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RFID BASED SHOPPING TROLLEY

RFID Based Shopping Trolley


SYNOPSIS:
The objective of this project is to improve the speed of purchase
by using RFID. This project is designed to use the RFID based security
system application in the shopping trolley.
This project is used in shopping complex for purchase the
products. In this project RFID card is used as security access for product. If
the product is put in to the trolley means it will shows the amount and also
the total amount. But in this project RFID card is used for accessing the
products. So this project improves the security performance and also the
speed.

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CHAPTER I
1.1.

INTRODUCTION:
RFID is the special type wireless card which has inbuilt the

embedded chip along with loop antenna. The inbuilt embedded chip
represents the 12 digit card number. RFID reader is the circuit which
generates 125KHZ magnetic signal. This magnetic signal is transmitted by
the loop antenna connected along with this circuit which is used to read the
RFID card number.
In this project RFID card is used as security access card. So each
product has the individual RFID card which represents the product name.
RFID reader is interfaced with microcontroller. Here the microcontroller is
the flash type reprogrammable microcontroller in which we already
programmed with card number. The microcontroller is interfaced with
keypad.

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1.2.

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

LCD

TRALLY WITH
RF ID

89s52
MICROCONTROLLER

RFID
READER

This project is designed with

RFID tag

RFID reader

Microcontroller

Driver circuit

Alarm

Relay.

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DRIVER
CIRCUIT

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1.3.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

RF RX

MA
X
232

PC

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1.4.

HISTORY:

In 1946 Lon Theremin invented an espionage tool for the Soviet Union
which retransmitted incident radio waves with audio information. Sound
waves vibrated a diaphragm which slightly altered the shape of the
resonator, which modulated the reflected radio frequency. Even though
this device was a passive covert listening device, not an identification
tag, it has been attributed as a predecessor to RFID technology. The
technology used in RFID has been around since the early 1920s
according to one source (although the same source states that RFID
systems have been around just since the late 1960s)
Similar technology, such as the IFF transponder invented in the
United Kingdom in 1939, was routinely used by the allies in World War
II to identify aircraft as friend or foe. Transponders are still used by
most powered aircraft to this day.
Another early work exploring RFID is the landmark 1948 paper
by Harry Stockman, titled "Communication by Means of Reflected
Power" (Proceedings of the IRE, pp 11961204, October 1948).
Stockman predicted that "considerable research and development
work has to be done before the remaining basic problems in reflectedpower communication are solved, and before the field of useful
applications is explored."
Mario Cardullo's U.S. Patent 3,713,148 in 1973 was the first true
ancestor of modern RFID; a passive radio transponder with memory.
The initial device was passive, powered by the interrogating signal, and
was demonstrated in 1971 to the New York Port Authority and other
potential users and consisted of a transponder with 16 bit memory for

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use as a toll device. The basic Cardullo patent covers the use of RF,
sound and light as transmission media. The original business plan
presented to investors in 1969 showed uses in transportation
(automotive vehicle identification, automatic toll system, electronic
license plate, electronic manifest, vehicle routing, vehicle performance
monitoring), banking (electronic check book, electronic credit card),
security (personnel identification, automatic gates, surveillance) and
medical (identification, patient history).
A very early demonstration of reflected power (modulated
backscatter) RFID tags, both passive and semi-passive, was performed
by Steven Depp, Alfred Koelle and Robert Freyman at the Los Alamos
National Laboratory in 1973[2]. The portable system operated at
915 MHz and used 12-bit tags. This technique is used by the majority of
today's UHFID and microwave RFID tags.
The first patent to be associated with the abbreviation RFID was granted
to Charles Walton in 1983
1.5.

INTRODUCTION TO RIFD
Libraries began using RFID systems to replace their electro-

magnetic and bar code systems in the late 1990s. Approximately 130
libraries in North America are using RFID systems, but hundreds more
are considering it (Molnar, Wagner, 2004). The primary cost impediment
is the price of each individual tag. Today, tags cost approximately
seventy-five cents but prices continue to fall. However, privacy concerns
associated with item-level tagging is another significant
Impediment to library use of RFID tags. The problem with todays
library RFID systems is that the tags contain static information that can
be relatively easily read by unauthorized tag readers. This allows for

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privacy issues described as tracking and hot listing. Tracking refers


to the ability track the movement of a book (or person carrying the
book) by correlating multiple observations of the books bar code
(Molnar and Wagner, 2004) or RFID tag. Hot listing refers to process of
building a database of books and their associated tag numbers (the
holist) and then using an unauthorized reader to determine, who is
checking out items on the hot list.
Current standards (ISO 15693) apply to container-level tagging
used in supply chain applications, and do not address problems of
tracking and hot listing. Next generation tags (ISO 18000) are designed
for item-level tagging. The newer tags are capable of resolving many of
privacy problems of todays tags. However, no library RFID products
are currently available using the new standard. Libraries implementing
RFID systems today are using tags unsuited for item-level tagging and
the cost of upgrading to newer tags when they become available is well
beyond the reach of most library budgets. This chapter addresses many
of the specific issues and privacy concerns associated with RFID
technology in libraries, and suggest best RFID-implementation practices
for librarians. Finally, we explore the larger responsibilities of libraries
in regards to RFID, public policy, privacy and the changing world of
technology.
i.

RFID System Components and Their Effects in Libraries


An RFID system consists of three components: the tag, the reader

and the application that makes use of the data the reader reads on the
tag. Tag Also known as a transponder, the tag consists of an antenna and
silicon chip encapsulated in glass or plastic (Want, 2004). The tags
contain a very small amount of information. For example, many tags
contain only a bar code number and security bit (128 bits) but some tags

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contain as much as 1,024 bits (Boss, 2003). Tags range in size from the
size of a grain of rice to two inch squares depending on their
application. Researchers are now working on tags as small as a speck of
dust (Cavoukian, February 2004). Tags can be passive, active or semiactive. An active tag contains some type of power source on the tag,
whereas the passive tags rely on the radio signal sent by the reader for
Power. Most RFID applications today utilize passive tags because they
are so much cheaper to manufacture. However, the lack of power poses
significant restrictions on the tags ability to perform computations and
communicate with the reader. It must be within range of the reader to
function. Semi-active tags are not yet commercially available but will
use a battery to run the microchips circuitry but not to communicate
with the reader. Semi-active tags rely on
Capacitive coupling and carbon ink for the antennas rather than the
traditional inductive coupling and silver or aluminum antenna used in
passive tags (Collins, 2004). Tags operate over a range of frequencies.
Passive tags can be low frequency (LF) or high frequency (HF). LF tags
operate at 125 KHz, are relatively expensive, and have a low read range
(less than 0.5 meters). HF tags operate at 13.56 MHz, have a longer read
range (approximately 1 meter) and are less expensive that LF tags. Most
library applications use HF tags (Allied Business Intelligence [ABI],
2002). Tags can be Read Only (RO), Write Once Read Many (WORM)
or Read Write (RW) (Boss, 2003). RO tags are preprogrammed with a
unique number like a serial number (or perhaps eventually an ISBN
number). WORM tags are preprogrammed but additional information
can be added if space permits. RW tags can be updated dynamically.
Sometimes space on the RW tags is locked where permanent data is kept
and the rest of the tag is writable.

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According to Sharma et al. (2002), RFID readers or receivers are


composed of a radio frequency module, a control unit and an antenna to
interrogate electronic tags via radio frequency (RF) communication.
Many also include an interface that communicates with an application
(such as the librarys circulation system). Readers can be hand-held or
mounted in strategic locations so as to ensure they are able to read the
tags as the tags pass through an interrogation zone. The interrogation
zone is the area within which a reader can read the tag. The size of the
interrogation zone varies depending on the type of tag and the power of
the reader. Passive tags, with shorter read ranges, tend to operate within
a smaller interrogation zone (Sarma, et al., 2002). Most RFID readers in
libraries can read tags up to 16 inches away (Boss, 2003).

1.

Conversion station Where library data is written to the tags


2. Staff workstation at circulation Used to check-in and check-out
materials
3. Patron self check-out station Used to check-out books without staff
assistance
4. Exit sensors Verify that all books leaving the library have been
checked out
5. Patron self check-in station Used to check in books without staff
assistance
6. Book drop reader Checks in books when patrons drop them in the
book drop
7. Sorter Automated system for returning books to proper area of
library
8. Portable reader Hand-held reader for inventorying and verifying
that items are shelved correctly.
II.

APPLICATION

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Once the reader reads the tag, the information is passed on to an


application that makes use of the information. Examples of
applications and their uses fall into at least six categories:
1. Access control (keyless entry)
2. Asset tracking (self check-in and self check-out)
3. Asset tagging and identification (inventory and shelving)
4. Authentication (counterfeit prevention)
5. Point-of-sale (POS) (FastTrak)
6. Supply chain management (SCM)
(tracking of containers, pallets or individual items from
manufacturer to retailer) RFID is most pervasive in the SCM market.
ABI (2002) reports that by 2007, SCM and asset management
applications will account for more than 70% of all transponder (tag)
shipments. In the SCM market, items are tracked by pallet or container,
not by individual item. Once the individual items are removed from the
pallet, they are no longer tagged. In contrast, library applications require
that each individual item contain a tag that uniquely identifies the item
(book, CD, DVD, etc). The tag contains some amount of static data (bar
code number, manufacturer ID number) that is permanently affixed to
the library item. This information is conveyed, via reader, to the
librarys security, circulation and inventory applications.
1.6.

RFID TAGS
RFID tags come in three general varieties:- passive, active, or

semi-passive (also known as battery-assisted or semi-active) and beacon


types. Passive tags require no internal power source, thus being pure
passive devices (they are only active when a reader is nearby to power
them by wireless illumination), whereas semi-passive and active tags
require a power source, usually a small battery. Beacon tags transmit

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autonomously with a certain blink pattern and do not respond to


interrogation.
To communicate, tags respond to queries generating signals that
must not create interference with the readers, as arriving signals can be
very weak and must be differentiated. Besides backscattering, load
modulation techniques can be used to manipulate the reader's field.
Typically, backscatter is used in the far field, whereas load modulation
applies in the near field, within a few wavelengths from the reader.
I.

PASSIVE

Passive RFID tags have no internal power supply. The minute electrical
current induced in the antenna by the incoming radio frequency signal
provides just enough power for the CMOS integrated circuit in the tag to
power up and transmit a response. Most passive tags signal by
backscattering the carrier wave from the reader. This means that the
antenna has to be designed both to collect power from the incoming
signal and also to transmit the outbound backscatter signal. The
response of a passive RFID tag is not necessarily just an ID number; the
tag chip can contain non-volatile data, possibly writable EEPROM for
storing data.
Passive tags have practical read distances ranging from about 11 cm (4
in) with near-field (ISO 14443), up to approximately 10 meters (33 feet)
with far-field (ISO 18000-6) and can reach up to 183 meters (600 feet) [5]
when combined with a phased array. Basically, the reading and writing
depend on the chosen radio frequency and the antenna design/size. Due
to their simplicity in design they are also suitable for manufacture with a
printing process for the antennas. The lack of an onboard power supply
means that the device can be quite small: commercially available

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products exist that can be embedded in a sticker, or under the skin in the
case of low frequency (LowFID) RFID tags.
In 2007, the Danish Company RFIDsec developed a passive RFID with
privacy enhancing technologies built-in including built-in firewall
access controls, communication encryption and a silent mode ensuring
that the consumer at point of sales can get exclusive control of the key
to control the RFID. The RFID will not respond unless the consumer
authorizes it, the consumer can validate presence of a specific RFID
without leaking identifiers and therefore the consumer can make use of
the RFID without being trackable or otherwise leak information that
represents a threat to consumer privacy.
In 2006, Hitachi, Ltd. developed a passive device called the -Chip
measuring 0.150.15 mm (not including the antenna), and thinner than a
sheet of paper (7.5 micrometers).Silicon on insulator (SOI) technology
is used to achieve this level of integration. The Hitachi -Chip can
wirelessly transmit a 128-bit unique ID number which is hard-coded
into the chip as part of the manufacturing process. The unique ID in the
chip cannot be altered, providing a high level of authenticity to the chip
and ultimately to the items the chip may be permanently attached or
embedded into. The Hitachi -Chip has a typical maximum read range
of 30 cm (1 ft). In February 2007 Hitachi unveiled an even smaller
RFID device measuring 0.050.05 mm, and thin enough to be
embedded in a sheet of paper. The new chips can store as much data as
the older -chips, and the data contained on them can be extracted from
as far away as a few hundred meters. The ongoing problems with all
RFIDs are that they need an external antenna which is 80 times bigger
than the chip in the best version thus far developed. Further, the present
costs of manufacturing the inlays for tags have inhibited broader

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adoption. As silicon prices are reduced and new more economic


methods for manufacturing inlays and tags are perfected in the industry,
broader adoption and item level tagging along with economies of scale
production scenarios; it is expected to make RFID both innocuous and
commonplace much like barcodes are presently.
Alien Technology's Fluidic Self Assembly and HiSam machines, Smart
codes Flexible Area Synchronized Transfer (FAST) and Symbol
Technologies' PICA process are alleged to potentially further reduce tag
costs by massively parallel production[citation needed]. Alien Technology and
Smart Code are currently using the processes to manufacture tags while
Symbol Technologies' PICA process is still in the development phase.
Symbol was acquired by Motorola in 2006. Motorola however has since
made agreements with Avery Dennison for supply of tags, meaning their
own tag production and PICA process may have been abandoned. [9]
Alternative methods of production such as FAST, FSA, HiSam and
possibly PICA could potentially reduce tag costs dramatically, and due
to volume capacities achievable, in turn be able to also drive the
economies of scale models for various silicon fabricators as well. Some
passive RFID vendors believe that industry benchmarks for tag costs
can be achieved eventually as new low-cost volume production systems
are implemented more broadly. (For example, see [4])
Non-silicon tags made from polymer semiconductors are currently being
developed by several companies globally. Simple laboratory-printed
polymer tags operating at 13.56 MHz were demonstrated in 2005 by
both PolyIC (Germany) and Philips (The Netherlands). If successfully
commercialized, polymer tags will be roll-printable, like a magazine,
and much less expensive than silicon-based tags. The end game for most
item-level tagging over the next few decades may be that RFID tags will

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be wholly printed the same way that a barcode is today and be


virtually free, like a barcode. However, substantial technical and
economic hurdles must be surmounted to accomplish such an end:
hundreds of billions of dollars have been invested over the last three
decades in silicon processing, resulting in a per-feature cost which is
actually less than that of conventional printing.
II.

ACTIVE

Unlike passive RFID tags, active RFID tags have their own internal
power source, which is used to power the integrated circuits and to
broadcast the response signal to the reader. Communications from active
tags to readers is typically much more reliable (i.e. fewer errors) than
those from passive tags due to the ability for active tags to conduct a
"session" with a reader.
Active tags, due to their onboard power supply, also may transmit at
higher power levels than passive tags, allowing them to be more robust
in "RF challenged" environments with humidity and spray or with RFdampening targets (including humans and cattle, which contain mostly
water), reflective targets from metal (shipping containers, vehicles), or
at longer distances. In turn, active tags can be larger (due to battery size)
and more expensive to manufacture (due to price of the battery).
However, the potential shelf life of an active tag can be many years.
Many active tags today have operational ranges of hundreds of meters,
and a battery life from several months to 10 years. Active tags may
include larger memories than passive tags, and may include the ability to
store additional information received from the reader.

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Special active RFID tags may include specialized sensors. For example,
a temperature sensor can be used to record the temperature profile
during the transportation and storage of perishable goods. Other sensor
types used include humidity, shock/vibration, light, nuclear radiation,
pressure and concentrations of gases such as ethylene.
Increasingly, active tags on the market today are internationally
standardized according to the ISO 18000-7 air interface standard, which
operates at the 433 MHz frequency. In addition, active tags that are sold
in the form of an electronic seal are standardized according to the ISO
18185 standard.
The United States Department of Defense (DoD) has successfully used
active tags to reduce search and loss in logistics and to improve supply
chain visibility for more than 15 years (concept of in-transit-visibility,
ITV[5]). The DoD is increasingly relying on active tags to monitor the
environmental status of assets and material using onboard sensors.
Extended capability
Extended capability RFID defines a category of RFID that goes beyond
the basic capabilities of standard RFID as merely a "license plate" or
barcode replacement technology. Key attributes of extended capability
RFID include the ability to read at longer distances and around
challenging environments, to store large amounts of data on the tag, to
integrate with sensors, and to communicate with external devices.
Examples of extended capability RFID tag technologies include EPC
C1G2 with extended memory (e.g. 64Kb), battery-assisted passive, and
active RFID. Battery-assisted passive, also known as semi-passive or
semi-active, has the ability to extend the read range of standard passive

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technologies to well over 50 meters, to read around challenging


materials such as metal, to withstand outdoor environments, to store an
on-tag database, to be able to capture sensor data, and to act as a
communications mechanism for external devices. Also, battery-assisted
passive only transmits a signal when interrogated, thus extending battery
life. Active RFID, which can have some of the features of batteryassisted passive, is commonly used for even longer distances and realtime locationing. It also actively transmits a signal, which often results
in shorter battery life.
Common applications of extended capability RFID include Yard
Management, Parts Maintenance and Repair Operations, Cold-Chain
Management, Reusable Transport Items tracking, High Value/High
Security Asset tracking, and other applications where extended
capabilities are needed.

1.7.
i.

WORKING PRINCIPLE
RFID DETAILS

Radio frequency identification (commonly abbreviated to RFID) is sonamed because it relates to the identification of objects using EM
radiation at radio frequencies. In Table 2 we saw that a large range of
frequencies within the EM spectrum are referred to as radio
Frequencies (RF), which results in a number of different forms of RFID.
Once again, RFID systems may be categorized based on the band of the
EM spectrum that they operate in. RFID systems in the same band will

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generally display similar characteristics; those in other bands may well


operate very differently and therefore be more or less suitable for a
given application. An RFID system comprises two components an
RFID reader and an RFID tag. Despite its name, the RFID reader is
really the transmitter in an RFID system. The electronics in the reader
uses an external power source to generate the signal that drives the
readers antenna and which in turn creates the appropriate radio wave.
This radio wave may be received by an RFID tag, which in turn
reflects some of the energy it receives in a particular way (based on the
identity of the tag). Whilst this reflection is going on, the RFID reader is
also acting as a radio receiver, so that it can detect and decode the
reflected signal in order to identify the tag.

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An RFID system is specifically designed to be asymmetric the


reader is big, expensive and power hungry compared to the RFID tag.
There are a number of different types of RFID system, but one basic
categorization is based on the power source used by the tag
1. Passive tag RFID systems require no power source at the tag
there is no battery. Instead, the tag uses the energy of the radio wave to
power its operation, much like a crystal radio. This results in the lowest
tag cost, but at the expense of performance.
2. Semi-passive tag RFID systems rely on a battery built into the
tag in order to achieve better performance (typically in terms of
operating range). The battery powers the internal circuitry of the tag
during communication, but is not used to generate radio waves.

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3. Active tag systems use batteries for their entire operation, and
can therefore generate radio waves proactively, even in the absence of
an RFID reader.
Passive tag RFID systems are the most common type, and are often
referred to simply as RFID systems.
1.8.

RANGE OF RFID SYSTEMS


With an RFID system, the term range naturally refers to the

maximum operating distance between the reader antenna and the tag,
and the field of the reader is the specific operating area. The frequency
of operation used for an RFID system has a big effect on the operating
range. Analysis of the physics of RFID communications shows that the
optimum frequency is around 400-500MHz [9]. Such analysis cannot
be made generically - there are a number of factors to take into account
and these will have different effects based on the intended application.
Example factors that will be affected
by the choice of frequency include: size of tag antenna, ease of power
delivery to the tag, ease of communication of tag back to reader, cost
and speed of communication.
The range of RFID systems operating in the UHF band is governed
largely by the principles outlined. This means that the ability of the
reader to power and communicate to the tag is based on the inverse
square law (1/r ), as will the return path of reflected signals from the tag

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to the reader. Operation will also be affected by environmental


conditions and interference from other radio sources at the same
frequency. RFID systems that operate in the HF band of the spectrum
work in a very different way to those using the UHF band and it is
useful to understand this fundamental difference and the effect it has on
operating range. If communication occurs over a short distance, relative
to the wavelength of the radio wave, this is said to be near-field
operation. Since HF (3-30MHz) RFID systems use waves with a
wavelength of around
10-100m, if the distance of the communication is much less than this
(which is the case in RFID) then this is a near-field communication.
Near-field communication is based on a magnetic field effect, which has
an inverse sixth power (1/r ) relationship with range.
Of course, if a directional antenna is used, its radiation pattern will also
affect the reader field.

CHAPTER 2
2.1 CONCEPTS OF MICROCONTROLLER:
Microcontroller is a general purpose device, which
integrates a number of the components of a microprocessor system on to
single chip. It has inbuilt CPU, memory and peripherals to make it as a
mini computer. A microcontroller combines on to the same microchip:

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1. The CPU core


2. Memory(both ROM and RAM)
3. Some parallel digital I/O
MICROCONTROLLERS WILL COMBINE OTHER DEVICES SUCH AS:
1. A timer module to allow the microcontroller to perform tasks
for certain time periods.
2. A serial I/O port to allow data to flow between the controller
and other devices such as a PIC or another microcontroller.
3. An ADC to allow the microcontroller to accept analogue input
data for processing.
MICROCONTROLLERS ARE:
1. Smaller in size
2. Consumes less power
3. Inexpensive
Micro controller is a standalone unit, which can perform
functions on its own without any requirement for additional hardware
like I/O ports and external memory.
The heart of the microcontroller is the CPU core. In the past,
this has traditionally been based on an 8-bit microprocessor unit. For
example Motorola uses a basic 6800 microprocessor core in their
6805/6808 microcontroller devices.
In the recent years, microcontrollers have been developed
around specifically designed CPU cores, for example the microchip PIC
range of microcontrollers.

2.2 INTRODUCTION TO PIC:


The microcontroller that has been used for this project is
from PIC series. PIC microcontroller is the first RISC based
microcontroller fabricated in CMOS (complementary metal oxide
semiconductor) that uses separate bus for instruction and data allowing
simultaneous access of program and data memory.
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The main advantage of CMOS and RISC combination is


low power consumption resulting in a very small chip size with a small
pin count. The main advantage of CMOS is that it has immunity to noise
than other fabrication techniques.

2.6

MEMORY ORGANISATION:
There are three memory blocks in each of the PIC16f877 MUCs.
The program memory and Data Memory have separate buses so that
concurrent access can occur.

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CHAPTER 3
3.1. RELAY
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Current flowing through
the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and
changes the switch contacts. The coil current can be on or off so relays
have two switch positions and they are double throw (changeover)
switches.

Relays allow one circuit to switch a second circuit which can be


completely separate from the first. For example a low voltage battery
circuit can use a relay to switch a 230V AC mains circuit. There is no
electrical connection inside the relay between the two circuits; the link is
magnetic and mechanical.
The coil of a relay passes a relatively large current, typically
30mA for a 12V relay, but it can be as much as 100mA for relays
designed to operate from lower voltages. Most ICs (chips) cannot
provide this current and a transistor is usually used to amplify the small
IC current to the larger value required for the relay coil. The maximum
output current for the popular 555 timer IC is 200mA so these devices
can supply relay coils directly without amplification.
Relays are usually SPDT or DPDT but they can have many more sets of
switch contacts, for example relays with 4 sets of changeover contacts
are readily available. For further information about switch contacts and
the terms used to describe them please see the page on switches.

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Most relays are designed for PCB mounting but you can solder wires
directly to the pins providing you take care to avoid melting the plastic
case of the relay.
The supplier's catalogue should show you the relay's connections. The
coil will be obvious and it may be connected either way round. Relay
coils produce brief high voltage 'spikes' when they are switched off and
this can destroy transistors and ICs in the circuit. To prevent damage
you must connect a protection diode across the relay coil.
The animated picture shows a working relay with its coil and
switch contacts. You can see a lever on the left being attracted by
magnetism when the coil is switched on. This lever moves the switch
contacts. There is one set of contacts (SPDT) in the foreground and
another behind them, making the relay DPDT.
The relay's switch connections are usually labeled COM, NC and NO:
COM - Common, always connect to this; it is the moving part of the
switch.
NC - Normally Closed, COM is connected to this when the relay
coil is off.
NO - Normally Open, COM is connected to this when the relay
coil is on.
Connect to COM and NO if you want the switched circuit to be on
when the relay coil is on.
Connect to COM and NC if you want the switched circuit to be on
when the relay coil is off.
i.

CHOOSING A RELAY

You need to consider several features when choosing a relay:


1. Physical size and pin arrangement:
If you are choosing a relay for an existing PCB you will
need to ensure that its dimensions and pin arrangement are
suitable. You should find this information in the supplier's
catalogue.
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2. Coil voltage:
The relay's coil voltage rating and resistance must suit the
circuit powering the relay coil. Many relays have a coil rated for a
12V supply but 5V and 24V relays are also readily available.
Some relays operate perfectly well with a supply voltage which is
a little lower than their rated value.
3. Coil:
The circuit must be able to supply the current required by
the relay coil. You can use Ohm's law to calculate the current:
supply voltage
Relay coil current =
coil resistance
4. For example: A 12V supply relay with a coil resistance of 400
passes a current of 30mA. This is OK for a 555 timer IC
(maximum output current 200mA), but it is too much for most
ICs and they will require a transistor to amplify the current.
5. Switch ratings (voltage and current)
The relay's switch contacts must be suitable for the circuit
they are to control. You will need to check the voltage and current
ratings. Note that the voltage rating is usually higher for AC, for
example: "5A at 24V DC or 125V AC".
6. Switch contact arrangement (SPDT, DPDT etc)
Most relays are SPDT or DPDT which are often
described as "single pole changeover" (SPCO) or "double pole
changeover" (DPCO). For further information please see the page
on switches.
ii.

Protection diodes for relays

Transistors and ICs (chips) must be protected from the brief high
voltage 'spike' produced when the relay coil is switched off. The
diagram shows how a signal diode (eg 1N4148) is connected across the
relay coil to provide this protection. Note that the diode is connected
'backwards' so that it will normally not conduct. Conduction only occurs
when the relay coil is switched off, at this moment current tries to
continue flowing through the coil and it is harmlessly diverted through
the diode. Without the diode no current could flow and the coil would
produce a damaging high voltage 'spike' in its attempt to keep the

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current flowing.
iii.

Advantages of relays:
Relays can switch AC and DC, transistors can only switch DC.
Relays can switch high voltages, transistors cannot.
Relays are a better choice for switching large currents (> 5A).
Relays can switch many contacts at once.

Disadvantages of relays:
1. Relays are bulkier than transistors for switching small currents.
iv.

3.2.

LCD DISPLAY
Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have materials which combine the

properties of both liquids and crystals. Rather than having a melting


point, they have a temperature range within which the molecules are
almost as mobile as they would be in a liquid, but are grouped together
in an ordered form similar to a crystal.
An LCD consists of two glass panels, with the liquid crystal
material sand witched in between them. The inner surface of the glass
plates are coated with transparent electrodes which define the character,
symbols or patterns to be displayed polymeric layers are present in
between the electrodes and the liquid crystal, which makes the liquid
crystal molecules to maintain a defined orientation angle.
One each polarisers are pasted outside the two glass panels. These
polarisers would rotate the light rays passing through them to a definite
angle, in a particular direction
When the LCD is in the off state, light rays are rotated by the two
polarisers and the liquid crystal, such that the light rays come out of the
LCD without any orientation, and hence the LCD appears transparent.

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When sufficient voltage is applied to the electrodes, the liquid


crystal molecules would be aligned in a specific direction. The light rays
passing through the LCD would be rotated by the polarisers, which
would result in activating / highlighting the desired characters.
The LCDs are lightweight with only a few millimeters thickness.
Since the LCDs consume less power, they are compatible with low
power electronic circuits, and can be powered for long durations.
The LCD does dont generate light and so light is needed to read
the display. By using backlighting, reading is possible in the dark. The
LCDs have long life and a wide operating temperature range.
Changing the display size or the layout size is relatively simple
which makes the LCDs more customer friendly.
The LCDs used exclusively in watches, calculators and measuring
instruments are the simple seven-segment displays, having a limited
amount of numeric data. The recent advances in technology have
resulted in better legibility, more information displaying capability and a
wider temperature range. These have resulted in the LCDs being
extensively used in telecommunications and entertainment electronics.
The LCDs have even started replacing the cathode ray tubes (CRTs)
used for the display of text and graphics, and also in small TV
applications.

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3.3.

RCM2034R:

The RCM2034R is a reflective TN type liquid crystal module with a


built-in controller / driver LSI and a display capacity of 16 characters 1
line.
Applications
Personal computers, word processors, facsimiles, telephones, etc.
Features
1) Wide viewing angle and high contrast.
2) 5_7 dot character matrix with cursor.
3) Interfaces with 4-bit or 8-bit MPUs.
4) Displays up to 226 characters and special symbols.
5) Custom character patterns are displayed with the character RAM.
6) Abundant instruction set including clear display, cursor on /off, and
character blinking.
7) Compact and light weight for easy assembly to thehost instrument.
8) Operable on single 5 V power supply.
9) Low power consumption.

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3.4.

OSCILLATOR
The majority of clock sources for microcontrollers can be grouped

into two types: those based on mechanical resonant devices, such as


crystals and ceramic resonators, and those based on electrical phaseshift circuits such as RC (resistor, capacitor) oscillators. Silicon
oscillators are typically a fully integrated version of the RC oscillator
with the added benefits of current sources, matched resistors and
capacitors, and temperature-compensation circuits for increased
stability. Two examples of clock sources are illustrated in Figure 1.
Figure 1a shows a Pierce oscillator configuration suitable for use with
mechanical resonant devices like crystals and ceramic resonators, while
Figure 1b shows a simple RC feedback oscillator.

Primary

Differences

between

Mechanical

Resonators

and

RC

Oscillators Crystal and ceramic resonator-based oscillators (mechanical)


typically provide very high initial accuracy and a moderately low
temperature coefficient. RC oscillators, in contrast, provide fast startup
and low cost, but generally suffer from poor accuracy over temperature
and supply voltage, and show variations from 5% to 50% of nominal
output frequency. While the circuits illustrated in Figure 1 can produce
clean reliable clock signals, their performance will be heavily influenced

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by environmental conditions, circuit component choice, and the layout


of the oscillator circuit. Ceramic resonators and their associated load
capacitance values must be optimized for operation with particular logic
families. Crystals, with their higher Q, are not as sensitive to amplifier
selection but are susceptible to frequency shifts (and even damage)
when

overdriven.

Environmental

factors

like

electromagnetic

interference (EMI), mechanical vibration and shock, humidity, and


temperature affect oscillator operation. These environmental factors can
cause output frequency changes, increased jitter, and in severe cases, can
cause the oscillator to stop functioning.
I.

OSCILLATOR MODULES :
Many of the considerations described above can be avoided

through use of oscillator modules. These modules contain all oscillator


circuit components and provide a clock signal as a low-impedance
square-wave output. Operation is guaranteed over a range of conditions.
Crystal oscillator modules and fully integrated silicon oscillators are
most common. Crystal oscillator modules provide accuracy similar to
discrete component circuits using crystals. Silicon oscillators are more
precise than discrete component RC oscillator circuits, and many
provide comparable accuracy to ceramic resonator-based oscillators.
ii.

POWER CONSUMPTION :
Power consumption is another important consideration of

oscillator selection. The power consumption of discrete component


crystal-oscillator circuits is primarily determined by the feedbackamplifier supply current and by the in-circuit capacitance values used.
The power consumption of amplifiers fabricated in CMOS is largely
proportional to the operating frequency and can be expressed as a
power-dissipation capacitance value. The power-dissipation capacitance

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value of an HC04 inverter gate used as an inverting amplifier, for


example, is typically 90pF. For operation at 4MHz from a 5V supply,
this equates to a supply current of 1.8mA. The discrete component
crystal oscillator circuit will typically include an additional load
capacitance value of 20pF, and the total supply current becomes
2.2mA.Ceramic resonator circuits typically specify larger load
capacitance values than crystal circuits, and draw still more current than
the crystal circuit using the same amplifier. By comparison, crystal
oscillator modules typically draw between 10mA and 60mA of supply
current because of the temperature compensation and control functions
included. The supply current for silicon oscillators depends on type and
function, and can range from a few micro-amps for low-frequency
(fixed) devices to tens of mille-amps for programmable-frequency parts.
A low-power silicon oscillator, such as the MAX7375, draws less than
2mA when operating at 4MHz.Summary the optimal clock source for a
particular microcontroller application is determined by a combination of
factors including accuracy, cost, power consumption, and environmental
requirements. The following table summarizes the common oscillator
circuit types discussed here, together with their strengths and
weaknesses.

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LCD is Stands for liquid crystal display. It is used to display the


datas which is came from PIC. It contains the 16 pin. 8 pin is used for
data communication, read, write, enable, Brightness control and 4 pins
for power supply.
3.5.

POTENTIAL TRONSFORMER
Potential Transformer is designed for monitoring single-phase and

three-phase power line voltages in power metering applications.


The primary terminals can be connected either in line-to-line or in lineto-neutral configuration. Fused transformer models are designated by a
suffix of "F" for one fuse or "FF" for two fuses.
A Potential Transformer is a special type of transformer that allows
meters to take readings from electrical service connections with higher
voltage (potential) than the meter is normally capable of handling
without at potential transformer.

i.

POWER SUPPLIES

The present chapter introduces the operation of power supply


circuits built using filters, rectifiers, and then voltage regulators. Starting
with an ac voltage, a steady dc voltage is obtained by rectifying the ac
voltage, then filtering to a dc level, and finally, regulating to obtain a
desired fixed dc voltage. The regulation is usually obtained from an IC
voltage regulator unit, which takes a dc voltage and provides a

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somewhat lower dc voltage, which remains the same even if the input dc
voltage varies, or the output load connected to the dc voltage changes.
A block diagram containing the parts of a typical power supply
and the voltage at various points in the unit is shown in fig 19.1. The ac
voltage, typically 120 V rms, is connected to a transformer, which steps
that ac voltage down to the level for the desired dc output. A diode
rectifier then provides a full-wave rectified voltage that is initially
filtered by a simple capacitor filter to produce a dc voltage. This
resulting dc voltage usually has some ripple or ac voltage variation. A
regulator circuit can use this dc input to provide a dc voltage that not
only has much less ripple voltage but also remains the same dc value
even if the input dc voltage varies somewhat, or the load connected to
the output dc voltage changes. This voltage regulation is usually
obtained using one of a number of popular voltage regulator IC units.

Transformer

Rectifier

Filter

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ii.

IC VOLTAGE REGULATORS:
Voltage regulators comprise a class of widely used ICs. Regulator

IC units contain the circuitry for reference source, comparator amplifier,


control device, and overload protection all in a single IC. Although the
internal construction of the IC is somewhat different from that described
for discrete voltage regulator circuits, the external operation is much the
same. IC units provide regulation of either a fixed positive voltage, a
fixed negative voltage, or an adjustably set voltage.
A power supply can be built using a transformer connected to the
ac supply line to step the ac voltage to a desired amplitude, then
rectifying that ac voltage, filtering with a capacitor and RC filter, if
desired, and finally regulating the dc voltage using an IC regulator. The

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regulators can be selected for operation with load currents from


hundreds of milli amperes to tens of amperes, corresponding to power
ratings from milliwatts to tens of watts.
iii.

THREE-TERMINAL VOLTAGE REGULATORS:


Fig shows the basic connection of a three-terminal voltage

regulator IC to a load. The fixed voltage regulator has an unregulated dc


input voltage, Vi, applied to one input terminal, a regulated output dc
voltage, Vo, from a second terminal, with the third terminal connected to
ground. For a selected regulator, IC device specifications list a voltage
range over which the input voltage can vary to maintain a regulated
output voltage over a range of load current. The specifications also list
the amount of output voltage change resulting from a change in load
current (load regulation) or in input voltage (line regulation).
IV.

FIXED POSITIVE VOLTAGE REGULATORS:

IN

OUT
7805
GND

POINTS TO REMEMBER
LCD

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LCD is Stands for liquid crystal display. It is used to display the


datas which is came from PIC. It contains the 16 pin. 8 pin is used for
data communication, read, write, enable, Brightness control and 4 pins
for power supply.
POWER SUPPLY
Power supply is used to give the 5V to the controller. 5V can be
received from IC voltage regulator. In side the power supply rectifier,
filter is present.
RFID READER
RFID reader is used to read the datas present in the RFID tag.
RFID readers or receivers are composed of a radio frequency module, a
control unit and an antenna to interrogate electronic tags via radio
frequency (RF) communication. Many also include an interface that
communicates with an application. Readers can be hand-held or
mounted in strategic locations so as to ensure they are able to read the
tags as the tags pass through an interrogation zone.
PIC
PIC is used to receive the signal which is come from RFID
receiver. For the LCD display the datas can be sent through PIC.
RF TRANSMITTER
RF transmitter is used to transmit the signal from the RFID
receiver. Inside the transmitter the encoder is present. Datas can be sent
after the encoding. At the receiver section the DECODING process
takes place for get the original signal.
ADVANTAGE:
1. Low power consumption

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2. We can access vary easily.


3. Improves security performance in the security places because we
cannot make the duplicate RFID card.
APPLICATION:
We can use RFID based security system in highly secured
areas such as
1. RFID based Bank security system.
2. RFID based door opening and closing
3. RFID based production security system

CONCLUSION

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The progress in science & technology is a non-stop process. New


things and new technology are being invented. As the technology grows
day by day, we can imagine about the future in which thing we may
occupy every place. This project is used in shopping complex for
purchase the products. In this project RFID card is used as security
access for product. If the product is put in to the trolley means it will
shows the amount and also the total amount. But in this project RFID
card is used for accessing the products. So this project improves the
security performance and also the speed.
The principle of the development of science is that

NOTHING IS IMPOSSIBLE
So we shall look forward to a bright &
sophisticated world.

PROJECT ESTIMATE

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S.NO

NAME OF THE COMPONENT

PRICE PER
COMPONENT

QUANTITY

TOTAL
PRICE

1. RFID reader

1500

3000

2. RFID tag

800

800

3. Microcontroller

850

850

4. L.C.D

600

600

5. Transformer

300

300

6. Driver circuit

200

200

7. Relay

30

30

8. PCB

30

30

9. Alarm

20

20

10. L.E.D

100

100

GRAND TOTAL

5993

11. Miscellaneous

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REFERENCES

THROUGH WEB SITES:


1.

www.rfidjournal.com

2.

www.teamrfid.com

3.

www.wikipedia.org

4.

www.rfidjournal.com

5.

www.relayband.com

6.

www.microcontroller.com

7.

www.instructables.com

8.

www.samsung.com

9.

www.futurlec.com

THROUGH BOOKS:
NAME OF THE

S.NO
1.

PUBLICATION

BOOK

D.VIJAYA KUMAR

MICROCONTROLLERS

(ENGLISH)

2.

JOB

ELECTRICAL MACHINES

N.V

- II
3.

ELECTRONIC DEVICES

4.

CIRCUITS
CONTROL OF

AUTHOR

&

ELECTRICAL MACHINES

N.V
MAHESH
KARTHIK

~ 40 ~

N.KARUPPIAH
J.SIVANEYA
SELAVAN
G.MAHALAKSHMI
S.SRITHAR
M.PARASURAM
K.SOURI RAJAN
A.SHANKARA
SUBRAMANIAM