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FYP

A Photovoltaic Powered Pumping System

Spring 2005-2006

Table of Contents
Problem Definition ............................................................................................ 1
Literature Review .............................................................................................. 2
Design Alternatives ........................................................................................... 5
Design Realistic Constraints ....................................................................... 7
Design Methodology Specifications and Modeling ....................... 10
The PV Generator ...................................................................................... 10
Single Phase Induction Motor ................................................................ 13
The Battery.................................................................................................... 17
The DC Regulator ....................................................................................... 19
The DC/AC Inverter .................................................................................. 23

Components Procurement............................................................................ 24
Implementation and Testing ....................................................................... 26
Validation of Results ........................................................................................ 29
Appraisal of the Project ................................................................................. 31
References............................................................................................................... 33
Appendices ............................................................................................................. 35
A. AC Loads Calculations .....................................................................................35
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A Photovoltaic Powered Pumping System

Spring 2005-2006

B. Battery Sizing ............................................................................................... 35


C. Array Sizing worksheet ............................................................................ 37
D. Induction Motor Equivalent Circuit Parameters............................ 38
E. Charging Current of the Battery of the PV ....................................... 41
F. IV Curve Verification ................................................................................ 44
G. Induction Motor Pumping System Model.......................................... 47
H. Friction loss ................................................................................................... 51

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A Photovoltaic Powered Pumping System

Spring 2005-2006

Problem Definition
The idea of Photovoltaic Powered Pumping System has been mainly suggested for water
procurement in remote areas where transmission line extension or diesel generator
installation is not feasible or economically inefficient [9], especially in desert regions
which explains the choice of Photovoltaic renewable energy source which correlates with
the long insolated hours in these regions. [6]

Besides, photovoltaic power is the most environmental friendly among the suggested
power supply methods and it seems, despite of the high initial cost of PV modules
installation, to be competing with the diesel generator installation now with the
unstoppable increasing oil prices.

Since such systems are usually implemented in remote areas, the availability of
specialized manpower for operating or maintaining the system seems to be unlikely,
therefore renewable sources as well as almost maintenance free subsystems are expected
to constitute the system.

The main objective of this project is to carry out a theoretical and experimental steady
state analysis in order to study the performance of a Photovoltaic Powered Pumping
System. This analysis can be used as reference for designing or reviewing the proposed
design as well as carrying out future researches and applications.

FYP

A Photovoltaic Powered Pumping System

Spring 2005-2006

Literature Review
The literature review extends over a number of papers that study Photovoltaic powered
Pumping System. The sources of the papers are mainly from Elsevier database journals
related to renewable energy as well as few papers from different websites.

The first paper entitled Optimization of Photovoltaic Water Pumps Coupled with an
Interfacing Pulse Width Modulated DC/AC Inverter Power Conditioning Device is
prepared by Neway Argaw (Tampere University of Technology (TUT) in Tampere,
Finland).
It exposes mathematical models for the different components of the system and shows
that a PVIMPS is optimized by improving solar radiation, array power output, and load
characteristics. [1]

The second paper entitled Photovoltaic Circuit Properties and Loads is a Renewable
Energy course file literature from the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture in the
American University of Beirut. [2]

The third paper entitled A fuzzy global efficiency optimization of a photovoltaic water
pumping system is prepared by K. Benlarbi, M.S. Nait-Said (Batna University) and
L. Mokrani (Laghouat University) in Algeria.
This paper as the previous ones shows a full modeling for the PVIMPS optimized by a
fuzzy logic controller with simulations and tests. [3]

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A Photovoltaic Powered Pumping System

Spring 2005-2006

The fourth paper entitled Performance optimization of a photovoltaic induction motor


pumping system is prepared by A. Betka (University of Oum El Bouaghi) and A.
Moussi (University of Biskra) in Algeria.
This paper exposes a mathematical model for the different components of a PVIMPS and
a comparison study between three induction motor optimization methods: the Constant
Efficiency by Yao, the Constant Field by Duzat, and the proposed approach on Field
Weakening which proved very close results to the MPPTs Yao and much better than
Duzats approach. [4]

The fifth reference is an academic book literature on electric machinery called Electric
machinery fundamentals by Chapman.[5]

The sixth paper entitled Design optimization of photovoltaic powered water pumping
systems is prepared by A.A. Ghoneim (College of Technological Studies) in Kuwait.
The interesting part of the paper is the photovoltaic generator design and the economic
study that proves the feasibility and competition of PV pumping systems over diesel
powered systems. [6]

The seventh is academic book literature on power electronics called Power Electronics
Converters Applications and Design by Mohan Undeland and Robbins. [8]

The eighth paper entitled Photovoltaic Water Pumping system at Skinner Ranch is
prepared by Oregon Office of Energy.

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A Photovoltaic Powered Pumping System

Spring 2005-2006

This paper shows a comparison economic study between three methods for power
supplying to a 12 KW system for pumping water from skinner Ranch. The three logical
methods are the Line Extension, Diesel Generator and PV system which is proved to be
the most economically efficient. [9]

The ninth paper entitled Improvement of induction motor drive systems supplied by
photovoltaic arrays with frequency control is prepared by Yao, Ramshaw (University of
Waterloo, Ontario, Canada) and Bustamante (Novatronics Inc., Stratford, Ontario,
Canada).
This paper discusses two improved systems with variable frequency. One system is based
on parabolic torque load and the other on linear torque load. [10]

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A Photovoltaic Powered Pumping System

Spring 2005-2006

Design Alternatives
Different designs are possible and have been implemented for a Photovoltaic Powered
Pumping System. First of all, the insistence on a photovoltaic resource as the only power
generator is mainly is due to the fact that PV Cells, unlike wind turbines are almost
operation and maintenance free power generator. They do not need fuel; produce no noise
and no waste. [10]

A DC-DC converter is used for charging the storage battery at constant voltage. Due to
unavailability of buck boost converter in the market, a boost converter will be designed in
order to increase the PV output voltage when it is lower than that of the battery. Also a
simple diode 10A can be used instead; that way the battery will be charged at different
voltage levels exclusively during the period when PV output voltage is greater than the
battery rated voltage, otherwise PV is disconnected from battery.

The storage battery is a crucial component in the system since most of renewable energy
systems are implemented using storage devices for storing extra available energy to be
used when needed disregarding the availability of energy source; besides, PV arrays
output voltage and current depend on solar irradiance, it is advised to provide a storage
battery for supplying a DC-AC inverter with a constant voltage needed as most of the
inverters available in the market are rated at constant DC input voltage.

The crucial subsystem choice is that of the motor-pump set. Many researches have
suggested a DC motor-pump set for its high efficiency especially at low loads [4] and for

FYP

A Photovoltaic Powered Pumping System

Spring 2005-2006

avoiding the installation of a DC-AC inverter as an extra subsystem for driving an AC


motor. Actually, many drawbacks have undermined the usage of DC motors for their
regular maintenance needed especially for brushes replacement as well as their high
costs, the decreasing cost of electronic components and the unavailability of DC motorpump sets in the market. Where as AC squirrel cage induction motors are robust almost
maintenance free and a cheap motor that is preferred over other
AC motors such synchronous motors and that for the complicated starter that require such
motors.[5] A single phase induction motor has been selected instead of the three phase
for several reasons among which is that our project seeks a steady state analysis that can
be carried out at low power ratings with single phase systems which are cheaper than
three phase systems used mostly for high power ratings .

Taking all these considerations lead to the decision of implementing of a Photovoltaic


Induction Motor Pumping System (PVIMPS) which is investigated in our FYP.

Below are explained PVIMPS design realistic constraints followed by the design
methodology and specifications that the group has been following in order to implement
the system.

FYP

A Photovoltaic Powered Pumping System

Spring 2005-2006

Design Realistic Constraints


In the design of our system we took into consideration certain realistic constraints related
to human needs. These constraints are economic, environmental, social, political, ethical,
health and safety, manufacturability, and sustainability.
One of the many advantages of renewable energy systems is that they are economic. In
this domain, we optimized our choice both technically and financially, in order to deliver
a system with reasonable cost. The fact of using the PV cells as the power source was to
provide a free source of power which is sun irradiance. We also did an optimization
problem to see how many modules of the panel we need, not to waste any energy that
could be used by other systems. Another optimization problem was done for the battery
sizing not to pay for unnecessary extra size or number. As for the system in all, it is well
known that renewable energy systems require a lot less maintenance than conventional
energy systems.
A main issue in conventional power production is the effect they have on the
environment. Due to this, protocols like the KYOTO protocol have been established to
maintain the environment. So it is essential that we take the environment into
consideration. Our system uses natural source of energy to supply natural assets which is
water, without any abuse of the environment. In the process of producing the electric
power, the irradiance of the sun is simply converted into electric power by the use of
semi-conductors. As a result, there is no pollution created or any environmental side
effect. And also, there is no hazardous waste that is produced with the products of the
system. So all in all, our system is environmentally friendly and conserving.

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A Photovoltaic Powered Pumping System

Spring 2005-2006

The main purpose of our system is procuring water for people in remote areas, with a low
overall price. Since people now can know what is efficient for them, even if it is on the
long run, then such systems will be accepted and demanded by the social individuals
more often. Also because water is a crucial condition of life, then ensuring it in an
efficient way has a social dimension.
The safety factor has become a crucial detail on which the assessment of any system or
project is based. The design of our system is done, with safety taken into consideration.
The only aspect that may cause injuries in systems similar to ours is the electric current.
To avoid such problems we have ensured that all the wires we use are fine, and with no
defects. We also have shielded all the other electric wires and put some insulation,
because the electric part of the system could get exposed to water. So we can deduce that
the health risks are negligible and that safety is certain.
To ensure the reliability of the system, the components, which together form the system,
have to be reliable. First of all the PV panel has been used in the last couple of years and
thankfully it has encountered no problems. Therefore we chose to buy and use
components which have been manufactured by well known leading companies such as
LG, Grundfos and Genius). After ensuring the components, we had to put the system
together. We, as a team, put the system together, but were aided and supervised by
specialists from the AUB physical plant because we lacked the required experience which
came in hand. These facts confirm the quality of our system manufacturability.
Concerning sustainability, our system is a renewable energy powered system, which in
itself is a factor of sustainability of a system. The systems input is the sunlight which is
available most of the time. And for the times, when it is not available, storage (battery

FYP

A Photovoltaic Powered Pumping System

Spring 2005-2006

and water tank) can be used. In addition, the fact that the components are almost
maintenance free is a main factor that improves sustainability.

FYP

A Photovoltaic Powered Pumping System

Spring 2005-2006

Design Methodology Specifications and Modeling


The PVIMPS is composed of the following components:
1. The PV modules which consists of the PV generator
2. A DC-DC Converter that increases or decreases the PV output Voltage in order to
charge the batteries at a constant voltage.
3. Storage Battery which supplies a constant DC voltage to the DC-AC inverter
4. The single phase DC-AC inverter
5. The single phase induction motor-pump set

Figure 1 PVIMPS components

Below is the Design Specifications of each subsystem or component of the PVIMPS

The PV Generator
The reason we chose this generator is that it is almost operation and maintenance free
unlike other renewable or finite energy resources and it needs no fuel, produces no noise
and no waste. It is the one offered by AUB and it is capable of providing the minimum
power needed to illustrate our project with the minimum number of resources found.
It is an LG Genesis PV generator made up of 3 PV modules connected in parallel.

Each module has the following characteristics:


Ptotal = 120 W

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Vrated = 16.9V
Irated = 7.1 A
Voc = 21V
Isc = 7.7 A
Maximum System Voc = 600V
Bypass Diode: 8 A
Wiring: Copper Only, 12 AWG min.

Class C Fire R
S/N: 06833166
Each module is made up of 4 parallel rows of 9 PV cells connected in series.
Vmodule = 9 X V cell
Imodule = 4 X I cell
V cell (rated) = 1.878 V
I cell (rated) = 1.775 A
Area of each cell is 15.5 X 15.5 cm2, so the total area is 0.8649 m2.
We used only one as it was enough according to array sizing (See Appendix for
array sizing)

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Figure 2 PV module I-V Curves

These are characteristic IV curves of the PV module used in our system. They were
taken at different irradiance levels by varying a (16 , 7.9A) resistor. Note that output
power increases with irradiance. Data of irradiance and temperature were taken from
Mechanical Engineering labs pyranometers.

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Modeling

Figure 3 PV Cell Model [3]

The I-V curve equation:


I = Iph ID- Ip
I

= Iph Io (e (q(V+RsI)/AKTo) -1) (V+ RsI)/Rp

Isc =Iph Io (e ((q RsIsc)/AKTo) -1) (RsIsc)/Rp


Voc = AKTo/q (ln(Iph + Io)/Io)
A: Ideality factor
K: Boltzman constant = 1.3805 x 10-23 N.m/oK
T: Absolute Temperature
Q: Electron Charge
Iph : Light Generated Current in a cell
Io : Reverse saturation Current of a Diode [1]

Single Phase Induction Motor


Due to the limited power supply, a water heater circulator less than 100W, 220 Vac,
50 Hz, is a good choice for our experiment.
For experimental purposes, we decided to limit the pumping height (1 to 2 meters) at a

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water flow of (1 to 2 m3/hr), ie, if we were storing a barrel (100L=0.1m3) -which is most
practical- the experiment will last for 3 to 6 minutes whether we are pumping at 1 or 2
m3/hr. Higher water flow will lead to empty the storage barrel so fast that the experiment
will last less than 3 minutes, which makes the system not reliable for an experiment.

According to our constraints, the motor-pump set that we will be using in our system is a
heater circulator Grundfos 32-40 180, capacitor-run single phase induction motor
coupled to an impeller.
The different characteristics of our motor pump set are as follows:
V rated = 230V.
It works on three different speeds hence operates on three different power levels:
At speed 1: Power input: 30 W, I = 0.13 A
At speed 2: Power input: 45 W, I= 0.2 A
At speed 3: Power input: 60 W, I= 0.26 A
Capacitor-run = 2 F [7]
Below are the H-Q curve of the pump that shows the relationship between height H and
water flow Q, and the power curve of the pump at its three operating speeds.

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Figure 4 HQ and Power Curves at 3 speeds [7]

Single Phase Induction Motor Equivalent Circuit Parameters: [5]

R1 ()

X1 ()

R2 ()

X2 ()

Xm ()

Rc ()

Speed 1

519.54

171.31

960

171.31

1909.25

2439.13

Speed 2

406.25

98.12

539.27

98.12

1264.3

1594. 165

Speed 3

280.14

35.49

398.86

35.49

991.74

1061.66

Table 1Induction Motor Equivalent Circuit Parameters

(See Appendix for Equivalent Circuit Parameters Test)

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Note: By using the speed level switch, rotor and stator circuits are modified which
explains the difference in equivalent circuit parameters among the three speeds. Also, at
no load tests, the motor runs at 3 different almost synchronous speeds.

Modeling
Input Power: Pin= Vph I1 cos
Motor Speed: = (1- s) s, where s is the slip and s is the synchronous speed =120P/f.
Equivalent Volatge: Vth= Vph (Xm)/( (R12+(X1+X m)2))
Equivalent Impedance: Zth=jX m(R 1+jX 1)/( R 1+j(X 1+X m))
Rth = Re (Zth)
Xth = I (Zth)
Rotor Current: I2= Vth /((Rth+R2/s)2+(Xth+X2)2)
Output Torque: Tem= V2th (R2/s)/( (s)( Rth +R2/s)2+(Xth+X2)2)
Output Power: Pout= Tem x
Motor Efficiency: mp= Pout / Pin
Ef = 0.5*V*(1 j/a)
Eb =0.5*V(1 + j/a)
Imf = (Vmf(z1m + Zb + Z12) + VmbZ12)/((z1m + Zf + Z12)(Z1m + Zb + Z12) Z12^2)
Imb = (Vmb(z1m + Zf + Z12) + VmfZ12)/((z1m + Zf + Z12)(Z1m + Zb + Z12) Z12^2)
Td = 2/ws(Imf^2Rf Imb^2Rb)
DMP = 2(Imf^2Rf Imb^2Rb)(1-s)
Maximum Torque: Tmax=Vth2/(2 x s x (Rth+(Rth2+(Xth+X2)2)))

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Slip at Tmax: sTmax=R2/(Rth2+(Xth+X2)2) [5]


Pout= Phydro = i mp Pdc= g H Q [1]

Figure 5 Single Phase IM Equivalent Circuit [4]

This is the single phase capacitor run induction motor equivalent circuit. The upper part
of secondary winding represents the parameters that contribute to the forward flux, while
the lower part represent the parameters that contribute to the backward flux.

The Battery
The battery is used to store extra energy from the PV generator, in order to use it when
the PV output power is not sufficient for running the pump.

Our battery has the following Characteristics:


Its a 65 AH (See Appendix for battery sizing)
Voc = 12.4V
Rc (Charging resistance) = 0.11 Ohms

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Rd (Discharging resistance) = (13.1-12.4)/0.35 = 2 Ohms

The charging current of the battery depends on the solar irradiance. Since the battery has
a constant charging resistance, then the operating point will be the intersection point
between the IV Curves of the PV generator and the IV curves of the battery charging
currents and voltages. Of course this intersection point will be on a voltage greater than
Voc of battery, since the batterys IV curve begins at that point.

Figure 6 PV Battery Operating Points Sketch

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If the intersecting voltage is higher than 13V, the boost converter will be off, and the
battery will be directly charged from the PV generator. So the Charging current will be:

I charge = (V-12.4)/0.11

If the intersecting voltage is less than 13V, the boost converter will be automatically
activated at any voltage between 8 and 13V and will be boosted to give an output of 13
V. So at that output voltage, the charging current of the Battery will be theoretically
constant which is (13-12.4)/0.11 = 5.45 A, but actually this current is limited by the
output power of the PV generator. If the power is greater than or equal (5.45A)(13V)(1.2)
= 84 W, to account losses, then this current can be provided by the PV generator, but if
the power is less than 84W, then the current will be lower depending on the solar
irradiance, and the current will be

I charge = Power (of PVG)/(1.2)(13)


= Power (of PVG)/15.6.

Which is lower than 5.45A

Boost Regulator

The Boost regulator is more an optimizing device than an essential one for this project. It
is used to charge the battery when the output voltage of the PV generator is lower than
the battery voltage, which is 12.4 V, i.e. when the irradiance of the sun is not sufficient to

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give the minimum acceptable voltage for safe charging. To be on the safe side we choose
the threshold voltage to be 13 V. So when the operating voltage is lower than 13 V the
converter raises the voltage up to that value, in order to charge the battery safely. When
the voltage is lower than 8V, the power of the PV generator will be so small, and it will
not be worthy of boosting it.

The Boost converter circuit is as follows:

Where,

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Vout = Vin / (1-D)

And D is the duty cycle or Ton/(Ton + Toff), which determines switching duration.
The switches are regular transistors, while the Capacitors and Inductor should have
certain values determined by the following formulas:

C = (D)*(Ts)*(delta (V)) / Imax

And
L = (0.074)*(Ts)*(Vout) / Imax
We have a constant Vout that we should maintain which is around 13 V. Our maximum
delta (V) is when Vin (or voltage from PV generator) is 8 V, since when the Vin is lower
than that the power would be unworthy converting it. Our switching frequency is 15 Khz,
so Ts = 6.66 *10^(-5) S, and our minimum D (duty cycle) will be 0.3846, when Vin =
8V. Our maximum current which is the maximum short circuit current of the PV
generator is around 6.95A, so Imax = 6.95 A.

So Using the formulas we get the following:


C = 691.358 micro F
L = 9.51429 micro H
So the components of boost converter are:
- Pic Microprocessor (Controller)= 16F877
- Capacitor C: 691.358 micro F

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- Inductor L: 9.51429 micro H


- Mosfets (Switches): 2 X IRFP 400
- Drive Circuit = IR211O/DIP14
- Opto Isolator = A4N27
- R1= 300 ohms
- R2= 300 ohms
- R3= 1000 ohms
- R4= 22 ohms
- C1= 2.2microF
- Diode = MOD201
The differential probe is used to read in the PV voltage and send a signal between 0 and
5V corresponding to our PV voltage (which is between 0V and 20V).
The controller circuit is programmed to read the voltage of the Differential Probe, and if
it is less than 3.25 V (13V out of the PV generator,), the transistor T1 is switched on and
transistor T2 is switched on and off in a PWM mode with a duty cycle D calculated
according to the PV generator voltage and thus the Differential Probe voltage, with an On
time which is equal to D/(15000), and Off time equal to (1-D)/(15000).
The D is calculated in the controller using this algorithm or rule:
D = 1 Vin/13
There is a drive circuit and an isolator for each transistor to control the power for each
switch (Mosfet).
And so as the input voltage changes, D will change to regulate the output and make it
constant at 13V.

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The DC/AC Inverter


The inverter used is a UPS device inverter that converts the Vdc=12.34 V DC output
voltage of the Battery into an output Vin = 220VAC, f=50 Hz, single phase AC square
wave voltage.
The inverter proposed in the design specifications has a constant parameters (Vdc, Vph,
f, M)
Vdc: DC input Voltage
Vph: AC Sinusoidal Output Voltage = M Vdc sin (2f x t)
f is the control signal frequency
M: Vtri / Vcontrol [8]

Figure 7 DC-AC inverter [8]

The DC-AC inverter is modeled by its efficiency.


i = P in / P dc= 45.2/(12.64x4.7) = 76.08%.

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Components Procurement
We asked a wide number of electrical equipment suppliers and engineers in order to
procure the different components of the PVIMPS.

The PV generator
Three PV modules are available on the roof of electronics lab in the faculty of
engineering and architecture at AUB. They will be used for implementing our FYP
system. The availability of the PV modules has tremendously decreased the design bill as
it is the most expensive subsystem of a PVIMPS.

The Boost Converter


It is implemented on a bread board. Its components were procured from EKT.

The Motor Pump Set


The motor pump set will be procured from the market. We contacted a wide number of
circulator pumps suppliers which among which:
Supplier

Brand

Characteristics

Price

LEGEND

Grundfos UPS 32-40

60W, 230V,50Hz

75 euros

Wilo Salmson Lebanon

Salmson NXL 53-32 P

40 W, 220V, 50Hz

77 euros

SACOM

Grundfos UPS 32-40

60W, 230V,50Hz

75 euros

Table 2 Pump Offers

The DC-AC Inverter


During our early procurement activity, we found that most of inverter suppliers provide
UPS systems, which is equipped by a battery charger (Bridge Rectifier) which does not
fit our system since the storage battery is being charged from the PV generator via a DC24

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DC converter. Few suppliers had simple inverters available or were ready to make it
available among EKT, Sonics and MPS. A good idea was to use a PC back-up UPS and
its inverter for inverting the DC output of the battery to a square wave 220V, 50 HZ
signal. The UPS is a Genius, 220V ac, 50 Hz, 350W which is enough to run our system
of 60W circulating pump.

Batteries were procured from Bawwab company for batteries. It is an RB 65 AH, at


35$.

Measurement instruments such as Pyranometer, oscilloscope, multimeter,


clampmeter were available at FEA ECE labs.

The Water Storage Tank of 100L was procured from Nassar (NTP), at 22.5$.
Pipes, taps and plumbing works were provided by the physical plant at AUB.
Labor work: electrical work was executed by the project members.
Software
The software usage was restraint to simple application calculation and simulations using
matlab 6.0 and Excel 2003. They were available at engineering computer labs, and in our
PCs.

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Implementation and Testing


The implementation of the system was done as follows:
Electric Circuit
The PV module is connected to the battery via a diode for charging purpose. Note, the
DC regulator was not yet implemented at the time of testing.
The battery is connected to a UPS (of which we used the inverter)
The inverter is connected to the pump which is installed in the water circuit.
Water Circuit
The water circuit is formed of the tank, the pump, a 90o elbow and a 2.52 m pipe stood
upright as shown in the figure below. Four taps were used for testing at 10cm, 70cm,
130cm and 190cm.
The objective was to measure the water flow at these 4 different pumping heads.
Due to financial constraints, we could not buy a flowmeter which is costly (exceeds
1000$). The solution was to use a 10L tank (a small volume in order to avoid the loss of
pressure from the 100L storage tank on the circulator) in which we poured the pumped
water and calculated the time needed in order to fill it up. See the system picture below.

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Figure 8 The Pumping system

We tested the system at speed 2, and using a voltmeter, a clampmeter, a powermeter and
a chronometer, we had the following results:
H (m)

10 cm (72 -62 cm)

70 cm (10+60 cm)

130 cm(70+60 cm)

190 cm(130+60 cm)

T (sec)

49.23

53.55

56.54

61.92

Q (m3/hr)

0.73126

0.6723

0.6367

0.58139

P (W)

45.1

45.1

45

45.3

V (V)

228.4

228.6

228.6

227.8

I (A)

0.220

0.219

0.218

0.216

Vdc (V)

12.64

12.64

12.64

12.64

Idc (A)

4.8

4.8

4.8

4.8

Table 3 Testing Results

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At no load: the PV is connected to the battery: Vdc= 12.82V, Idc=3.8 A.


The output voltage of inverter is Vrms= 212.3 V.
The current from battery to inverter is Idc= 0.25A.
In order to take into account the pipe friction and the 90o elbow effect on the water flow,
we calculated the THD (total dynamic head) which is the actual head seen by the
circulator.
TDH= static head + pipe friction loss + pipe fitting
TDH= 130 cm + 0.18977 cm +4.5445 cm = 134.734 cm
(See Appendix for Calculation of Friction Losses)
Even though, results remain different from catalogue data.

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Validation of Results
The voltage, current and power results verify the ones provided in the catalogue (see
design specifications section).
Friction and mechanical loads assessment were not finalized, as a promised cooperation
of the mechanical engineering faculty will help to assess these values and reach accurate
theoretical results verifying the experimental results.
Theoretical analysis uses the single phase capacitor-run induction motor and hydraulic
formulae. The job of the circulator here is not only to overcome friction but to lift the
water to a certain height level.
(See Appendix for Induction Motor Pumping System Model)

Catalogue Data

Figure 9 Catalogue results of testing points

Concerning the experimental mechanical results varied from catalogue values due to
design constraints. The main constraints that made the results vary from the catalogue are
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that there are friction losses may be due to pipes and their fittings; the other constraint is
that our circulator pump characteristics (catalogue data) are specific to closed circuit
system which has the following characteristics:
It is a closed circuit of water, where the pipes, tanks and pump are always completely
filled of water, and the job of the circulator has nothing to do with lifting, their only job is
to overcome friction. It is only necessary to circulate the water whether it is horizontally
or vertically laid circuit.
A mechanical engineer from Grundfos said that the catalogue characteristics were for
closed system, and that the catalogue data will not be met with open circuit system.
Another mechanical engineer from the physical plant at AUB said that results said that
results may not exactly verify the catalogue data but they should be of the same order.
The implementation of a closed system is costly and very delicate, besides, it should be
supplied with a flowmeter which increases the cost of the system by almost 1000$.
In order to be more accurate, we calculated the total dynamic head (TDH) as shown
above.

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Appraisal of the Project


Constraints
Due to design constraints, mainly the low power rating of the PV module, prevented us
from using a higher power (1/4 or hp centrifugal pump) in our system. The low
wattage forced us to use a heater circulator instead. Knowing that these circulators are
used for closed systems, we used them for an open system which made the experimental
data vary from catalogue data.
Achievements
Despite these constraints, the project studied the performance of a circulator in an open
system and the experiment proved it efficiency as we were able to lift water a different
height levels.
The project included all the stages required for designing a photovoltaic powered
induction motor pumping system (PVIMPS): the PV and battery sizing, the converter
design, the choice of the pump, and the plumbing system.
Recommendations
A good improvement on the theoretical section is that it can be worked on an accurate
estimation of the slip according to a more accurate assessment of the load and friction
torque in order to determined more accurately the behavior of the circulator.
This will be achieved with a promised cooperation of mechanical engineering faculty of
AUB.
In order to avoid the technical and financial constraints, a similar study can be tested on a
implemented system for optimization purpose.

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Another option is to work on a theoretical or CAD based designed of a higher power


rating system.
Otherwise, if financial constraints were overcome, it is advisable to design a higher
power rating and buy new components and especially new PV modules according to
design specifications.
More study can be worked on the battery charging from PV modules and its performance.
To conclude, this analysis can be used as reference for designing or reviewing the
proposed design as well as carrying out future researches and applications.

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References
[1] Argaw, N. (1994 December). Optimization of Photovoltaic Water Pumps Coupled
with an Interfacing Pulse Width Modulated DC/AC Inverter Power Conditioning
Device. IEEE. Retrieved October 13, 2005, from IEEE database via
www.aub.edu.lb\libraries

[2] AUB WebCT (2005 November). December 2, 2005 Photovoltaic Circuit


Properties and Loads. Retrieved from http://www.aub.edu.lb/webct/eece684

[3] Benlarbi, K., Nait-Said, M., Mokrani, L.(2004 May). A fuzzy global efficiency
optimization of a photovoltaic water pumping system. Solar Energy. Retrieved
November 04, 2005, from Elsevier database via www.aub.edu.lb\libraries

[4] Betka, A., Moussi, A. (2004). Performance optimization of a photovoltaic


induction motor pumping system. Renewable Energy, 29, 2167-2181.

[5] Chapman SJ. (1991). Electric machinery fundamentals. New York: McGraw-Hill.

[6] Ghoneim, A.A. (2005 August). Design optimization of photovoltaic powered


water pumping systems. Energy Conversion and Management. Retrieved October
15, 2005, from Elsevier database via www.aub.edu.lb\libraries

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[7] Grundfos. Series 100 Circulator Pumps. [Brochure]. Bjerringbro,


Denmark:Grundfos.

[8] Mohan, N., Robbins, W.P., Undeland, T.M. (2003). Power Electronics
Converters Applications and Design. (3rd ed.) New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons,
INC.

[9] Oregon Office of energy (1998 August).October 20, 2005 Photovoltaic Water
Pumping system at Skinner Ranch.
Retrieved from www.oregon.gov/ENERGY/RENEW/Solar/docs/skinner.pdf

[10] Yao, Y., Ramshaw, P., Bustamante, R.S.(1994 June). Improvement of induction
motor drive systems supplied by photovoltaic arrays with frequency control. IEEE
Transaction on Energy Conversion. Retrieved October 14, 2005, from IEEE
database via www.aub.edu.lb\libraries

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Appendices
AC Loads Calculations
AC water pump: Max speed Wattage = 60 W, 220 Vac
Since we are inverting from A 12 V battery to 220 Vac
DC analysis
60 W x 1.3 (for Inversion losses) = 78 W
Current input at the 12 V DC side = 78 / 12 = 6.5 A
Since we need to operate the pump for at least 2 hours a day:
Daily AH requirement: 2 x 6.5 = 13 AH per day

Battery Sizing [2]


1. Total average amp hours per day from the Load Sizing worksheet
2 Hours working per day
6.5 amps load at max speed
2 x 6.5 = 13 AH per day
2. The maximum number of consecutive cloudy weather days expected in the Area,
Or the number of days of autonomy we need the system to support.
1 day
3. The amount of AH needed to be stored:
13 x 1 = 13 AH
4. Depth of discharge of the Battery:
0.5
5. Divide the AH by the depth of discharge:
13 / 0.5 = 26

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6. Select the multiplier that corresponds to the average wintertime ambient


temperature the battery bank Wi
1
7. Multiply it by AH:
26 x 1 = 26
8. Taking into consideration the staring current of the Induction motor:
Battery chosen should be best chosen as slightly bigger than double the rated
current.
So chosen battery is (RB; 12V; 65 AH)
9. Number of batteries in Parallel:
2 x 26/ 65 = 1 (rounded up)
10. Number of batteries in Series:
12 / 12 =1
Number of batteries needed:
1x1=1

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Array Sizing worksheet [2]


1.

Total average amp hours per day from the Load Sizing worksheet
13 AH per day

2.

Multiply by 1.2 to compensate the battery losses:


13 x 1.2 = 15.6

3.

Average sun hours per day In area:


4 Hours

4.

Divide 2 by 3 to get total solar array amps required


15.6 / 4 = 4.33 A

5.

Peak amps of solar module used:


7.1 Amps (LG Genesis; 120 watt, 16.9, 7.1 amp)

6.

Peak Voltage of solar module used:


16.9 V (LG Genesis; 120 watt, 16.9, 7.1 amp)

7.

To determine number of solar modules in parallel:


4.33 / 7.1 = 0.6 1 module

8.

To determine number of solar modules in series:


12 / 16.9 = 0.71 1 module

9.

To determine number of solar modules needed:


1 x 1 = 1 module

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Single Phase Induction Motor Equivalent Circuit Parameters: [5]


DC Test
At speed 1: R1 = 519.54 Ohms
At speed 2: R1= 406.25 Ohms
At speed 3: R1= 280.14 Ohms

Blocked Rotor Test

Pump Speed

Voltage (Volts)

197.4

194.1

177.5

Current (Amps)

0.13

0.201

0.26

Power (Watts)

25

38.2

45.9

Table 4 Locked rotor Test Readings

At speed 1:
ZLR = VLR / ILR = 197.4/0.13 = 1518.46 Ohms
RLR = PLR / (ILR) 2 = 25/ (0.13)2 = 1479.3 Ohms
R2 = RLR R1 = 1479.3 519.4= 960 Ohms
XLR = ((ZLR) 2 (RLR) 2) = 342.62 Ohms
Class D X1 = 0.5 XLR = 171.31 Ohms, X2 = 0.5 XLR = 171.31 Ohms
Following the same calculations:
At speed 2:
ZLR=965.67 Ohms, RLR = 945.52 Ohms
R2= 539.27 Ohms
XLR= 196.24 Ohms

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X1 = 98.12 Ohms, X2= 98.12 Ohms


At speed 3:
ZLR=682.7 Ohms, RLR = 679 Ohms
R2= 398.86 Ohms
XLR= 70.98 Ohms
X1 = 35.49 Ohms, X2= 35.49 Ohms
No load Test
Pump Speed

Vnl (Volts)

224.7

224.8

224.8

Inl (Amps)

0.108

0.165

0.218

Pnl (Watts)

20.7

31.7

47.6

Table 5 No Load Test Readings

At speed 1:
Znl = Vnl/ Inl = 224.7 / 0.108 = 2080.56 Ohms = X1 + Xm
Xm = Znl X1 = 2080.56 171.31 = 1909.25 Ohms
Rc= V2nl/ Pnl = 2439.13 Ohms

At speed 2:
Znl = 1362.42 Ohms
X m = 1264.3 Ohms
Rc= 1594. 165 Ohms

At speed 3:
Znl= 1031.19 Ohms

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Xm = 991.74 Ohms
Rc= 1061.66 Ohms

R1 ()

X1 ()

R2 ()

X2 ()

Xm ()

Rc ()

Speed 1

519.54

171.31

960

171.31

1909.25

2439.13

Speed 2

406.25

98.12

539.27

98.12

1264.3

1594. 165

Speed 3

280.14

35.49

398.86

35.49

991.74

1061.66

Figure 10 Induction Motor Equivalent Circuit Parameters

Note: By using the speed level switch, rotor and stator circuits are modified which
explains the difference in equivalent circuit parameters among the three speeds. Also, at
no load tests, the motor runs at 3 different almost synchronous speeds.

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Charging Current of the Battery of the PV


By giving it a certain irradiance G,
function chargingcurrent(G)
% Input : Irradiance G
% Input : voltage of the battery which is 12.4V
% Output : Operating point current, voltage, open circuit voltage and short circuit current
% These are the real Rp and Rs calculated
A= 0.008355;
q= 1.6*(10^(-19));
K= 1.3805*(10^(-23));
T= 298;
Rp= 386.36;
Rs= 0.1718;
% To change the value of H automatically
E

= 0.019125*(G);

Iph = 0.089*E;
%Io = A*(T^3)*(exp(-E/(K*T)));
%By calculations
Io

= 5*(10^(-5));

Voc = (A*K*T*10^3)*(logm((Iph + Io)/(Io)))/q;


%___________________________________________________________

% (this is to approximate first value of the Output current to enter the

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%loop)
Isout = Iph - Io*(exp((q*Voc/10)/(A*K*T*1000))-1) - (Voc/(Rp*10));
% (this is to approximate first value of the short circuit current to enter the
%loop)
Isc1

= Isout;

%___________________________________________________________
% loop to aproach best Isc
for(b=1:10)
Isc = Iph - Io*(exp((-q*Rs*Isc1)/(A*K*T))-1) - (Rs*Isc1/Rp);
Isc1 = Isc;
end;
%___________________________________________________________
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%Isout=0;
% loop to approach best I
for(c=1:100)
Iot

= Iph - Io*(exp(q*((12.4 + 0.11*Isout)/9+Rs*Isout)/(A*K*T*1000)) - 1) - ((12.4

+ 0.11*Isout)/(9*Rp)+(Rs*Isout)/Rp);
Isout = Iot;
end;
Iout=4*Iot;
Vout=12.4 + 0.11*Iout
Iout
Voc=9*Voc

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Isc= 4*Isc

Results
>> chargingcurrent(610)
Vout =
12.8244
Iout =
3.8585
Voc =
19.2202
Isc =
4.1515
These results verify the experimented IV curves of our PV module.

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IV Curve Verification
This code takes the irradianceand the operating point as input and has the
function FYPIVCURVEINPUT(G,V)
% Input : Irradiance G
% Input : Operating voltage
% Output : Current at that operating voltage
% These are the real Rp and Rs calculated

A= 0.008355;
q= 1.6*(10^(-19));
K= 1.3805*(10^(-23));
T= 298;
Rp= 386.36;
Rs= 0.1718;
% To change the value of H automatically
E

= 0.019125*(G);

Iph = 0.089*E;
%Io = A*(T^3)*(exp(-E/(K*T)));
%By calculations
Io

= 5*(10^(-5));

Voc = (A*K*T*10^3)*(logm((Iph + Io)/(Io)))/q;


%___________________________________________________________

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% (this is to approximate first value of the Output current to enter the


%loop)
Isout = Iph - Io*(exp((q*Voc/10)/(A*K*T*1000))-1) - (Voc/(Rp*10));
% (this is to approximate first value of the short circuit current to enter the
%loop)
Isc1

= Isout;

%___________________________________________________________
% loop to aproach best Isc
for(b=1:10)
Isc = Iph - Io*(exp((-q*Rs*Isc1)/(A*K*T))-1) - (Rs*Isc1/Rp);
Isc1 = Isc;
end;
%___________________________________________________________
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
V= V/9;
Isout=0;
% loop to approach best I
for(c=1:100)
Iot

= Iph - Io*(exp(q*((V)+Rs*Isout)/(A*K*T*1000)) - 1) - (V/(Rp)+(Rs*Isout)/Rp);

Isout = Iot;
end;
Iout=4*Iot;

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V= V*9
Iout
Voc=9*Voc
Isc= 4*Isc
Results
>> FYPIVCURVEINPUT(743,12.8)
V=
12.8000
Iout =
4.6611
Voc =
19.6015
Isc =
5.0567
>>
These results verify the experimented IV curves of our PV module.

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Induction Motor Pumping System Model


function newflowrate(h)
%head

%Rated Voltage of inverter.


Vph =228.6;
%Motor frequency
f=50;
p=4;

R2=539.27;
X1=98.12 ;
X2=98.12 ;
Xm=1264.3 ;
R1=406.24;

%Since load is considered to be fixed and slip is mainly determined by the load
%s= 0.92;
%Water Density
rho=1000;
% Earth Gravition
g=9.81;
%Radius of pipes

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Rpipe=0.03175;
%Radius of Pump
Rpump = 0.045;
%Torque of water on pump on one side
Tw = 1000*pi*(Rpipe^2)*h*g*Rpump/2
%Induction Motor Synchronous Speed
ws=4*pi*f/p;

Pin=45.2;

%Equivalent Impedance
Rth= R1*((Xm/(X1+Xm))^2);
Xth= X1;
%Thevenin Voltage
Vth=Vph*(Xm)/(X1+Xm);
%To calculate the slip
%Trying to find the slip on this load
Tf=0.0005
h=h*4; %to account our losses and to overcome
%the fact that our system is not a closed loop system

% Slip at Tmax

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sTmax= R2/sqrt(Rth^2+(Xth+X2)^2)
s1=0.4;
for i=1:100
T1= (Vth^2)*(R2)/( 2*s1*(ws)*((Rth +R2/(2*s1))^2+(Xth+X2)^2));
T2= (Vth^2)*(R2)/( 2*(2-s1)*(ws)*((Rth +R2/(4-2*s1))^2+(Xth+X2)^2));
Tem= T1-T2;
s = (Vth^2)*(R2)/( 2*(Tem-Tf)*(ws)*((Rth +R2/(2*s1))^2+(Xth+X2)^2));
s1=s;
end
s
% Motor Speed
w=(1-s)*ws;
%Output Torque
Tem= (Vth^2)*(R2)/( s*(ws)*((Rth +R2/s)^2+(Xth+X2)^2))
%starting torque
Tst= (Vth^2)*R2/(ws*((Rth+R2)^2+(Xth+X2)^2));
%Maximum Output Torque
Tmax=(Vth^2)/(2*ws*(Rth+sqrt(Rth^2+(Xth+X2)^2)))
% Induction Motor Output Power
Pout= Tem*w
%Efficiency of the induction motor-pump set is
efmp= Pout/Pin
%Hydro Output PowerPhydro: Pout=rho*g*H*Q;

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%The product rho*g*HQ is in J/hr =>Pout in (W or J/s) should be multiplied by 3600


%HQ= Pout*3600/ (rho*g);
%Pumping Head
Q= Pout*3600/(h*(rho*g))

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Friction loss
Using the friction loss chart (see below) we calculated the plastic pipe friction loss and
steel pipe fitting.
10L 56.54 sec 2.8 GPM
Pipe section 1.25
The chart data are for 100 ft pipes.
2 GPM 0.07 ft
4 GPM 0.26 ft
2.8 GPM x
Using interpolation, x = 0.146 ft 100 ft
x=6.222 x 10-3 ft 4.262 ft=130 cm
x= 0.18977 cm
Pipe fitting
3.5 ft 100 ft
x = 0.149 4.262 ft= 130 cm
x= 4.5445 cm
TDH= 130 cm + 0.18977 cm +4.5445 cm = 134.734 cm

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Figure 11 Pipe Friction Loss

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Figure 12 Pipe Fitting Friction Loss

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