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GUIDELINES UNDER MCDR FOR UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK

CLASSIFICATION OF MINERAL RESERVES / RESOURCES

(See rule 45 (1) (c) and Forms H-1 to H-8 and H-9)

I. UNFC classification of reserves :-

A. DEFINITION OF TERMS AND CODES ON RESERVES AND RESOURCES


UNDER UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CLASSIFICATION (UNFC) OF
MINERAL RESOURCES

The UNFC consists of a three dimensional system with the following three axes:
Geological Assessment, Feasibility Assessment and Economic viability. The process of
geological assessment is generally conducted in stages of increasing details. The typical
successive stages of geological investigation i.e. reconnaissance, prospecting, general
exploration and detailed exploration, generate resource data with a clearly defined degrees of
geological assurance. These four stages are therefore used as geological assessment categories in
the classification. Feasibility assessment studies form an essential part of the process of
assessing a mining project. The typical successive stages of feasibility assessment i.e. geological
study as initial stage followed by prefeasibility study and feasibility study/mining report are well
defined. The degree of economic viability (economic or subeconomic) is assessed in the course
of prefeasibility and feasibility studies. A prefeasibility study provides a preliminary assessment
with a lower level of accuracy than that of a feasibility study, by which economic viability is
assessed in detail.

It is a three digit code based system, the economic viability axis representing the
first digit, the feasibility axis the second digit and the geologic axis the third digit. The three
categories of economic viability have codes 1,2 and 3 in decreasing order, similarly the three
categories of feasibility study have also codes 1,2 and 3 while the four stages of geological
assessment are represented by 4 codes i.e. 1 (detailed exploration), 2 (general exploration), 3
(prospecting) and 4 (reconnaissance). Thus the highest category of resources under UNFC
system will have the code (111) and lowest category the code (334). The various terms used in
this classification and their definitions are as follows:

1. Total Mineral Resource


- A concentration (or occurrence) of material of intrinsic economic interest.
- Reasonable prospects for eventual economic extraction.
- Location, grade, quantity, geological characteristic known, estimated or interpreted
from specific geological evidence and knowledge.

(i) Measured Mineral Resource (331)


- That part of mineral resource for which tonnage, densities, shape, physical
characteristics, grade and mineral content can be estimated with a high level of
confidence i.e. based on detailed exploration.
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(ii) Indicated Mineral Resource (332)


- Tonnage, densities, shape, physical characteristic, grade and mineral content can be
estimated with reasonable level of confidence based on exploration, sampling and
testing information, location of borehole, pits etc. too widely spaced.

(iii) Inferred Mineral Resource (333)


- Tonnage, grade and mineral content can be estimated with low level of confidence.
Inferred from geological evidence.

2. Mineral Reserve
- Economically mineable part of measured and/or indicated mineral resource.
(i) Proved Mineral Reserves (111)
- Economically mineable part of Measured Mineral Resource.
(ii) Probable Mineral Reserves (121 & 122)
- Economically mineable part of indicated or in some cases a measured mineral
resource.

3. Reconnaissance Mineral Resource (334)


- Estimates based on regional geological studies and mapping, airborne and indirect
Methods, preliminary field inspections as well as geological inference and extrapolation

4. Prefeasibility Mineral Resource (221 and 222)


- That part of an indicated and in some circumstances measured mineral resource that has
been shown by prefeasibility study to be not economically mineable.
- Possibly economically viable subject to changes in technological, economic,
environmental and/or other relevant condition.

5. Feasibility Mineral Resource (211)


- That part of measured mineral resource, which after feasibility study has been found to
be economically not mineable.
- Possibly economically viable subject to changes in technological, economic,
environmental and/or other relevant condition.

Definition of Uneconomic Occurrence

Materials of estimated quantity, that are too low in grade or for other reasons are not
considered potentially economic. Thus, Uneconomic Occurrence is not pat of a Mineral
Resource. If quantity and quality are considered worthy of reporting, it should be recognized
that an Uneconomic Occurrence cannot be exploited without major technological and/or
economic changes, which are not currently predictable.

Mineral Occurrence:

A Mineral Occurrence is an indication of mineralisation, that is worthy of further


investigation. The term Mineral Occurrence does not imply any measure of volume/tonnage or
grade/quality and is thus not part of a Mineral Resource.
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B. Definitions of Terms to be used in the United Nations International Framework


Classification for Reserves/Resources

Solid Fuels and Mineral Commodities

Definitions of Stages of Feasibility Assessment

Mining Report A Mining Report is understood as the current documentation of the state of
development and exploitation of a deposit during its economic life including
current mining plans. It is generally made by the operator of the mine. The
study takes into consideration the quantity and quality of the minerals
extracted during the reporting time, changes in Economic Viability
categories due to changes in prices and costs, development of relevant
technology, newly imposed environmental or other regulations, and data on
exploration conducted concurrently with mining.

It presents the current status of the deposits, providing a detailed and


accurate, up-to-date statement on the reserves and the remaining resources.

Feasibility Study A Feasibility Study assesses in detail the technical soundness and
Economic Viability of a mining project, and serves as the basis for the
investment decision and as a bankable document for project financing. The
study constitutes an audit of all geological, engineering, environmental,
legal and economic information accumulated on the project. Generally, a
separate environmental impact study is required.

Cost data must be reasonably accurate (usually within 10%), and no


further investigations should be necessary to make the investment decision.
The information basis associated with this level of accuracy comprises the
reserve figures based on the results of Detailed Exploration, technological,
pilot tests and capital and operating cost calculations such as quotations of
equipment suppliers.

A detailed list of the important items addressed in a Feasibility Study is


given below :
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List of the more important items to be addressed in a Feasibility Study

Geographical conditions Operating

Infrastructure rock mechanics


public utilities mining equipment
road, railways and other mining method
manpower construction plan and schedule
appropriate technological pilot tests
Geology mill and processing plant
structure, size, shape tailings disposal
Mineral content, grade, density water management
reserve/resource quantity and transportation
quality power supply
other relevant geological features manpower/labour relations
auxiliary facilities and services
Legal Matters closure design
Rights and ownership
Socioeconomic impact studies Environment (if not dealt
Public acceptance with in a separate study)
Land requirements
Government factors Market analysis

Financial Analysis
Capital cost
Cashflow forecast
Investment cost
Inflation forecast
Operating cost
Sensitivity studies
Closure cost
Rehabilitation cost

Risk Assessment

A sensitivity study may require independent verification in certain circumstances.


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Definition of Stages of Feasibility Assessment (Contd.)

Prefeasibility A Prefeasibility Study provides a preliminary assessment of the Economic


Study Viability of a deposit and forms the basis for justifying further investigations
(Detailed Exploration and Feasibility Study). It usually follows a successful
exploration campaign, and summarizes all geological, engineering,
environmental, legal and economic information accumulated to date on the
project.

In projects that have reached a relatively advanced stage, the Prefeasibility


Study should have error limits of 25%. In less advanced projects higher
errors are to be expected. Various terms are in use internationally for
Prefeasibility Studies reflecting the actual accuracy level. The data required
to achieve this level of accuracy are reserves/resources figures based on
Detailed and General Exploration, technological tests at laboratory scale and
cost estimates e.g. from catalogues or based on comparable mining
operations.

The Prefeasibility Study addresses the items listed under the Feasibility Study,
although not in as much details.

Geological A Geological Study is an initial evaluation of Economic Viability. This is


Study obtained by applying meaningful cut-off values for grade, thickness, depth
and costs estimated from comparable mining operations.

Economic Viability categories, however, cannot in general be defined from


the Geological Study because of the lack of detail necessary for an Economic
Viability evaluation. The resource quantities estimated may indicate that the
deposit is of intrinsic economic interest, i.e. in the range of economic to
potentially economic.

A Geological Study is generally carried out in the following four main stages:
Reconnaissance, Prospecting, General Exploration and Detailed Exploration
(for definition of each stage see below). The purpose of the Geological Study
is to identify mineralization, to establish continuity, quantity, and quality of a
mineral deposit, and thereby define an investment opportunity.
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Definitions of Stages of Geological Study

Reconnaissance A Reconnaissance study identifies areas of enhanced mineral potential on a


regional scale based primarily on results of regional geological studies,
regional geological mapping, airborne and indirect methods, preliminary
field inspection, as well as geological inference and extrapolation. The
objective is to identify mineralised areas worthy of further investigation
towards deposit identification. Estimates of quantities should only be made
if sufficient data are available and when an analogy with known deposits of
similar geological character is possible, and then only within an order of
magnitude.

Prospecting Prospecting is the systematic process of searching for a mineral deposit by


narrowing down areas of promising enhanced mineral potential. The
methods utilised are outcrop identification, geological mapping, and indirect
methods such as geophysical and geochemical studies. Limited trenching,
drilling, and sampling may be carried out. The objective is to identify a
deposit which will be the target for further exploration. Estimates of
quantities are inferred, based on interpretation of geological, geophysical
and geochemical results.

General General Exploration involves the initial delineation of an identified


Exploration deposit. Methods used include surface mapping, widely spaced sampling,
trenching and drilling for preliminary evaluation of mineral quantity and
quality (including mineralogical tests on laboratory scale if required), and
limited interpolation based on indirect methods of investigation. The
objectivce is to establish the main geological features of a deposit, giving a
reasonable indication of continuity and providing an initial estimate of size,
shape, structure and grade. The degree of accuracy should be sufficient for
deciding whether a Prefeasibility Study and Detailed Exploration are
warranted.

Detailed Detailed Exploration involves the detailed three-dimensional delineation


Exploration of a known deposit achieved through sampling, such as from outcrops,
trenches, boreholes, shafts and tunnels. Sampling grids are closely spaced
such that size, shape, structure, grade, and other relevant characteristics of
the deposit are established with a high degree of accuracy. Processing tests
involving bulk sampling may be required. A decision whether to conduct a
Feasibility Study can be made from the information provided by Detailed
Exploration.
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Definition of Economic Viability Categories

Economic Quantities, reported in tonnes/volume with grade/quality, demonstrated by


means of a Prefeasibility Study, Feasibility Study or Mining Report, in
order of increasing accuracy, that justify extraction under the technological,
economic, environmental and other relevant conditions, realistically
assumed at the time of the determination.

The term economic comprises both normal economic and exceptional


economic as defined below. These two subcategories are for optional use
on a national level.

Normal Normal economic reserves are reserves that justify extraction under
Economic competitive market conditions. Thus, the average value of the commodity
mined per year must be such as to satisfy the required return on investment.

Exceptional Exceptional (conditional) economic reserves are reserves which at present


Economic are not economic under competitive market conditions. Their exploitation
(Conditional is made possible through government subsidies and/or other supportive
economic) measurees.
----------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Potentially Quantities, reported in tonnes/volume with grade/quality, demonstrated by


Economic means of a Prefeasibility Study, Feasibility Study or Mining Report, in
order of increasing accuracy, not justifying extraction under the
technological economic, environmental and other relevant conditions,
realistically assumed at the time of the determination, but possibly so in
the future.
The term potentially economic comprises both marginal and submarginal
as defined below. These two subcategories are for optional use on a
national level.
Marginal Marginal economic resources are resources which at the time of
Economic determination are not economic, but border on being so. They may
become economic in the near future as a result of changes in technological,
economic, environmental and/or other relevant conditions.
Submarginal Submarginal economic resources are resources that would require a
Economic substantially higher commodity price or a major cost-reducing advance in
technology to render them economic.
----------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Economic to Quantities, reported in tonnes/volume with grade/quality, estimated by
Potentially means of a Geological Study to be of intrinsic economic interest. Since the
Economic Geological Study includes only a preliminary evaluation of Economic
(intrinsically Viability, no distinction can be made between economic and potentially
economic) economic1/. These Resources are therefore said to lie in the range of
economic to potentially economic.

1/ Except in the case of low investment mineral commodities like sand, gravel and common clay, where
a distinction between economic and potential economic can be made.
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C. FIELD GUIDELINES FOR ADOPTION OF UNITED NATIONS


FRAMEWORK CLASSIFICATION

I . Stratiform, Stratabound and Tabular Deposits of Regular Habit

Characteristics of deposits

Of regular habit with predictable change in trend with sharp to moderate physical contrast with bounded surfaces,
low dipping to moderately steep, simply folded and faulted. Also as blanket cappings and surficial tabular bodies.

Principal kinds of minerals

Coal seams, lignite beds, iron ore formation and cappings, manganese horizons in sedimentary and meta-
sedimentary sequences, thick bauxite cappings, regional chromite lodes in large ultramafics; limestone, dolomite,
barytes, gypsum, evaporites (including potash and salt beds), chalk and fireclay, fuller's earth.

GEOLOGICAL AXIS

G4 (Reconnaissance) G3 (Prospecting) G2(General Exploration) G1(Detailed Exploration)

1.Aerial reconnaissance: 1.Geological survey: 1.Geological survey : 1.Geological survey:


Remote sensing, airborne (i) Mapping on 1:50,000 to (i)Mapping on 1:25,000 to (i)Mapping-For coal,
geophysical survey etc. 1:25,000 scale (for coal, 1:5,000 or larger scale with mapping 1:5000;for other
lignite exploration- triangulation points, minerals 1:1000
2.Geological survey: mapping on 1:10,000); benchmarks, if any shown (ii)Preparation of detailed
Mapping on 1: 50,000 or (ii)Linking of maps so For coal, mapping on topographical-cum-
smaller scales. prepared with topo-grids; 1:10,000 scale geological map including all
(iii)Assessment of (ii) Linking of maps so surface geological features,
3.Geochemical survey: lithology, structure, surface prepared with topogrid; extent of deposit, structure,
(i)Grab/chip sampling of mineralisation, analysis of (iii)Assessment of location of boreholes, assay
rocks or weathered profiles old history of mining. lithology, structure, surface plan and sections of
(Nil for coal/lignite); mineralisation, analysis of exploratory mine
(ii)Recording of broad 2.Geochemical survey: old history of mining. development and borehole
geomorphology, drainage, Geochemical sampling, data;
etc. rock type-wise and if 2. Geochemical survey: (iii)Topogrid/triangu-
necessary, rock type-cum- (i)Detailed litho- lation stations/identified
4. Geophysical survey: skeletal soil-domain-wise geochemical channel fiducials linking in the
Ground geophysical survey. (for all metallic mineral sampling from fresh rock maps.
exploration). exposures, trenches, pits;
5. Technological : (ii)Recording of deleterious 2.Geochemical survey:
(i)Trenching - One or two to 3.Geophysical survey: elements, likely by-product Detailed grid pattern
expose mineralised zone at Detailed ground elements (e.g. Ga in sampling and analysis.
ideal locations only; geophysical work; bauxite, Ni, PGE etc. in
(ii)Pitting/drilling: Up to 5 bore-hole geophysical chromite, Au in Fe ore, etc. 3.Geophysical survey:
test pits/boreholes per 100 logging, if possible. (Nil for coal/lignite Detailed and specific
sq.km. area; exploration); borehole geophysical
(iii)Scout drilling A few to 4)Technological: (iii)In coal/ lignite survey.
know the existence of (a)Pitting/trenching to exploration, geo-chemical
coal/lignite; explore bed sampling of coal and water 4.Technological:
(iv)Sampling -Regional and rock/mineralised zone; to be done for (i)Pitting -
random grab/chip (b)Drilling:Preliminary environmental study. 2 to 5 per sq. km. for
sampling. drilling (dry drilling for simple deposits;
bauxite and in formation 3.Geophysical survey:
vulnerable to wash). (i)Borehole geophysical (ii)Trenching -
Bore-hole spacing - survey; At spacing of 200-300m;
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6. Petrographic and (i)Coal, gypsum, near (ii)Special geophysical (iii)Drilling-


mineragraphic studies: surface potash traverses for problem closer spaced (with definite
Determination of principal and salt-beds- 1000 to 2000 solving, if required . grid pattern) than that for
rock types, mineral meters; G2 category;
assemblage, identification of (ii) Iron and manganese ore 4.Technological: For coal, i)Density of
minerals of interest - 200 to 400 m; (a)Pitting/trenching: boreholes to be 12 to 15 per
(especially of metallic (iii) Limestone and systematic pitting/trenching sq.km. depending on the
minerals and gangues). dolomite - 400 to 500 m; for deciphering extent of complexities for
(iv)Bauxite of thick mineralisation at surface. geostructural proving.
7. Synthesis of all available capping - 300 to 400 m. (b)Drilling: grid reduction ii) For opencast project grid
data/concepts. (v) Chromite as regional needed: spacing (i) for spacing may be 100m x
lode - 300 m; coal, gypsum near surface 50m depending on the
8.The activities as above or (vi) Barytes formations - potash and salt beds-400 to geology, weather mantle
less than that required for 400 to 500 m. 1000m; cover , burning nature of
G3. (c) Sampling: Sampling at (ii) Iron and manganese coal seams.
well-defined locations at ore-100 to 200m. (iii) (iv)Exploratory mining and
surface and also from limestone and dolomite and check drilling results if
pits/trenches, boreholes and barytes- 200 to 400m up to possible ;
existing mine openings. a depth of at least 30 m; (v)Sampling- systematic pit
(iv) bauxite of thick and trench sampling, core
5.Petrographic/mineragr- cappings and chromite as and sludge sampling for
aphic studies: regional lode-100 to 300m. laboratory scale and bulk
(i)Petrographic study of (c ) Sampling: sample for the pilot plant
rocks of the deposit and its (i) Systematic pit and trench scale beneficiation studies.
surroundings, alterations (if sampling, deep pitting if
any) connected with necessary; 5.Petrographic and
mineralisation; (ii) Core sampling: mineragraphic study:
(ii)Determination of phase lithology and strength of Refining of data on the
in which mineral of interest mineralisation wise (check petrographic character of
occur; sampling -10%). rocks of the deposit and its
(iii)Mineralogical studies (d) Laboratory scale surroundings, alterations (if
including paragenesis, scanning/chemical analysis, any), including study of
identification of zones of (e) Bulk sampling if grain size texture gangue
oxidation and primary necessary for testing and its liberation
zones, grain size processing technology. characteristics for further
distribution, overall (f) Collection of abiotic refining of data
characteristics of useful geo-environmental 6)Geostatistical analysis of
minerals. parameters. borehole data thickness of
ore : waste encountered in
5.Petrographic:Study of holes, assay values of
petrographic character of samples if considered
rocks including grain size, neccesarry.
texture etc.
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FEASIBILITY AXIS

F3 (Geological Study) F2 (Pre-feasibility Study) F1 (Feasibility Study)

1.Geological and related study: 1. Geology: 1. Geology: Geology of area and


(i) Geological, mineralogical and Local geology, mineralogy, project, detailed exploration, closed
chemical analysis data; identification of ore types and spaced drilling, ore body modelling,
(ii) Topographical setting and nature geometry. bulk samples for beneficiation,
of land; geotechnical and ground water
(iii) Infrastructure; 2. Mining: Methods, pre- &surface waters studies.However for
(iv) Meteorological and preliminary production plan, development plan, coal, beneficiation studies to be
ecology data if possible. manpower ( rough estimate). carried out depending upon coal
qualities.
2. The activities as above or less 3. Environment:
than that required for F 2. Base line data on environment. 2. Mining: Mining plan, mine
recoveries and efficiencies, equipment
4. Processing: Proven laboratory selection, manpower requirement.
scale/pilot scale beneficiation,
investigation data,likely 3.Environment: EIA studies and
establishment, EMP including socio-economic
impact, rehabilitation of project
5.Infrastructure and services, affected persons, waste
construction activities: disposal/reclamation.,detailed land use
Brief details data.

6. Costing: Capital and operating 4. Processing: Pilot scale/industrial


cost - rough estimates based on scale investigation data, list of
comparable mining operations. equipment, manpower and
environmental considerations like
7.Marketing: Overview like waste disposal of tailing, etc.
industrial structure, demand supply
relation, pricing, etc. 5. Infrastructure and services,
construction activities: Full details
8. Economic viability:Preliminary
study of cash flow forecasts. 6. Costing:
Detailed break-up of capital cost,
9. Other factors: Statutory operating cost, details of working
provisions relating to labour, land, capital.
mining, taxation, etc.
7.Marketing:
Overview, specific market aspects.

8. Economic viability:
Cash flow forecast, inflation effects,
sensitivity studies.

9. Other factors: Statutory provisions


relating to labour, land, mining,
taxation etc.
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ECONOMIC AXIS

E3(Intrinsically Economic) E2 (Potentially Economic) E1(Economic)

1.Reconnaissance to detailed 1.General and detailed exploration 1.Detailed exploration.


geological study, rough estimates
of grades (may be below economic 2 .Specific end-use grades of reserves 2.Mining report /mining plan /
cut-off), general idea about (above /marginally below economic working mines.
forest /non forest and land use cut-off grade).
status. 3.Specific end-use grades of reserves
3. General knowledge of forest/non- (above economic cut-off grade).
2. The activities as above or less forest and other land use data.
than that required for E 2. 4. Specific knowledge of forest/non-
forest and other land use data.
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II.Stratiform, Stratabound and Tabular Deposits of Irregular Habit


Characteristics of deposits

Of irregular habit and /or with faults of large measures, shear zones, solution cavities, irregular erosion and
weathering (oxidation) features, partings and bifurcations, igneous intrusives, facies changes, etc.

Principal kinds of minerals


Coal seams, lignite belt, iron ore formations and cappings, manganese horizons in sedimentary and meta-
sedimentary sequences, thick bauxite cappings, regional chromite lodes in large ultramafics, limestone, dolomite,
barytes, gypsum, evaporites including potash and saltbelts, chalk and fireclay, fullers earth, gold in banded iron
formation, platinum group of elements in chromite or in chromite bearing rocks and molybdenum in shear -
controlled zones.

GEOLOGICAL AXIS

G4 (Reconnaissance) G3 (Prospecting) G2 (General Exploration) G1(Detailed Exploration)

1.Aerial reconnaissance: 1.Geological survey: 1.Geological survey: 1.Geological survey:


Remote sensing, airborne (i) Mapping on 1:50,000 (i) Mapping on 1:25000 to (i)Mapping a)Coal 1:5000
geophysical survey, etc. to 1:25,000 scale (for 1:1000 or larger scale with b) For other minerals-1:1000
coal, lignite exploration- triangulation points, or larger scale;
2.Geological survey: mapping on 1:10,000); benchmarks, if any;For coal, (ii)Preparation of detailed
Mapping on 1:50,000 or (ii) Linking of maps so mapping on1:10,000 scale topographical -cum-
smaller scales. prepared with topogrids; (ii) Linking of maps so geological map including all
(iii) Assessment of prepared with topo- grids. surface geological features,
3. Geochemical survey: detailed statigraphy, extent of deposit, structure,
(i) Grab/chip sampling of lithology, structure, 2.Geochemical survey: location of boreholes, assay
rocks or weathered surface mineralisation, (i)Detailed litho-chemical plan and sections of
profiles (Nil for analysis of old history of channel samplling from fresh exploratory mine
coal/lignite exploration); mining. rock exposures, trenches, pits; development and borehole
(ii)Recording of broad (ii)Recording of deleterious data.
geomorphology, drainage 2.Geochemical survey: elements,likely by-product
etc. Grid geochemical elements (e.g. Ga in bauxite, 2.Geochemical survey:
sampling- rock type wise Ni, PGE etc. in chromite, Au Detailed lithogeochemical
4.Geophysical survey : and if necessary, soil- in Fe ore, etc. (Nil for coal/ analysis
Ground geophysical domain-wise (for all lignite exploration).
survey. metallic mineral 3.Geophysical survey:
exploration). 3. Geophysical survey: Detailed borehole
5.Technological : (i)Borehole geophysical geogphysical survey
(i)Trenching - 3.Geophysical survey: survey;
One or two to expose Detailed ground (ii)Special geophysical 4. Technological:
mineralised zones at ideal geophysical work. traverses for problem solving (i)Pitting: 3 to5 nos. for every
locations only; if required; mass body or at 100-200
(ii)Pitting /drilling- Upto 5 4.Technological: (iii)Concurrent synthesis of meter grid interval;
test pits / boreholes per (i)Pitting/trenching/ multi-disciplinary data, (ii)Trenching- At spacing of
100 sq.km area; drilling depending on Bore-hole geophysical 50 to 200 meters;
(iii)Scout drilling - a few variability; logging, if possible. (iii)Drilling- Closer spaced
to know existence of coal (ii) Selection of drilling than that for G-2 at 3-4 levels
/lignite; sites best suited to unravel 4. Technological: down to a workable
(iv)Sampling Regional the lithological/ structural (i)Pitting/trenching- depth;(iv)Sampling- Core
and random grab/chip complexities. pitting/trenching for helping and sludge, pits samples for
sampling. surface and subsurface grade analysis or
correlation of mineralised beneficiation,
6. Petrographic and 5.Petrographic/miner- zones; bulk samples for laboratory
mineragraphic studies: agraphic studies: (ii)Drilling - Close spaced at scale / pilot plant
(i)Determination of (i)Petrographic study of 200 x 200m grid to decipher investigation;
principal rock types, rocks of the deposit and the ore -shoot behaviour (v)Collection of abiotic geo-
13

mineral assemblage; its surroundings, atleast at two level. In environmental data - its
(ii)Identification of alterations (if any), general, spacing of probe further refining and analysis.
minerals of interest connected with points along strike may be
(especially of metallic mineralisation; 100m but in specific cases 5.Petrographic: Study of
minerals and gangues); (ii)Determination of phase depending on the necessity it petrographic characters of
7. Synthesis of all in which mineral of may be brought down to 50 m. rock and study of useful
available data / concepts. interest occur; especially for precious metals. minerals.
8.The activities as above (iii)Mineralogical studies A few probe points for deeper
or less than that required including paragenesis, intersections; 6)Geostatistical analysis of
for G-3. identification of zones of (iii)Detailed core sampling, borehole data, thickness of
oxidation and primary bulk sampling for testing of ore : waste encountered in
zones, grain size processing technology ; holes, assay values of
distribution, overall (iv)Collection of abiotic geo- samples if considered
characteristics of useful environmental parameters. neccesarry.
minerals.
5. Petrographic:
Refining of data on the
petrographic character of
rocks including study of grain
size,texture and liberation
characteristics.
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FEASIBILITY AXIS

F3 (Geological Study) F2 (Pre-feasibility Study) F1 (Feasibility Study)

1.Geological and related study: 1.Geology:General/ detailed 1.Geology: Geology of area and project,
(i) Geological study encompassing exploration ,moderate to close detailed exploration, closed spaced
reconnaissance to prospecting, spaced drilling, trench/pit/ bore drilling,ore body modelling, bulk samples
general/ detailed exploration; hole sampling to delineate for beneficiation, geotechnical and ground
(ii) Geological map depicting extent complexity of ore body/ water&surface water studies.
of mineralisation lithology/host mineralisation, bulk sampling for
rocks, mineralogical and chemical processing/ beneficiation (bench 2.Mining: Methods with special emphasis
data and its interpretions, studies on scale/pilot scale). on detailed geotechnical test work/ site
amenability to beneficiation, characterisation studies, safety measures;
recoveries and their estimates; 2. Mining: Methods with mining plan, mine recoveries and efficiency
(iii)Infrastructure; geotechnical with variability due to structural
(iv)Environmental: Meteorological considerations,preproduction complexeties like close folds and faults;
and preliminary ecological data of plan, likely mine recoveries. detailed estimates of manpower.
area if possible.
3. Environmental: 3. Environmental:
2.The activities as above or less than Base line data on environment of (i)Environmental impact assessment (EIA)
that required for F-2. the area. studies/environmental management plan
(EMP) including socio-economic impacts;
4. Processing: (ii)Rehabilitation of project affected
Proven laboratory scale/pilot persons, and waste disposal/ reclaimation ;
plant scale ore dressing detailed land use data.
investigations on bulk samples,
likely establishment of plant and 4. Processing : Details of proven pilot plant
cost estimates thereof. scale/ industrial scale investigations
appended with layout design ,equipment list
5. Infrastructure and services fuel/power consumption, specification for
and constructions activities: product/ by-product, disposal of tailings,
Brief details. effluent and future remedial measures.

6. Costing: Capital cost with 5. Infrastructure and services and


estimates based on comparable constructions activities: Full details.
mining operations
6. Costing: Detailed breakup of capital and
7. Marketing: Over view on operating costs and details of working
demand supply relations, industry capital .
structure, pricing etc.
7. Marketing: Marketing overview,
8. Economic viability: specific market aspects.
Preliminary study of cash flow
forecast. 8. Economic viability : Cash flow forecast
inflation effects and sensitivity studies
9. Other factors: Statutory
provisions relating to labour , 9. Other factors : Statutory provisions
land , mining, taxation etc. (labour , land , mining, taxation, etc. )
15

ECONOMIC AXIS

E3(Intrinsically Economic) E2 (Potentially Economic) E1(Economic)

1.Reconnaissance to detailed 1.General and detailed 1.Detailed exploration.


geological study, rough estimates exploration.
of grades (may be below economic 2. Mining report/mining plan/ working
cutoff), general idea about forest/ 2.Specific end-use grades of mine.
non- forest and land use status. reserves (above economic cut-off
grade). 3. Specific end-use grades of reserves
2. The activities as above or less (above economic cut-off grade).
than that required for E 2. 3. General knowledge of
forest/non-forest and other land 4. Specific knowledge of forest/non-forest
use data and other land use data.
16

III. Lenticular Bodies of All Dimensions Including Bodies Occurring


en echelon, Silicified Linear Zones of Composite Veins
Characteristics of Deposits
Gradual and abrupt change in thickness and grade along strike and dip direction; bounding surfaces of mineralized
bodies often, but in sulphides mostly, defined by assay contacts:

(a) massive bodies with irregular shape and grade-homogeneous to inhomogeneous distribution of metal values as
in replacement and disseminated type bodies - shapes interpretative;
(b) steeply dipping narrow bodies with or without pitch, pinch and swell type, with or with out bi-furcations,
partings etc.

Principal kinds of minerals


Base metal sulphides, supergene iron and manganese ore bodies in lateritoid country, pockety bauxite and nickel-
cobalt lateritoids,auriferous quartz reefs, PGM in association with sulphides , graphite lenses, porphyry deposits of
copper, molybdenum, and tin, pyrite, pyrrhotite bodies .

GEOLOGICAL AXIS

G4 (Reconnaissance) G3 (Prospecting) G2 (General Exploration) G1 (Detailed Exploration)

1. Aerial 1.Geological survey: : 1.Geological survey: 1. Geological survey:


Recconnaissance: (i)Mapping on 1:50,000 (i)Mapping on 1:5,000 to (i)Mapping-1:1000 or
Remote sensing, airborne to 1:1,000 or larger scale with larger scale;
geophysical survey etc. 1:5000 scale depending triangulation stations, (ii)Preparation of detailed
on geology of area; benchmarks, if any; topographical -cum-
2. Geological survey: (ii)Linking of maps so (ii)Linking of maps so geological map including
Mapping on 1:50,000 or prepared with topogrids; prepared with topo- grids, all surface geological
smaller scales. (iii)Assessment of (iii)Assessment of lithology, features, extent of deposit,
lithology, structure, structure, surface structure, location of
3.Geochemical survey: surface mineralisation mineralisation, analysis of pits/trenches/boreholes,
(i)Stream sediment, soil and analysis of old old history of mining. assay plan and sections of
overburden, rocks, chips, history of mining. exploratory mine
grabs, groundwater and 2. Geochemical survey: development and borehole
any other soluble media 2.Geochemical survey: (i)Detailed litho-geo- data.
(decided on the basis of (i)Study of detailed and chemical channel sampling
orientation survey ) primary and secondary from fresh rock exposures, 2. Geochemical survey:
sampling, identification of geochemical trenches, pits for further (i)Detailed litho-geo-
ore significant zones; parameters(close grid refinement of data; chemical channel sampling
(ii)Delineation of sampling) of prospects (ii)Recording of deleterious from fresh rock exposures/
predominently forest area, and their processing elements and likely by- trenches, pits;
geomorphology, landforms rock type-wise and rock product elements. (ii)Analysis of geo-
and vegetable type-cum-overburden chemical data for potential
developments etc. wise for identification 3.Geophysical survey: utilisation.
of ore significant (i) Borehole geophysical
4.Geophysical survey : anomaly zones; survey ; 3. Geophysical survey:
Ground geophysical (ii)Recording of (ii)Special geophysical (i) Borehole geophysical
survey. deleterious elements, traverses for problem solving survey ;
likely by-product if required. (ii)Special geophysical
5.Technological : elements. traverses for problem
(i)Widely spaced 4. Technological solving , if required.
pitting/trenching 3.Geophysical survey: (i) Pitting/trenching for
to expose mineralised (i)Detailed ground helping surface and 4. Technological:
zones; geophysical work; subsurface, correlation of (i)Pitting/trenching for
(ii)Sampling - (ii)Bore-hole mineralised zones; helping surface and
a)Regional and random geophysical survey. subsurface correlation of
17

grab/chip sampling, (ii)Drilling- mineralised zones;


b)Channel sampling for 4.Technological: close spaced drilling to (ii)Drilling:
exposures in trenches. (i)Pitting/trenching to decipher the ore -shoot closerspaced than that for
explore mineralised behaviour atleast upto two G-2 and upto the depth of
6.Petrographic and zones to decipher levels; in general, spacing of 100-50 m. below the
mineragraphic studies: surface manifestation of probe points along strike oxidation zone - depending
(i)Determination of mineralisation - may be 100m but in specific on the necessity it may be
principal rock types, moderately spaced cases, depending on the brought down to 50 m. or
mineral assemblages; preferably at 500 - 400m necessity, it may be brought less especially for precious
(ii) Identification of interval; down to 50 m. especially for metals; a few probe points
minerals of interest (ii)Preliminary drilling - precious metals; a few probe for deeper intersections;
(especially of metallic (a) Spacing will be points for deeper (iii)Sampling- detailed core
minerals and gangues). guided by the structural intersections; sampling, bulk sampling
complexity or nature of (iii)Detailed core sampling, for testing of processing
7.Synthesis of all available discontinuity, bulk sampling for testing of technology on
data/concepts (b)Spacing of probe processing technology; laboratory/pilot plant scale;
points along strike (iv)Collection of abiotic geo- (iv)Collection of abiotic
8. The activities as above generally between environmental parameters. geo-environmental
or less than that required 100and 200m; (10% check sampling). parameters.
for G-3. (iii)Further drilling to be
planned to intersect ore- 5. Petrographic; 5. Petrographic:
shoot,ore body at least at Detailed study of data on the Detailed study of data on
two levels with only few petrographic character of the petrographic character
deeper level rocks including study of of rocks including study of
intersections; grain size ,texture, liberation grain size ,texture,
(iv)Exploration planning characteristics. liberation characteristics
to be guided by the and further refining of data.
result of ground
geochemical and 6)Geostatistical analysis
geophysical studies, pit of borehole data (thickness
sampling/ trench/core of ore :waste encountered
sampling (5% check in holes, assay values) if
sampling). considered necesarry.

5.Petrographic/minera
graphic studies:
(i)Petrographic study of
rocks of the deposit and
its surroundings,
alterations (if any),
connected with
mineralisation;
(ii)Determination of
phase in which mineral
of interest occurs;
(iii)Mineralogical
studies including
paragenesis,
identification of zones
of oxidation and primary
zones, grain size
distribution, overall
characteristics of useful
minerals.
18

FEASIBILITY AXIS

F3 (Geological Study) F2 (Pre-feasibility Study) F1 (Feasibility Study)

1. Geological and related 1. Geology: Geology of area, detailed 1.Geology: Geology of area and
study: Geology of area, exploration/general exploration guided by project, detailed exploration, closed
reconnaissance and geo-chemical and geo-physical surveys, spaced drilling, exploratory mining upto
prospecting by geo-chemical moderate to close - spaced drilling, 2nd level and undeground boreholes,
and geo-physical different mineralised zones at viable cut off channel/groove sampling (50-100 cm),
surveys/general grades, core and sludge sampling for ore body modelling, bulk samples for
exploration/detailed exploratory stage beneficiation beneficiation, geotechnical and ground
exploration, core and sludge studies/laboratory scale investigations. & surface waters studies. However for
samples, for beneficiation; coal beneficiation studies to be carried
geological maps depicting 2.Mining : Methods, pre-production plan, out depending upon coal qualities.
extent and dimension of development plan, manpower requirements.
mineralisation lithology of 2.Mining: Mining plan, mine
host rocks, controls and 3.Environment : EIA/EMP with details of recoveries and efficiencies, man power
guides for mineralisation, waste disposal and likely unavoidable requirements.
amenability to beneficiation; effects of projects.
infrastructure; 3.Environment:
environmental base line data. 4.Processing: Proven laboratory scale/pilot EIA/EMP including socio economic
plant scale ore dressing investigations on impact, rehabilitation of project affected
2. The activities as above or bulk samples and likely establishment, cost persons, waste disposal/
less than that required for estimates for processing plant. reclamation;.detailed land use data.
F-2.
5.Infrastructure and services and 4.Processing: Details of proven pilot
construction activities: Brief details. plant /industrial scale investigations,
appended with plant layout, design,
6. Costing :Capital and operating costs- equipment list, manpower, fuel/power
rough estimates based on comparable consumption, environmental
mining operations. considerations, disposal of tailings,
effluents and future/present remedial
7. Marketing: An overview, demand measures.
supply relations, industry structure.
5. Infrastructure and services and
8. Economic viability: Preliminary study construction activities:
of cash flow forecasts. Full details.

9. Other factors: Statutory provisions 6. Costing: Details of break up of


relating to land, labour, mining, taxation, capital and operating costs and working
etc. capital.

7.Marketing: Overview, specific


marketing aspects.

8. Economic viability: Cash flow


forecasts, inflation effects, sensitivity
studies.

9. Other factors: Statutory provisions


relating to land, labour, mining,
taxation, etc.
19

ECONOMIC AXIS

E3(Intrinsically Economic) E2 (Potentially Economic) E1(Economic)

1.Reconnaissance to detailed 1.General and detailed exploration. 1.Detailed exploration.


geological study, rough
estimates of grades (may be 2. Specific end-use grades of reserves 2. Mining report/mining plan/ working
below economic cut -off), (above/ marginally below economic cut-off mines.
general idea about forest / grade).
non - forest and land use 3. Specific end-use grades of reserves
status. 3. General knowledge of forest/non-forest (above economic cut-off grade).
and other land use data .
2.The activities as above or 4. Specific knowledge of forest/non-
less than that required for forest and other land use data.
E-2.
20

IV. Lenses, Veins and Pockets; Stock-works, Irregular Shaped,


Modest to Small size Bodies
Characteristics of deposits
Bodies distributed in space lacking estimable regular patterns; structural control less than lithologic, if any; small
cluster of multi-shaped bodies, of volcanic origin pipes and chimneys, of magmatic origin, plugs and pots, clots and
seggregations of hydrothermal origin vein and replacement. Bodies in stockwork, metaporphic and meta-somatic
in skarn and tektites, in griesens and in thermal aureole around intrusives.

Principal kinds of minerals


Small multimetal complex sulphide bodies of Cu-Pb-Zn-Sb-Hg, podiform chromite, Sn-Ag chimneys and pipes;
tektite mineral bodies, skarn bodies of scheelite, powellite, wollastonite, fluorite etc. and semi-precious minerals,
network of apatite, baryte, asbestos veins, vermiculite bodies, magnesite lenses and mica in pegmatites, pyrophyllite
lenses and veins, high grade bauxite in clay pockets, clay, ochre and bentonite lenses, diamond pipes.

GEOLOGICAL AXIS

G4 (Reconnaissance) G3 (Prospecting) G2(General Exploration) G1(Detailed Exploration)

1.Aerial 1.Geological survey: 1.Geological survey: 1. Geological survey:


reconnaissance:Re- (i) Mapping on Mapping on 1:5,000 to (i)Mapping on 1:1000 scale;
mote sensing, airborne 1:5,000 scale and 1:1,000 scales with (ii)Preparation of
geophysical survey etc. larger scale; triangular stations, bench topographical-cum-
(ii) Linking of the marks if any and fiducials geological map including all
2.Geological survey: geological maps with plotted. surface geological
Mapping on 1:50,000 topo-grids; features,extent of deposit,
scale or smaller scales. (iii)Assessment of 2.Geochemical survey: trenches,pits,borehole
stratigraphy, Detailed lithogeochemical locations, level-wise assay
3.Geochemical lithology, structure sampling for further plan and exploratory mine
survey: surface shows of refining of data. development.
(i)Sampling of mineralisation and
stream, sediment, soil analysis of 3.Geophysical survey: 2. Geochemical survey:
over burden, rock metallogeny. Borehole geophysical Detailed litho-geochemical
chips, grabs, ground surveys, special channel sampling from fresh
water or any other 2.Geochemical geophysical surveys for rock exposures,
soluble media; survey: problems solving if pits /trenches.
(ii)Delineation of (i)Study of detailed required.
predominantly forest primary and 3.Geophysical survey:
areas, geomorphology, secondary 4.Technological: Wherever necessary.
landforms and geochemical (i)Closed spaced trenching
vegetable development. parameters based on and extensive sampling for 4.Technological:
closed grid sampling, exploring irregularly (i)Pitting /trenching- as
4. Geophysical identification of ore shaped zones of necessary;
survey:Ground significant anomaly mineralization; (ii)Drilling - 30 to 15 m or
geophysical work. zones; (ii)Close space drilling less strike interval upto a
(ii)Recording of (50m-30m); depth of 100m;
5.Technological: deleterious and (iii)Bore hole deviation (iii)Exploratory mining:
(i)Pitting and drilling: byproduct elements. surveys; 2-3 levels at 20-30m
Upto 5 test pits/bore (iv)Beneficiation tests; interval wherever necessary;
boles per 100 sq. km. 3.Geophysical (v)Exploration preferably (iv)Core sludge, channel,
area; survey: with exploratory mining, bulk samples for
(ii)Sampling : Regional (i)Detailed ground systematic core sampling, beneficiation studies on
and random sampling; geophysical work; check analysis 10%, deep bench/ pilot scale.
(ii)Borehole geophys- piting. 5. Petrographic:
ical survey. Further refining of data.
21

(iii)Collection of 4.Technological : 5.Petrographic: 6)Geostatistical analysis of


sample for deciphering (i) Sampling at well Further refining of data. borehole data (thickness of
the mineralised zones. defined locations, ore :waste encountered in
extensive pit, trench holes, assay values), if
6.Petrographic and and surface sampling considered neccesarry.
mineragraphic study: to decipher the extent
(i)Determination of and grade of
principal rock types and mineralisation at
mineral assembleges; surface;
(ii)Identification of (ii)Core sampling;
minerals of interest and (iii)Laboratory
gangues and studies of samples;
determination of useful (iv)Check samples-
minerals. 10%;
(v)Deep pitting to
7. Synthesis of all decipher grade
available data/concepts. variation of
irregularly shape
8. The activities as mineralisation;
above or less than that (vi)Drilling - 100m
required for G-3. to 50 m. interval;
borehole deviation
survey.

5.Petrographic and
mineragraphic :
(i)Petrographic
studies of rocks of
deposits and its
surrounding,
alteration connected
with mineralisation;
(ii)Mineralogical
studies including
identification of
zones of oxidation
and primary zones,
grain size analysis,
overall chracteristics
of useful and
deleterious minerals.
22

FEASIBILITY AXIS

F3 (Geological Study) F2 (Pre-feasibility Study) F1 (Feasibility Study)

1.Geological and related study: 1. Geology: 1.Geology:


(i)Reconnaissance prospecting by (i)Geology of area; (ii)General and Geology of project, detailed
geochemical, geophysical, scout detailed exploration guided by exploration with larger inputs of
drilling to understand controls of surface and sub-surface geochemical exploratory mining, deep pitting,
mineralisations/ and geophysical data, exploratory trenching /benching, underground
general and detailed exploration; mining details. boreholes, closed spaced drilling.
(ii)Geological maps showing extent
and persistence of mineralisations, 2. Mining: mine recoveries 2.Mining: Mining plan, meticulous
guides, controls, hostrock, lithology estimates, man power details, pre- methods with special emphasis on
etc; production plan . geotechnical, production aspects;
(iii)Infrastructure; (iv)Preliminary safety measures, mine recoveries,
ecological and meteorological data, 3. Environment: Baseline data, efficiency variability due to various
if possible. potential constraints on project. controls.

2. The activities as above or less 4. Processing: Proven laboratory 3. Environment:


than that required for F-2. scale /pilot scale investigations on EIA/EMP including socio- economic
bulk samples; likely establishment of impact rehabilitation of project
plant; possibilities of cost estimates. affected persons and waste disposal/
reclamation ;detailed land use data.
5.Infrastructure, construction,
services etc:Brief details . 4.Processing: Proven details of pilot
plant scale investigation, appended
6. Costing: Capital and operating with layout, plant design, manpower
cost estimates based on comparable requirements, fuel/power
mining operations . consumption, disposal of effulents
and present/future remedial
7. Marketing:An overview, demand measures.
and supply relations, industry
structure, pricing. 5. Infrastructure, constructions
and service: Full details.
8.Economic viability: Preliminary
studies of cash flow forecasts. 6. Costing: Detailed break up of
capital and operating cost and details
9. Other factors: Statutory of working capitals.
provisions relating to land, labour,
mining, taxation, etc. 7. Marketing: An overview, specific
market aspects.

8. Economic viability: Cash flow


forecast, inflation effects, sensitivity
studies.

9. Other factors: Statutory


provisions relating to land, labour,
mining, taxation, etc.
23

ECONOMIC AXIS

E3(Intrinsically Economic) E2 (Potentially Economic) E1(Economic)

1.Reconnaissance to detailed 1. General and detailed exploration. 1. Detailed exploration.


geological study, rough estimates 2 . Specific end-use grades of 2. Mining report/mining
of grades (may be below economic reserves (above/marginally below plan/working mines.
cutoff), general idea about forest / economic cut-off grade). 3. Specific end-use grades of reserves
non - forest and land use status. 3. General knowledge of forest/non- (above economic cut-off grade).
2.The activities as above or less forest and other land use data. 4. Specific knowledge of forest/non-
than that required for E-2. forest and other land use data.
24

V. Gem- Stones and Rare Metal Pegmatites, Reefs and Veins

Characteristics of Deposit
Highly erratic distribution of minerals and metals. No trend in grade and thickness, no assured continuity, cluster of
high values in barren zones, structural and lithologic controls undeterminate.

Principal kinds of Minerals


Tin-tungstun-tantalum-molybdenum veins and pegmatites, beryl, topaz, emerald, cesium deposits, mineralisation
associated with alkaline rocks, complexes and veins and plugs of carbonatites.

GEOLOGICAL AXIS

G4 (Reconnaissance) G3 (Prospecting) G2(General Exploration) G1(Detailed Exploration)

1.Aerial reconnaissance: 1.Geological survey: 1.Geological survey: 1.Geological survey:


Remote sensing, airborne (i)Mapping: 1:50,000 to (i)Mapping on 1:5000 or (i)Mapping on 1:2000 scale
geophysical survey etc. 1:25000 scale; larger scales with or larger scale;
(ii)Linking of geological triangulation stations, bench (ii)Preparation of detailed
2.Geological survey: maps with topogrids; marks, if any and fiducials topographical cum
Mapping on 1:50,000 scale (iii)Assessment of shown; geological map, including
or smaller scales. stratigraphy, lithology, (ii)Linking of geological all surface geological
structure, surface shows of maps with topogrids. features ,extent of
3.Geochemical survey: mineralisation, analysis of deposit,location of trenches,
(i)Grab/chip sampling of old history of mining. 2. Geochemical survey: pits, boreholes, geological
rocks or weathered (i)Detailed litho- plan andsections of
profiles; 2.Geochemical survey: geochemical channel exploratory mining.
(ii)Recording of broad (i)Closed -grid geoche- sampling from fresh rock
geomorphology, drainage mical sampling , rocktype exposures, trenches, pits etc; 2.Geochemical: Detailed
etc. wise and if necessary rock (ii)Recording of deleterious litho-geochemical analysis.
type-cum skeletal soil - and likely by -product
4. Geophysical survey: domain-wise; elements. 3.Geophysical : Detailed
Ground geophysical work. (ii)Geochemical survey if necessary and
specialization with respect 3. Geophysical: specific borehole
5.Technological: to element of interest of Detailed and specialised geophysical studies.
(i)Trenching- One or two pegmatite rock to be geophysical studies ( e.g.
random pits or trenches; deciphered and missalamasse, borehole 4.Technological :
(ii)Pitting/drilling: Upto 5 identification of path geophysical study etc.) to (i) Drilling-surface drilling
test pits per100sq. km finder and trace elements. unravel the three at 50-10m section intervals
area; dimensional in3 -4 levels, 30-60m x 90m
(iii)Sampling- Regional 3.Geophysical survey: configuration of host rock. vertically apart to trace and
and random grab Detailed ground intersect mineralised zones;
sampling, stream sediment geophysical work to 4.Technological: under ground drilling as
sampling after orientation delimit the potential host (i)Pitting/trenching- pits on and when necessary;
survey for narrowing rock. regular grid pattern (ii)Sampling - core and
down target areas. (preferably at 50 m. sq.grid) sludge ,bulk and channel
4.Technological: in colluvial zones and samples for processing
6. Petrography and (i)Pitting and trenching in residual overburdens; technology bulk samples for
minerography: colluvial zones, residual trenches across host rocks of pilot plant/bench scale
(i)Determination of main overburden and on mineralisation; investigation;
rock types and mineral primary host rocks; (ii)Drilling-testing at two (iii)Exploratory mining - 3
assemblages; randomly distributed; levels; or more levels over the
(ii)Identification of (ii)Drilling-only to broadly Strike spacing of boreholes entire or part strike length
minerals of interest and test the continuity of host to be 50-100m up to depth of ore body at 30m level
gangues. rock at 100 m to 200m of 100-150m; interval and along dip
strike spacing; (iii)Sampling- systematic at suitable intervals.
7. Synthesis of all (iii)Sampling- At surface pits sampling (over burden
available data/concepts. across zones of horizon wise) and trench
25

mineralisation; also from sampling (lithological 5. Petrographic:


8. The activities as above pits and trenches on the domain wise), core (i)Refining of data on the
or less than that required basis of lithological sampling. petrographic characters of
for G-3. homogenity; closer spaced rocks, including study of
stream sediments sampling 5. Petrographic: grain size, texture, gangues
(2-3 samples per sq. km) (i)Refining of data on the and its liberation etc;
for further narrowing petrographic characters of (ii)Further refining of data.
down target areas; rocks, including study of
(iv)Core sampling. grain size, texture, gangues
etc;
5. Petrographic and (ii)Further refining of data.
mineragraphic:
(i)Petrographic study of
rocks of the deposit and its
surrounding, alterations
( if any) associated with
mineralisation;
(ii)Determination of phase
in which the mineral of
interest occurs;
(iii)Mineralogical studies
including paragenesis,
identification of zones of
oxidation if any, and
primary zones, grain size
distribution, over all
characteristics of useful
minerals.

FEASIBILITY AXIS

F 3(Geological Study ) F 2(Prefeasibility Study) F1(Feasibility Study)

1.Geological and related study: 1.Geology: 1.Geology:


(i)Geology of area, reconnaissance Geology of area, detailed Geology of area, detailed exploration,
phase to detailed phase exploration exploration, closed spaced drilling in closed space drilling in prospect in 2-3
guided by prospect in 2-3 levels for delineation levels for delineation of host rock body,
geochemical, geophysical survey; of host rock body ; ore body modelling;
geological maps dealineating boreholes, channel, bulk samples for boreholes channel bulk samples for
mineralised zones and its extent, beneficiation test. beneficiation, geotechnical and ground
lithology, controls, guides, water &surface water studies.
mineralogical, chemical analytical 2. Mining- Viable methods-details
data; of exploratory mining data, 2.Mining- methods of mining, mine
(ii)Studies on amenability to recoveries estimates, manpower plan, mine recoveries and its milling
beneficiation; details. characteristics;
(iii)Infrastructure; exploitation plan preferably with
(iv)Environmental- meteorological 3. Environment- Baseline data, exploratory mining scheme,
and preliminary ecological data, if potential constraints and analysis of manpower details.
possible. possible impacts /hazards.
3.Environmental- EIA/EMP,
2. The activities as above or less 4. Processing- Proven pilot plant including socio-economic impact,
than that required for F 2. investigations, further follow up for rehabilitation of project affected
viability. persons ,waste disposal/reclamation.
26

5.Infrastructure, services and 4.Processing- a) For tin- tungsten,


construction activities: Brief details. molybdenum -details of proven pilot
plant scale investigations on bulk
6.Costing- Capital and operating cost samples, choosing of suitable
estimates with likely break-up. processing treatment by industrial scale
testing, tailings and effluent disposal
7.Marketing- An overview, demand plans, plant layout, equipment list;
supply relations, industry structure. b) For gemstones- studies on
amenability to cutting, polishing etc
8. Economic viability: Preliminary
study of cash flow forecast. 5.Infrastructure, utilities and
construction activities: Full details.
9. Other factors: Statutory
provisions relating to labour , land , 6. Costing- Detailed capital and
mining ,taxation, etc. operating cost, along with break up.

7. Marketing- An overview , specific


market aspects.

8. Economic viability- Cash flow


forecast, inflation effects, sensitivity
studies.

9. Other factors: : Statutory provisions


relating to labour, land , mining ,
taxation, etc.

ECONOMIC AXIS

E3(Intrinsically Economic) E2 (Potentially Economic) E1(Economic)

1.Reconnaissance to detailed 1.General and detailed exploration. 1.Detailed exploration.


geological study, rough estimates 2. Specific end-use grades of 2.Mining report/mining plan/working
of grades (may be below economic reserves (above/marginally below mines.
cut-off), general idea about forest economic cut-off grade). 3. Specific end-use grades of reserves
/non - forest and land use status. 3. General knowledge of forest/non- (above economic cut-off grade).
2.The activities as above or less forest and other land use data. 4. Specific knowledge of forest/non-
than that required for E-2. forest and other land use data.
27

VI. Placer and Residual Mineral Deposits of Hill and Valley Wash

Characteristics of Deposit
Eluvial, colluvial and alluvial placer concentration of heavy metals and minerals, pebble and cobble, boulder beds,
gravel beds in alluvium and colluvium, conglomerates, foothills fan deposits, grain size from extremely fine striated
material to rough to polished boulders.

Principal kinds of Minerals


Placer tin and gold deposits, monazite, garnet, ilmenite, rutile, diamonds in conglomerate, floats and gravel beds of
corundum, kyanite, sillimanite, floats and talus deposits of magnetite.

GEOLOGICAL AXIS

G4 (Reconnaissance) G3 (Prospecting) G2(General Exploration) G1(Detailed Exploration)

1.Geological survey: 1. Geological survey: 1. Geological survey:


1.Aerial reconnaissance: (i)Mapping on 1:25,000 to (i)Mapping on 1:5,000 to (i)Mapping on
Remote sensing, airborne 1:5,000 scale depending 1: 1,000 or larger scales 1:1000 scale;
geophysical survey, etc. on the extent of potential with triangulation stations, (ii)Preparation of geological
zone; bench marks, if any, and base map including all
2.Geological survey: (ii)Tracing of coarse fiducials shown; geological features, extent
Mapping on 1: 25,000 or sediments (e.g.boulders (ii)Tracing of favourable of deposit, structure and
smaller scales. etc. ) exposures in eluvial sediment horizons in location of pits and trenches
and colluvial terrains; detail; and of auger-drill-holes,
3.Geo-chemical survey: (iii)Geomorphic analysis of (iii)Detailed analysis of assay plan.
(i)Stream sediment or terrain; geo-morphology and land
over burden sampling (iv)Analysis of history of use; 2.Geo-chemical:
after selection of sites and mining, etc. (iv)Linking of map so Systematic grid pattern
media of sampling; prepared with topo grids; sampling and analysis.
(ii)Recording of geomor- 2.Geo-chemical survey: (v)Synthesis and
phology, land form etc. in Representative pit regional correlation 3.Geo-physical survey: if
a broad way. sampling, horizon or layer and analogy. necessary.
wise, large diameter bore
4.Geophysical survey: holes (or auger sampling) 2. Geo-chemical: 4.Technological :
Ground geophysical one or two sets of samples Representative layer wise (i)Pitting at smaller than 50
survey . for each demarcated sampling from pits, bore m grid;
potential zone. holes and auger drills. (ii)Trenching - as necessary;
5. Technological- (iii)Drilling - (a) auger
(i)Trenching - not 3.Geo-physical survey: 3. Geo-physical: Geo- drilling at 50 m grid,
essential; Geo- physical survey in physical survey for (b) for buried placer
(ii)Pitting/drilling-upto 5 identified mineralised bringing out the depth of deposits deep drilling
test pits /boreholes per areas. weathering or thickness of necessary;
100 sq. km area; over burden if required. (iv)Sampling - closed grid
(iii)Sampling stream 4. Technological : pattern placer sampling in
sediment or placer (i)Pitting/trenching - one or 4.Technological : identified prospects at
sediment sampling and two per prospect; (i)Pitting: On grid pattern 50x50 m or smaller
analysis; panning at (ii)Drilling - large diameter of 400 m. x 400 m. to 50 grid;However for beach
random /heavy mineral or auger drilling one or two m. x 50 m.; occasional sand minerals, sampling by
studies. per prospect if necessary; deep pits (upto 6 m.); auger or improvised version
(iii)Sampling and analysis- (ii)Trenching- as per of drilling equipment at
6. Petrographic and systematic stream requirement; 200m x50m to 100m x25m
mineragraphic studies: sediments/placer sampling (iii)Drilling : systematic in grid pattern.
Preliminary identification (two to three samples per large diameter drilling at (v)Collection of abiotic geo-
of economic minerals. sq.km) and analysis. 400 m. x 400 m. grid or environmental parameters.
augering at 200 m. x 200
7. Synthesis of all m. to 50 m. x 50 m. grid.
28

available data/concepts. However for beach sand


5) Petrographic and minerals, augering at 5. Petrogrpahic and mine-
8. The activities as above minerographic studies: 400mx100m grid and ragraphic studies:
or less than that required Mineral phases and sampling along grid profile Refining of data on
for G-3. deleterious constituents over total width . petrographic character of
identification, grain size Depthwise sampling of rocks including study of
analysis. boreholes at 1m interval. grain size textures,
(iv)Sampling and analysis: associated gangues and
Placer sampling in concentrate recoveries.
identified prospects,
hydraulicking , sluicing,
panning and follow-up
laboratory scale separation
and testing and analysis of
concentrates from bulk
samples.

5.Petrographic and
mineragraphic studies:
Further refinement of
petrographic and
mineragraphic data,
laboratory scale studies on
recoverability.

FEASIBILITY AXIS

F 3 (Geological Study ) F2 (Pre-feasiblity Study) F1( Feasiblity Study)

1. Geological and related study: 1. Geology: 1.Geology:


(i)Geological map delineating Geology of area, general to detailed Geology of area;
boulder zones,eluvial/ colluvial exploration by pitting in grids in detailed/general exploration by
terrain placers and recognition of moderate to close spaced intervals; pitting and auger drilling in grid
geo-morphological structure and its recoveries through physical pattern at closed intervals;
analysis; separation e.g. panning and its panning ,concentrate recoveries
(ii)Surface soil testing; analytical data on concentrate from the beneficiation test on pilot
(iii)Pit and trench sampling at recoveries. plant scale/laboratory scale of bulk
various grid intervals; samples, geotechnical and ground
(iv)Delineation of pay zones 2.Mining : Methods of mining, pre- &surface waters studies.
through pit/auger sampling and its production plan, manpower
analytical data; concentrate requirements through rough 2.Mining - Methods of mining,
recoveries through panning, other estimates. mining plan,detail of
physical separation methods; manpower,equipment list.
(v)Infrastructure; 3.Environmental : EMP with
(vi)Environmental :Meteorological special emphasis on geo-hydrology 3.Environmental:
and preliminary ecological data of and hydrology. EIA/EMP including socio- econmic
the area, if possible. impact,rehabilitation of project
2.The activities as above or less 4. Processing - Pilot plant/laboratory affected persons with details of
than that required for F-2. scale investigations, possibilities of waste disposal/reclamation, detailed
setting up of plant. land use data.

5. Infrastructure, construction etc 4.Processing - Proven, pilot


- Brief details. plant/industrial scale level
investigations, plant layout,
6.Costing Capital and operating enviromental considerations -
costs-rough estimates based on disposal of placer material/handling
29

comparable mining operations. plan, effluent treatment etc; details


of equipment required.

7. Marketing - An overview on 5.Infrastructure, construction, etc:


marketing aspects, demand supply Full details
relations, and industry structure.
6. Costing - Capital costs with break
8.Economic viability -Preliminary up details of capital and operating
study of cash flow forecast. costs, working capital.

9. Other factors: Statutory 7. Marketing - An overview,


provisions relating to labour, land , industry structure and specific
mining, taxation, etc. market studies.

8. Economic viability - Cash flow


forecasts, inflation effects and
sensitivity studies.

9. Other factors- Statutory


provisions relating to labour, land ,
mining, taxation etc.

ECONOMIC AXIS

E3(Intrinsically Economic) E2 (Potentially Economic) E1(Economic)

1.Reconnaissance to detailed 1.General and detailed exploration. 9. Detailed exploration.


geological study, rough estimates
of grades (may be below economic 9. Specific end-use grades of 9. Mining report/ mining
cut off), general idea about reserves (above marginally plan/working mines.
forest /non forest and land use below economic cut-off
status. grade). 9. Specific end-use grades of
reserves (above economic
2. The activities as above or less 3. General knowledge of forest/non- cut-off grade).
than that required for E2. forest and other land use data.
4. Specific knowledge of forest/non-
forest and other land use data.
30

VII. Dimension Stones


Characteristics of Deposit
Surficial, occasionally bouldery or tabular, partly weathered, jointed/fractured, recoverability dependant on block
size chosen vis--vis joint spacing etc, marketable at buyers choice, amenable to good polish with aesthetic colour
or colour combination.

Principal kinds of minerals


Coloured varieties, including granites, syenites, schists, marbles, slates and sandstone, migmatities, etc; black
varieties including dyke rocks, e.g; diorite, dolerite, gabbro, etc.; sills, plugs, batholiths etc. e.g., anorthosites,
gabbro, etc.

GEOLOGICAL AXIS

G2
G4 (Reconnaissance) G3 (Prospecting) (General Exploration) G1(Detailed Exploration)

1.Aerial reconnaissance: 1.Geological survey: 1.Geological survey: 1.Geological survey:


Remote sensing, airborne 9. Mapping on Mapping on 1:25,000 to 9. Mapping on 1:10000
geophysical survey etc. 1:50,000 to 1:10,000 scale. or larger scale;
1:25,000 scale; (ii)Preperation of detailed
9. Geological (ii)Photogeology on 2.Geo-chemical : topographical- cum
survey: Mapping 1:25,000 or equivalent Identification of geological map, including all
on 1:50,000 or scale. deleterious constituents of surface geological features,
smaller scales. one or two samples drawn joint patterns, fracture density
2.Geo-chemical survey: from each prospect; etc.;
3.Geo-chemical survey: Identification of measurement of abiotic (iii)Delineation of blockable
Not required. deleterious constituents of geoenvironmental dimension stone zones/ areas.
one or two samples drawn parameters.
4. Geophysical from each prospect. 2.Geochemical :
survey:Ground geophysical 3.Geophysical survey : Identification of deleterious
survey. 3.Geophysical survey: not required. constituents; measurement of
Not required. abiotic geoenvironmental
9. Technological : 4.Technological: parameters.
(i)Pitting and 4.Technological:- (i)Pitting/trenching :one
trenching: not (i)Pitting or two per prospect; 3.Geophysical :
required; /trenching/drilling not (ii)Drilling One or two Not required
(ii)Sampling Random required. per prospect (scout
grabs of fresh rock, one or (ii)Sampling One grab of drilling); 4.Technological:
two samples per 5 sq. km; fresh rock per prospect of (iii)Sampling Sample (i)Pitting/trenching not
(iii)Geo-technical work premium variety; density two to three grabs required;
joints/fractures density and (iii)Geo-technical per prospect; (ii)Drilling-
preliminary assessment of measurement of at least (iv)Geo-technical One or two per prospect;
blockability. one sample per prospect further refinement of (iii)Geo-technical
for determination of blockability data and measurement of compressive
6.Petrographic and other specific gravity, porosity, polishing index strength, tensile strength,
studies : (i)Petrographic water absorption, measurement. traverse
studies - not required; compressive strength and strength, abrasion test, specific
(ii)Meausrement of ground tensile strength. 5.Petrographic and gravity,density, porosity,
water table not required; other studies : absorption, polishing index.
(iii)Measurement of geo- 9. Petrographic (i)Petrographic studies-
environmental parameters and other mineralogical 5.Petrographic and other
not required. studies : composition, texture and studies :
(i)Petrographic micro structure study of (i)Colour, granularity,
9. Synthesis of all studies- each variant in a prospect; inclusions, texture and
available mineralogical (ii)Ground water table: microstructure study.
data/concepts. composition, measurement at each (ii)Ground water table:
texture and micro prospect. measurement at each prospect.
31

8.The activities as above or texture study of


less than that required for each variety;
G3. (ii)Measurement of ground
water table: not required.

FEASIBILITY AXIS

F3 (Geological Study) F2 (Pre-feasibility Study) F1 (Feasibility Study)

9. Geological and 1.Geology : 9. Geology:


related study: Geology of area; Detailed exploration;
(i)Geological detailed / general exploration; geological geological map delineating blockable
mapping, map delineating blockable areas and areas and identification of productive
delineating identification of productive zones with zones with recovery factors based on
weathered and recovery factors based on gotechnical gotechnical studies conducted.
boulder zone, studies conducted.
blockable areas and 2.Mining: Mining plan, block recoveries
recognition of 2.Mining : Methods of mining, pre- and efficiencies, heavy
geomorphological production plan, manpower machineries,equipment selection,
structure and its requirements through rough estimates. manpower requirement.
analysis,prospectwi
se 9. Environmental: 3.Environment: EIA studies with
grab sampling at grid EMP with particular reference to geo- particular refernce to geo-hydrology
intervals; hydrology and hydrological aspects, and hydrological aspects, bulk material,
(ii)Delineation of probable bulk material handling management and EMP including socio-economic
productive zones through plan. impact, rehabilitation of project affected
grab sampling and its persons, waste disposal,detailed land use
analytical data; 4. Processing: data.
(iii)Infrastructure; Physical characteristics data,detailsof
(iv)Environmental: petro-fabric studies generated through 4.Processing: Industrial scale
meteorological and laboratory investigations, possibilities investigation data on physical
preliminary ecological data, of setting up of cutting,polishing plant. haracteristics data,details of petrofabric
if possible. studies, setting up of cutting,polishing
9. Infrastructure, construction plant (optional),
9. The activities as etc.: Brief details. list of equipments, manpower details.
above or less than
that required for 9. Costing :Capital and operating 9. Infrastructure and services,
F 2. costs rough estimates based construction activities: Full
on comparable mining details.
operations.
6.Costing:Detailed break-up of capital
9. Marketing: An overview on cost, operating cost, details of working
marketing aspects, demand capital.
supply relations and industry
structure. 9. Marketing: Overview, specific
market aspects.
8. Economic viability: Preliminary
study of cash flow forecast. 8. Economic viability: Cash flow
forecast, inflation effects, sensitivity
9. Other Factors: Statutory provisions studies.
relating to labour, land , mining,
taxation, etc. 9.Other factors: Statutory provisions
relating to labour, land, mining, taxation,
etc.
32

ECONOMIC AXIS

E3(IntrinsicallyEconomic) E2 (Potentially Economic) E1 (Economic)

1.Reconnaissance to detailed 1.General and detailed exploration. 1.Detailed exploration.


geological study, rough 2.Rough identification of 2.Mining report/mining plan/working
estimates of coloured and marketable varieties. mines.
non coloured varieties, 3. General knowledge of forest/non- 3. Specific identification of marketable
general idea about forest forest and other land use data. varieties.
/non - forest and land use 4.Specific knowledge of forest/non-
status. forest and other land use data.
2. The activities as above or
less than that required for
E2.

CONTROLLER GENERAL
INDIAN BUREAU OF MINES

[F. No. 215(1)/UNFC/ME(I)/2003 DATED 03.06.2003]