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Spring 2005-2006

Table of Contents

Problem Definition ............................................................................................ 1

Literature Review .............................................................................................. 2

Design Alternatives ........................................................................................... 5

Design Realistic Constraints ....................................................................... 7

Design Methodology Specifications and Modeling ....................... 10

The PV Generator ...................................................................................... 10

Single Phase Induction Motor ................................................................ 13

The Battery.................................................................................................... 17

The DC Regulator ....................................................................................... 19

The DC/AC Inverter .................................................................................. 23

Components Procurement............................................................................ 24

Implementation and Testing ....................................................................... 26

Validation of Results ........................................................................................ 29

Appraisal of the Project ................................................................................. 31

References............................................................................................................... 33

Appendices ............................................................................................................. 35

A. AC Loads Calculations .....................................................................................35

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Spring 2005-2006

C. Array Sizing worksheet ............................................................................ 37

D. Induction Motor Equivalent Circuit Parameters............................ 38

E. Charging Current of the Battery of the PV ....................................... 41

F. IV Curve Verification ................................................................................ 44

G. Induction Motor Pumping System Model.......................................... 47

H. Friction loss ................................................................................................... 51

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Spring 2005-2006

Problem Definition

The idea of Photovoltaic Powered Pumping System has been mainly suggested for water

procurement in remote areas where transmission line extension or diesel generator

installation is not feasible or economically inefficient [9], especially in desert regions

which explains the choice of Photovoltaic renewable energy source which correlates with

the long insolated hours in these regions. [6]

Besides, photovoltaic power is the most environmental friendly among the suggested

power supply methods and it seems, despite of the high initial cost of PV modules

installation, to be competing with the diesel generator installation now with the

unstoppable increasing oil prices.

Since such systems are usually implemented in remote areas, the availability of

specialized manpower for operating or maintaining the system seems to be unlikely,

therefore renewable sources as well as almost maintenance free subsystems are expected

to constitute the system.

The main objective of this project is to carry out a theoretical and experimental steady

state analysis in order to study the performance of a Photovoltaic Powered Pumping

System. This analysis can be used as reference for designing or reviewing the proposed

design as well as carrying out future researches and applications.

FYP

Spring 2005-2006

Literature Review

The literature review extends over a number of papers that study Photovoltaic powered

Pumping System. The sources of the papers are mainly from Elsevier database journals

related to renewable energy as well as few papers from different websites.

The first paper entitled Optimization of Photovoltaic Water Pumps Coupled with an

Interfacing Pulse Width Modulated DC/AC Inverter Power Conditioning Device is

prepared by Neway Argaw (Tampere University of Technology (TUT) in Tampere,

Finland).

It exposes mathematical models for the different components of the system and shows

that a PVIMPS is optimized by improving solar radiation, array power output, and load

characteristics. [1]

The second paper entitled Photovoltaic Circuit Properties and Loads is a Renewable

Energy course file literature from the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture in the

American University of Beirut. [2]

The third paper entitled A fuzzy global efficiency optimization of a photovoltaic water

pumping system is prepared by K. Benlarbi, M.S. Nait-Said (Batna University) and

L. Mokrani (Laghouat University) in Algeria.

This paper as the previous ones shows a full modeling for the PVIMPS optimized by a

fuzzy logic controller with simulations and tests. [3]

FYP

Spring 2005-2006

pumping system is prepared by A. Betka (University of Oum El Bouaghi) and A.

Moussi (University of Biskra) in Algeria.

This paper exposes a mathematical model for the different components of a PVIMPS and

a comparison study between three induction motor optimization methods: the Constant

Efficiency by Yao, the Constant Field by Duzat, and the proposed approach on Field

Weakening which proved very close results to the MPPTs Yao and much better than

Duzats approach. [4]

The fifth reference is an academic book literature on electric machinery called Electric

machinery fundamentals by Chapman.[5]

The sixth paper entitled Design optimization of photovoltaic powered water pumping

systems is prepared by A.A. Ghoneim (College of Technological Studies) in Kuwait.

The interesting part of the paper is the photovoltaic generator design and the economic

study that proves the feasibility and competition of PV pumping systems over diesel

powered systems. [6]

The seventh is academic book literature on power electronics called Power Electronics

Converters Applications and Design by Mohan Undeland and Robbins. [8]

The eighth paper entitled Photovoltaic Water Pumping system at Skinner Ranch is

prepared by Oregon Office of Energy.

FYP

Spring 2005-2006

This paper shows a comparison economic study between three methods for power

supplying to a 12 KW system for pumping water from skinner Ranch. The three logical

methods are the Line Extension, Diesel Generator and PV system which is proved to be

the most economically efficient. [9]

The ninth paper entitled Improvement of induction motor drive systems supplied by

photovoltaic arrays with frequency control is prepared by Yao, Ramshaw (University of

Waterloo, Ontario, Canada) and Bustamante (Novatronics Inc., Stratford, Ontario,

Canada).

This paper discusses two improved systems with variable frequency. One system is based

on parabolic torque load and the other on linear torque load. [10]

FYP

Spring 2005-2006

Design Alternatives

Different designs are possible and have been implemented for a Photovoltaic Powered

Pumping System. First of all, the insistence on a photovoltaic resource as the only power

generator is mainly is due to the fact that PV Cells, unlike wind turbines are almost

operation and maintenance free power generator. They do not need fuel; produce no noise

and no waste. [10]

A DC-DC converter is used for charging the storage battery at constant voltage. Due to

unavailability of buck boost converter in the market, a boost converter will be designed in

order to increase the PV output voltage when it is lower than that of the battery. Also a

simple diode 10A can be used instead; that way the battery will be charged at different

voltage levels exclusively during the period when PV output voltage is greater than the

battery rated voltage, otherwise PV is disconnected from battery.

The storage battery is a crucial component in the system since most of renewable energy

systems are implemented using storage devices for storing extra available energy to be

used when needed disregarding the availability of energy source; besides, PV arrays

output voltage and current depend on solar irradiance, it is advised to provide a storage

battery for supplying a DC-AC inverter with a constant voltage needed as most of the

inverters available in the market are rated at constant DC input voltage.

The crucial subsystem choice is that of the motor-pump set. Many researches have

suggested a DC motor-pump set for its high efficiency especially at low loads [4] and for

FYP

Spring 2005-2006

motor. Actually, many drawbacks have undermined the usage of DC motors for their

regular maintenance needed especially for brushes replacement as well as their high

costs, the decreasing cost of electronic components and the unavailability of DC motorpump sets in the market. Where as AC squirrel cage induction motors are robust almost

maintenance free and a cheap motor that is preferred over other

AC motors such synchronous motors and that for the complicated starter that require such

motors.[5] A single phase induction motor has been selected instead of the three phase

for several reasons among which is that our project seeks a steady state analysis that can

be carried out at low power ratings with single phase systems which are cheaper than

three phase systems used mostly for high power ratings .

Induction Motor Pumping System (PVIMPS) which is investigated in our FYP.

Below are explained PVIMPS design realistic constraints followed by the design

methodology and specifications that the group has been following in order to implement

the system.

FYP

Spring 2005-2006

In the design of our system we took into consideration certain realistic constraints related

to human needs. These constraints are economic, environmental, social, political, ethical,

health and safety, manufacturability, and sustainability.

One of the many advantages of renewable energy systems is that they are economic. In

this domain, we optimized our choice both technically and financially, in order to deliver

a system with reasonable cost. The fact of using the PV cells as the power source was to

provide a free source of power which is sun irradiance. We also did an optimization

problem to see how many modules of the panel we need, not to waste any energy that

could be used by other systems. Another optimization problem was done for the battery

sizing not to pay for unnecessary extra size or number. As for the system in all, it is well

known that renewable energy systems require a lot less maintenance than conventional

energy systems.

A main issue in conventional power production is the effect they have on the

environment. Due to this, protocols like the KYOTO protocol have been established to

maintain the environment. So it is essential that we take the environment into

consideration. Our system uses natural source of energy to supply natural assets which is

water, without any abuse of the environment. In the process of producing the electric

power, the irradiance of the sun is simply converted into electric power by the use of

semi-conductors. As a result, there is no pollution created or any environmental side

effect. And also, there is no hazardous waste that is produced with the products of the

system. So all in all, our system is environmentally friendly and conserving.

FYP

Spring 2005-2006

The main purpose of our system is procuring water for people in remote areas, with a low

overall price. Since people now can know what is efficient for them, even if it is on the

long run, then such systems will be accepted and demanded by the social individuals

more often. Also because water is a crucial condition of life, then ensuring it in an

efficient way has a social dimension.

The safety factor has become a crucial detail on which the assessment of any system or

project is based. The design of our system is done, with safety taken into consideration.

The only aspect that may cause injuries in systems similar to ours is the electric current.

To avoid such problems we have ensured that all the wires we use are fine, and with no

defects. We also have shielded all the other electric wires and put some insulation,

because the electric part of the system could get exposed to water. So we can deduce that

the health risks are negligible and that safety is certain.

To ensure the reliability of the system, the components, which together form the system,

have to be reliable. First of all the PV panel has been used in the last couple of years and

thankfully it has encountered no problems. Therefore we chose to buy and use

components which have been manufactured by well known leading companies such as

LG, Grundfos and Genius). After ensuring the components, we had to put the system

together. We, as a team, put the system together, but were aided and supervised by

specialists from the AUB physical plant because we lacked the required experience which

came in hand. These facts confirm the quality of our system manufacturability.

Concerning sustainability, our system is a renewable energy powered system, which in

itself is a factor of sustainability of a system. The systems input is the sunlight which is

available most of the time. And for the times, when it is not available, storage (battery

FYP

Spring 2005-2006

and water tank) can be used. In addition, the fact that the components are almost

maintenance free is a main factor that improves sustainability.

FYP

Spring 2005-2006

The PVIMPS is composed of the following components:

1. The PV modules which consists of the PV generator

2. A DC-DC Converter that increases or decreases the PV output Voltage in order to

charge the batteries at a constant voltage.

3. Storage Battery which supplies a constant DC voltage to the DC-AC inverter

4. The single phase DC-AC inverter

5. The single phase induction motor-pump set

The PV Generator

The reason we chose this generator is that it is almost operation and maintenance free

unlike other renewable or finite energy resources and it needs no fuel, produces no noise

and no waste. It is the one offered by AUB and it is capable of providing the minimum

power needed to illustrate our project with the minimum number of resources found.

It is an LG Genesis PV generator made up of 3 PV modules connected in parallel.

Ptotal = 120 W

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Spring 2005-2006

Vrated = 16.9V

Irated = 7.1 A

Voc = 21V

Isc = 7.7 A

Maximum System Voc = 600V

Bypass Diode: 8 A

Wiring: Copper Only, 12 AWG min.

Class C Fire R

S/N: 06833166

Each module is made up of 4 parallel rows of 9 PV cells connected in series.

Vmodule = 9 X V cell

Imodule = 4 X I cell

V cell (rated) = 1.878 V

I cell (rated) = 1.775 A

Area of each cell is 15.5 X 15.5 cm2, so the total area is 0.8649 m2.

We used only one as it was enough according to array sizing (See Appendix for

array sizing)

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Spring 2005-2006

These are characteristic IV curves of the PV module used in our system. They were

taken at different irradiance levels by varying a (16 , 7.9A) resistor. Note that output

power increases with irradiance. Data of irradiance and temperature were taken from

Mechanical Engineering labs pyranometers.

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Spring 2005-2006

Modeling

I = Iph ID- Ip

I

Voc = AKTo/q (ln(Iph + Io)/Io)

A: Ideality factor

K: Boltzman constant = 1.3805 x 10-23 N.m/oK

T: Absolute Temperature

Q: Electron Charge

Iph : Light Generated Current in a cell

Io : Reverse saturation Current of a Diode [1]

Due to the limited power supply, a water heater circulator less than 100W, 220 Vac,

50 Hz, is a good choice for our experiment.

For experimental purposes, we decided to limit the pumping height (1 to 2 meters) at a

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Spring 2005-2006

water flow of (1 to 2 m3/hr), ie, if we were storing a barrel (100L=0.1m3) -which is most

practical- the experiment will last for 3 to 6 minutes whether we are pumping at 1 or 2

m3/hr. Higher water flow will lead to empty the storage barrel so fast that the experiment

will last less than 3 minutes, which makes the system not reliable for an experiment.

According to our constraints, the motor-pump set that we will be using in our system is a

heater circulator Grundfos 32-40 180, capacitor-run single phase induction motor

coupled to an impeller.

The different characteristics of our motor pump set are as follows:

V rated = 230V.

It works on three different speeds hence operates on three different power levels:

At speed 1: Power input: 30 W, I = 0.13 A

At speed 2: Power input: 45 W, I= 0.2 A

At speed 3: Power input: 60 W, I= 0.26 A

Capacitor-run = 2 F [7]

Below are the H-Q curve of the pump that shows the relationship between height H and

water flow Q, and the power curve of the pump at its three operating speeds.

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FYP

Spring 2005-2006

R1 ()

X1 ()

R2 ()

X2 ()

Xm ()

Rc ()

Speed 1

519.54

171.31

960

171.31

1909.25

2439.13

Speed 2

406.25

98.12

539.27

98.12

1264.3

1594. 165

Speed 3

280.14

35.49

398.86

35.49

991.74

1061.66

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Spring 2005-2006

Note: By using the speed level switch, rotor and stator circuits are modified which

explains the difference in equivalent circuit parameters among the three speeds. Also, at

no load tests, the motor runs at 3 different almost synchronous speeds.

Modeling

Input Power: Pin= Vph I1 cos

Motor Speed: = (1- s) s, where s is the slip and s is the synchronous speed =120P/f.

Equivalent Volatge: Vth= Vph (Xm)/( (R12+(X1+X m)2))

Equivalent Impedance: Zth=jX m(R 1+jX 1)/( R 1+j(X 1+X m))

Rth = Re (Zth)

Xth = I (Zth)

Rotor Current: I2= Vth /((Rth+R2/s)2+(Xth+X2)2)

Output Torque: Tem= V2th (R2/s)/( (s)( Rth +R2/s)2+(Xth+X2)2)

Output Power: Pout= Tem x

Motor Efficiency: mp= Pout / Pin

Ef = 0.5*V*(1 j/a)

Eb =0.5*V(1 + j/a)

Imf = (Vmf(z1m + Zb + Z12) + VmbZ12)/((z1m + Zf + Z12)(Z1m + Zb + Z12) Z12^2)

Imb = (Vmb(z1m + Zf + Z12) + VmfZ12)/((z1m + Zf + Z12)(Z1m + Zb + Z12) Z12^2)

Td = 2/ws(Imf^2Rf Imb^2Rb)

DMP = 2(Imf^2Rf Imb^2Rb)(1-s)

Maximum Torque: Tmax=Vth2/(2 x s x (Rth+(Rth2+(Xth+X2)2)))

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FYP

Spring 2005-2006

Pout= Phydro = i mp Pdc= g H Q [1]

This is the single phase capacitor run induction motor equivalent circuit. The upper part

of secondary winding represents the parameters that contribute to the forward flux, while

the lower part represent the parameters that contribute to the backward flux.

The Battery

The battery is used to store extra energy from the PV generator, in order to use it when

the PV output power is not sufficient for running the pump.

Its a 65 AH (See Appendix for battery sizing)

Voc = 12.4V

Rc (Charging resistance) = 0.11 Ohms

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Spring 2005-2006

The charging current of the battery depends on the solar irradiance. Since the battery has

a constant charging resistance, then the operating point will be the intersection point

between the IV Curves of the PV generator and the IV curves of the battery charging

currents and voltages. Of course this intersection point will be on a voltage greater than

Voc of battery, since the batterys IV curve begins at that point.

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Spring 2005-2006

If the intersecting voltage is higher than 13V, the boost converter will be off, and the

battery will be directly charged from the PV generator. So the Charging current will be:

I charge = (V-12.4)/0.11

If the intersecting voltage is less than 13V, the boost converter will be automatically

activated at any voltage between 8 and 13V and will be boosted to give an output of 13

V. So at that output voltage, the charging current of the Battery will be theoretically

constant which is (13-12.4)/0.11 = 5.45 A, but actually this current is limited by the

output power of the PV generator. If the power is greater than or equal (5.45A)(13V)(1.2)

= 84 W, to account losses, then this current can be provided by the PV generator, but if

the power is less than 84W, then the current will be lower depending on the solar

irradiance, and the current will be

= Power (of PVG)/15.6.

Boost Regulator

The Boost regulator is more an optimizing device than an essential one for this project. It

is used to charge the battery when the output voltage of the PV generator is lower than

the battery voltage, which is 12.4 V, i.e. when the irradiance of the sun is not sufficient to

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FYP

Spring 2005-2006

give the minimum acceptable voltage for safe charging. To be on the safe side we choose

the threshold voltage to be 13 V. So when the operating voltage is lower than 13 V the

converter raises the voltage up to that value, in order to charge the battery safely. When

the voltage is lower than 8V, the power of the PV generator will be so small, and it will

not be worthy of boosting it.

Where,

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Spring 2005-2006

And D is the duty cycle or Ton/(Ton + Toff), which determines switching duration.

The switches are regular transistors, while the Capacitors and Inductor should have

certain values determined by the following formulas:

And

L = (0.074)*(Ts)*(Vout) / Imax

We have a constant Vout that we should maintain which is around 13 V. Our maximum

delta (V) is when Vin (or voltage from PV generator) is 8 V, since when the Vin is lower

than that the power would be unworthy converting it. Our switching frequency is 15 Khz,

so Ts = 6.66 *10^(-5) S, and our minimum D (duty cycle) will be 0.3846, when Vin =

8V. Our maximum current which is the maximum short circuit current of the PV

generator is around 6.95A, so Imax = 6.95 A.

C = 691.358 micro F

L = 9.51429 micro H

So the components of boost converter are:

- Pic Microprocessor (Controller)= 16F877

- Capacitor C: 691.358 micro F

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FYP

Spring 2005-2006

- Mosfets (Switches): 2 X IRFP 400

- Drive Circuit = IR211O/DIP14

- Opto Isolator = A4N27

- R1= 300 ohms

- R2= 300 ohms

- R3= 1000 ohms

- R4= 22 ohms

- C1= 2.2microF

- Diode = MOD201

The differential probe is used to read in the PV voltage and send a signal between 0 and

5V corresponding to our PV voltage (which is between 0V and 20V).

The controller circuit is programmed to read the voltage of the Differential Probe, and if

it is less than 3.25 V (13V out of the PV generator,), the transistor T1 is switched on and

transistor T2 is switched on and off in a PWM mode with a duty cycle D calculated

according to the PV generator voltage and thus the Differential Probe voltage, with an On

time which is equal to D/(15000), and Off time equal to (1-D)/(15000).

The D is calculated in the controller using this algorithm or rule:

D = 1 Vin/13

There is a drive circuit and an isolator for each transistor to control the power for each

switch (Mosfet).

And so as the input voltage changes, D will change to regulate the output and make it

constant at 13V.

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FYP

Spring 2005-2006

The inverter used is a UPS device inverter that converts the Vdc=12.34 V DC output

voltage of the Battery into an output Vin = 220VAC, f=50 Hz, single phase AC square

wave voltage.

The inverter proposed in the design specifications has a constant parameters (Vdc, Vph,

f, M)

Vdc: DC input Voltage

Vph: AC Sinusoidal Output Voltage = M Vdc sin (2f x t)

f is the control signal frequency

M: Vtri / Vcontrol [8]

i = P in / P dc= 45.2/(12.64x4.7) = 76.08%.

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Spring 2005-2006

Components Procurement

We asked a wide number of electrical equipment suppliers and engineers in order to

procure the different components of the PVIMPS.

The PV generator

Three PV modules are available on the roof of electronics lab in the faculty of

engineering and architecture at AUB. They will be used for implementing our FYP

system. The availability of the PV modules has tremendously decreased the design bill as

it is the most expensive subsystem of a PVIMPS.

It is implemented on a bread board. Its components were procured from EKT.

The motor pump set will be procured from the market. We contacted a wide number of

circulator pumps suppliers which among which:

Supplier

Brand

Characteristics

Price

LEGEND

60W, 230V,50Hz

75 euros

40 W, 220V, 50Hz

77 euros

SACOM

60W, 230V,50Hz

75 euros

During our early procurement activity, we found that most of inverter suppliers provide

UPS systems, which is equipped by a battery charger (Bridge Rectifier) which does not

fit our system since the storage battery is being charged from the PV generator via a DC24

FYP

Spring 2005-2006

DC converter. Few suppliers had simple inverters available or were ready to make it

available among EKT, Sonics and MPS. A good idea was to use a PC back-up UPS and

its inverter for inverting the DC output of the battery to a square wave 220V, 50 HZ

signal. The UPS is a Genius, 220V ac, 50 Hz, 350W which is enough to run our system

of 60W circulating pump.

35$.

clampmeter were available at FEA ECE labs.

The Water Storage Tank of 100L was procured from Nassar (NTP), at 22.5$.

Pipes, taps and plumbing works were provided by the physical plant at AUB.

Labor work: electrical work was executed by the project members.

Software

The software usage was restraint to simple application calculation and simulations using

matlab 6.0 and Excel 2003. They were available at engineering computer labs, and in our

PCs.

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Spring 2005-2006

The implementation of the system was done as follows:

Electric Circuit

The PV module is connected to the battery via a diode for charging purpose. Note, the

DC regulator was not yet implemented at the time of testing.

The battery is connected to a UPS (of which we used the inverter)

The inverter is connected to the pump which is installed in the water circuit.

Water Circuit

The water circuit is formed of the tank, the pump, a 90o elbow and a 2.52 m pipe stood

upright as shown in the figure below. Four taps were used for testing at 10cm, 70cm,

130cm and 190cm.

The objective was to measure the water flow at these 4 different pumping heads.

Due to financial constraints, we could not buy a flowmeter which is costly (exceeds

1000$). The solution was to use a 10L tank (a small volume in order to avoid the loss of

pressure from the 100L storage tank on the circulator) in which we poured the pumped

water and calculated the time needed in order to fill it up. See the system picture below.

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FYP

Spring 2005-2006

We tested the system at speed 2, and using a voltmeter, a clampmeter, a powermeter and

a chronometer, we had the following results:

H (m)

70 cm (10+60 cm)

T (sec)

49.23

53.55

56.54

61.92

Q (m3/hr)

0.73126

0.6723

0.6367

0.58139

P (W)

45.1

45.1

45

45.3

V (V)

228.4

228.6

228.6

227.8

I (A)

0.220

0.219

0.218

0.216

Vdc (V)

12.64

12.64

12.64

12.64

Idc (A)

4.8

4.8

4.8

4.8

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Spring 2005-2006

The output voltage of inverter is Vrms= 212.3 V.

The current from battery to inverter is Idc= 0.25A.

In order to take into account the pipe friction and the 90o elbow effect on the water flow,

we calculated the THD (total dynamic head) which is the actual head seen by the

circulator.

TDH= static head + pipe friction loss + pipe fitting

TDH= 130 cm + 0.18977 cm +4.5445 cm = 134.734 cm

(See Appendix for Calculation of Friction Losses)

Even though, results remain different from catalogue data.

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Spring 2005-2006

Validation of Results

The voltage, current and power results verify the ones provided in the catalogue (see

design specifications section).

Friction and mechanical loads assessment were not finalized, as a promised cooperation

of the mechanical engineering faculty will help to assess these values and reach accurate

theoretical results verifying the experimental results.

Theoretical analysis uses the single phase capacitor-run induction motor and hydraulic

formulae. The job of the circulator here is not only to overcome friction but to lift the

water to a certain height level.

(See Appendix for Induction Motor Pumping System Model)

Catalogue Data

Concerning the experimental mechanical results varied from catalogue values due to

design constraints. The main constraints that made the results vary from the catalogue are

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FYP

Spring 2005-2006

that there are friction losses may be due to pipes and their fittings; the other constraint is

that our circulator pump characteristics (catalogue data) are specific to closed circuit

system which has the following characteristics:

It is a closed circuit of water, where the pipes, tanks and pump are always completely

filled of water, and the job of the circulator has nothing to do with lifting, their only job is

to overcome friction. It is only necessary to circulate the water whether it is horizontally

or vertically laid circuit.

A mechanical engineer from Grundfos said that the catalogue characteristics were for

closed system, and that the catalogue data will not be met with open circuit system.

Another mechanical engineer from the physical plant at AUB said that results said that

results may not exactly verify the catalogue data but they should be of the same order.

The implementation of a closed system is costly and very delicate, besides, it should be

supplied with a flowmeter which increases the cost of the system by almost 1000$.

In order to be more accurate, we calculated the total dynamic head (TDH) as shown

above.

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Spring 2005-2006

Constraints

Due to design constraints, mainly the low power rating of the PV module, prevented us

from using a higher power (1/4 or hp centrifugal pump) in our system. The low

wattage forced us to use a heater circulator instead. Knowing that these circulators are

used for closed systems, we used them for an open system which made the experimental

data vary from catalogue data.

Achievements

Despite these constraints, the project studied the performance of a circulator in an open

system and the experiment proved it efficiency as we were able to lift water a different

height levels.

The project included all the stages required for designing a photovoltaic powered

induction motor pumping system (PVIMPS): the PV and battery sizing, the converter

design, the choice of the pump, and the plumbing system.

Recommendations

A good improvement on the theoretical section is that it can be worked on an accurate

estimation of the slip according to a more accurate assessment of the load and friction

torque in order to determined more accurately the behavior of the circulator.

This will be achieved with a promised cooperation of mechanical engineering faculty of

AUB.

In order to avoid the technical and financial constraints, a similar study can be tested on a

implemented system for optimization purpose.

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Spring 2005-2006

rating system.

Otherwise, if financial constraints were overcome, it is advisable to design a higher

power rating and buy new components and especially new PV modules according to

design specifications.

More study can be worked on the battery charging from PV modules and its performance.

To conclude, this analysis can be used as reference for designing or reviewing the

proposed design as well as carrying out future researches and applications.

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Spring 2005-2006

References

[1] Argaw, N. (1994 December). Optimization of Photovoltaic Water Pumps Coupled

with an Interfacing Pulse Width Modulated DC/AC Inverter Power Conditioning

Device. IEEE. Retrieved October 13, 2005, from IEEE database via

www.aub.edu.lb\libraries

Properties and Loads. Retrieved from http://www.aub.edu.lb/webct/eece684

[3] Benlarbi, K., Nait-Said, M., Mokrani, L.(2004 May). A fuzzy global efficiency

optimization of a photovoltaic water pumping system. Solar Energy. Retrieved

November 04, 2005, from Elsevier database via www.aub.edu.lb\libraries

induction motor pumping system. Renewable Energy, 29, 2167-2181.

[5] Chapman SJ. (1991). Electric machinery fundamentals. New York: McGraw-Hill.

water pumping systems. Energy Conversion and Management. Retrieved October

15, 2005, from Elsevier database via www.aub.edu.lb\libraries

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Denmark:Grundfos.

[8] Mohan, N., Robbins, W.P., Undeland, T.M. (2003). Power Electronics

Converters Applications and Design. (3rd ed.) New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons,

INC.

[9] Oregon Office of energy (1998 August).October 20, 2005 Photovoltaic Water

Pumping system at Skinner Ranch.

Retrieved from www.oregon.gov/ENERGY/RENEW/Solar/docs/skinner.pdf

[10] Yao, Y., Ramshaw, P., Bustamante, R.S.(1994 June). Improvement of induction

motor drive systems supplied by photovoltaic arrays with frequency control. IEEE

Transaction on Energy Conversion. Retrieved October 14, 2005, from IEEE

database via www.aub.edu.lb\libraries

34

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Spring 2005-2006

Appendices

AC Loads Calculations

AC water pump: Max speed Wattage = 60 W, 220 Vac

Since we are inverting from A 12 V battery to 220 Vac

DC analysis

60 W x 1.3 (for Inversion losses) = 78 W

Current input at the 12 V DC side = 78 / 12 = 6.5 A

Since we need to operate the pump for at least 2 hours a day:

Daily AH requirement: 2 x 6.5 = 13 AH per day

1. Total average amp hours per day from the Load Sizing worksheet

2 Hours working per day

6.5 amps load at max speed

2 x 6.5 = 13 AH per day

2. The maximum number of consecutive cloudy weather days expected in the Area,

Or the number of days of autonomy we need the system to support.

1 day

3. The amount of AH needed to be stored:

13 x 1 = 13 AH

4. Depth of discharge of the Battery:

0.5

5. Divide the AH by the depth of discharge:

13 / 0.5 = 26

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temperature the battery bank Wi

1

7. Multiply it by AH:

26 x 1 = 26

8. Taking into consideration the staring current of the Induction motor:

Battery chosen should be best chosen as slightly bigger than double the rated

current.

So chosen battery is (RB; 12V; 65 AH)

9. Number of batteries in Parallel:

2 x 26/ 65 = 1 (rounded up)

10. Number of batteries in Series:

12 / 12 =1

Number of batteries needed:

1x1=1

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1.

Total average amp hours per day from the Load Sizing worksheet

13 AH per day

2.

13 x 1.2 = 15.6

3.

4 Hours

4.

15.6 / 4 = 4.33 A

5.

7.1 Amps (LG Genesis; 120 watt, 16.9, 7.1 amp)

6.

16.9 V (LG Genesis; 120 watt, 16.9, 7.1 amp)

7.

4.33 / 7.1 = 0.6 1 module

8.

12 / 16.9 = 0.71 1 module

9.

1 x 1 = 1 module

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DC Test

At speed 1: R1 = 519.54 Ohms

At speed 2: R1= 406.25 Ohms

At speed 3: R1= 280.14 Ohms

Pump Speed

Voltage (Volts)

197.4

194.1

177.5

Current (Amps)

0.13

0.201

0.26

Power (Watts)

25

38.2

45.9

At speed 1:

ZLR = VLR / ILR = 197.4/0.13 = 1518.46 Ohms

RLR = PLR / (ILR) 2 = 25/ (0.13)2 = 1479.3 Ohms

R2 = RLR R1 = 1479.3 519.4= 960 Ohms

XLR = ((ZLR) 2 (RLR) 2) = 342.62 Ohms

Class D X1 = 0.5 XLR = 171.31 Ohms, X2 = 0.5 XLR = 171.31 Ohms

Following the same calculations:

At speed 2:

ZLR=965.67 Ohms, RLR = 945.52 Ohms

R2= 539.27 Ohms

XLR= 196.24 Ohms

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At speed 3:

ZLR=682.7 Ohms, RLR = 679 Ohms

R2= 398.86 Ohms

XLR= 70.98 Ohms

X1 = 35.49 Ohms, X2= 35.49 Ohms

No load Test

Pump Speed

Vnl (Volts)

224.7

224.8

224.8

Inl (Amps)

0.108

0.165

0.218

Pnl (Watts)

20.7

31.7

47.6

At speed 1:

Znl = Vnl/ Inl = 224.7 / 0.108 = 2080.56 Ohms = X1 + Xm

Xm = Znl X1 = 2080.56 171.31 = 1909.25 Ohms

Rc= V2nl/ Pnl = 2439.13 Ohms

At speed 2:

Znl = 1362.42 Ohms

X m = 1264.3 Ohms

Rc= 1594. 165 Ohms

At speed 3:

Znl= 1031.19 Ohms

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Xm = 991.74 Ohms

Rc= 1061.66 Ohms

R1 ()

X1 ()

R2 ()

X2 ()

Xm ()

Rc ()

Speed 1

519.54

171.31

960

171.31

1909.25

2439.13

Speed 2

406.25

98.12

539.27

98.12

1264.3

1594. 165

Speed 3

280.14

35.49

398.86

35.49

991.74

1061.66

Note: By using the speed level switch, rotor and stator circuits are modified which

explains the difference in equivalent circuit parameters among the three speeds. Also, at

no load tests, the motor runs at 3 different almost synchronous speeds.

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Spring 2005-2006

By giving it a certain irradiance G,

function chargingcurrent(G)

% Input : Irradiance G

% Input : voltage of the battery which is 12.4V

% Output : Operating point current, voltage, open circuit voltage and short circuit current

% These are the real Rp and Rs calculated

A= 0.008355;

q= 1.6*(10^(-19));

K= 1.3805*(10^(-23));

T= 298;

Rp= 386.36;

Rs= 0.1718;

% To change the value of H automatically

E

= 0.019125*(G);

Iph = 0.089*E;

%Io = A*(T^3)*(exp(-E/(K*T)));

%By calculations

Io

= 5*(10^(-5));

%___________________________________________________________

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%loop)

Isout = Iph - Io*(exp((q*Voc/10)/(A*K*T*1000))-1) - (Voc/(Rp*10));

% (this is to approximate first value of the short circuit current to enter the

%loop)

Isc1

= Isout;

%___________________________________________________________

% loop to aproach best Isc

for(b=1:10)

Isc = Iph - Io*(exp((-q*Rs*Isc1)/(A*K*T))-1) - (Rs*Isc1/Rp);

Isc1 = Isc;

end;

%___________________________________________________________

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%Isout=0;

% loop to approach best I

for(c=1:100)

Iot

+ 0.11*Isout)/(9*Rp)+(Rs*Isout)/Rp);

Isout = Iot;

end;

Iout=4*Iot;

Vout=12.4 + 0.11*Iout

Iout

Voc=9*Voc

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Isc= 4*Isc

Results

>> chargingcurrent(610)

Vout =

12.8244

Iout =

3.8585

Voc =

19.2202

Isc =

4.1515

These results verify the experimented IV curves of our PV module.

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IV Curve Verification

This code takes the irradianceand the operating point as input and has the

function FYPIVCURVEINPUT(G,V)

% Input : Irradiance G

% Input : Operating voltage

% Output : Current at that operating voltage

% These are the real Rp and Rs calculated

A= 0.008355;

q= 1.6*(10^(-19));

K= 1.3805*(10^(-23));

T= 298;

Rp= 386.36;

Rs= 0.1718;

% To change the value of H automatically

E

= 0.019125*(G);

Iph = 0.089*E;

%Io = A*(T^3)*(exp(-E/(K*T)));

%By calculations

Io

= 5*(10^(-5));

%___________________________________________________________

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%loop)

Isout = Iph - Io*(exp((q*Voc/10)/(A*K*T*1000))-1) - (Voc/(Rp*10));

% (this is to approximate first value of the short circuit current to enter the

%loop)

Isc1

= Isout;

%___________________________________________________________

% loop to aproach best Isc

for(b=1:10)

Isc = Iph - Io*(exp((-q*Rs*Isc1)/(A*K*T))-1) - (Rs*Isc1/Rp);

Isc1 = Isc;

end;

%___________________________________________________________

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

V= V/9;

Isout=0;

% loop to approach best I

for(c=1:100)

Iot

Isout = Iot;

end;

Iout=4*Iot;

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V= V*9

Iout

Voc=9*Voc

Isc= 4*Isc

Results

>> FYPIVCURVEINPUT(743,12.8)

V=

12.8000

Iout =

4.6611

Voc =

19.6015

Isc =

5.0567

>>

These results verify the experimented IV curves of our PV module.

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function newflowrate(h)

%head

Vph =228.6;

%Motor frequency

f=50;

p=4;

R2=539.27;

X1=98.12 ;

X2=98.12 ;

Xm=1264.3 ;

R1=406.24;

%Since load is considered to be fixed and slip is mainly determined by the load

%s= 0.92;

%Water Density

rho=1000;

% Earth Gravition

g=9.81;

%Radius of pipes

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Rpipe=0.03175;

%Radius of Pump

Rpump = 0.045;

%Torque of water on pump on one side

Tw = 1000*pi*(Rpipe^2)*h*g*Rpump/2

%Induction Motor Synchronous Speed

ws=4*pi*f/p;

Pin=45.2;

%Equivalent Impedance

Rth= R1*((Xm/(X1+Xm))^2);

Xth= X1;

%Thevenin Voltage

Vth=Vph*(Xm)/(X1+Xm);

%To calculate the slip

%Trying to find the slip on this load

Tf=0.0005

h=h*4; %to account our losses and to overcome

%the fact that our system is not a closed loop system

% Slip at Tmax

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sTmax= R2/sqrt(Rth^2+(Xth+X2)^2)

s1=0.4;

for i=1:100

T1= (Vth^2)*(R2)/( 2*s1*(ws)*((Rth +R2/(2*s1))^2+(Xth+X2)^2));

T2= (Vth^2)*(R2)/( 2*(2-s1)*(ws)*((Rth +R2/(4-2*s1))^2+(Xth+X2)^2));

Tem= T1-T2;

s = (Vth^2)*(R2)/( 2*(Tem-Tf)*(ws)*((Rth +R2/(2*s1))^2+(Xth+X2)^2));

s1=s;

end

s

% Motor Speed

w=(1-s)*ws;

%Output Torque

Tem= (Vth^2)*(R2)/( s*(ws)*((Rth +R2/s)^2+(Xth+X2)^2))

%starting torque

Tst= (Vth^2)*R2/(ws*((Rth+R2)^2+(Xth+X2)^2));

%Maximum Output Torque

Tmax=(Vth^2)/(2*ws*(Rth+sqrt(Rth^2+(Xth+X2)^2)))

% Induction Motor Output Power

Pout= Tem*w

%Efficiency of the induction motor-pump set is

efmp= Pout/Pin

%Hydro Output PowerPhydro: Pout=rho*g*H*Q;

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Spring 2005-2006

%HQ= Pout*3600/ (rho*g);

%Pumping Head

Q= Pout*3600/(h*(rho*g))

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Spring 2005-2006

Friction loss

Using the friction loss chart (see below) we calculated the plastic pipe friction loss and

steel pipe fitting.

10L 56.54 sec 2.8 GPM

Pipe section 1.25

The chart data are for 100 ft pipes.

2 GPM 0.07 ft

4 GPM 0.26 ft

2.8 GPM x

Using interpolation, x = 0.146 ft 100 ft

x=6.222 x 10-3 ft 4.262 ft=130 cm

x= 0.18977 cm

Pipe fitting

3.5 ft 100 ft

x = 0.149 4.262 ft= 130 cm

x= 4.5445 cm

TDH= 130 cm + 0.18977 cm +4.5445 cm = 134.734 cm

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53

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