y

T
X # >|PC+ k+ #| eTVXs!
<+ XT$T#$T e#+ e< yT |u!
y]HXs+ ~e+ dsXu$HXqyT
Xu<+ dsDY |D+ V e+ <T'KHXqyT
l use y#
e#+ XDT e$T usMbDe\uyT
|] <ssTT T $sT uyY
z+ nd l>eTTFe#d Hs< TTw' nqTw|t#+<' >eTTF <e
\+ ;yT + \yT |sTcs#TwjTd<jT bs $j>'
z+ s yT > bT V<jT |s
z+ V+ z+ yT \f # > y]H
><Vk d< bT eTTK+ yT y<sTT
y]V<s bT +s+ yT >eTTF
<s+ H_<Xx bT + |ss
|sss bT eTeT >TV+ dTsX
Vk #e < b< bsr |]bT yT
$y< $wyT |Ts d+>yT ]|d+f
|+s<s bT ds+^ eqs
l$< deTj bT e+^ |P] y
bT |+ dT+Xe \+ * eTeT
bT + us+ yT |s+ XS* d<
s+< V > <y' e#+ eTqTU~yT
q y <jTeTeTTUjT dsd~|<jTyT
bsH<sD<d |PH< y++ \uY
<+ e#eTC j |Y >eTTFyT
|+ XD+ d jq' b| k<s'
eX #sD #e esD yVH <
eTVujT $| # |s< bsjTT jT'
d dssd~' k< ujTTd bs!
lsT<jeT >eTTF e#yT d+|PsyT

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
42

1
qe+sY, 2014
leT seqTCjTqeT'

leT<|jTBq '

esyU
<s` &d
e'
. \HsjTD, H\sT.
|<eTT\T |$TeTT\T
X

uqT]XdT ue<veTjTKXu`
uY || sDse|uyT
< VQeVY D\T|s>
|+ uqT~q+ d V eTq' 40
||<seTT : uqT' R dsT&T, ueY`nv`eTjTK`Xu`uY R
l#sDeTT\ sDeTT\ + b+<eqqT nX, XdT R sy\,
sD`syT R q sDeTT\ deTVeTTqT, |uyT R \yi ei,
|| R u>T> \yd, VQeVY R n qT+&, < R y*rjT&q,
R sD deTVeTT, D`\T|`s> R D\eTTH mi<qeTTqT
sTTq~ >, |yT R weTTqT u<qT, nqT`~qyT R |>{ sTy
nq> kjT+\eTTq+<T, u R b+<T#TH&T, V R m+<Te\qq>, d' R
n&T (dsT&T), eTq`' R eT+<T& |d<T&q X +&jT <!
seTT : es<s |u ! dsT&T ~eb<eTT\ deqeTT> qT d e TT
nsTD+T\qT b+<eq rs X|&T#TH&T. n+<T n&T q
sDeTT\qT $T* +e+eTT\T> #d=qeq |~qeTT s y\
y{ nZqT+ u>T> mi&TqT \y iTeiqT |e TT >$+#T#TH&T.
<jTeTTq y{ n qT+& jT rdq =~d|{ nsTD +T\qT
sTT y\y\uiT#Tq$. n+<T\ n&T y#+<T#T nCqeTT eTi\
sT\jT+<T sD eTT\qT n|e TT\qT >$+#T#TH&T. |* eTT b sTTqqT
n& $<eTT> |~H+eTTq+<TqT q sDeTT\qT n \T
sDyTeTq> nCqyTq n&T eT+<T (X) +&jT>TqT {jT
*jTT#Tq~. +&jT T eT+< yT esT L& d+$T+ |d~ #+~q<
ueeTT.
y~ : es<sk$TjTT lb<eTT\ seTqT ds+ $T+q<>
yqT s+&T XeTT\qT <+|CdHsT. $wjTeTTH eTi=eiT
XeTTq #eTseTT> H= #|#THsT.
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
43

C
sDs+ || : dsT ~eeTT |~qeTT kjT+\ deTjTeTTq
njT+<T |eT>Tq $$< X|eDeTT\qT { *jTT#Tq~`
eT+ ks+ kjTeT+ dveT
~ y nd+jTq eTqT|$X
n+ y ~kjT+ |$X
k~y-s~+ |$X, sy~dyT
~> |\T y~ d\T n+XeTTqT u~+#T#Tq$. s|TTe+X
eTVeeTTq +&jT>T ~|qT+& s|TTe seTTqT b+~ |+#T
#TH&qT#T, eTV$ | $wjTeTTqT
~HH V+ d$e VQXq' `4.1. n |$T+#TqT
>eT+|e#T. > ds+T\T n kjT+\eTT |eTT\>TjT
# |eTT\T #jT&T> e]+|&q~.
D\T|s> : kjT+\eT>T d] dsT&T q |XeTTqT e#TH&
ue+. nd$T+q sTy ds+ jTT+&<T <!
|+ nqT~q+ u : udsT&T H+ |jT +qqT es<s lb<B|\
deqeTT> yTq |XeTTqT b+< |+#T#TH&T. nq> u<|&T
#TH& jTse TT. n+>, qT n_\w+#T#Tq |\ eTTqT b+< be#TqqT
|usT&T qT #jTT |jTeTT n+{ |*eTT jTC\< *d=q
be#TH&T. qTH n&T nqT~qeTT nq> ~qu>eTTq (|>{) nqTd]+
sTy nq> kjT+\eTT q+<T |+ u R eTi\ q sDeTT\qT
|eTT #jTT#TH&T. ~ nCqyT e#T. |jqeTqT~X q eTH-|
|es nqT m+{ n\E&qqT |jqeTT H+#+& @ seTTqT
bs+_+|&T><! qT, uqT&TqT n+eTT eT+<T~jT jTT+&e#TqT.
d V eTq' : dsT&T eT+<eTjT nqT deTs e TT> #|&q VT$~.
V jTqT# |sDeTT\ |d<yTq $wjTyTq \T|&T#Tq~. XjTqT
|sT |d<T&q XHXsT&T ds|T&T. dsT #jTjTqT HyTjT+<T
*q d+q $T&T.
d+CjT$T<sX #jjejTyT
XHXs+ eTqT+ #q+ |r+ #|JqY `$.|.3.2.4.

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
44

1
qe+sY, 2014
dsT&T q usjT>T d+C<$jT jT u$+ yT kqeT+<Tq #j<$
jT+<T eTT>TsZ T _&\ qT H&T. ysT XHX sT&T, ke]eTqTe, | jTqTysT.
X q |sTq qT>TDeTT> yT\ >eTqeTT \y&q+<Tq eT+<T&T nqT
He+seTTqT L& b+~H&T.
X eTH |vZ #j|-d-s' neTs.4.26.
X eT+<T&T, |+>T|, \T&T eTTq>Tq$ |sjTeTT\ jTseTT. T
eT+<T&qT |sT>\ X q&>T# dsT L& eT+<+ R T~e+<+
+& jTT+&TqT.
sD>TD' s dveT ` nqT XgyeTTqT { eT\sDyTq
<eeTT <seTT <qT+& @s&q edTe\qT d+$T+#TqT >qT,
+&jT>T dsTjT+<T q eT+<yT X L& d+$T+#T# n&
eT+<T&qT HeTyTs&q< \+|e\jTTqT. Vde#qeTT\T, ed\T
L& n_bjTeTTqT dweTT #jTT#Tq$.
dX< |y<-jT+ ' |u yT
|H deTqTCjTH qs eseTvZH'
se`2
`eT>_&\T +&dueeTTqT, &T_&\T *dueeTTqT +TsqT
eeVseTT e |&T ydeyTq #T#Tq~. (sTT qT<+
<Xs<T&T |*q |\T\T.)
s+ <H~ >TDqB ` Hw< ` => qyTq edTe qT
|T sDyTq <eeTTqT+&jT >TDeTT\qT b+<TqT.
> qjTT&T eT+<T&>TqT { +&L& eT+<T& jTT+&Tq
u$+|&T#Tq~. esT&>T XjTT eT+< eTT >eTqjT d++~+q~
>, q&q dsT eT+<eTT T~ d++~+q <> u$d
$|+>e\T T~e+<eTT e\qH ~T&T es<slb<XuqT
b+<C\qqT nqT~qeTTqT q sDeTT\qT n|eTT\qT >$dTqT
#eT]d k$T ~e#sD eTT\ nsTDeT dsT dTq $T+q~, d yTq ~
n <+|CjTT#THsT.
XeTTq+<T |q #|q $<eTT> BesT\T eT es<sde
yK eTq' nqT VTeqT $e]+|>, ys e\jq+<eTT

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
45

C
$we\+seTTq <VsDeTT> eT es<sdeeTT< #|q
Xe TT eTq' nqT bse TT qe#T#Tq~. n# n\+s# yK
L& nf yU+|&q~. e\jq+<eTqT #+<yK kyK
+f |PsyT y\Te&q lBT\ s#q. yTT<{ bseTT dsT eeVseTTq
deTsVTe >, s+&e bseTT $<jT $XweTT>qTq~. < |seTT
VQeVY < sDs D\T|s> d eTq|' d' nqT~q+ |+
u` n nqjTeTTqT #|<>TqT. nq>, dsT&T q sDeTT\qT
kjT+\eTT nqT+ <jTeTTq y*rdq |eT =~d|{ y{
nsTD+T\T Zbe>, eTq|' R w Z #\&q n&T eTi\
kjT+\eTT q sDeTT\qT n yjTT#TH& ueeTT. .... (dXw+)

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
46

1
qe+sY, 2014

l'

D*dVdHeTkyT
lsT<jeT+sZyT ` l qqusey#
X n< q! |e$T D#H~yT
dVdHeTd\+ D*H' |jT+ dTKyT
1
X ncs+ eTV|D+ kY d~|<jTyT
e |eTeXHe <j$T XDTw Y
2
X $H jTqj>q $H <Hq jT\yT
\+ \u d< $<j' dTb uyY
3
X j $< uTeHX |]|P
k <M D e + b ds<
4
X k HeT dVkD ncsX #
XeDY |sHq eTVu uy~V
5
X V d uyY H<! JeqT eTV
6
$j>' ` nd leTVDkcsdVdHeTkd V]', >r#q',
u>er leTVD<e, dsj>deT~d<s bs $j>'
ncsXHeTdVdyT (1108)

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
47

C
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X q+< ` H \D (4)
leTqVD # ` \H \|j (3)
\d ` Hs|
(3)
U \esZk ` \Xksb (3)
\C \j> # ` \|w| (3)
H # < ` \#+<q| (3)
\>sdH ` \# C
H H>\* ` D \|D
\<e|j ` *H qs
\ y< ` \Xuy
\sb < ` \D*yd (3)
_H H ` #s$H~ (3)
\edeTT< ` \e \|u (3)
\C \eT<k ` \vDX_ (3)
s \|PC ` b \j (4)
\u< \bD ` \<M \dT' (5)
* * ` *_H (5)
*\wV # ` *<w$H
(2)
v eqH ` \C \<]D (4)
T eTTB ` \jqs (5)
eTvZ sk q|PC # eT (4)
X |#k ` eTdqyd
(3)
sT|P ` \|r |<C (4)
eT eT # ` eTXs|j (3)
*uvZ<wk ` \C \D
(3)
e< $ yD ` \d+<su~ (4)
e sTDs ` sTdq$H (3)
H > e ` $T eTH (5)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
48

1
qe+sY, 2014
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

y<y eTH ` e \|
dKss& ` d|d$
dH<q$T ` jTsVseTD
qs ]HqH ` \> #V
eTk ss # ` sb {d
+<X +<sb ` * +<yd
k eT;C ` ##>TD<j
#qH #|PC ` #V #s
sD+^ #es ` * \ds
+N|sd +N ` eTs|yd
Lk Lu # ` \L$H
eU eT e ` eTsq<y
eTs|<s e ` eTj $|j
+CqH +Vk ` +|jTD
eTs|k ` eTs||
$<+d + ` \+s\+
eTV\qB s sD$yV
Dk DsTD ` sk T+_
eTu uy () ` sTD sTDeTsT
sTDo s ` sTVk <j
sTDk>s< ` sTDd+<Tyd
]o ]k ` ]bDb*
sTD~|PC # ` sDj j
\k \\j ` # *
\j \$CH ` ]D \s
e\< sk ` \eT+Jss+
\jT \V ` +sdq]D
eTT< XqH ` XXyd

(4)
(2)
(2)
(4)
(4)
(4)

15
16
17
18
19

(3)
(4)
(4)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(4)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(3)
(3)
(3)

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
49

C
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

k|VdV # ` e\>TDd+uy
@ nssb ` e sd
s wsb ` LeVsd
LeT<Ts<q+ ` eTjTdT\DyT
dTeq+< ` |DeTD
ss|PssTs ` ssuD|j
b\bVk # ` b\#+<<]D
eT<qTdsb # ` eT<qT' j
X| Xb ` XH XyV
\ L| ` \b eT#]D
+eu \k ` $T ||
*k ** ` |H sd
r \$< ` |sTc<y
wk wwk ` wV wV X
* dT # ` yC eT
XU c ` sk LseT<>
+&s#k ` +&><y b
|>ekX ` |s<]D
VA& V& & ` + uw]D
q qu # ` q~yd
sdjTdk ` LVsk~
\+uD Ls ` <|+C |d
b k<qs ` cXyd
+so +sk ` +s +s>'
+k +seTD ` +eT+~syd
| |XSH # ` b|$e]
|+\k |+C ` |+\s<y
|eT<$c ` eqd|P

(2)
(3)
(3)

29
30

(3)
(2)
(2)
(3)
(5)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(3)
(5)
(5)
(4)
(3)
(2)
(5)
(3)
(2)
(4)
(3)
(4)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(2)

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
50

1
qe+sY, 2014
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

q qVk # ` \q\V
H+|Td$ ` qX Xer
V # ` eqyd
dKsqH ` d]|P
\ss ` \eTT>]D
T V { ` LH y<]D
+ + o ` VQXk s
L dse#q+ ` sjT yT
b~dsb # ` bk>syd
eq+<s ` eq+<]D
$T $T<w|T ` b |{
X+^ eTu+>k ` +sk d
eTsb qs ` eTs|d d~<
eTs||s<M ` eTsb+C C
eTsb eT$< ` eTsb~*
eTs| e ` eTs|X
eTs|HqH ` eTs|X>B'
eTs|sX ` eTs|sTd
eC eT ` eTs|$V]D
eTXkseT<k ` eTs|j
eTs|eTV ` eTs|jTXeTsT
eTs|seq+< ` eTsb~$T
\eT eTs||<eT<yd
+*|j ` <Md {
{{|T+$H~
{d\s c ` jTqdTd~<
jT #\k ` eT#+<qH <
os<Xs ` o wsC

(3)
(3)
(3)
(2)
(2)
(5)
(5)

43
44
45
46

(2)
(3)
(4)
(9)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(2)
(2)
(3)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(4)
(3)
(3)
(4)
(3)

47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
51

C
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

wsd s ` Ls|wyd
\|T+{ H<s ` \eT+JsyV
\jTXTesZH ` <jT>TD>TDyT
eTjTdseTyT ` XjT>jTyT
\H \H ` \\X
\eT+~sd+k # ` \<s$&+_
\<sss ` \<s$H
\<s|D # ` \<sdeT~<
\u>y< # ` \u>qj
\s qe ` X#eTe*
\|weH ` \|wuy<y
\\V\s ` \s|j |s
od XH ` o #|j <
cdq|j ` |b*
b\sduC # ` b\qee*
b\k # b ` b\d~<sTT
b \ # ` b\Ksd
<H |Dl< ` | |Dd$
sV s> ` ss$e]
sd~s MT ` sCqyd
s<sdTo # ` s<seX+
qdTsDeTVd+Vdqd
q>e& ` q>u~
q<eH # ` qyyd
\L{~Lk ` {Xuqsd
+|H<eTTU ` eT<q<y
+Du <s s ` se seTd
seTd#H ` seTdq|j

(3)
(3)
(2)
(2)
(3)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(3)
(2)
(3)
(5)
(3)
(2)
(3)
(3)
(4)
(3)
(3)
(2)
(1)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(3)
(5)
(2)

57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
52

1
qe+sY, 2014
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

eTsk sTk ` eTk +dH


+d|j +dV ` +dCqs*
+#Hu +#q< ` eT< eT< <
_H H ` eTdqyd
eTdqd~k ` eTdq<e
s ` X|$e]
|s ` |eqk|V
s J ` uU $>V
qF L|~k ` |T <
|j q+< ` eT<sTT
$TH T~k ` LsyVqyV
\ \k ` XdqdTd~<
<e k ` H<H<dT|j
kwy $Tk ` $TXT|
Cqs k ` k s<sTT
s s]D ` s<$yV
sX<q # ` g<]D d<
>' \dT>' ` *T~$H
*\|H ` *beq]D
*b|Vs ` *d~dTd<
*<dy> ` *<ddTd~<
* \ ` q|sjTD
eTjTues ` eTjTdTu<
sqsb # ` y<s s
+#Tes es ` wsb ceT
hH<s ` s s|j
sk sC ` sqq]D
XeTss< ` XeTs$uD

(4)
(3)
(5)
(3)
(2)
(4)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(4)
(3)
(3)
(4)
(3)
(4)
(3)
(2)
(3)
(2)
(3)
(2)
(3)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(4)
(3)
(2)

71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
53

C
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

wV' w<r ` w$s<


j> jTd~' ` jq+<|
jT>qVs e ` jTe s]D
sssTd+k # ` ssH
esZk| b ` sdsTdeTy
sdedk ` esZk ss
ssdeT ` s{ s|P
sgs s ` sV sD
q<Xq$T ` T+u eT]
sdsdH c ` wVk+TC]
c+^ w<Vk ` <Xk eT+>
Lssd s s\$T
\y]|j e ` ey|j <
+\ eTTB # ` C \q|j
\H dsuH+ ` |eqyd
TeTd U ` esZU e]Z
s#~ s ` ss$e]
jTH~\k ` jTqdTU<j
k $| ` sD~|y
+ + ` * ds$T
*| L{ ` L+eT#]
+e>q\j ` T+ueqd
b sDq+< ` $sdyV
eXkq+<s ` e|PC MX
~Vds<VjT<T+<T_X_
y Ls<sk ` Xyd
+e$T |wyV
+ e\>TD<k ` e\<q<sTT

(3)
(3)
(4)
(2)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(4)
(3)
(3)
(4)
(3)
(4)
(4)
(2)
(4)
(3)
(2)
(3)
(5)
(3)
(2)
(3)
(3)
(1)
(3)
(3)
(2)

85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
54

1
qe+sY, 2014

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

<+<q ` \+
(3)
&TyH XH ` + bseTV+d>
(4)
q$ ` wD wu
(5)
+eXV<j ` jTsVse*
(2)
X Xy e ` Xsq|P
(4)
*eT<s ` \ds>$T
(2)
s<VVs e ` &Te su~
(4)
DXsd+y< ` DXseT<>
(2)
\d \jTC ` \Vs V
(4)
V\k \Vk ` \V \V+
(4)
s+^ ls+>k ` s+^ D|V
(4)
\\' (\+) wT~' ` c <qyd (4)
y we\ ` ssD d
(4)
qk dsk ` * <wu+>C
(4)
dTeseT ` dTeTd>$uwD
(2)
+ ysX ` eTjTC<j
(3)
sLds+^ ` seTse*
(2)
\u<s { ` syk
(4)
yk s ` LdM sTb*
(5)
sT|c sTXc ` sD+ CqH
(3)
V\s H ` yb w+<H
(4)
cjTDsTk # ` cjTDsk<y
(2)
$()$< w<r ` wX$ds
(3)
cdq> sXj XjT*
(3)
* *d+k ` *<qyd
(3)
|k |q ` |#H *<C
(4)
Xy Xyq+< ` X~<qy|V
(3)
Xy+>H # ` Xy+>yV
(2)

99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
55

C
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

Xssqj> # ` Xs<e<e
+lsD ` |{|jT|
eT +# ` +#k +#yd
L|k L|T~k ` L|e eTHse
\|cXj ' ` eT<eT<e
$e eTk ` DD<e
+&\q>s< ` +&\>|P
|sd | ` |T~<j
|<q|s eTTU ` eek k<
eT<k # ` \|+|
\ueTs<Vk ` \ueTsH~
d+> # ` \eT
*V \V ` +sV M+<C
+< eTXl' ` {+<s<sV
{CeTsT { ` {s|<e*
{syV {' ` {{$<<y
{dsdeHk ` {q|e
{sVs\* ` {|s<]D
#jTT>yVqk ` #ejTs #
#jTeqdyV ` #eTsqkK<
#k #<V # ` #|Psyd
#>k #es ` #bDH
eT#q|e ` eT eTqT|j
eT eT\C ` eTk s\C
eT+|T<j e ` sU se*
s|<<s H ` +<T~|<sTT
eT<e|r # ` eT |$T
s sD#H ` sDbDyd

(2)
(3)
(4)
(4)
(5)
(3)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(3)
(2)
(4)
(4)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(2)
(2)
(3)
(2)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(4)
(4)
(3)
(3)
(3)

113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
56

1
qe+sY, 2014
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

e|< e ` eks|
e \q ` \u<dqd
# \ksk ` \esD|
sDeTB|k ` sk eTB|
\\' \#D ` \#+&Xs|j
X<Vk ` y +]D
s+# +#T +# ` #+#T|d
U Xk ` <VH]
#\j ` | Ts
q|us ` sHd
sb bD ` <y]D
ss ` V+&<]D
<ed ' ` j< jTs
jc jq+< ` Ts j|j
Xdyd+X ` X]bDe\u
X]eeT~s ` oseX<e
os>Vk # ` ssu>Vd
susDuc& ` Duc # +]
Dkq> D ` D|<yd
D|X]D ` DeDe*
+s|<d~ ` DXyd
+s|<kk ` Dc&X|
cq<s $< ` cqdTydd
k U\k ` Dy\+
\^ \<C ` \u+>|sjTD
#+< y ` #k #\|<
#s| # ` #<k CH
+C#<eTTF +C +T+& Je

(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(4)
(3)
(4)
(2)
(3)
(3)
(4)
(4)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(3)
(3)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(5)
(4)

127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
57

C
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

eTsJey<k ` jT<VQ+sH~
D<jTdk ` \jTd+
{Vk bk ` <eTyd
{H<|Tss ` b*|j
eT#sH # ` eT#<Zsd+e
w|sd+<V ` cwy]D
VA&eT+d<k ` V &+&eT|j
\&+&eTy<k ` eT&eTsd~<
\eTseT<k ` \H~
C>s&\H< ` dMssDd
~sD< ` sTD~e
Tl< sl' ` \s s
<|PC <q+< ` <H <q|j
sH s$< ` eT$T<|y~
<+|wd+X ` <+|we*
<+ bqTc ` jT<e <<e
+|eT<k ` <s <s|j
\<eXss ` \<e <s
eTs> uwD& ` $Ts>TD|j
H H>Vk # ` qH>yV
eT|Psd b ` b +<H<y
s>sHb ` s>s|b*
jX' \|+' ` s|+' b<j
eT|s$+<k ` eTs|||
jT| jT|D ` H H&|Xs
eT|sT> > ` jTyD Ms>
eTD+<k ` yrsd+>e
eT;Vs H ` eTyueTs

(2)
(2)
(3)
(3)
(2)
(2)
(3)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(4)
(4)
(3)
(2)
(4)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(4)
(2)
(4)
(2)
(4)
(4)
(2)
(3)

141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
58

1
qe+sY, 2014
X

$ueVs ue ` eTjTuj|V
(3)
eT>s<ee ` eT\\eTs
(2)
X eTs|jTe+k< ` eTs eTs|j
es e<s ` +useTqd
(3)
X eTjTd #+& ` eTjTC|M
(3)
eTjTd~ ` eTyT<Tqj$T
(2)
X eU jTeTXk ` \je j (4)
sTj>Vj> ` sTe+d$uD
(2)
X sTs|j ` +s|jT]D
(2)
X sD ` $u $|j
(4)
X $XT|w\> ` k|eqd
(2)
*< d~k ` *~qd~<
(3)
X \+sV ` *\weT<
(3)
\|ws+>deTD>+~dTXuH
(1)
X +ue+><Xk ` \ydTs
(2)
\Xgj X' ` \X' X
(4)
X X\|u o ` \w{#u~
(3)
\w{|<eT<k ` \w{|<B|
(2)
X wess\k ` wessww
(2)
\ess| ` \essc&o
(2)
X +eH ` |+|
(2)
\Vk \Vl' ` \Vs eT
(4)
X ||s # ` |d+j
(2)
skD # ` eTVy|w
(2)
X ns{X#j ` ns]
(2)
yrsu$Tk ` >jsg<]D
(2)
e#yT X + + l+ eTeT ` bT dsD
eTeT l+ + ;sb ` bT s'd\yT

155
(3)
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
59

C
X
X

sTd+ d\+ ` y bT *
&TeTqsseTD ` c> \e
| eTr ` + +*|d
+Bsds b #` + ds]
X + + + ;CU HjTT>yT
e eT+>jT ` X~e]
bT yT sjTT>+ T ` + + Jes*
>DjTT>+ d< bT ` D d+yd
ns{Xuk ` nsse*
Xw Vk ` \<M s+H
bT yT \|c& ` |w<X+ dTe
e eTH|Ps ` bs<X+ d<eT
<M eK <M ` bT |+s {yT
{d<e bT ` *+>eT\+ d< eTeT
>TV<X+ yT ` *+><' \d+V
\H>X bT ` eT<XeTTeTyT
+\e* <M ` yT bT #sTeT\yT
+|jTT>+ d<bT ` ]' #|V]D
b<jTT>+ bd+k ` bXdqs
\#ueTs ` bT b<+>TseT
qU>D <X$< ` < Vd<jTd #
$+Xsb \H ` ds< |]sT
\#<ssb ` \eT+&\>|
\+&* e ` \|+&eTD
qH T+& ` jTT' |KssC
s V ` |<dqd
|<C |X ` |u |ds
\+N $+Xk ` d< $+XqU>VyT

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
60

1
qe+sY, 2014
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

bT <M \sb ` *\b\j


y y |s y| ` XSH>s #Tw<
+<deTj#s ` #sq|j
\|sd+k # ` \dyd
eTV<yq bT ` esZ >V
sC-|jT seX ` eTVXT$HXH
*\eTV\' ` j\' eTs
+<* ` \dsZyd
<X~ d< bT ` +<~<Xb
qeH d< bT ` ds~qe>V
bT e+ \e+k& ` \|<yd
\<e|j eT< ` c&o uTeHX
$<y< $y< # ` eT eTVujT
<T]~ujT #e ` y~d+s|&
ds ds<X # ` \sb d<-eT
Y ~+ H<! eT' |k<VTH
ncsX+ HeT ` dVd+ D|jTyT
\D*<y' ` dseTqdTd<jT
|\X
ds<eeTqH+ # #HjT dTd<jT
nDe<wd<s+ k<H+ VjT #
uVDjT |<e+ ` \<e|sjT #
nH- VD # ` q <jT' Dde'
|e D# ` ds es ~CjT'
e usM# ` ds es' |< |<
HjT |<e+ ` k<jT $Xw'
<H<e V d~' ` kqeC\VTH

183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191

192
193
194
195

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
61

C
X

eTeT jj+ jT' wY ` d yT | q d+XjT'


d j eTeT |<+ JeqT' d eqe'
196
X dyq de+dq ` \eV eTV
HeT |eTT#s ` EVQjY sd<jT
197
X |+##ss u ` }ss uyY jT'
d+esY eTeT kH ` j H d+XjT'
198
X V sd~' kY ` <V dsd~<'
eo u esZk' ` dsZu\ydq'
199
X nd u' |ue ` +<~b\'
d @e j^ |sy ` jTks-jT+ dTX\'
200
X j ' ||e+ ` d y q # eqTw'
d de~> ` <qk je\u'
201
X #TsV> <e' ` dVk H d+XjT'
jT' |<sjT u ` D y eTd uTC
202
X d uyY *| ` $<H<' djT+uT$
<HX' |yH j^ ` jTrX' ds> uyY
203
X ye yeTs < dsdBXs uyY
204
X jT~ |s eTqTc eqTw y eTV
d\<qHo |D Jee
\|]V dsZyVT'
d ue ueH< je\uX'
205
X |s jT V + uuyq eTs
VsDeT| s bD$bDj>'
deq|sq|D+ {H|THX+
~TeT| q X-V+ eTVe+du
206
lsT<jeT eTV\D* ncsdVdHeTde e#yT
` z+ qeTyjT ` yjTqeT z+ `

l'

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
62

1
qe+sY, 2014

~V<jT+
(8)

& .@. +>s#sk$T, sT|.

11) V]<X' dVk]' d|d|seH


$Tsq<q' X+uT' c es+& n+XeH
~T&T - |# s+>T nX\qT
\y&T, ysTT sD\qT \y&T. d| nH |sTqT
\ nX \y&T, sD\ L&qy&T. N{ bs<y&T. eT+>\qT
*Z+#y&T. n{ \jT+ #d X \y&T. \j b+~q >TqT
] dw+#|&T $s$+#y&T. sD\ |+#y&T - n ue+.
yUq+ : (V]<X') - V]Y n+f |#s+>T. s+>TqT \ nX\qT
\y& ue+.
(dVk]') - ysTT sD\qT (|\T CH\qT) \y&T.
(d|d|') - d|' n+f >Ti+. @&T >Ti\qT \y& ns+. ,
dsT >Ti d| n |sT. @ nX eV d|He n y<+
$wj *+~. d| nH |sTqT \ nX \y& ns+.
& d+<V+ \T>e#T. >jT, V, w, >, w|t,
nqTw|t, |+ - nH @&T y~#+<dT\T @&T |# >Ti\T> sb+~
dss< eVksTT - n, d| jTT++ s<yT #yT (dsT s<
@&T >Ti\T. f #+) n #| y< y\ d| nH |sTqT \
nX+ dss< ydTq< nq&+ bd><T <! - n n+f, d+<V
njT eTDy |sTe nH #sT\T de<d - y<s |yT q V]<X +
@&T #+<dT\ sb\qT, sb\ nqT>TDyTq @&T |sqT *Zq<,
dss< eVdT+~ - n, @&T nX\T d| nH |# nX+jTT
|sb - n y<yT *+~. qT $s<+ < *jTCXsT.
(eTeH) - eT nq& sD\qT \y&T. |X (CH)
\y& ns+.
($Tsq<q') - NqT eT~+#y&T (nw ys&T).
(X+uT') - \ dTU *Z+#y&T - n ns+ (w b|&T).
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
63

C
(c) - |H+&TeT+~ ~T\ He\ ~ {. n sb\qT
\sTT+|Cdy&T, \jTs - n ns+. He |sXsusY qT d+q
>T HeTsb\qT *Z+#y&H ns #bsT. n~L& & >VyT.
(c) - ]+ HeTs|ysDq dTsqs~y$u+ eqqT ]+q ||+# HeTsb\qT @ss, dTsT\T, qsT\T, s\T
yTT<q |\T bDT\T> e]dTH&T. dsD sbD $ Bs' ~>
usY #dq $esD+ nqTd+<jT+.
(es+&') - eTyTq n+&+qT+& |{qy& ns+. ds+
d+V]+|&q|&T, eT dw+#&+d+ b<Ts$+qy& ns+ - n
X $esD+.
(n+XeH) - |\T sD\qT \y&T, sD\ |+#y&
ns+. n+{ y|+q CH \y& L& ns+.

eTVXsrsyUH~$Xc\T
(V]<X') eTqdTqT V]+# - n+f - eTHVsyTq nX -n+f
- yVqyTq >sT&T \y& ns+.
(dVk]') - u>yqT D>TD\T n]+|&sTT qT, n$
n]dT\q&TTHsTT. nTe+{ D>TD\T dVd+. n+f - nq+yTq
- D>TD\qT \y& ns+.
(d|d|') - d| nH nX yVq+> \y& ns+. HeT+
\es ddT+~.
(eTeH) - B# XTe\T eTsDd T H sT qT, ldT<s q+ eT
nq&TTq~. nTe+{ # jTT<+> \y& ns+. # e+
& #|H, u>yqT $T*q ~yjTT<\ Be\ d+|&sTT qT,
X+K#~ deTd~yjTT<|T& ns+.
($Tsq<q ') - CH |+< y T q <c\qT b>=fy & ns+ .
V<+k Vu<D $<TH dTVY dyT (dTsTw\ dVT&q
u>yqT&T V<jT+ |\ qy&, neT+>\qT bs<\T TH&T) n
de#q+.
(X+uT ') - X+ue kY dTU *+Z #y&T. $X+ $XX+uT eyT
nH y<y+ dsDjT+.
(c) - sy esT u$T jTT\ e<qT #dqy& ns+.
HeT+ |sXsees ddT+~.

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
64

1
qe+sY, 2014
(es+&') - eTyTq - n+f - n#qyTq V+& J$+|
Cdy&T. JyJeeTJejTY nH u>ed ns \TTq~.
(n+XeH) - nXS`yb nH <TeqT{ |\, jT y|+
+&y&T. n+sVX s+ y| HsjTD' nH y<y+ dsDjT+.
.... (dXw+)

XeT ys\T
1. qes d+<seTT> l d<eV+< XeTeTT, \\T $Xw |P\T
sT>TjT + d+ yX+. & ks bsX\ $<sT\T dsd, [
yTT<\>T n\+seTT\T #d n+<s yT#T=HT seTeTT ]|+HsT. ks
bsX\ >TsTe>] n<seTT =$T~ sE\T VAeT+, $Xw |P\T ]q$.
\\T ks bsX\ |qsT<sD #d |+&T\sTTq >TsTe>] <s bs\T
#|&T#Tq$. $<sT\ n kseTT\T eTT> @sT #jT&T#Tq$.
bsX\ $<sT\T e\djTTq~. bsX\ #sT V+ q $<sT\T
qe+sT |<e B | XeTeTTq e |dT eT $eseTT\T e>\sT.
XeT bsX\ | d+eseTT $<sT\ | sT|&TqT. |\
nTe TeTT> rsT \ sTTq y] dT s| q dHq+ L& y\ 19`10`2014e
Bq ]q dT usT MT{+>T rs+#eTsTTq~.
2. XeTeTT #T|\ ed e<T\ uq ks+ dT s|q @sT
#jT&T#Tq~. y] Bbe[ d+<s+> eg<q+ sT|&q~.
3. l \*q+< dsd k$T y] XeTeTT |XeT e< >eTdT\ ] MT<
>eT<e neTy] <y\jTeTT, >D| <y\jTeTT sDeTT dT ysT |P] #d
<X q~. d+es+ &d+sT e] $>V |w, +u_w+ #j\
deyX+ rs+#eTsTTq~.
4. Ns\, $jT\|s+ V+>] <y\jT sD+ |P] nsTTq~. $>V|w,
+u_w+ &d+sT es sb\ dTusT rs+q~.
5. 18`11`2014 VQ @<sE lll \*q+< dsd k$Ty]
s<q |XeT y] de~ e< $Xw |PC seTeTT\T, nq<q+ |
d+eseTT #d $<eTT>H ]|+#\ dT deyXeTT rs+#eTsTTq~. l
\*q+< XeTeTT, y&se L& $Xw|P\T sT|&TqT.
6. y&se XeTeTTq dMT|eTTq >\ <+&seT k$Ty] <y\jTeTTq
eT+&|e TT {+ #eT >eT|\T, >eT eTTqdT>sT eT]jTT <y\jTeTT .z.>sT
k$Ty] $q$+HsT. dTysT ]q |s+ e\dq |eTT\T (&yT+{)
$q |+, |< |s+ $T{ @sT #d < <s $T{ysT, .z.>sT
*d d+|~+q# eT+&|+ |P] #d y\ dT deyXe TT rs+HsT.
7.
*esY u~+| >T] nsTTq yb+ #+~q s|eT nH b| y<+
$T+ nsTq+< dT ysT |~VqT y\ sbjT\ # n+<CdHsT.

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
65

=+&=
|+&TqysT ~>Te+ <>qT+&"> q\T"&=" &T
<+&" ;syTq T<|s+Tq $T jT>Z>TH
>=+&= #T =q=eT\ qT+&">" +< >+&u
sT+& eT<u d+V sT+eTT \T+&y #] uds!
` esq y+jT, uds XeTT
Cqd+|qTy @ |s\T, |\T +& H\ MT< HsT. me&
<<eT ><MT< LsT <s+ y\>u&TTH&T. n+eq |+&T\
#fMT \><T. H= #T {sT=eT\ MT< Ls= +&e#T>!
n< #T& d]>Z +< >+&usT+&\T, eT<|fqT>T\T, d+V\T
* +&y?
|+&T\ CqdeTTbsq| d +T+~> n~s|s\|
+&<T. Cq+ n+f ||+# ne>+ #dT=H X. X q, \
|j>|&TT+~. n+<Te\ | \T>TT+~. |+&T\ n~ #\T. eT]
|sy? n~ n~s d++. n~s+ n+f sT* Xd+# X. X
n+sZ+ <T, VsZ+. n+f n~ eTqdT qeTjT~ <T. jT{
neX\ qT+ d+$T+#~. n~ n\T& *jT<T. n~ q n+sZ X
n n&T ueT|&&T. sT\qT Xd+#>\T>TTq|&T sT\ +f qT
qT&T, XeT+T&T nH ueq @s&TT+~. |q nV+ |sT=+T+~.
Xd+#+ <s |* XSq+ eTsT> nV+ | #+<TT+~. nsTT n\T&
Cq+, |eT, <jT e+{$ e >qT TqT n~s+ nH eTX
|P]+qT dT+~. < n&T qT eTVse qqT+{&T. nsTT
n~s |s+ ks+ dyT >qT n~] u>yT | eqd| \><T.
q |<X+ #]qy& |q; m{> +T+< n~s |syTq
y& n~ m|{H qH ujT+ n+{|T= +T+~. >< Hqy&
d+w+ +&<T . n~ >H rs y<q \T>TT+~. n~s+ eTX
q |P]++~ >qT n~ >H n&T XV qT&e&T. <T'T&e&T.
<+ *dq |+&T\ < MT< n| +&<T.
n\+ T e. < & T T~. n< #+#\ due+.
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
66

1
qe+sY, 2014
>+&usT+&+, @qT>T, d+V+ eTV+Te\T. >=| ed\T >\$. y{ @
s+>qT k{ s<T.
uds XeT+{ qf sT |<+qT <c+\+s+ +~.
|+& duy |_++> >=| +Te*, # duy |_++>
Vq +TeqT >V+#&T Xs esq y+jT.
+ >+&usT+&+ m{ +T+~? n~ $>] *j*. eTq
*d+< n~ eTVeT>eT eyT. >+&usT+& | ysT. < s+&T
\\T, eT&T +{jT #&y #|sT!

& b|H eX+sY, >T+sT.

$CqM

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
67

eTVus+ ` eqe due D


d+<V ` de<qe\
` & n|C&T y+ dTjT, s\T.
eTVus+ ;eTT&T <ssEqT es+q d+<s\T.
nT leT<ejTD+ lseTT eTT\T, T eTVus+
<ssE eTT\T nq\| n+ u >sy\T, $qjT $<jT\T qys.
lseTT&T eTT\+f # X d+|qT&T. n+<Te\ jTq eTT\T
$<jTT\T> +&+ $Xw+ @eTT+<, eTVus+ ;esTqT\T nq>]
+f n$T \e+T L& nq>] | $qjT $<jT\ q&T#Te+,
nq>] <edH, jTq edq+e\ *q wqc\qT dV+#+ >=|
$XweT =+<s+{sT. B $<+> yT.
, nT seTT eTT\T, T <ssE eTT\T nq| u
>sy\, $qjT$<jT\ +&{ sD+ ` nq\ \|se\qT,
y m<TsT ] *> wqc\qT uE ydT=<T. <] eTT\T
<s|jTT\T <s $<jTT\T. <sT nq\T <sT\T eTVjTT\T. n+<T
eTT\T nq>s\| n+ u>sy\T, $qjT $<jT\T * HsT.
, eTVus+ e+ eTV\e+T&T, yX| s T &T nsTTq ;eTT&T
= d+<s Xss+> nq>] m<TsT ]>&T.
n+ du <TXdqT&T <|~ =||{ &d], q b+&e\T,
<ssE |q \& \e+#T= }sTH, ;eTT&T e+ >V
eT+&bj&T. y+H <ssE y| ], <Td sD+ p<e&q
#T <, n+<Te\ ue<VQ <V+T djTTe\jTT ` #T\qT >T\
u{* n yX+> nH&T. y+H nsTqT&T n&T|& <ssE eTVjTqT
|X+d+, ;eTT nqTqsTT+, |]d #~<&T. { d]bsTT+~ +f
@+ ]><.
d + d u s + nq>] # T \T > T \ u { ; e TT& T
dV<yeqjT ` dV<y! | rdTs n nqT L& +~.
nsTT =+<sT |+&T\T ;eTT&T nq>] #T\qT >T\ u{\ n+e
n+{&! m+ e+ <T. HMT #jT d q+<T q #T\H

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
68

1
qe+sY, 2014
qT >T \uT y\qT=H&T n d+d u s+ uVQ d+|< $T
nH y $Xcs+ L& #bsT. , ;eTT duy {, ;eTT&T
n|&Tq eqdd {, nsTq T&| &T <s sEqT deT]+#{ {, ;eTT
#\s#{ { ` ;eTT&T byX+ nq>] #T\qT >T\ {\H
nH& n|dT+~.
n+<T, ;eTT&T nq>] m~]+ e{&q |T{\T us+
+ HsTT.
nsDyd+ ;eTT&T <ssE n;c es+>, se\ MT~
<+&, yqT Ve] eTqs+ eTq+ rdT+<eT jTq >{>
y~+#&T. MT sqTd]+#~ uVD<s+ jT<s+ < $eT]+#&T.
n> nsDyd+ <ssE s<T& u] qT+& <Ts<qT
s+#+& ;esTqT\qT <d, ;eTT&T, >\ s+ >+<sT\T #dT+f
<TwD eTq+ s+#yT+<T? n nq>] n&T #b&T. sTy ;eTTD
|+#{ <ssE m+ +{\T |&e\d e+~.
M+{+f ;eTT&T <ssEqT >{> es+q |T+ +={
+~. XeTyd+ y eTT+<T <sw&T +<Te\+<] $Xw X<jT\T
#j\qT=H&T. n+<T m+ <q+ KsT neT+~. <q+ KsT |{
<ssE nqTeT rdT= seT e<sE $<TsTD |+b&T. $<TsT&T e
n&T>>H <ssE y+H n+^]+#&T , ;eTT&T e+ >{>
es+#&T. <sw =&T\T eT #dq n|s\ q+{ k]
@sTe |{, y X<jT\ eTq+ <q+ KsT|{ nH&T. ;c<T\
X<jT\T + #jTe\d +f eTq+ #jTL&<` <TweT n&
nH&T. n+<q|, q =&T\T eTq #dTq n|s\qT n&Tb>,
*+ H|+ qqT #+|{ |jT+#&T < ` n+{ <TwT~
eTq$T+ <q$Ty? nH&T. nsTqT&T d]#|H ;eTT&T de<q|&<T.
es <ssE $<TsT ` H <q+, nsTqT <q+ |<+&>]
d+|> X<jT\T #dT=eT #|+& n #|e\d e+~.
eTV\e+T&T, yX| s T &T nsTTq ;eTT&T nq>] MT< u >sy\T
y&T <T. nsTTH j d+<s q eTTe n&T \e+
}sT<T. nedsyTq|&T jTqqT es+#&T. n $&b<T. #q
nsTT<Ty deq+> e+&e<? n n$ #qT+& $&bj?

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
69

+<HjT X k+<seT
` & . ]C\ , H\sT.
e+T> >sT<CsVD+
u|&=qsTy #|eTjT?
>]eT sTD d+ueT+
u|&|&= y>#|eTjT?
seT eTVAq s< yT sTM<T
|&+Ty #|eTjT?
<sD qu> <d |C+<
yT|&T *jTTH #|eTjT?
ese MD y+# qT\
|&T |*sTT+#TH jqr ><jT
|ue! <Due!
V$eTJe! l+< <e!
13
yUqd d+|<jT |< k$T ]| <CsVD+, D+,
s< e+, <d+< de yTT<q y]y* >] |d+ dTH &T |sTce T
$ |<+.
l+<<e |Ps+ yuy|+> |es+ ]> y\T
s>&+ <, n$ ] ]|+#TeT $ k$T n]dTH&T. y{
eTTKyTq$ ` >sTY <C sVD #jT&+, sTD+ ]|+#&+,
s< e+ sV+#&+ , nu> <d +<+ y]# de\T #sTT+#&+ yTT<q $.
y\T #&& u> e <dT \T |]ds b+\qT+& +<\T> l
e#ys, |&{ sbe&+ m+ =s> +< $ u$dTH&T.
u> e <Ty\qT <]+#\H u qy+#q T rseT u $ u> e +TD |>&+ >
sTTH&T. C eseMD y+#d |\ bT $qT re+>
q~ f n<|&T |*dT+< qeeT+{&T $.
|Ps+ l+ yXK |P]eTH&T s<e+ ]><, n|&&
]> sTH $Xc\T &_seT+ n_e]yTHsTT. yXKbs$TH
<eq|q$T n+{sT.
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
70

1
qe+sY, 2014
<eq|q$T <&q ` \T>TsjT&T <eBXsT+&T
uTeq VeTT> qTe+ e<]+| ` n+<TbsTT MT bsTTq{ jT&T.
nq+eT&H $ usJjT+ q eTTeT& $uT&T`
H$T | |seT |<eTq+>
H=| l+Tq=&jT&q
+< e\u V]de q\sT#T+& y& |X+d+#&T. (u`1.40)
<s\qT { |sTceT$ eTT+<T esy\T ]>e,
y{ ] k$TjT |qsT<]+#Ty\, |+&T>\qT #d q+~+#
neX+ |\ *Z+#eT $ k$T nu]dTH&T.
>TqT sTyTqT HeT+|#T ` $Tq |+s+Tq<qT#T
>eT\T{q dTu+ ~ be ` < keT~ <qqT#T
\* s<T yTT\qT ` eTTe+>eTT ujTq<qT#T
eT+& eD +&\+T\T s ` jTT>[ T{qTq eqT#T
+&THe >&sTT+#T HsT|]y
be\Te bsTyDeTT ujT$T?
|ue! <D ue!
V$eTJe! l+< <e!
14
|Ps+ k$Ty] HusD\T+&e, n+<T = bsTT, =
eyT |&THjT, q y{H k$T X_\TTH&H~ |<
ks+XeTT.
u\T |P+#Te& |+s+ L&q eT\$>V+ +~.
\<$ bT sdeTT<+qT+& |{q, dTueTD bsTTH, $T*q kyT
k$T <+~. s+T\T yTT\qT dTes+> q + sdTqT
M&<T. eD+&\T #e\+H *d |{qT> dV+>
X_\TTHsTT.
+&THe ` @<H edTe q|&T +&Tq<q&+ \T>T
qT&s+. = us D \T b sTTH, y{ ] d+b~+#TH HsT y&T
<T k$T. bsTTq$ b> $T* q b>T&\T, b usD\T +&T>
HsTT #\T n $ nd+| =+ d+| y\& d T H &T. |Psyu y
] k$T |qsT<] +#Ty\ |sTce T$ X|& T TH&T. .... (dXw + )
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
71

C
s>eTT `

Xb\q
eT\ kVre\u
` & &sT |uss&, b<TsT

\T\L, ujT \T\L.... nb\ q *b\T $Tq


|\\ \ m+|
* < + & T \T e T _& \ eT+ \ T= # > eTTk T
#dTy\qTe&+ dV+. _& ss> m<T>T&T { yTT<=q
\ T n =+ \y T | j > | & j T H $w j T + * < + & T \T
>TsT+#Ty*. n+<Te\ {, s+&T dE\T |<y =q&+ eT+~. yTT<{
n$ e<T\T> |+q|{ n$ nqTe>H e+{sTT. _& S, #T\
dT\u+> n, <\& M\T+T+~.
|\\ \T=H eTT+<T

=&T+f VsTT>, *>Z =&>& M\T+&, & M\Tqy{H


=H*.

=&q \qT |P]> $b*q neds+ +&, H| \qT dT\u+>


es& M\T+& \H =H*.

<TdT\ yT>, dTK+> e+& jsT#dqy =H*. m+{


>{ n+#T\T, >T#T=H T, H, |Pd\T e+&L&<T.

+~ < z|H njT$, < |< H >\ <TdT eT+$. m+<T+f


\T =&T>TTq|&T, $||&T eTTK+ |jT&+ |\\T w|&sT.

|\T, eq <TdT\qT y&L&<T.

dT\Tq X\Ty\T, ]>H\T y&L&<T. m+<T+f _&


y y{ s+< sTbjT |e<eTT+~.

<s\T dT\u+ > }& \T =qL&<T . }& eq <s\qT |d| \ \ T


$T+> neXeTT+~.

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
72

1
qe+sY, 2014

{\T ysTT+#|&T >TsT+#Te\dq n+X\T

MT _& m|&H eTs>, eDT> e#j...

+k] q { e\ @<H <Tw]DeT+ |++<...

@<H T>, ndd> e+<...

@<H qb{ ndd q|{ y<T d\V {\T ysTT+#e#T.


{\T ysTT+# |+# |ue+ k<sD+>H e+T+~. +~
|uy\qT >T]+ \TdTe&+ neds+ :
_.d.. : { q 3, 4 ys\ s jT+{~
@s&TT+~. n~ yT& s+&T ys\ es NeTT se#T. |&+> eT+<T
> neds+ <T. 10`12 ys\ s q eT# eyT $T>T\TT+~.
n+f { d|\eTsTT+<qe. =k] = ys\ s H\\
s { ydq y| #+ >+ @s&e#T. n+|&T &sYqT
d+|~+#*.
{| j+{H (&.|.{.) : Be\ =~> s+ se#T. {
q# ms> +<&+, y|, H=| e+&e#T. H=| q jT =
ys\ es +&e#T. s, H=| MT y<T d\V bsde
eT+<T y&=#T. s+ 103+ H meH, _& n> @&TdTH < *$
|TH y<T #|+#*.
MT / jT+.jT+.sY. : { ydq s =+<] 4 qT+& 10
sE s+ se#T. <+uT <>TZ, \TT < =~> <Ts<, b\T
L& se#T. nedseT|d &sY d\V bsde eT+<T y&e#T.
de#seT+ *<+&T\ ne>Vq, esZ<s+ dyT>
y<T\ d\V |ejT+ < >V+#*.
bs+ +f |dTs+ *<+&T\T eT |\\ $wjT+ mH
d+<V\qT, d+~>edqT, uj+<q\qT =T$T{&T THs H
q\ujT XqTue+ >eT+#qT B = sD\T :

sT <sT |\\T+&+ e\ y] >T]+ nX< #|&+

eT& T+ eed qTeTsT>jT |dT|]dT |<\ nqTuy\


dVj e+.

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
73

*< + &T*<s <> u< \e\ Xb\q deT+> #jT be&+.

e]bTq <T JeqX*, nH~> de+ edTq |s+|s>


#seeVs\ eT< deTqjT|+.

y~s<esZ\H y~ | me> X< eV+#&+.

B &T y<T\T n _J> e+& s>$CH, s>$<q+ >T]+,


s>ysD, k<sD s>d\ >T]+ *<+&T\ $XB]+#
r] be&+ L& eTTKyTq sDyT!
eTq <X+ <<| \eT+~ |\\T ss\ s>\ #bTHsT.
eT]= \\ |\\T mH s\ T\, bwVs|+ dsq m<T>T<\
+ bTHsT. B sD+ |<] yTTf <T ` s> sD
ne>VH|+ L&. *<+&T\ q de#s+ n+~+#&+ y<s+>+
|eTTKb eV+#*.
X d+sD e\+ &y] u< nH n_bjT+ m+eT+~ e+~.
eTV\ e+ u<, <> u< |d]. H\d] u<\T, >s<sD,
qT\T e+{ n<q| sTe\T e+&&+ e\ eT>ysT L& X d+sD
b\T |+#Ty*q neds+ m+e+~.
.... (dXw+)

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
74

1
qe+sY, 2014

$<Tsks+

(8)

` yTTe ec~|, s|.


p<+ <ssE <|~ |D+> |{ z&bj&T. <Ts<qT&T
<d <|~ dys+ rd=se\d+~ n $<TsT C|+#&T. n|&T
$<TsT&T `
o$cd sd |Psb' eTV$c'
e|c' dTeT+<H>eTd+ jTeTjT+
qV <de|H c u$TeTs
nXq V sCc|Dqd yT eT'
ujT+s $c>T\ Td\T=f &#T\T <+ \MT<&T
THsTT. z eT+<TB! y{+ |+ |+, HXyT jTeT<ssE
e+sTT+{ bu, kBeT*jTq <|~ $|qjTq <d <+~ <T.
yTqT |+<+ |f n~s+ <s sE<T . <s sE q qT> |+<+
|T= z&bj&T. H z&qy + & neX+ <T. qT+&>
ns+jTq usqT |+<+ |{ <s eT+^]+#<T. |> yT
<ssE kT<T. yT |+#us. yT| n+<i deTw n~s+,
u< \THsTT. @$<+ > #H <|~ <s $ <T. n<s $ n #b&T.
sTy qqT sT du &=be{ eq b$T <|~ k$T
qH& H&H? H& qH&H? HqT <s$H? n<s$H? *d=
seT #|+~.
| $wj\T <w +#T=H +&Tdu $<TsT&T <|~ <s$
<, q n_bj ws> s+<+> H= #b&T. ;w <D b<T\T
d+ eTq eT+^]+ q deTjT+L& n<s n<s+> +&T du
m#|+q <sX* ` <seTsE&T $<TsT&T. jTq <sMsT&T.
nqT<+ b+&e\T dsk b>=T=HsT. T\
q&e\ ysT. <sw&T $<TsT |* y <TsZee\ y[qrsT
#|e\d+~> s&T. $es+> #b&T $<TsT&T. n|&T <sw&T `
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
75

C
$<Ts! T~\+ X&T Vd #\sT. T~ #
d#yT+~. dd <seTs\T seT\\T. sTe+Xs&e.
se\ ` H V+ m \T>TT+< #| ` @+ #d s
|\+ eTq qTL\Ts +{s #|. eTqqT s*+#{ |<TsT
s>+& +& esZyT$T{? + \TdT. yde+ #| n n&>&T.
<sw eT~ sTT& dw+> >#]dT+~. b+&e\sD\
ysT. ysT <s|sT\T. |seTX\TsT. o\TsT. <e\d+|qT\T. y]
d+|<\ q+{ ejbjT+ e++ se\T <#T=HsT. b|+ y]
T\ y&\ q&|+#sH ue+ |\ |\+> y|+ +~. n~
jTTe+{ nqs\ <]rdT+ < n < sw uj
T +. n+<Te\qH b+&e\
$wjT+ |\T eTibsTT eTq qTs +&\+f eTqyT+ #j*? n
n&>&T. H |\qTL\Ts +{s #| n n& $<TsT&T q <T+q
qs+ #dT=+{& bsT\T eTq nqTL\Tss #| nH&T. n+f
$<TsTL& \T|=+TH&qe. eTT+<T $<TsT X|T+#&T. b>&\
__T y&T +>y&T keq+> +&&T. n+<Te\q $<TsT&T
yT & |\T qjT+<T qesT\jT+<T nqTs +& bjT+ #T&
.... (dXw+)
<sw X.

d+d uc|P]eT

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
76

1
qe+sY, 2014

>e

` & ds<es s$esY, |Xy< |DT\T, >T+sT.


>C H&T nH <X\ eqy[ bwVs #d
dJejT++> |]>D+#&T +~. y|q e+d+ d+, eTs=y|q
b\d+ >C n_e~|s#&T q~. n_e~ |s#&TTq
>CT\T ejTdTH n~ e+k #$> jseTHsTT. b&
e\T sE 100 s |> b\qT # ksTT #sTTHsTT. b\T,
e+d+ s+q \\qT n+<T >CT\T s<sD >T]
eyT sD+> #+|yjT &TTHsTT.
usrjTT\T eT&qeTdT\T, *$eysT, ndj>dT\T
nsTTq+<Tq y] >C n_e~ H#T=q+ < bXT\ ueq. ,
>eqT >T]+q eTq usrjTT\ ueH ysT. >e eTq |$ +Te. ~
eqe\ eT &q =* +Te\ ~ {. ||+#+ ==*
yvjTyTq y<\ >C nH $<\T> |k$+#&+~, |dT+# &+~.
nq+s yvjTyTq Vd |sD e H\H $$< Xg>+<\
L& B |Xd <w+ # &+~. |* +> H{ L& ~ |P +Te>
usrjTT\# |P+|&T +~.
y< yvjT+ >e s+#<q, e~+#<> +Te> #|&+~.

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
77

C
e sT<D+ <TV edH+
dk~HeTeTd H_'
| qT y#+ T w HjT
e >eTH> eT~+ e~w. (TT>. 8`101`15)
sT<T\ *, edTe\ LTsT, ~T\ k<], b\T, HsTT
|<s\ VTe, k<Te, n~ e+{~ n>T >eqT e~+|e\<T.
jTEs<eTT =* eT+eTTH >e\ |d dTq~.
n|- +<jT u>yT
|CersqMTy- njT
eedq- X e|T X+k <Ty- ndH >| kY
Vseqd |XSH bV.
e~+| <>$ n>T >e\T j~ s>eTT\T y, d+qe+eTT
e b\ H=d+>T>! n$ #sT\ eXeTT +&T>! yTeTT >C s\eTT
n>T<TeTT>! n | eT+u> ueeTT.
eT+ kVd+ X<seTT+
e#eq+ d]sd eT<
|T+ <TVH eT~+ Hj>
n>! e V+d' |syT yeTH. (jTE.13`49)
nH dTU\ k<yTq~, n~ b\<s\ sDyTq~, bw+#
<q~ nsTTq uTqT, (b\<s) H #&, nK+&jTeTT nsTTq eqT
V+d+#e\<T.
n<sy<+ >eqT >T]+ me> #|&+~.
>y n>qT u<eT
<qT >w sDjTqd
|Cer' |sTsb VdT
]+<jT |P sTwk <TVH' (n<s.4`5`21`1)
>e\T ey| e#T>. u<+ seTT\>T >! n$ e X\
ed+#T>. b\<s\ eTeTT q+<|s#T>. d+qeT nH sb\
e >V+ n_e~ #+<T>. |VeTT eqe\ b\qT #T>.

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
78

1
qe+sY, 2014
|Cer' djTed sTX'
X< n|' dT|bD |'
e e dq X e|TX+d'
|] y sT<d VsD!
(n<s.4`5`21`7)
><&\T >* ddXeT\yTq <X+ |]XuyTq { >T,
|>& + q >e\qT <=+>\T n|V]+|+<TsT >.
Ve >e @HVA
Xe |w Vy
| CjT<+ eTsTT
d+CqeTdT e'!
(n<s.3`14`4)
z >es! H +{ e |>& |w b+~ <&\qT b+<T&T.
H| MT |eT \T>TqT >!
d+C>H n_uTw ` sdH >w wD'
_ur' keT+ eT< ` qMTy |q! (n<s. 3`14`3)
X\ sj
T T |eT> + neTbjTyTq b\qT e>\sT.
MTsT s>sVT +<TsT>.
eTj >y >|H q#<
eTjT+ y >w V bwsTTw'
sjT kwD VQ ue+r
y Je+rsT| e d<eT (n<s. 3`14`7)
>es! MTsT e +& e e\q bw+|&T n_e~ b+<+&.
yTeTT $TeTT e |XX\ + d$+TeTT.
$<+> nH y<eT+\ >, eqe nqT+<+ #>
$e]+|&+~. nH nq eT_ Vs e+ C $Ty| (3`6`30`1)
n+ |{q e<&, e @$<+> nHq+> +{j n eqe\T
]H=sT |$T+#T= nHq+> +&\ #|&+~. kes+ eTV
ku>jT (7`6`73`8) n+ >=| ku>+ d+ >e\T e~b+<* n
++#&+~. >C n_e~ y{ #e\jT+<T $T<Tq V\qT yj\
#|&+~ (3`13`141). >deTT (3`3`14) >|w deTT (2`4`26) \T
#|&sTT. > s> |XeTHseTT, >e\T n~+> b\qT #+<T dV<$
nH zw~ b]+#eTT (6`6`59`2) ksTT.

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
79

C
eb\T BsjT Te kjT (12`3`49), >eT+ |j >
|&TT+< (6`6`57`2) $e]+#&+~. $XeTTqT >e b\T
| $$<X\T >e $$< n+>\T> n_e]+# &sTT (9`6`14).
>e\T @&~ <&qT kjT (9`5`29), nsTT e\\T |+ <weT,
<w ysD = eT+\T (4`7`35) #|&sTT. qq >V|yX
deTjT+ >eqT +{ #T |<D+ #sTT+#\ (6`3`28) #|&+~.
>C n_e~ uT\qT m+|#d $&|f d+|<jT+ d+#&+~
(7`10`111). > e< re+> sd+#&+~ (8`3`16). $<+> n<sy<
eT+\ >|Xd $ks+> |dT+~.
e bT s |Xe\ |dL& y<\ |dT+~. eTjTT+
|X+ yT< eT> Ewd (jTE. 13`47). z eqe&! |$yTq |Xe\qT
V+d+#, d$+#TeTT n, X+ H ndT ~|< X+ #Tw< (jTE. 36`8)
~b#Tc<k+ dsyT dHTsyT (jTE. 11`95) ` ds eqe\T,
+Te\T dTKT\T >qT s>sVT\T>qT +&T>` n y<eTT +dTq~.
dsJe\ d+e n_\wdTq~.
nsTT, y< |b~yT q jTC\ |X e< ` eTTK+> >e\, >Ts\
e< +&< =+<sT |#s+ #dTHsT. ~ y~ d+d Xu\
d+d ns\qT b~+#+ e\q sT>TTq~. jT Xu jTC y
XweT+ s n jTeTq> # eTyTq eT+ |> $esD dTq~.
y<|T+Te yT<, jT |<\T |sjT |<\T> #|&sTT. jTC
>\ eTs= |sjT |<+ n<syT nq~. <ssY V+k s. w<
b' nq $esDqT { n<s Xu V+d s n nseTT.
$<\T> jTeTT nV+dqT |u~dT+&> n~ |Xe\qT #+| #d s>
|#s+ &+ <Ts< we TT. n+<T. n~ y<< s e] +#yT neT+~.
jTs |XV+d e< y<\T #|THjTq< ks+XeTT.
us<X+ >T]+#&q k >CT\T 31 < HsTT.
>T]+#&$ eT]= HsTT. <ojT >CT\ j keTs+
(|+q m_*{) q+> +~. B eTq+ eTq sTH{ neds\
nqT>TD+> n_e~ |s#Te\d +~. $<o >C bwD b*, <ojT
>C e KsT bw+#T>\+. dTBs \+ n~ | b+<{
>C bwD # esZ+.
<ojTyTq e\ b\T, HsTT, yq nH jTTs<Ww< \ nqTbq+>

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
80

1
qe+sY, 2014
$~+#&sTT. |<s\ Ww<>TD\qT |]X<\T >T]+#sT. e\
eTeTT, |& L& Ww<\T> y&&TTHsTT.
eb\T *b \ deqeTq $wjT eTT n+<] *dq<. eHsTT
yd #dq nVA+ qT+& e# b> $wyjTTe\qT <s+> +#TT+~
nq $wjT + Xdj
T +> s|+# &+~. e|& #dq |& \ qT *q|&T
e# b>, e|& n*q +{ >&\T nDTX qT+& e# s&jTwH u]
qT+& eTq\qT b&sTT. e d+es \+ # |& 4500
s >sY >dt neT+~. <ojTyTq e\|& nH |j>s
dJe\qT |+# nTeT k<q+> >T]+#&+~. >eTT e |&
300 qT+& 500 dJe\T +& n$ eT{ bw |<s\qT |sT\
y dT\u+> >V+#{ |j>|&sTT. |d<eekjT$<H
|#s+ #dT q ysT s skjT msTe\qT y& +& e\eTT <ojTyTq
e|&, eT+\ d+es \+ 30 ms\ u $T |s T \qT |+&+
eT+ ~>T&T\T k~+#e#Tq #|THsT. >eT+ >\ s, e+>dt,
y+& e+{ <Te\T eqe s> m+ yT\T #ksTT. *esY d++<
y<T\, JsXy<T\, #ss>\ >eT H&T b#Ts
b+<T#Tq~. |+\| e# N&|& \ qT y]+#{, \qT bs<+<T
|+#>e cj s T \T $jdTH sT. e =eTT\T Xe +yT q m+fH
\T> |#d yesD+ sD\qT >V+ eqe\ yT\T
#dTHjT |]X<\T n+THsT. >C |sesD |]sD m+>H
yT\T #L sTdTq ~. | + >eqT |+#yT deT> |sesD |]sD
e Tes+Z > |dT q ~.

VqeTT
lll \*q+< dsd k$Ty] 63e s<q y&se q+<*
\*q+<XeTeTT ddl
#+<eq jTHeT d+es VQ @<
~. 18`11`2014 q sT|&TqT. ~.17`11`2014 keTys+ <jT+
>+. 8`00 \ qT+& sT<VAeT bs+ueTT. ~.18`11`2014 eT+>ys+
<jT+ >+.9`00\ VAeT|PsVQ. <jT+ >+.10`00\ qT+& s<q.
eT<V+ >+.12`00\ lll nsTq+< dsd y] b<|P sT>TqT.
nq+seTT rs|k< $j>eTT. eq u\sT | seTeTT\ bZ
k$Ty] | bT\T e\dq~> sT#THeTT.

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
81

q #e<

|| |eTT\T

(8)

` & +\|P& y+fXsT, &T|\b&T.


ejT$~ :
nT #qkq #qqT #| &T>+& |+|< T q.
n\eTu+~q j| ejT$~jT <e eTTqT <sTqT.
~es \&\TqT. sT >sTqT. +|+#TqT.
n+q <qC<]q &+<eTT>&Bd= HesT
eTT>\s <s+TqTqT. eT\eTTq{ =TuT<T. n>D|D
eD>TD deTjT sTyTqT e]+q qqjTu{s\T qkeTjE\
qTDeTT qT\yT<\T#THjTT+<TsT <! n X+\jTT q yT<\T#TH
jTT+&TqT<! n{j
T & ;s eTT, Bs eTT |qTueTT\ |~ jTT]j&T#TqTq
ds+~ jTedqT e]+| \#TfT?
<qeXeTTq e<qeTT $esejTqT. ujTy>eTTq qT\ +|+|
k>qT. u>&T$T* |<eTT\T &&k>qT. \&bTq H=&\+jTT CeT\T
|fqT. \, >=+, y+uT, eTTTbT, yi>TbT, H=e, He>\T #TT
eTT{q ~>T\T& <T|<| <Tsed+u+<T#T eTV|<\+ ]VsD+T
V]dsD+jT q V<jT|+&+Tq+ T+& |+#T=
q+~s+T y\Te& ~qsT+>qT+>= \e+ j+<\+#T=HqT.
~qsT&H&T |j>eTTq <|~ V<jTeTTqT u<$q |e<seTTq
|y<~e+T H=d>C*q y&H&T $ V<jTeTT >VeTT.
& eT\eTTq <|~ q e +B]+ y|
eTs*+q~. jT<VeTq+ usuH_CH$T +#q q dq e+ bb+
e sY #eX- HqT H us\+f nqeT>T |sTw u>u>eTT\
qqTu$+| d+\eeTT>Hqq d]+|+<TH qqT # eXeTT#jT
+<Te>! n s|yTq <eeTTqT XsDTb+~q~. n~ j$Xd
yTq~ { X|<yTq~. | dseT+&\eTTqT \+q~. usrjT
d<+eTTq dseT+&\eTT e\yTT eT+&T#Tq >eTT<T. n~ u>yqT
~eXseTT. eT #|qT |\ ~|y]+<sqT <sq$T#T

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
82

1
qe+sY, 2014
u>e+T& eT+&\s|eTTq y\T>=+<T#T+&q y<e #|#Tq~.
eTTVAseeyT dseT+&+sZT&>T leTHsjTDT <+q~.
bw k ds+ eTTVAseT '
n+ HyTyqT HyT iT j
T dsT |+|q H= sd T &T s &
jT\T<]H&T.
# H+<eTTqL& b+#* q beeTTqT |{+ |>
#e\q q &T\T>+&TqT sTD s+|eTqT#T eT\$TT
jT& > \TyTT#qT. sD j
T T <T'jT >T qs T D+>#T qT<>uT C$dTs
D&TH= sdT >q#qT. y&TqT+ jT+s\+Tq q<XsT
&>T #T e \#qT. mT\TqT qT|+|&T >eq Hde TTqH *|jT T+&e#TqT
q. eeTTq qT|]+|< u\T d+|TqeTTqT eT&TeTT\ *
yH&T. <Tss|]dT\ <seTTH=+< <Ts\ V<jTT\= eqyr
X jT{XH=d+>C\T qqTq~ < deTT. nT b+~q <seTT&H
b+#* +Tq |+#qqjTjTTqT $~eX+Tq uT*jTTq b<\C#T
V]D+T #+<+Tq d+V\T eT+~s+T C#qT.
eT+~s+TC#T jT|&+ HeTTseTT\T, HseTT\TqjTTqT H|
e+<T&>T d+V\T +{ jT+TsTV>H jT>T|+#qT. \eTTq
\+jTT, yT |eTTqT H=+ jTT|X$T+qqT qT d+ueT Vs+T\T
uq>=q+> ue#+#\+Tq &eTT&e&T#T H<TsT#q >&+>TqT. VseTT\
<jTTqT. eT\& >=qTqT. &\ <T]d+ u&>sTqT. n+jT>
jTjTT>* jT#T CsTesqT q+<T+& jT&T>T eTT+<T yjTbjTqT.
n+{ sb_e, <+&H<T jTT \T|jT WeTT. eT\eTTq
jT>#T e. e#T#Tq ds+~ qqT $sVdeTT<eTTqT+& <{+|
eq HejTjTT, <q H=&T #]qjTT eyT \+H&T. yT
eq y+H k>eTT |*H&Tk>+ dTX+ dTec s eTeT
k$T eTqTbb |sTw eTeT |jT+
dTese' +X +& |]V
HH |q C Xu eTDs+ # Xuq+
Vs+ T # ekD q H #
@V eTj ks+ |d eT<Te<M+

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
83

C
z dT+<! ~jT H k>eTT. seTT HjTT |D|\eTT.
e H k$Ty |jTeTTqT #LsTeTT. n~>- ~eu>+T\s+>T XjTq
eT+~seTT. n$jT dTesusDeTT\T, X+Ke\jTeTT\T, |TNs\T, yT s
+eTT\T- e<MeT<eTTqT eTqks >* sT Xj\eTTq $V]+eTT
seTT. #&+ yTTTqqT <|B eTVk~ < de<qMTjT
<T. s| dTsbqeTT yjTTq< eeTT #| dTseT =+<s
|{q~.
q# # &T ds + ~p k>e TT |\T<T- yT #| q~
L& $H& d jT+<T &T . nj qsT<+q s+u+jT T <&e djT
$q$+q~. <$ q wBs ysTD<s #qq~. y> <q|B] |+|eTq~.
>+TqT ue+Tq<\ u\jT \q~. , y ds+~jTeTT\T <\
Cs q$ sTT+ HyTT>+Tq +B+T\jTqT. yT |\T\+|b>
qeTeTT q<jTqT |jT+T&<=&+>qT. <$ wBsH+q<qe
eTT+<<$ k<sT+&Hq H wBs #qT b&jjT yT\e&qT. er
jT d+u$+#qT. dsd d+ueq\<qT <|sT|eTHqT. d+u<qeT+<TqT,
d+bsqeT+<TqT yT yeTTq >T$T>&q jT #|\T eT eeT+<T
e jT|+#TqT. # ujTeTT +|+ be#Tq jyT yTqT \*eTT>
|+#TH!
Xwj
T < < q jyT eTq eT+^seTT> u$+#Hy ... &> + {
#|\ <q| d]+|eTHqT. rjT |\T\ q #e\ $+<T#jTTeTHqT.
q+|>T #wq] qyT| u+<TeTHqT. eT<Ts[# qeT~q+<eTT
>sTeTHqT. q<T q+T |*+#TqT\ eT<qT|P d+|P]jT>T< qT
+T> H\TeTHqT. q*q e<HjT |* d>TZs <|+|eTHqT. eTT&T#T
bsTTq yT yeTT q*qeTTe |+q~. <& q yTyeTT qT+&&T
H=|Py #T ksdeTT\<T. n y< |*eT~.
n+ ds + ~jT TqT >TD>]w> eq q|\T\qT |&#$ &, Bs >eq
$ssVjT eT~sysTT+q u<Tq s{+#qT. &yq q<$ jT\T>Tq
qT&Te<s H= des\qqT $wjT eTTqT, +T>H\<>T <qT $wjT eTTqT
s+<T e >TsT# dqT. HjT eTTqq qT, $jTeTTqq qT d] C&T H+#T=qT
jTTeTeT d#qeTT. uwDeTT beTT.
<T]<>T&<q +>TH! dT<w jT\T>TqqT $#seTT eqTeTHqT.
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
84

1
qe+sY, 2014
yT e\dq eT~s +=]# |+|<qHqT. +b<y&T q< #$>*
#&TeTHqT. ||\eTT> HyTe<q dsksu eTysD<qT>\eTHqT.
eTT|\qT+& qT b&TeTHqT. keTeTTq |* eTT>qHs <HbjTeTT
q ~>qT- ds+~> eyT yTHiq #&T ]Ts>s<d$T|
Hdp|qT. sTseTDuwDeTT\ TqHqT. dT+<s>D #jTeTT# de
\+~+TqHqT. +eeTTq m+{ j&T<qqT \e+#TqT<! q
\+\qT deTT de j+ qT djTeTT> yTqTdq\
yT\>T<Tq jTT <+&H<T&T y>qyTTq]+| Hd$ jT+s<T? |
q\]+#TqjT qeTeTT.
, b+#* |D>TDdeT. eeTT yueeTTsT+>~jTTqT
<T. d+V\Te+{ sk\\T ]#&sq{~ yT d. n{jT&
.... (dXw+)
#*+#Tq H&!

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
85

l<M K&Ze
8. X<ekV+e
Xwe+ () cweyT.
nd lX < ekV q e eTV eT+ d ,
# ]+~j~csT $ed<~ TTw', n>r
#q'. eTdsu{s|sd' eT \*
eT+&+' \eTsqyTXseTVu{s <e. +
;+- + X'- k' \+ nDe<wXsd< $j>'.
# ]+~j~csTTH $ed<~TTwjT qeT' (sd) , n>r#q d
qeT'(eTTU), eTdsu{s|sdjT eT\*eT+&+jT \eTsq
yTXseTVu{sjT <ejT qeT' (V~), + ;CjT qeT' (>TV), +
XjT qeT' (Hu), k' \jT qeT' (b<j'), $j>jT qeT' (ds+>)
V+ ~H sV<j~Hd'
sHd'
V<j~Hd
V+ n+>Tcu+ qeT'
V+ V<jjT qeT'
V+ su+ qeT'
V+ sd kV
VA+ eT<eu+ qeT'
VA+ UjT ew{
V+ nH$Tu+ qeT'
V+ e#jT VQyT
V+ wu+ qeT'
V+ HjjT yw{
V' s\s|cu+ qeT'
V' nkjT |{
usTedTes$T ~>+<'
<qX' :
su+ H+ eTDeTjTT+ s+seT+
Vk+uCdbX+XeT<q<qTkjT]dTsqyT
|qed\\X\TssVs+>+
<jT<+usTVd+ dsTDeTedq+ dXs+ #XsDyT
X jT-cDTeTV<' d#eD *'
e uXsD+ dTsd]Z >TD'
(\+, ~ |+#|PC+ sY)
\+ |BjT qeT' >+<+ |]\j$T
V+ XjT qeT' |w+ |]\j$T
jT+ yjTTjT qeT' <|+ |]\j$T
s+ djT qeT' B|+ |]\j$T
e+ neTjT qeT' neT|Vs+ |]\j$T

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
86

1
qe+sY, 2014
+ V+ l+ z+ qeT'
1 |sdT+<sjT kV
(Hk+><e\T 6)

2
3
4
5
6
7

V<jT<yjT kV
s<yjT kV
U<yjT kV
e#<yjT kV
H<yjT kV
nd<yjT kV
(c&X ~T\T 16)

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

yTXsjT kV
u>e*H kV
HjT kV
usT+&jT kV
eVydH kV
eTVeCXsjT kV
e<jT kV
]jT kV
\dT+<sjT kV
jT kV
\|jT kV
$jjT kV
dseT+>jT kV
Ce*H kV
jT kV
eTVjT kV
(>TsT eT+&\+)

24
25
26
27
28
29
30

|syTXs|syTXsjT kV
$TXeTjjT kV
wwXeTjjT kV
&XeTjjT kV
#sH<eTjjT kV
beTT<eTjjT kV
n>deTjjT kV

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42

\|qeTjjT kV
<s#seTjjT kV
eTToXseTjjT kV
B|H<eTjjT kV
$w<eeTjjT kV
|us<eeTjjT kV
C<eeTjjT kV
eTH<eeTjjT kV
D<eeTjjT kV
s<eeTjjT kV
ydT<eeTjjT kV
lseq+<eTjjT kV
(u|seTT |<eTsK <e\T 10)

43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

nDed<jT kV
\|Ted<jT kV
eTVed<jT kV
d<jT kV
ed<jT kV
beTd<jT kV
uTd<jT kV
#d<jT kV
b|d<jT kV
dseTd<jT kV
(u|s+ ~rjT sK <e\T 8)

53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60

uVjT kV
eVXsjT kV
esjT kV
ywyjT kV
ysVjT kV
eV+<jT kV
#eTT+&jT kV
eTV\ kV
(u|s+ rjTsK <e\T 10)

61 dsd+_D kV

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
87

C
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72

ds$<$D kV
dssDjT kV
dseX+sjT kV
dsH~H kV
dseTV+XjT kV
dsU#sjT kV
ds;CjT kV
dsjqjT kV
dsK+&jT kV
yVq#k$TH kV
|{jH kV
(c&X<|<eT+<* sD<e\T(16)

73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90

esDjT kV
T<sDjT kV
nV+ssDjT kV
XusDjT kV
dssDjT kV
sbsDjT kV
sksDjT kV
>+<sDjT kV
sDjT kV
<ssDjT kV
dsDjT kV
HesDjT kV
;CsDjT kV
sDjT kV
neTsDjT kV
XssDjT kV
dsX|]|Ps#k$TH kV
>T|jH kV
(nw<|<eT+<* <e\T 8)

91 nq+>dTejT kV
92 nq+>yTKjT kV
93 nq+>eT<HjT kV

94
95
96
97
98
99
100

nq+>eT<HTsjT kV
nq+>sUjT kV
nq+>yH kV
nq+>+XjT kV
nq+>e*H kV
dsd+uD#k$TH kV
>T|sjH kV
(#TsXseT+&* <e\T 14)

101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116

dsd+_D kV
ds$<$D kV
dssDjT kV
dsV~H kV
dsdyVH kV
dsd+_H kV
ds+_D kV
dseX+sjT kV
dss+H kV
dsH~H kV
dssk~H kV
dsd+||PsDjT kV
dseT+eTjjT kV
ds<+<jT+sjT kV
dsku><jT#k$TH kV
d+|<jTjH kV
(VsXseT+&* <e\T 10)

117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125

dsd~|<jT kV
dsd+|<jT kV
ds|jT+sjT kV
dseT+>\]D kV
dseT|<jT kV
ds<T'K$yH kV
dseTT|XeTHjT kV
ds$|Ty]D kV
ds+>dT+<sjT kV

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
88

1
qe+sY, 2014
126 dsku><sTTH kV
155 eTVyTXsjT kV
127 dssk<#k$TH kV 156 eTVeCXsjT kV
128 rsjH kV
157 eTVu>e*H kV
(n+sXs eT+&* <e\T 10)
158 eTVldT+<sjT kV
129 dsCjT kV
159 dsd~|<#k$TH kV
130 dsXjT kV
160 nsVdjH kV
131 dsXs|<jT kV
(qeeesD<eHeTeTT)
132 dsCqeTjjT kV
161 lleTVu{sjT kV
133 dsy~|XeTHjT kV 162 dsq+<eTjT#k$TH kV
134 ds<sdsbjT kV
163 |s|ssVdjH kV
135 dsb|VsjT kV
qe#XHeTeTT\T
136 dsq+<eTjjT kV
164 |sjT kV
137 dssds|D kV
165 |sXjT kV
138 ds||<jT kV
166 |sdT+<sjT kV
139 dsss#k$TH kV 167 |sydH kV
140 >sjH kV
168 |sjT kV
(ncseT+<* y>e\T 8)
169 |se*H kV
141 eH kV
170 |sd<jT kV
142 yTXsjT kV
171 |s+ujT kV
143 y~H kV
172 eTV|sdT+<sjT kV
_+<T#XHeTeTT\T
144 $eTjT kV
145 nsTDjT kV
173 eTVeTVXsjT kV
146 sTTH kV
174 eTVeTVsCjT kV
147 dsXsjT kV
175 eTVeTVXjT kV
148 *H kV
176 eTVeTV>TbjT kV
149 dss>Vs#k$TH kV 177 eTVeTV|jT kV
150 sVdjH kV
178 eTVeTVq+<jT kV
(DeT+&* <e\T)
179 eTVeTVd+<jT kV
151 uDH kV
180 eTVeTVXjjT kV
152 #|H kV
181 eTVeTVl#q>sdeC kV
qeTd kV
153 bH kV
l+ V+ yT (1517)
154 n+H kV
d|<X~ |+#XsdVksD ` X< ekV+e
(|q' n+>HdsHk sY. z+ usTedTe' ~y')

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
89

C
z+ |+\jT qeT'

j>d\T
(8)

` +>T+ dTuse, Ns\.

d+ 20 :` X< Msd de~ |C|Ps scyT


How is concentration achieved? It is achieved by faith undogmatic,
energy undeterred, self-mastery, total absorption, and knowledge illuminating.

+> <+> m<>< \ qy&T nqTd]+#e\dq y yTT<{~


X<, n+f qeT+. qeT+ yi \\T yd yjTe#T >, eT |+<\qT
d jTe#T>, nsTTq|{ byTq Jee, yjTyTq Jeq
e, T+_, ke, sj~ deTd J$XU eed\L *ysT
qeTyT. eqe\ $XdeTT $XwyTq, $wyTq, eT&e Xd n >T]+#
|<T. $XdeTT X< \+q> k<&T k>e q+{&T |+*.
X<, $XdeTT nq~, |dqB, eT&eT <T, n+<eT <T.
~ XdjT $Cq |]X< ( ddt) VbBddt +{~. s ~>~,
nqTue+ |]>~, d+ y| ]>~. s, s \TdT=q<q d
|]X~+# |jT~ u$T, b|~. ~ < k<q <T, k<eT
<T. *+&T\ qT |+|&T =&Tq nH<u\T&q|{, d+
\TdTH+es y] *+&T\T>H qeTT&T, d+ *dq sTy
L& d nHw+ \TdTH |s+eT qqT T, q=
Tq |+q y] eT]+> qeT+ neT, Hq nH
n+{&T <. $Xd+ n<k<q |+|&T +& L&. qT X<
n yTT<f #|H&T |+*. k<&T CdTe <, qT X<yH
\u Cq+ nq ^y d]+#*.
@> X< yTT<{yTT >, X s+&e yTT. BH d+
MseTT n+T+~. @> L& X re &q|&T k< k|\+
s> #sT eeT+~. C, | J$jT k< &jT #| e#TqT. |jT eTT
+&, X<X\T +& jT bDjTq J$+# >\<? eqeqq |seTTqT

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
90

1
qe+sY, 2014
>T]+ <d, Jy`|se \ >] }V, $T> bDT\ \T><T . yq~
VyT, VyTTf. V J$eTT >& eqeq \ eTT\T nHe TT\Tq$
<? n+f, \d~ k<q |<T <? k<q L& X<, MseTT
&T e\dqy. < k< q $ eT]+> e\djT Tq$. VyT q qT,
eTTwyTqqT k<q m+ @>eTT, m+ reeT nsTT, k|\eTT n+
<>ZseT+~, k<eTeT+~. X sVdyTeTq>, #sdt &]H #|qT, X
|j+q =\~ n~~eTT >\<T. |j+#q D+#>\<T. qT
y>TDeTT Vq>TDeTqT. ~ jXSqT> #jTTqT. k<q |seT
XTe. X<L& k<q |sT>>\<T.
eTqdTqq \D eTT eTqqeTT, d . qT k< &T X< MseTT
k<q #jT>, eTqdT d \DeTT esZeTTq q&#T s+_dT+~.
n+f, < #+#\+ eT+> >TZeTTK+ |{ @>yT \#T d<eT>TqT.
yTTHq s de~ d~dT+~.
de~ d #]q s k< eTqdT < \eTT| deTdeTTqT
eTs @>eTeT+~. d eTT+<{ s+&T, X<MseTT\ k< TTEe.
@> { |]|Ps+ e+ e\q | \T>TT+~.
| n+f deTk B|+|Cd, J$+|Cd Cq+. q J$+
$$< |T{\qT, q *q esTqT >eT+qsTT, k<q nseTjT
$wjT+, n+esL |edTeqT >T]+, | e >T]+, | ueqqT
>T]+, | <eTTqT >T]+ q *dq~ e, *jT~ me>
+&~ n, n< q y|\, <T'U\L sDeTqT. |&+f, N{
=\, ds<jT+ >, + n dwyTqT, n+sV' ||+#eTT
dw+> \Tdq~. n+f q | *+~.
V \\ eTT&e&q k<q \_+# | |]$TyT. H\
Cqk<q \_+# | deT>eTT. qT j>k< \eTT n~jT
.... (dXw+)
eqT.

z+ qy HsjTDjT

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
91

l'

wy

l u\+=+&seTsjT $$s

~qsyUdV y<qeTTe+sZ
s|wY
XeTT\T ` 14 qT+& 59 es
X

jTXj_\wy|eTq|T y+ BeT
Hsw >Vw qTw dTuvZHdT Y
<Hw s<w u$Tw H dsZ|u>w|
|X n$<jT XqeTqk XXSwDj >TsT'
14
y : n< s|w <UjT. e <TZsTXXSwj$ < Hj
~<y|j
T >TsTXXSc+ ds eTdHd|P ]+ $<< . jT ` nq|T '
c|' db|d eTTeTTj @yqT<j~ue'. <xq|T$TV q
Hqs yqTw ] ceT$Vs _s e . jT' y+ XjT ' XjTdeTy|+
b|e T_\w q BeT T~X*H, nsw <H w >Vw qTw dTuvHZ dT
` dTw uw nvZHj+ <sw #. <Hw s<w u$Tw H dXs
dsZ|u>w # <| d+X<| edT d+<| y. |X \uw
yTw |'. n\uw X. n$<jT n` << ~e#q $T
|>V<d'. Xqeqk XHq |dHq eTqk >TsT' V$<T|<c
k#s'. XXSwDjT' ujT' $<y|jT ue'.
14
X d|s>V~d+deTjT|jT' |Xj
$<esZ$\D \d d Xj<$<|<'
uH' |DeH >u-$<|<HXj'
L|-H e d+d |]|qH |s+ VD'
15
y : Xj _wD $<y|j
T >TsTXXSwDj
T Ty T ds dHd
|PsyT . eTjTyT @e Xj y|e s'Z ? jT<, <Hd. n V. d|
` d' Xj<$<|<' y|<CqesZ'. d|s>V~d+deTjT |jT'

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
92

1
qe+sY, 2014
|Xj- $<esZ$\D'. d jT' | ns' >V' ~|<s X
qTue~>VDyT. @e d+dd+ks' qjT+ <|+ |jT'|\+ `
|jT |\ + < Xj <$<esZ~\D dH \d. $<esZ- $<esZ
d esZ<jTyTe. $<esZ @e XjT'|< Hq'. nq d$<esZ'
|jT'|< @e. Xj sXjT dTK|se T|sTcs' |jTdT <T'KeTjTd+ks'.
<sseH+ jD+ d+ks @yqse' . qHe+ ds $T Xjs+
$<esyZ T e HXjT H n V. uH ` uH' |D e q' |D e q+
eTqq |Deq'. n$<|< n$<esZ >u' dxsq dq' sD
H$T e # syHe. \+ # dsZ~ \D+ ueyTe.
s uy. Hd V+ d|| dee. dTKs$wjT|]> q
jTT' |Pss| eT#~_' sesZ @ye\$T'. $Vs>X
qsb VTs e. sedy > HqH]' <VqH Hd e eTHH'
s&' sDyqTwq dq'. nHXj nH' L| e. d+d |]|`
|. nd|eTV<jT' sDe eH ejTeT| <e s
|Ps#s|]>V @ eT&'. nHe\eTH nH e d+ksL| |.
eeVjT $\ wq|seTsj ueTjT usr sTe_sT&
u>eY. nH CqdHdqdT VD' |s+ kq+ $X Xw'
|]|k|qTsD$T y.
15
X -jT+ |X|>V<sD<H~sb-d `
~q' -| |s q #d V duyx e<
qw+ <VeTjT+ | d|s+ $~ HX+ q `
CH_eTq jTeTeX+ j|$<eX'
16
y : d w s s n$<|<b H' dHdqdT $<|<b H Ty T .
HdH+ |q' esZ V. ` |X |>V<sD<H~s|'
njT+ <XeH @yd. ~q' | |s Hyd V jTk<e+
dkY. uyx |s eT' e<`es'. kY. qw+ eT+
<VeTjT+ <Vs|+ <Vy~HdH$T ue'. d|s+ | `
~X bCq $<Tc $~ qHX+ q |DjTyT n$<d' n$<esZd'
nH~<su ku$y$<esZ|e yH$T ue' Xw'
n_eTq jTeTeX+ eTT|T+ j| bb # |q' |q]jT
CjT #s' Hd n|$<|<bH @e |sdT ssu| Vqs+ <TsZ
yTy ># |X~qb|\D+ qsb|\Dx ue'. .... (dXw+)

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
93

C
l |Dq+<eTT $s

eT$dyT

(7)

yK ` y\eT $XH<, V<su<.


e+< >TsT|<<+<+ nyvqd>#syT

sX |u$TXeTs+ |s+ eTV'


l |Dq+<eTT $syTq eT$deTT
|+#<o eTVeT+e TTqT eTijT T l#$esDqT \T|qT.
+Y {\yTq $wjT eTT >qT bs \T B dT
<w n<jTqeTT >$+TsT>.
` sys
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890
qyesD\T : keqeTT> $<qud+#Tq|&T dweTeTT, bdq
#d|&T d+VseTeTT nqTd]keTT. qyesD\T eqe<VeTT..
_+<Te ` Vs+<e TT DeTT ` \eTT+<T u>eTT nw DeTT ` \eTT
n+sX seTT ` u eT< eTT VsX seTT ` +se TT #T sX seTT ` V<jT eTT
nw< | < eTT ` H_ c&X< | < eTT ` { |<X e TT e jT eTT ` }sTe\T
u|seTT ` b<\T +{sTT n #|sT.
_+<Te
X dH _+<TeTjT # k |sdT+< <M
yTXs+\j \j #+<d *+k 37
X bX+X#||dqXs|+#+ds
usTDsTD+^ XuqTXqT#qj 38
y#seTT : eTVeTVX] #+<# q\+]+|&q eTTqT,
#+<d ss| HjT eTTqT, eT+<d eTTKeTTqT, #X j
T H bXeTTqT,
CqXjTH n+XeTTqT, eTqdeTH <+&eTTqT, |+#H\H
|wuDeTT\ Vd# T wj
T eTT *, ~e>+<e g eus D <T\# n\+
jT ddeq ywu c<T\T>\ qyesD<e\# |]d$jT yTX<$ yTXs
yysTu>eT+<T |+#T#Tq~.
\seTT : ds|k<qjT >+<eTTjTT |<q\eTT. eTTqT| #|q

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
94

1
qe+sY, 2014
$<eTT> qyesD\T eqe<VeTTq+<THsTT q <e qyesD
<e\# |]d$jT nq> <e\+<s eTq<VeTT Hs >V+#*,
$<eTT> >+< |seT\eTT *jTCdTHsT.
n<seTT : ddeq ywuc<T\T\ nq> yT ywuc<T\ yTjT
k{. deTj#seTT |seTT +<T n<CqeTT Ls&q~, #eTTq,
#eqT # V+& ` |+&+&eTT\ <ueq #LsTdT+~
n #| + nXj <y . _+<TkqeTTH dT<d+<T e, qes B|eTT,
eTD|seTT, \<qeTT, +eTD>VeTT yTT<\>T d+eTT\
*jTCdTq|{ n<+jT kqeTTH |k$+#T#THsT, eT]jTT
deTk| wT \ T |sC qeTT<s n|sC qeTT u~dT H sTT. y y{
= s`bdq +&\<s u<#dTq|{ n$ |sds$s~ueeTT
H<T, e\eTT X~=s, <s ds|Cqj> d~.
$XcseTT : Y dc <yqTb$XY n Xe\q, Xs sDeTT |P]jTq
|<| Vs+<eTT <s |y+, kds|eTT> +{&T, n~jT
. eTTqT| #|qdeTT |seTT dssD_+<Te>T d+$~+<Te
DeTT eT< |+#T#Tq~. nq> _+<TeqT $& DeTT +&<T,
DeTTqT $& _+<Te +&<T. $< < |<q keTsdeTT.
dsq+<eTsT #yT eT\|. < _+uX<V ds|eTT, q$
X\Vds|eTT\T.
eTT ` |+#VeTT <e ` l ssCX |su{] <$ j
` |s|s sVd #X] ` eTV|sdT+<] ksTueeTT ` XeTeTT sdeTT
` X+sdeTT eTT< ` dsjeTT< ;eTT ` +.
.... (dXw+)

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
95

l'
l<M K&Ze
bXdeTT
` & V] eesY, es+>.

usrjT d+|<jT+
<es<q $w |jT.
|jTqT $e]+#~ eT+XgeTT.
Xg> + < \ + e TT\
eeV s e TTq~. + e Tq>
CqeTTqT $d]+|Cd< nseTT. n+f ` eT+ eTTqT, < nseTTqT,
< bdH $<qeTTqT $e]+#< ueeTT. $wjT $esDeTTqT =
| e TT>qT, eT]= |se TT>qT u~dT q $. n~ >V + bdd d * +
\_dT+~.
X| P C $<qeTT $>V \ s|+qT, jT+\ s|+qT sT>T
+&+ d+|<jT+! s+&+{ jT+sbbdq XwyTq< >eTeTT\T
#TTHsTT. n{ jT+\ ds wyTq~ l#eTT. n+<T <
jT+seT |sT.
l#$seeTTqT >T]+ V+&| sDeTTqT, s DT|sDeTT qT
#|&+~. e+XE&q sDTeH eTVsE |dT yT l<$
l#eT< >j
T $s$ ++< s DT|sD+ #| &+~. > u+ &dTsT
sTT+#{ +<~<e\T jT+ #jT>, VAe eT<+
l#eT<>jT |yTq< V+&|sD+ #TTq~.
l#dsb $e]+# d+|<sTT X$T~ `
_+<T D edTD <XsjTT> ` eTqX H>< d+jTT c&XsyT
ejT+ # <sDd<qjT+ # ` l#yT<T~+ |s<ej'

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
96

1
qe+sY, 2014
nq> ` _+<Te, DeTT, edTDeTT, <XsjTT>eTT, eTqdeTT, nw<
|<eTT, c&X<|<eTT, yTKjTeTT, sUjTeTT ` nH esDeTT\T
l#+ HsTT.
l#+ < { $T&jT Tq 9 DeTT\THsTT. +<eTT
_+<Teq~. M 5 DeTT\T n<eTTK+>qT, H\T>T DeTT\T }s
eTTK+>qT q$. n<eTTKeTTq 5 DeTT\T X, }seTTKeTTq 4
DeTT\T eq VeTT\T. n+<Te\qH l#eTT eXyT q ~. n+<T
` l#+ ejs|' n n_e]+|&q~ yeTXs +eTT. =$T~
DeTT\T e\jT+ HsTT. e\j nw< |<eTT, nw<
|< #T{ c&X< |< eTTqT HsTT. c&X< |< eTT #TTqT e jT eTT
\<T. e jT eTT #TTqT 4 <s\ $\d s UjT eTTq~. yTTe TTMT<
l#eTTq _+<Te 43 D\T q$. ~ l#ds|eTT.
l#eT+ 9 #eTT\T> q~. n$ ` 1) sUjTeTT `
yVq#eTT 2) c&X<|<eTT ` dsX|]|Ps#eTT 3) nw<|<eTT
` ds d+uD #eTT 4) eTqdeTT ` ds ku><jT #eTT 5) VsX seTT
` dssk<#eTT 6) n+sXseTT ` dsss#eTT 7) edTDeTT `
dss>Vs#eTT 8) DeTT ` dsd~|<#eTT 9) _+<Te `
dsq+<eTjT#eTT.
=$T~ #eTT\ ` | #eTTqT #k$T,
j, eT]=+eT+~ esD <e\T HsT. $eseTT\ l<M K&Ze
181 He\ eT|< $e]+|&HsTT. $es\T \TdT=
|P #d d*\T o|T+> \_ksTT. qT l#dsb $e]+#<
K&Ze\!
l#+|q |P u|s+ qT+ _+<Te esL sT>TT+~. n+f `
sUjT+ qT+ _+<Te es }seTTK+> sT>TT+~. <e\qT
|P+#|&T b<\e<qT+ sdT esL |P+#+ eTq d+|<jT+!
eTq bNq MXsT\T $wj <w |T=H, <e\qT e]+#|&T
b<\ <>ZsqT+ sdTesL e]+# d+|<jT+ b{+#sT.
1) |<eesDyTq sUjTeTTqT 28 eT+~ |]ys <e\THsT.
sUjT+ |<eTe\jTeTTq ... nDeT ` \|TeT ` eTVeT ` X `
e ` beT ` uT ` # ` b| ` dseTd<T\T nH 10 s\
d<T\THsT. ~rjTe\jTTq ` uV ` eVX] ` e] ` yw$ `
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
97

C
ysV ` eV+~ ` #eTT+& ` eTV\ ` nH m$T~eT+~ nwe
\THsT. rjTe\jTeTTq ` dsd+_D ` ds$<$D ` ds]D `
dseX+] ` dsH~ ` dseTV+X ` dsU#] ` ds; ` dsj
` dsK+& nHysTHsT (K&Z`43...70). $<+> sUjTeTT 28
eT+~ esD <e\THsT.
esDeTTq yVq#eTT (K&`Z 71) n |sT. #{ j
|j (K&Z`72). esDeTTq #k$T |s (K&Z`159).
2) ~rjesDeTT ` c&X<|<eTT ` & 16 eT+~ esD
<e\T c&X<|<eTT HXsTT+jTTHsT. ysT`
e]D ` T<]D ` nV+s]D ` Xu]D ` ds]D
` sb]D ` sk]D ` >+<]D ` ]D ` <s]D ` d ]D
` He]D ` ;C]D ` ]D ` neT]D ` Xs]D ` nHysT
(K&Z`73...88).
esDeTTq dsX|]|Ps#eTT (K&Z`89) n |sT. &
j ` >T|j (K&Z`90). #k$T |so (K&Z`160).
3) rjesDyTq nw<|<eTTq 8 eT+~ esD <e\THsT.
ysT ` nq+>dTeT ` nq+>yTK\ ` nq+>eT<q ` nq+>eT<HTs `
nq+>s K ` nq+>y ` nq+>+X ` nq+>e* ` nHysT (K&`Z 91..98).
esDeTTq ds d+uD #eTT (K&`Z 99) n |sT. # j
` >T|s j (K&Z`100). #k$T |sdT+<] (K&Z`161).
4) #T sesDyTq eTqdeTTq, 14 DeTT\ 14 eT+~ <e\THsT.
ysT ` dsd+_D ` ds$<$D ` ds]D ` dsV~ ` dsdyV
` dsd+_ ` ds+_D ` dseX+] ` dss+ ` dsH~ `
dssk~ ` dsd+||PsD ` dseT+eTsTT ` ds<+<jT+] `
nHysT (K&Z`101...114).
esDeTTq dsku><jT#eTT (K&Z`115) n |sT. #{
j ` d+|<jTj (K&Z`116). #k$T ` |syd (K&Z`162).
5) |+#eesDyTq VsXseTTqqTq 10 DeTT\+<TqT 10 eT+~
<e\THsT. ysT ` dsd~|< ` dsd+|< ` ds|jT+] ` dseT+>
]D ` dseT|< ` ds<T'K$y# ` dseTT|XeT ` ds$|T
y]D ` ds+>dT+<] ` dsku><sTT (K&Z`117...126).
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
98

1
qe+sY, 2014
esDeTTq dssk < # eTT (K&`Z 127) n |sT. #{ j
` rsj (K&Z`128). #k$T ` |so (K&Z`163).
6) wcesDyTq n+sXseTTqqTq 10 DeTT\+<TqT 10 eT+~
<e\THsT. ysT ` ds ` dsXeTsTT ` dsXs|< ` dsCqeTsTT `
dsy~$H ` ds<sds| ` dsb|Vs ` dsq+<eTsTT ` dss
ds|D ` ds||\|< ` nHysT ` (K&Z`129...138).
esDeTTq dsss#eTT (K&Z`139) n |sT. # j
` >sj (K&Z`140). #k$T ` |se* (K&Z`164).
7) d|eesDyTq edTDeTTq 8 eT+~ <e\THsT. ysT ` e
` yTX] ` y~ ` $eT\ ` nsTD ` sTT ` dsX] ` [ ` nHysT
(K&Z`141...148).
Ms l \* dVdHeT ksq eH~ y>e\T.
esDeTTq dss>Vs#eTT (K&Z`149) n |sT. # j
sVdj (K&Z`150). #k$T ` |sd< (K&Z`165).
8) nweesDyTq DeTTq eTT>TZsT <e\THsT. ysT ` eTV
yTX] ` eTVeCX] ` eTVu>e* ` nHysT (K&Z`151...153).
esDeTTq ds d~ |<# eTT (K&`Z 154) n |sT. # j
` nsVdj (K&Z`155). #k$T ` |s+ (K&Z`166).
9) qeeesDyTq _+<TkqeTTq lleTVu{] (K&Z`156) q~.
esDeTTq dsq+<eTjT#eTT (K&Z`157) n |sT. #{ j `
|s|ssVdj (K&Z`158). #k$T ` eTV|sdT+<] (K&Z`167).
$<+> K&Ze\ 43 qT+& 158 esL q He\T,
l#eTT 9 #\q n~ed+jTTq esD <e\ |sT.
sT y 159 qT+& 167 esL q 9 HeTeTT\T ` qe#eTT\
n~cTq #k$TqT\ |sT. n$ ` |s ` |s ` |sdT+<] `
|syd ` |so ` |se* ` |sd< ` |s+ ` eTV|s
dT+<] ` nHysT (K&Z`159...167).
sT y 168 qT+& 176 esL q 9 He\T leTV|sdT +<]
>\ 9 $XwDeTT\ udssjT\ >TsTyK #|&q~. y
#k$TqT\ _sT<HeTeTT\qe#TqT. n$ `

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
99

C
eTVeTVX] ` eTVeTVsv ` eTVeTVX ` eTVeTV>Tb `
eTVeTVb ` eTVeTVq+< ` eTVeTVd+< ` eTVeTVXj ` eTVeTV
l#q>skeJ ` nH$ (K&Z`168...176).
$<+> l<M K&Ze\ 43 qT+& 176 esL >\ He\
qyesDeTT\T, esD <e\T, #k$TqT\T, y] _sT<HeTeTT\T n_e]+|
&HsTT. qT l#~cq <ejTq leqT |P+#|&T l# |]ys
<e\ kH\qT L& \TdT= |Pd d*+ o|T+> \_dT+~.
` <M K&Ze\ 1 qT+& 42 esL q He\qT >]
\TdT=+<eTT. yTTyTT<{ HeTeTT |sdT+<] (K&Z`1) nq~ neTy]
d+u<q! sTy 2 qT+& 7 esL >\ He\T w&+> <e\$. ysT `
V<jT<$ ` s<$ ` U<$ ` e#<$ ` H<$ ` ng<$ ` nHysT
(K&Z`2...7).
l \* dV dHee[ 386e HeTeTT w&+ ><e jTT nq~.
n+ n< esD|PCs+ w&+> deTsjTY n +ks+ l
dT+<|PCeT+ #|&+~. nB ` l$<bdq n+>esD #d,
esD <eq w&+><e\qT n]+, sTy |]ys <e\qT n]+|
eq CHse eTT #| &q~. n+<Te\qH <M K&eZ \ bs+ue TTq w&+ >
<e\T n_e]+|&HsT.
8 qT+N 23 esL q 15 HeTeTT\T <e\$. ysT ` yTX]
` u>e* ` q ` usT+& ` eVyd ` eTVeCX] ` e< `
] ` \dT+<] ` ` \| ` $jT ` dseT+>\ ` Ce*
` ` nHysT (K&Z`8...23).
15 eT+~ l<$ n+><e\ +seTT #|&+~. 16e
kT |syTX]jT! n+<Te\qH ` c&sb n \*
dVdHee[ 391 HeTeTT #TTq~. |syTX] XseTT ` 15 eT+~
<e\T yT n+>eTT\T. <e\T eT< DeTTHXsTT+,
eTVjTq |syTX] e]+jTTHsT.
$T*q 24 qT+& 42 esL q 19 HeTeTT\T ` >TsTeT+&\
d++~. ysT ` |syTXs |syTX] ` $TXeTsTT ` wwXeTsTT ` &XeTsTT
` #sH<eTsTT ` beTT<eTsTT ` n>deTsTT ` |qeTsTT `
<s#seTsTT ` eTToXseTsTT ` B|H<eTsTT ` $w<eeTsTT ` |us
<eeTsTT ` C<eeTsTT ` eTH<eeTsTT ` D<eeTsTT ` ydT<eeTsTT

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
100

1
qe+sY, 2014
` s<eeTsTT ` lseq+<eTsTT ` nHysT (K&Z`24...42). l \*
dVdHee[ 713e HeTeTT >TsTeT+&\s|D n. >TsTeT+&\eTq>
>TsT|s+ |s. MsT |sy T X]jTT ks s|eTT\T. MsT ~e ` d< ` eH|T eTT
\ 3 $<eTT\T.
1. |syTXs|syTX] qT+& n>deTsTT es >\ @&T>TsT ~y|TeTT.
2. |qeTsTT qT+& B|H<eTsTT es >\ q\T>TsT d<|TeTT.
3. $w<eeTsTT qT+& lseq+<eTsTT es>\ m$T~ eT+~ eqy|TeTT.
Ms+<s \j+> <e\ L& #|&TsT.
eH~ y>e\T $s+q l \* dVdHee[ y<eTT<
ydqysT Ms! >TsTeT+&\|P D|]u>eTTq >\ #TsdeTTq
sT|&TT+~. (uD, #|, b, n+), eTVldT+<] ` 5.
$<+> ` esD <e\qT |P+#{ eTT+<T w&+> <e\qT,
<e\qT, >TsTeT+&\eTTqT |P+#eq <MK&eZ \ d+ +|&+~.
K&eZ \ Hee eTeTTqT{ j <e\ kH\qT >T]+
l#|P #j*. n|&~ dsd~|<eTeT+~. 176 G 5 R 181
$<+> ` l eTV|sdT+<<$ |]yseT+ l#
XsTT+ HsT. Ms+<]|q _+<TkqeTTq l<$ n~ed+ q~. qT
n k\ eTT+<T K&Ze\ #d esDsq #dq |*+ \_dT+~.
.... (dXw+)

<ds
d+<seTT>
y&se
XeTeTT
neTy]
n\+seTT
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
101

eDeTT
eTV$l*<d$s

esdeTeeTVeyT

ne]:- uDd+|s+ bb e X|< dssdc #qUe uX u # d+|seTT| u


qyq B$~kjTq
sD uHsVQekH
d+<TeDe XXvsU
8
|<$u>eTT :- u, #, deTsyT, |, u, qyq, B$~kjTq,
sD, uH', VQekH, d+<TeD, e, XXvsU
nqjTeTT :- (+) # u qyq B$~kjT q deTsyT | VQekH
uH' sD dqTeD XXvsU e u
||<seTT :- ()x R +, (# # nqTq~ x nqTqseTTq
y&&q~.), u R bsr<$, qyq R =<>T, B$~kjTq R
$yVB$~|seTT |T=q uDeTT{, deTsyT R \sTTqT, |
R b+~, VQekH R VQ|+eTTq+<T (nq> X| bs+ueTTq),
uH' R dsTjTT, s D R sD eTT#, dqT eD R y*+|&q, XXvsU
G e R #+<sKe, u R ud+#qT.
seTT :- +, bsr<$ - =<>T $yVB$~ |seTT |T=q
uDeTT{ \sTTqT b+~, VQ |+eTTq nq> X|s+ueTTq
dssDeTT# y*+|&q #+<sKe ud+#qT.
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
102

1
qe+sY, 2014
bsqs\T :- 1. qyq - $yV... qye, 2. ...sU - ...U.
$u\T - jT\T :- 1. u - u, u, u' sq' d*+> uX',
|.@. 2. qyq - qyq, qyuyT, qy' nsq' |+*+> qeX' .@. 3.
B$~kjTq - ...kjTq, ...kjTuyT, ...kjT' nsq'
|+*+>...kjTX' .@.4. deTsyT - deTsyT, d+|s, d+|sH
nsq' |+*+>' deTsX', ~.@. 5. | - nejTeTT (\qeTT) 6.
VQekH - ...nekH, ...nekqj' ...nekHw nsq q|+d*+>
... nekqX' d.@. 7. uH' - uH', uH', uqHyT sq' |+*+>
uqTX' w.@. 8. sD - sD, suyT, s' nsq' |+*+>' sX',
.@. 9. d+<TeD - ...eD, ...eD, ...eD' sq' d*+>'
...eDX' |.@. 10. XXvsU - ...sU, ...sU, ...sU' sq' d*+>'
sUX' |.@. 11. #, e - nej\T. 12. u - jT.
d+<T\T :- 1. uH' G VQekH - uHsVQekH - $dsZd'
2. d+<TeD G e - d+<TeDe - >TDd' - <TZD'
dek\T / $>Vy\T :1. B$~kjTq - Bj+ $~', B$~', dH kjT'
B$~kjT', q B$~kjTq d|MTTsTw ded'
2. VQekH - VQd nekq+ VQekq+, dH
VQekH wwTsTwded'
3. d+<TeD - d+<T d+<TeD, deTT|dsZ|Ps<
<T d|qXqj' <' sD jT, <HY Xq#Y
4. XXvsU - XX' nv' jTd d XXv' d sU XXvsU wwTsTwded'
|<e - |T+T|eD\T - e|j>\T :1. u :- m) sq' d*+> uX'
_)
u kY c&Xu <T|] sTD $+Xr je<s+ b&
kY |+# |+#X<e~ |s e<+ j H
d) X CH |k Ms+ k u |ser yT $~yT
n\eTd V<jT+ <| H<+ essTTTyT
- n_CqXq 3-2
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
103

C
&) X jT+ u e+ |qes$Tes<|u#s+ #' | eT_|eTqj
> yV-k+ dsdTeTuDessC XH <| q es $seT - usV]dTuw - 63
) An infant, a child; it usually means the young child, under five

years old, but is equally applicable till sixteen years of age - Sabda
- Sagara

m|t) X\yqV+ u j+d+ ud yT


sy ewd+ ewdq' XXd yT - s|TTe+X - 12 -34
n\+s\T :- |e\+s eTTq< #|<>TqT.
\DyT :- |eH|yTjTj k<s
u<u<T\ |e - n\+sdsdyT (sTjT)
| e H| y T j T eTT\ k< s eTT u < u < T \eTT> qTq#
qT|e\+seT>TqT.
|yT jTeTT - u, bsr<$. |eqeTT - XXvsU, k<s eTT- ud+#T.
dssDd+|seTT# #+<sK ud+qT qquDd+|seTT# u<$
ud+#qT n e]+|&T# |e\+seTTq< #|&q~.
j<seTT :- u - u - Bb $k<' dss] u *{
|sd|< |<eT|sTwe#H+'
u - uT' - uT'
X d s+ >TsTD <+ ||<~+ u
~H+ V+ d$e VQXq' - s|TTe+X - 4-1
.... (dXw+)
>+<ds+ : 1. u|PJ seTeT++

2. <D~ ub]C\T
3. dT+<s+&eTT ` qeseT+eTT
e\dqysT d+|~+#>\sT ` bH : 8885653924

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
104

1
qe+sY, 2014

nqTuy\ yT*$T eTT~$T


` #s >H j>|
u er<$, ANU, Nagarjuna Nagar.
u\+, es+, jTeq+, q&ejTdT\ sTy @ ny+seT
d+u$+#b |y] e<|+ edT+~. qT e<b nqs+>
u$+#L &<T . nHs>+, <]<+ e+{ u<\ Tq|&T e<| + nVjT+>
+T+~. yTT<{ qT+N C>| & s +&T n|XT\T+N | +#Te#T.
J$+ e# nH eT\T|\, deTd\, dy qT+& mH bs\T
HsT+{+. J$ $T+q |d+ <T. &jT J$+ >&|q e\
mH nqTuy\T+&&+, m+<s e\ |]#j\T+&+ n+ dV+.
Cq+ |]| #+~q ejTdT MT]q y] nqTuy\T jTTes |j>
|& y] eTq+ q&|+#*.

n<$<+ > ys yT+esL T+u, <s deC m+>


|j>|&>\e nH $y#q @ D+q L&<T. ejTdT @+
#jT >\+ nqTH <H @< { #j \qTH d+\+ >=|~. eTqdT+&
esZeTT+& b<T. nV]X\ u<\ sTe deTeTe <X
|> ]seT+> X$T+# H{ eTq HjT #\ es e<T . <VsD
eTq sh|, |<. nseTsyTq jTXdTqT d+b~+, kV \
m+ de #dTq |ueTsT\T #\ eT+~ e<T HsT.

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
105

C
e #b\+f usrjT d+d V <seTsTq
eTVjTT+<s u> ejTdT |+&qys eTq eTT+<T yT<TsT.
n+f @ s+>+HH $w k~+#\+f ejTdT n&+ s<T. |>
$jTk<q ej |]| <V<+ #dT+~. e\+ $w k~+#\H<
<T. eT< @< d+<s+> e }sT yqT. n& nsy &u d+es\
ejTdT q yT |\* Lsu{ eT+ eT+ |<\T eysTT+#T+~.
n~ d <T. |d\ e. <jT+, kjT+\+ m|&T r] <=]
n|&T |+q |\\+<] n eT+ |<\T +sd+ #sTT+#T+&&yT
yT + |syTq $wjTeT $q|&T HqT ysujqT.
n> H *dq eTs=jTq |sp @&$T~ >+\T
Ls= |d\T #<TeH +{&T. &u H\T>T d+es\ ejTdT q
jTq keq+> e{&&T. e{& e+ #{ d#q, dw
eTqT+{sTT. m+{ <qJy qdT+~.
<> |\ deTeTe+& e<Tsq *#d de
+ n+ <T. \ysTCeTT qT+& s |&TujT esL |\\L, y]
|\\L e+& ys&+, n d<Tbj\ deTLs&+ m+<s e<Tq
eeTsT\ T #dT q |H. nq+yT q | (dH |t | | yT +{) > m+{
qque+ >, y{# #dT H yT nH #q > <] sjT <q Je\T
ysT. s\ n+s+ @s& d+|TsD >eT+#*q neds+ m+H
+~. |\\T jTTe >VdTq|&T T++ n~s e]&
sT>T+T+~. d+s\T> q *<+&T\T k]> |\\ d+sD
y[q{T+~. $<yTq n~s e]& ||+#+ n#{ d+T+~.
|<y eqd |]| |+ q|&T, jTTes+ dsq ]Cq+
|+q|&T d+|TsD bs+ueTT+~.
dqT, f\J\ n_e~ L& Jeq $<H* s+#T+~.
=|&T u<* $d]+# n~s+ jTTes+ k+~. eT&
T++ |e_eH\T, sD, |<\ jT&\ u||T\T, >sy<s\T,
eTqq yT\yT\> n+]+ bTHsTT. eT& T++ |\\+<] sD
m+ d+<& L& \_+#~. ]fssTTbsTTq |<\qT L& esZ<s+>
u$+ n $wjq d+|~+ d\V\T rd=++& ysT. ET
H]dbsTTq =&T L& +&y| d\Vd+ #dy&T. |\\ * nsTTq
&\T L& n>] n <\ e<* yd~.

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
106

1
qe+sY, 2014
eT& T+$ nH deTd* rdTe+~. *<+&T*<s
<>dT q T++ |\\ eT *<+&T\qTu$ +q sD sT yTq~.
y eTTd*y H y |<~> > es qT>TD+>
+& eTTd* &=\T> #&&TTHsT.
VAyT |sY @C nH$ <T J$ keqyT bjsTT. m&H
H e<T\TH y] $X+ <T d]< deTyTbjT u<\T
d+$TdTHsTT. |> eT |\\ qT+, y] |\\ qT+ L& d&+|\T.
{.M.\, n&ss TTEyT+T\ |\\ qT d+|<j\ eT d+d <s+>
HfdTHsTT. eTs $wjT+ ` <Hsq \d bX<X\ e\dbsTT
n& d{\sTTbsTTq ysT *<+&T\qT n& rdS+{sT. |<\&
qj
T sY b$Tdt @$<+ >q eT&s T . sXdV ] se&+,
J$ u>k$T <Ts<weX <syT J$+ eT]+ qsbjT+
ne+~. sqT sq s+ *<+&T\T e<|+ +]>H
J$+#*q neds+ @s&T+~. |\\T ||+#+ m& +{sT. M&
yq sT. y[H +&sT.
eT& T++ $qyT bsTTqTe+{ sE * u<\T
#\ |]>sTT. m+ [+| yT deTse++> sV+#T+ ed+~
L&. <>+ #d +b<q us #<&T y<&T> +&yT +&,
e+{+{ ke nH eTT<qT+& +{+L ssVD~] >
eeV]+#e\d ek+~. eTTK+> |\\ #<Te\, y u$wT, y
n_sT#T\ | n+yTq n+ue+ +&+ m+ V]+#<qTe+{
$wjT+. =&TL, LTs, L& *H eT+ Hd+> #dT=+THsT.
s s \T> edTq |sTc~ de+ d q bqT n<T+ >
sVd +{, |\ r]~<T ds+ H nsTT + |]> $|T\
H<Ts=H <se+T\T> |\* r]~<T+{+~. deTjT+ yT
|<y n+&<+&\T +& +f yT |& XeT, +<T\T, eqd &
#\es ZbsTT. n|&yT sTT+{ eT]+ dsZ<eT+ >
r]~<T>\<T.
e<T\ u<\T n+{s ` @<H d U |<X+ +f n+<T
+{, eTqdTL V<# eT+ |P\ yTT\T |+#&+ |<y #
>=| y|+ . ny Ls\ b<T keqT\ Ls>jT\ s T #T\q+f
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
107

C
sE #\ |]ksTT. nd\T n+{H y|+ eTTK+. n~
b eT yT deTd> e], sT\ L& deTd nsTT LsT+{sT.
|< |<] + |sT bq&+, d{b{ e\T, qqT |{+ #T<
@&T|\T, dsTT+|\ \T qseTT+~.
|\\ T L& |<y # #sTT+#Te&yT +& yqT <s+ >
|eT> #d y J$+ |q X, eTqTw\|q $Xd+ b+& +T+~.
|D sT J$+ >&|&+ |<\ deTd. <jH *
T be&+ ` e d |{ +&* |\\T. qq *<+&T\
TTD+ m|{ rsT~. nqTs>+, bjT\T #|+#& &s<T.
d zs, Hs +f #\T.
Xs >T $X+ dH e<T\T eTT T+u m+>
|j >|& > \ e nH~ +#Ty*. eTTK+> q|\\ eT+ n\yT
Hs&+, d+kse+T\T> yqT r]~<&+, y] |bT\T HsTH
iTqe +#&+ n+{ $T+ |\\ $Xk |+b+~+#&+
M] u<. |<y z|, dTe q+esL sT\| <s|&+&
+&&+ e\ ] useTjyT nH u\q+, <q+ <]<|\ se.
dsyT V +| eqds> b&TT+~. <s
Xss>+ |+b+<TT+~.
jTTes+ #q\qT, d<+\qT |P]> ={yjT&+ +& `
y{ $\Tee&+ |<\T n\es#Ty*. eT e #\< u< *Zq|&T
eT H&T jTTe\yT nq $wjT +, H&T eT qq, esTq
n_\w+ |<\ m<TsT ] \& >*q sE\ >TsT #Ty*.
|P]> eT n_bj\qT |q\| sT<&+, y] J$ s+s+ nqeds|
C+ #d= $dT>T |+#&+ eH*.
Xs, eqds>\qT |]s+ #T=+ Xy T s |<\ T eT wy T q
s+>+ w #jT>\>&+, eT+ y|\qT @ss#Te&+, d+|Tde
#jT>\>&+, sTy s d]# w =qk+#&+ ` +> $<
d+ks<T qksTT qys eT s#q\ <sH, |d+>\ <sH
eT nqTuy\ yT*$T C&d d+| q |<+ y| |jT+|Cd
d] *+|e#T. n|&T *> qH+ ys+ Xs | eTqdT

He+ <T qT y] u~+|<T.


1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
108

1
qe+sY, 2014

eT+<<
]
` eT~ VqTeT+se, V<su<T.
q q, q s|D, q <Dq, yT~
eTj~ y T y, + T yVq T<d
ds< dsuH+ Hd eTTs\D'
e e<jT+ eTT' yT~\D'
d $TC eTT' j <s<TbV'
seDT&T #b>H, n n+'|s d\+ e, n s+ MT<
|& sT eTTsT> $\|+#sT. n ||sD eT+<<] <T'K+ eT
V<jT$<s+. seDT& d<TZD\q, <TsTZD\q s+&+{ \#T=,
\#T= eT+<<] $\|+# d+<s+ | e\T L& #|+~. (y
sejTD+, 6`114`28, 19) nqjTeT, seT dsyT.
\+# >, s|+# >, deTs (j>) # >, $T~
se] H+f n~s\ <T, H deqeTsTTqB <T. qTe e+
yV+ e\ n~ \TdTbje. m|&, @ bD eTTe nsD+>
s<T. #e yT~ sD+>H e+~. d sD+> *q eTTe,
# VQ<s+ djT+> rdTs&<.
<T'K+ eT+<<] + # nq~. eTqTweT&sTTq seTT&
# z&bje d>TZ \><, n+~. nd seTT&T |se n+~.
X+K # ><<]jTq l \HsjTDT& n+~. Xs, |]ys,
Xs HXq+ #dT=H+<T <TsT~ |{+~, n+~.
XuY Xueb, b|Y b|eTX
$;wD' dTK+ b|' + b|' b|MT<XyT
eT+y& Xu+ \T>TT+~. b| b||\ + $T>T\TT+~. $;wD T&T
dTU b+<&T. qTM b|> b+<e, n+~.
qTe bsTTq s, sTT+ J$+# HqT HqT bcDV<jTqT,
n+~.
eT+<<] $|+ y dTesT qsT X\T> s+#&T. Bb{<
sTDsdb$eTsTTq e+!

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
109

eT*\T

` k$T nsTq+<

+ d+\ #sy~ >T]+ <


Ww<e TT\qT >T]+ \TdT+THeTT. # sy~
jT+D +& bsTTq y] XseTT
| nejTeeTT u~+| >T] neT+~. n$`
1. d++~+q deTd\T 2. XseTT|
|+&T |& s> >Z be+ 3. <+|
J$eTT| nHd 4. yT<&T u~+|q >T] nsTT,
_.|. |] |y+ se+ 5. +{ d++~ y<T\T 6. V<jT d++~
y<T\T 7. & d++~ y<T\T 8. > yTTq H=|\T 9. | H=|\T.
# d+eseTT\T> #s y~ u<|&TTq y] me
u~+| >T] nesTT. qs\T #&beqT. s|dsD d]>
$TsT, H=|, dTsT dTsTeT d~ >TqT +&+ ` T
ned\T |&e\d +T+~. M{ d]nsTTq #jT |+ sD\T
@s& n$ >Z+& +~ |&sTT. me> u>\ $ eksTT.
{ |]|s, ydT\sY &dC e b<y, y, rdyj* edT+~.
=+ eT+~ n] |wsY bsTT+{ @s& \T >{|& |+&T @s&TqT.
MqT V`]dt |{ qys |\TksT. M | >T y<+ #sTT+#T
|+ u>+ rdyjTe\d edT+~. sE +|PsY dVjTeTT |{
kH, dHdt fdt esY dVjTeTT *> #dTHsT.
b<\qT b&Te{ +~ C>\T b{+#*. 1. n~ y&
>, n~ #\<q+ q# b<\T |s<T 2. |P]> H k, H
\T y&+ eT+~ 3. u>+ <\T >\+&, u\T s+&
C>> +&*. * y eT< eTTK+> C> rdTy* 4. +{ L&
e{ q&e+& k ydTe+ eT+~ 5. #s+ s+>T
esT @s&H, d~ >TqT> n|+H y< T \ d\V rdTe+ eT+~.
@s& = esT\qT eTq+ >eT+#e#T.
1. |, b<\| #s+ s+>T es+ 2. #s+ b&us+ 3.
b<\ |>T 4. n] #s+ }&be+ 5. n] #s+ >{|&+
6. q\T se+ 7. | u\T se+ 8. | |+&T @s&+

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
110

1
qe+sY, 2014
9. #s+ <Ts< 10. y eT< <Ts<, |+&T 11. y& me
ne+ 12. y|\T 13. b<\ H=|\T 14. > |* |s>+
15. > |q H=|, y| 16. y e+sT s>+ 17. b<+ #<s+>
se+ 18. ds be+ 19. eT+ 20. NeT\T
bqT +&+ 21. c *qT +&+ 22. =~ <s+ q&H
+&s\T H=|\T se+.
\D\T |d y+H y<T\ d\V rdTe+ eT+~. s+
#s n~eTT> +f sD\ >&\T >{|&TqT. Be\ sD\ mdd{
ZbeqT. =k @s&TT+~. s+ |+|+> >TZT+~. <s eTq
nejTy\T \Vq+ njT neX+ me. ~ me eTq b<\| |ue+
#|qT. #s y~ qysT b<\ mTe+{ esTqT >eT+H y+H
y<T\qT d+|~+#+ eT+~. y~ |]> =B C|X >Z+, +>
|esY +& bjT neX+ +~. qs\T, sH\T b&e+, *esY
#&be+, &| |ue+ #|&+, { s { Xs nejTy\T
|#jT+ >TZT+~. b<\ eTq+ y& #|\ dE d]> +&*. >sT
y# { 15`20 eTTc\T b<\T |{ rd T&, #s + b&u] b+&
+&T yH sj*. y eT< &+& Xu+> T&y*.
q\T +f eTqyT y{ u&T rdyjT+& y<T\ d\V q
#j*. s |dsD u> +&{ e\dq yje\T #j*.
b<\ ds u> +< n ys+`|~ sE\ k] # #dTe+
eT+~. #s e n<T| +#Ty*. e{ q&es<T.
eT]= $es\T e# d+...

y&se
XeTeTT
<ds d+<seTT>
VAeT+
|PsVQ
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
111

eseTT
y| e+ ` su< qeTT
y|# T> eTq+ #| =H e+ MT*jTd nH |w+# yTT\ T+u
#+~q~. eT+ \|# eTV>= n T+u #+~q eTs |d< e+.
y|qT Xg |]uw MT*j nH |C #+~q s+&T CT\ C
#+~q~> >T]ksT. B nC&s +& nH eTs XdjT HeT+ +~.
~ l\+, Hb, +><X, bkH \ dV us |K+& #+~q~.
~ k<sD+> w, b weT+&\ |sT>TT+~. B +\ qT+& y|
qH \_dT+~.

y| ]+> |]> dV] eyTq|{ re <T] |]dT\T


H\=q|&T <<| q \+{ sdT+~. ~ 15`20 MT., nsT<T>
35`40 MT. \ mT m<T>TT+~. B XK\T $X\yTq$>, $d]+
+{sTT. u> <+> +& B >T+& n&$ |+~] (=e, seT\ +&
&# u>+) yd+ +]> +& |< e\ 15 ` 20 MT.\ es
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
112

1
qe+sY, 2014
+&e#T. B 20`40 d+.MT. b&eq |eY |\T n_eTTK $Hd+
( DT| e< m<Ts <TsT> s +&T |\T) +{sTT. 3`8 d+.MT. b&e+&
B |\ k<sD+> =q |+ |dT+~. $ |# ` eTT<TsT
|# s+>T +{sTT.
B |c\T q$>, ydHjTTyT, \T|s+>T +{sTT. 25
d+.MT. es b&e, y&T+& ^edyTq b s| |w$Hd+
150`250 |c\T+{sTT. qTq> +& B |\+ Bs n+&s+ / <<|
>T+& s+ +& f+>\ |\+.
y| 400`1200 $T.MT. y] esb+ +& | Xw, | s
b+\ u> |sT>TT+~. 400 $T.MT. +f e y] esbeTT+&
b+\ L& |s>>\<T n+{ |]dT\ ~ me> H\ {
eT{\ MT< <s|&TT+~. nH s\ H\ ~ |s>>\<T u> {
bsT<\ ks + q q H\, dT H\ u> |sT>TT+~. ~ 21`32+
d+.>. y] d>T c> +& w / | w eT+&\| e+. ~ n~,
n~ c>\qT T>\<T , 4+ d+.^. +f e c>\qT
T<T. us<X+bT usrjT d+ eddTq weT+&\
<X\+{ M<T \sT y| \ &# #T>, <y\jT, $<\jT b+>D\qT,
s |Cd++< ue H\e<, |s{ <=& qT y|q T k<sD+> >eT+#e#T.
|j >\T : eTq<X+ n s\ +q \qT \T q+&, &u\
\ #dq _j |sT>T |+& y]+#+<T m+&T y| \qT
+#TsT. <eT\qT ]$Tyd+<T weT+&\ b+\ m+&T y| \qT
>\u&sT.
X+> y| : y| #T >TqT, |PqT X+> eTq <X+ y&sT.
$TH&T y| |P y|| P sd+ nH #sT j sT #ksT . |eT u+>
y| \qT q e+jT eTT\ qH ysTT+ jsT #dq
e+ (~ * |+# >TD+ * +T+~) u+>\T eT uq+
=* eTT<> nq+ uTksT.
+u&j , ydt, <sTT+&, eHsY, $jT+ e+{ >jdj
<X\ = b+\ y| $$< sb\ y&&T+~. s> yT\T
#dT+< qeTeTTH, e+& d+ #<TqT y| #dq Vs
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
113

C
<X\ L& |\+<s w| & s T . y| >TsT b{H\ T |w\+> \_ksTT.
#<TqT $]#+<T eHsY yb\qT, y| |PyTT>Z\qT + |+&T
&+ Ls> uTksT. eHsY }s>jT |{q y| \qT {e{,
#|\ kdt\bT uTksT.
k+|<jT y<+ |j>\T : y|>\ y< >TD\qT us<X+ y\
d+es\T> |jdTHsT. y| T\ j+{V*+{ (&T|
|sT>T\qT =\+#), +< es, eT<TyTV es, u]j es,
ysdt es, >ss<, eTT*+# \D\THjT jTTs< y<T\T
u$ksT . jTTs<, jTTH y< \ y| |< q u>+>, | + #s d++<
y<T\ y&&T+~. y| qHqT s>e+yTq sC\ d+,
jT |q+ yTsT>T<\, s+ qT+& $w|<s\ =\+| (s X~),
s+ #s ksTT\ deTT\ |jksT. y| \qT me,
k]jddt e+{ #s y<T\ y&TTHsT.
, y| e\ *> |jH\qT >T]+ |]X<q ndeT>+>H
+~. |<\ d\ \+bT y| y&+ dTsyT , Bs\+ bT
y&f eT|+ &\, j &T \>e#T. |\ y| qH $wT \+>
+& eTsD <]rjTe#T. y| e\ >sky\T, e+<+, s+ #s
ksTT >Z+ d+u$+#e#T.
me yTT+ y|qH $j>+e\ yT<&T, +{ d++~+q
$wd++< mHd||, b| \>e#T.
N& |&\T ` y<T\ ysD : eT HXqT\ y| dV |ejT+.
y| +\qT b&> q], < s+ { Hqu{ |+| #\TsT.
|uee++> |#j\+f |~ sE\ k] #=|q |< |< #*. ~
|+| \qT HsT> #+|<T. ~ |+qT Vs+> |j>
|& +& #jT +, \qT bs<~>, |+ yTT\| \T >T&T | +&
#d |+ qw+ s> +& sd T + ~. \T * =~ sE\H eTsDk sTT.
>T&T b<>&{ y| nDydT+~. y| |TqT msTe> neTTsT.
y|qH #<\qT y]+#>\ |sesDV, #q k<q+> >T]+|
b+~q~.
s |j>\T : y| qHqT dT\T, c+|P\T, uyT\T, eTT\T, Y
|dt e+{ nH n\+sD keT, e>s j\ y&sT.

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
114

1
qe+sY, 2014
us<X+, |, eT< b# <X\ Xu\T> y| =eT\qT
T+ <+<eH (| eT{) y&TTHsT. |{ eTq <X+
80% eT+~ >MTDT\ Jeq+ <jT+ y||\ qeT\&+H yTT<T+~.
|D b+\ L& y| jsq Y|dtqT w|&sT. |+{ b,
>T y|qT Z+#+ y| #\ |uee++> |#dT+~.
k+|<jT usrjT y<+ |j>+ bT y| m&sDqT
y]+#+qT, u>TZ|\TdT yjTTe (sH`&`&)qT yesD+ qT+&
>V+#+ L& eTTKyTq~.
y| >TsTqT = |yTq Vs|<s\ j y&sT.
\T>T, q&, $T b+\ >~ |#& y||P y&sT.
s @&~ b&T>TH y| |P Ls #ksT. |P \_+# sE\
m+&T |PqT y&sT. $TH y| |Pe #dq y| |Psd+ |
e++.
eTq <X+ y|qT n+< ~>TD]+# k<q+> u$ksT.
eTTU\+sD (|wjT) yT m+&T yb\ b& |<q+> y&sT.
> s+>T, + nH n\+sDkeT X~#dq y|qHqT y&sT.
y| \qT { eTs>u{ |\qT, eTTK+> |#T\qT
bs<+<T $\Te q $s |<s+> y&e#T. nH X\ +f
yTsT>Z DqT s~+# y|qH ]bjT >TD+ <T. >MTD us+
+& #\ +<q> B $jksT.
y|q T msTe> y&+<T L& eT+ neXeTT+~. #i, Ls>jT\T
e+{ q><T |+\ msTe> y|#qT $]$> |jksT. # T
#]q y| # VQX' < neXw+> q *yTTHsTT&\ sD+> |+
yTT\ y qT #<\ T, qT* |sT>T\u] qT+& sd T + ~. s e] H{
eTT+<T qT \e>{q #\ y|#qT Ts< = |&sT.
sH : y| #T us&TqT >jT|sq|&T y\Te& >TsT e+{ ke+ yT<,
>yT ns_ e+{ >TsT\ |ejT+H Vs|<s d+*|]#
|<s+> <D| yT > |] $]$> y&&T+~.
us&T : y| us&T 14% {H +T+~. + B qT+& <&yTq, eTT
Hs L& \_dT + ~. HsqT >MTD us< X + y\T ()> |qTsT.

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
115

C
H : dj K+&+ y|H eT+ s +~. n+<Te\ y| #qT H{
H{>\ |]XeTqT bVksT.
dT : eTq <X+ |dT + ds| s WTq y|q H 80% dT j <sT\#
$j+|&T+~. y|qH #q< +& dJeHX, +<HX,
VsTT#, eTqT *+# >TD\qT * +T+~.
eTq <X+ y| V+< |+&T>\>\ d++<+: y| , us&T\>\
#<T sT e\ y{ |uee+yTq |V]DT\T> |]>DksT. n+<Te\H
k+|<jT+> jTTs<+ < yd$ =*H (# ed+) y&eT
dksT.
\T>T, q& sc\ >~ |s~Hq jsT #d >~ |#&
u\+bT y| |PqT y&sT. M{ J$+ dTK<T'U\ |r>
u$ksT. eTVsh >T&|s> |*# qq d+es y&T\ bs+u
eTT+<T =+#+ y|sd+ < y||dtqT >+ nH~> edTq d+|<jT+.
V+<Te\ |+&T>\T nH+ Vs+ $wjT+ = d+|<j\qT
@sT#dqf, yd$ *> | <Twuy V]+#+<T >T&|s (>~)
sEq y|sd+ rdT=H d+|<jT+ @s&+~.
yd$ ekq @| qT+& pH es $TH e]jTeTH >T&
|+&T>qT sV+#+ ysTT d+es\T> edTq |sq #s+. y&T \
y| \T, y| |P\T n+ eTTKyTq$. y&T\ e]jTeTH $>V
y| \T, y| |P\ n\+]ksT . $TH $yV\ e+{ y&T \ deTjT+
|\T <TwX\qT, y<T\qT ]$T yjT>\eq qeT+ eT |]ds\qT
y| \T, y| |P\ n\+]ksT.
&c |U >H<k$T \jT+ eTsT\ j =
uwo\\T, #s\ bT #e<]q y| n+ssTe (VsY&) qT
|j ksT . +{ beTTK+ >\ y| nyT] |f+TV nH~ $#ss ,
$y<>d $wjT+.
d+d yvjTeTT :
X XjTTs<VjT ` dsd+|sjT #
dsw$HXjT ` eT+<\uDyT
e$T& eeTT ` |Psu< qeTT

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789
116