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African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 6(23), pp.

5208-5211, 19 October, 2011


Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJAR
DOI: 10.5897/AJAR11.384
ISSN 1991-637X 2011 Academic Journals

Full Length Research Paper

Sensitivity to gamma rays studies in two Iranian rice


(Oryza sativa) genotypes
Hallajian Mohammad Taher1*, Muminjanov Hafiz2, Jamali Sepideh Sadat1, Vedadi Cirus1,
Naghavi Mohammad Reza3 and Majdabadi Abbas1
1

Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School of Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Karaj-Iran.
2
Tajik Agrarian University, 146 Rudaki ave., Dushanbe 734017, Tajikistan.
3
Agriculture Faculty of Tehran University, Iran.
Accepted 15 June, 2011

Determination of effective irradiation dose is prerequisite for mutation breeding and development of
genetic variations by induced mutation. In this study, two rice genotypes (cultivar Fajr and landrace
Tarom mohalli) were used for effective dose determination and to compare their sensitivity to different
doses of gamma rays in a completely random design. It was found that, irradiation reduced significantly
adventure and survival percentages of seedlings in higher doses and this reduction was more
pronounced in inbred cultivar. With attention to LD50 data, our results indicated that optimum doses for
landrace Tarom mohalli and for cultivar Fajr were 220 and 200 Gy, respectively. Although LD50 was the
same in both genotypes, but survival percentage of seedlings was more in landrace Tarom mohalli. We
concluded that cultivars are more sensitive to gamma rays than landraces.
Key words: Induced mutation, gamma rays, primary damage, rice.
INTRODUCTION
Rice (Oryza sativa) has been a popular subject to
mutagenesis because it is the worlds leading food crop
and of its diploid nature. Ionizing radiations have been
successful in inducing genetic variability in rice (Smith,
1972). Before the start of any sound breeding program,
knowledge of the relative biological effectiveness and
efficiency of various mutagens is useful in mutation
breeding (Smith, 1972). Various attempts in this direction
have been made by different scientists to determine the
most effective mutagenic treatment for the induction of
desirable traits in rice (Awan and Bari, 1979; Reddy and
Rao, 1988; Bansal et al., 1990; Pillai et al., 1993; Sarawgi
and Soni, 1993). Bughio et al. (2007) developed a high
yield rice mutant variety Mehak from a fine aromatic
variety Basmati-370, through gamma rays (150 Gy) and
found that mutant variety Mehak significantly better than
its mother variety Basmati-370 in respect of yield and
yield contributing traits. Cheema and Atta (2003) used

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mhallajian@nrcam.org.


Abbreviations: IAEA, International Atomic Energy Agency;
FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization.

from three Basmati rice varieties (Basmati 370, Basmati


Pak and Super Basmati) to examine varietal differences
in radio sensitivity to gamma radiation. They exposed to
150, 200, 250 and 300 Gy doses of gamma rays and
observed with the increase in radiation dose decrease in
germination, seedling height, root length and emergence
under field conditions in M1 generation. Plant height and
seed fertility decreased with increase in gamma radiation
dose in an approximately linear fashion.
They found that LD50 values for seed fertility were 238,
232 and 223 Gy for Basmati 370, Basmati Pak and Super
Basmati, respectively. Gamma rays dose of 200 and 250
Gy produced the highest mutation frequency for Basmati
370 followed by Basmati Pak and Super Basmati.
Induced mutations have played a significant role for the
improvement of rice by developing a large number of
semi-dwarf and high yielding varieties in many countries
(Maluszynski et al., 1986; Baloch et al., 2003). Recently
International Atomic Energy Agency and Food and
Agriculture Organization (IAEA/FAO) has reported that
443 rice varieties have been developed through induced
mutations (Anonymous, 2004) during the period of 1966
to 2004. In Iran, landrace Tarom mohalli is native and
qualitative variety of rice cultivation and any mutation
breeding work for breeding and enrichment of this

Taher et al.

5209

Table 1. Percentage of survival in seedlings of landrace tarom mohalli with different irradiation doses and replications.

Dose
0
150
180
200
220
250
300

Rep 1
9
7
8
6
5
2
1

Rep 2
10
8
7
4
4
3
2

Rep. 3
10
7
6
7
5
3
3

Rep 4
9
7
7
6
5
4
2

Mean survival of seedlings


9.5
7.25
7
5.75
4.75
3
2

Percentage of survival
95a*
72.5b
70b
57.5c
47.5c
30d
20d

*Unlike letters indicate significant difference in level 5% and the same letters beside of survival percentage in any dose, indicate
that these doses include in one group.

Table 2. Percentage of survival in seedlings of cultivar fajr with different irradiation doses and replications.

Dose
0
150
180
200
220
250
300

Rep 1
9
5
6
6
3
4
1

Rep 2
9
8
7
7
4
3
0

Rep 3
6
8
7
4
3
3
3

Rep 4
7
7
7
4
4
2
1

Mean survival of seedlings


7.75
7
6.75
5.25
3.5
3
1.25

Percentage of survival
77.5a*
70ab
67.5ab
52.5b
35c
30c
12.5d

*Unlike letters indicate significant difference in level 5% and the same letters beside of survival in any dose, indicate that these
doses include in one group.

landrace is accounted to be very important. Also, cultivar


Fajr is one of commercial and high yield rice cultivars that
are under cultivation in Iran and any favorable change in
its germplasm will be so beneficial in better marketing
and sale of this cultivar in Iran and world. Therefore, the
present study has been conducted for evaluation of
mutagen (gamma ray) effects and finding that which of
gamma ray dose is optimum in order to induction of
favorable genetic changes in rice genotypes Fajr and
Tarom mohalli.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
About 500 seeds of two genotypes (Fajr and Tarom mohalli) were
included in nylon bags. Assuming that humidity of dry and mature
seeds of rice cultivars is about 2 to 3% and in other hand, for
performing irradiation dose determination experiments and attaining
to highest frequency of favorable mutations, seed humidity must be
between 11 to 13% it is necessary to add water to nylon bags
containing seeds. After adding water, nylon bags were kept for 24 h
in refrigerator. After hydration operation, several seeds are put in
hydrometer set. Humidity percentage of seeds in both genotypes
was 12%. There were 28 samples in any genotype consisted of 7
experimental doses (treatment) with 4 replications. Experimental
doses were 0, 150, 180, 200, 220, 250 and 300 Gy. Number of
experimental seeds in any replication and so, in any dose was 10
and 40, respectively. Irradiation doses for both of varieties were 0,
150, 180, 200, 220, 250 and 300 Gy. In order to inhibit of imposing
drought stress on seedlings, Petri dishes were irrigated once in
every four days. 3 weeks after sowing of seeds (two weeks after
seed germination), it was calculated LD50 for survival of seedlings in

different doses in two genotypes. SPSS Ver.11 software was used


for statistic analysis of treatments. Finally, LD50 and optimum dose
of two genotypes were determined and compared with together.

RESULTS
The germination decreased after gamma irradiation, but
the decrease was related to the increase of dosage and
definite pattern was not determined in two rice
genotypes. In term of resulted information from dose
determination, data were classified in four independent
groups in any genotypes (Tables 1 and 2). Optimum dose
is dose that cause maximum of mutation with minimum of
damage to the plant. LD50 for survival of seedlings in
three weeks after sowing of seeds was different and for
landrace Tarom mohalli and cultivar Fajr was determined
about 220 and 200 Gy, respectively (Figures 1 and 2).
There were significant differences in level 5% in dose
treatments (between groups) (Tables 3, 4 and 5). In
relation with adventure and survival of seedlings, gamma
rays in lower doses (150, 180 and 200 Gy) had less
minus effects than higher doses specially, 300 Gy, as
survival of seedlings had been reduced significantly in
dose 300 Gy in both of genotypes. But in higher doses,
sensitivity of cultivar Fajr was so higher than landrace
Tarom mohalli, because survival percentage of cultivar
Fajr seedlings survival in higher doses (220, 250 and 300
Gy) was so less than landrace Tarom mohalli. Also, in

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Afr. J. Agric. Res.

LD50
LD50

Figure 1. Survival LD50 of seedlings in cultivar fajr.

LD50
LD50

Figure 2. Survival LD50 of seedlings in landrace tarom mohalli.

Table 3. Test of between-subjects effects for landrace tarom mohalli.

Source
Corrected model
Intercept
t
Error
Total
Corrected total

Type III sum of squares


a
16142.857
88032.143
16142.857
1325.000
105500.000
17467.857

df
6
1
6
21
28
27

Mean square
2690.476
88032.143
2690.476
63.095

F
42.642
1.395E3
42.642

Sig.
0.000
0.000
0.000

a. R Squared = 0.924 (adjusted R squared = 0.902).

higher doses, height of seedlings was reduced. In


medium doses (200, 220 and 250 Gy), height of
seedlings was reduced to half in some replications and in
highest dose (300 Gy) had been decreased even to less
than half of normal height seedling.

DISCUSSION
Cheema and Atta (2003) in their studies on Indica rice
genotypes (Basmati rice varieties) indicated that LD50
values for seed fertility was 238, 232 and 223 Gy for

Taher et al.

5211

Table 4. Test of between-subjects effects for cultivar fajr.

Source
Corrected model
Intercept
t
Error
Total
Corrected total

Type III sum of squares


a
13985.714
68014.286
13985.714
2800.000
84800.000
16785.714

df
6
1
6
21
28
27

Mean square
2330.952
68014.286
2330.952
133.333

F
17.482
510.107
17.482

Sig.
0.000
0.000
0.000

a. R Squared = .833 (Adjusted R Squared = .786).

Table 5. Analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Source
Dose
Error
Coefficient of variations (%)

df
6
21

Mean square(tarom mohalli)


2690.476
63.095
14.16

Basmati 370, Basmati Pak and Super Basmati,


respectively, and Gamma rays doses 200 and 250 Gy
produced the highest mutation frequency for Basmati 370
followed by Basmati Pak and Super Basmati. Above
issues confirm results of this research. Although LD50 in
two genotypes was almost the same (between 200 and
220 Gy) but the sensitivity to gamma rays in cultivar Fajr
was much more severe than landrace Tarom mohalli.
Adventure and survival of seedlings in landrace Tarom
mohalli in lower gamma doses (150, 180, 200 and 220
Gy) was more than cultivar Fajr. Specially, in dose 220
Gy, there were considerable differences in survival
percentage of seedlings between two genotypes. This
subject showed that optimum dose of cultivar Fajr was
lower than landrace Tarom mohalli. By this reason, dose
200 Gy was used for development of M1 generation
population of cultivar Fajr whereas optimum dose and
LD50 in landrace Tarom mohalli was 220 Gy. With
attention to above results and data from other similar
studies that have been done on sensitivity of Iranian rice
genotypes, it can be found that totally, cultivars are more
sensitive to gamma rays than landraces.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We acknowledge and appreciate the assistance of all
colleagues of Nuclear Agriculture Department and
financial support of Nuclear Science and Technology
Research Institute of Iran in performing this research.

Mean square(fajr)
2330.952
133.333
11.54

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