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Friction Losses in Expansion.

Contraction and Pipe Fittings


Skin Friction losses in flow through straight pipe are calculated by using the Fanning
Friction Factor.
Methods to estimate the losses in the velocity of fluid because of the changed in direction or
magnitude.
1. Sudden enlargement losses
The cross section of pipe enlarges very gradually, very little or no extra losses
are
Incurred.
For turbulent flow:

v 1 v 2 2

1
=

hex =
2. Sudden contraction losses
The cross section of the pipe is suddenly reduced, the stream cannot follow
around the
sharp corner, and additional frictional losses due to eddies occur.
For turbulent flow:

=0.55 1

3. Losses in fittings and valves


The pipe fittings and valves also disturb the normal flow lines in a pipe and cause
additional friction losses.

4. Frictional losses in mechanical energy balance equation


The friction losses from the friction in the straight pipe, enlargement losses,
contraction
losses, contraction losses, and losses in fittings and valve are all incorporated in the mechanical
energy balance.

F=4 f + + Kf

Entrance Section of a pipe


If the velocity profile at the entrance region of a tube is flat, a certain length of the tube is
necessary for the velocity profile to be fully established. This length for the establishment of fully
developed flow is called the transition length of entry length.

The entrance the velocity profile is flat, the velocity is the same at all positions. As the fluid
progresses down the tube, the boundary layer thickness increases until finally they meet at
the center of the pipe and the parabolic velocity profile is fully established.
For laminar flow:

Le
=0.0575 N
D
For Turbulent flow:
No relation is available to predict the entry length for a fully developed turbulent velocity
profile to form. As an approximation, the entry length is nearly independent of the Reynolds
number and is fully developed after 50 diameters downstream

Selection of Pipe Sizes


In the large or complex process pipping systems, the optimum size of pipe to use for a specific
situation depends upon the relative costs of capital investment, power, maintenance and so on.
Representative Ranges of Velocities in Steel Pipes
Type of Fluid
Non-viscous Fluid

Viscous Fluid

Type of Flow
Inlet to pump

2-3 ft/s

Velocity
0.6-0.9 m/s

Process line or pump

5-8 ft/s

1.5- 2.5 m/s

discharge
Inlet to pump

0.2 0.8 ft/s 0.06-0.25 m/s

Process line or pump

0.5 2 ft/s

0.15-0.6 m/s

30 - 120 ft/s
30 75 ft/s

9 36 m/s
9 23 m/s

discharge
Gas
Steam

Compressible Flow of Gases


Introduction and basic equation for flow in pipes
When pressure changes in gases occur which are greater than about 10%, the friction
loss equation may be in error since compressible flow is occurring.

2f
+ +

dL = 0

Isothermal Compressible Flow

4 f L
+
ln

2 D

Adiabatic Compressible Flow


When heat transfer through the wall of the pipe is negligible, the flow of gas in
compressible flow in a straight pipe of constant cross section is adiabatic.
The maximum flow occurs when the velocity at the downstream end of the pipe is the sonic
velocity for adiabatic flow:

= y =

A convenient parameter often used in compressible flow equations is the Mach number Nma,
which is defined as the ration of v, the speed of the fluid in the conduit, to v max, the speed of
sound in the fluid at the actual flow conditions.

N =