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IEEE - 31661

Gain and Bandwidth Enhancement of


Aperture Coupled Rectangular DRA
Sarita Singh1

Dr. Rajveer S Yaduvanshi2

ECE Dept. AIACTR,


Govt of Delhi India-110031,
1
E mail: savi.miet@gmail.com

ECE Dept. AIACTR,


Govt of Delhi India-110031,
2
E mail: yaduvanshirs@yahoo.co.in

Abstract-: Mobile communication plays important role


in present era. Bandwidth and gain are inversely
proportional in any of the radar and communication
systems. In this paper we shall try to achieve both Gain
and Impedance Bandwidth with a new approach using
aperture coupled DRA embedded with superstrate.
Gain achieved is 12.27 dB and impedance bandwidth is
enhanced from 11% to 35.85% using superstrate
layer with circular patch array.

II.ANTENNA CONFIGURATION.
Here we have design 3 different antennas
I.
II.
III.

II.(a)

Index Terms :- Rectangular DRA , Superstrate layer,


I. INTRODUCTION.

Aperture coupled DRA


High gain DRA with superstrate
DRA of high gain and high bandwidth with
superstrate layer
DETAILED DESIGN
COUPLED DRA.

OF APERTURE

Fig (1) shows the Front view of a simple


structure of rectangular DRA .The rectangular DRA
of length L, width W,and height H is placed over a
slot, cut at the center of ground plane of size 50x50
mm2 .The microstrip line of length Lm and Width Wm
is placed on the other side of the Ground plane . The
Dielectric material used for substrate is having
permittivity, er=10.2 and thickness is 0.64mm.The
dielectric material used for DRA is
Rogers
RT/duroid 6010/6010 LM having permittivity
,er=10.2 .All the dimensions are shown in table 1.

The DRA has several advantages such as


radiation efficiency, low conducting loss, ease of
fabrication . Different feed mechanism can be used
such as coplanar waveguide, aperture or coaxial cable
[1]. The slot coupling can enhance impedance
bandwidth which can be modified to achieve circular
polarization by rotating the slot in desired manner .In
slot coupling the ground plane act as an effective
shield between the radiating aperture and feed
network. The gain of simple aperture coupled DRA
can be improved by FSS(frequency selective surface)
technique. This paper presents the comparison of
gain and bandwidth of simple rectangular aperture
coupled DRA to DRA embedded with superstrate
layer. Here we have varied the radius of circular
patch on the superstrate to increase the gain and
bandwidth. The gain offered by the antenna 1 is
8.7dB. When we embedded superstrate layer with
array of circular patch , 5 rows and 5 column the gain
is increased to 12.27 dB .As we increased the array
of circular patch , 6 rows and 6 column the gain is
reduced to 11.27dB but Impedance bandwidth is
increased to 2.1 GHz.

Fig.1 Front View (antenna 1)

The Proposed DRA antenna finds its application in


C band (4 GHz 8 GHz) .The superstrate layer
enhanced the gain because of the large electrical area
available.

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IEEE - 31661

microstrip stub length .Input Impedance of whole


antenna is matched perfectly 50 Ohm by carrying out
parametric analysis.
II(b) HIGH GAIN DRA WITH SUPERSTRATE.
ANTENNA DESIGN
In this design three substrates of different
permittivity and heights are used , as shown in figure
2(b). First substrate of thickness h1 and material er1
=10.2 is used for microstrip, second substrate of
thickness h2=0.254mm of material er2=2.2 for DRA
and third substrate of thickness h3 and material
er3=2.2 is used for superstrate, which is placed at a
distance of 18.4 mm from the DRA. An array of
circular patch is made below the superstrate. Here we
have used an array of 5 rows and 5 column of
circular patch of radius 4mm below the substrate, and
gap between two circular patch is 4mm. All the
Dimensions are shown in table 2.

Fig 2. Botom View (antenna 1.)

The resonant frequency for antenna 1 was computed


using equations [3] for dominant mode TE

z
111

mode.

k x 2 k y 2 k z 2 er k0 2
kx

m
n
, ky
a
b

The superstrate layer effects the gain, radiation


pattern, efficiency, resonant frequency and
impedance bandwidth of the antenna . Appropriate
combination of superstrate permittivity, substrate
height and position of superstrate from DRA
enhanced the gain and directivity of the DRA.

k z tan(k z H / 2) (er 1)ko 2 k z 2


k0

2 f
c

kx = wave number in x direction .


ky = wave number in y direction .
f =resonant frequency.
ko = free space wave no .
H = height of DRA.
er =dielectric material of DRA.
c= speed of light.

Front View (antenna 2)

Dimensions :L
(mm)
10.6

W
(mm)
6

Dimensions:H
(mm)
9.6

Ls
(mm)
7.2

Ws
(mm
1.2

Lm
(mm)
28

L
(mm)
10.5

Wm
(mm)
0.6

W
(mm)
6

H
(mm)
9.6

Ls
(mm)
6.8
Table 2

Table.1

The coupling between DRA and feed is managed by


varying the length and width of the slot along with

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July 4-6, 2013, Tiruchengode, India

Ws
(mm)
2

Lm
(mm)
26.6

Wm
(mm)
0.6

IEEE - 31661

er1

Hsub
(mm)

er2

h1
(mm)

er3

Hsup
(mm)

er4

10.2

0.64

2.2

0.254

2.2

0.42

10.2

III. SIMULATED RESULTS


Ansoft HFSS based on finite element method is used
for the simulation. Dimensions of the rectangular
DRA is developed from the dielectric waveguide
model DWM [3] .The dimensions of the DRA are
same for all the three antennas.The resonant
frequency calculated for antenna 1 is 6.59 GHz. In
general to achieve strong coupling, the DRA must be
fabricated from high permittivity material.While, to
operate over a wide bandwidth, the DRA must have a
low dielectric constant. Here we have used DRA of
dielectric constant er=10.2.

Table 3.

II(c) DRA OF HIGH GAIN AND HIGH


BANDWIDH WITH SUPERSTARTE LAYER.
Antenna design
The design of the proposed
antenna with
superstrate is shown in figure 2.3. The rectangular
DRA of permittivity, er=10.2 has length Ld ,width
Wd and height Hd is used .The slot of length Ls and
width Ws is cut from the ground plane of length
50mm and width 50mm.The microstripline of
length Lm and width Wm is used for feeding. The
substrate used between ground plane and DRA has
permittivity er=2.2 and thickness h1. The
superstrate of permittivity er=2.2 (RT Duroid) and
thickness Hsup is used at a distance of 18.4mm from
the ground. An array of circular patch 6 rows and 6
column is made on the superstrate .The radius of
the circular patch is 3 mm and the gap between two
patch is 2mm.

The comparison of return loss for antenna 1 ,


antenna 2 and antenna 3 is shown in figure 3.1 .The
resonate frequency are 6.89GHz.,6.708 GHz and 7.53
GHz for antenna 1 antenna 2 and antenna 3
respectively. figure shows that antenna 3 has
maximum impedance bandwidth .

S11[dB]

0
-10
-20

dB(S(1,1))

-30

dB(S(1,1))
dB(S(1,1))

-40
5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0
Freq [GHz]
Fig 3.1 Return Loss

The antenna is radiating in endfire direction. Gain at


theta 900 and phi = 900 for antenna 1 is 8.79 dB as
shown in figure 3.2 .

Fig 2.3 Front View(antenna 3.)


Ld
(mm)

Wd
(mm)

Hd
(mm)

10.5

9.6

Ls
(mm)

Ws
(mm)

Lm
(mm)

Wm
(mm)

6.8

26.5

0.6

Fig 3.2 Radiation Pattern of Gain for (antenna 1.)

Table 4

at theta=900 and phi=900

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IEEE - 31661

Gain is enhanced due to superstrate layer placed


above the DRA. By adjusting the gap between the
ground and superstrate layer ,Gain obtained for
antenna 2 is 12.27 dB as shown in figure 3.3 .

Gain Total[dB]

14
12
10
8
6

dB(GainTotal)

dB(GainTotal)

2
dB(GainTotal)

0
6.2

6.6

7.0

7.4

7.8

Freq [GHz]
Fig 3.5 Gain Vs Frequency

Figure 3.6.shows the impedance matching plot


which indicate real part of impedance hold the value
nearly 50 and reactive part is nearly 0 at
resonant frequency.

Fig 3.3 Radiation Pattern of gain (antenna 2.)


at theta=900 and phi=900

As we increased the array of circular patch 6


rows and 6 column , gain at theta=900 and phi=900
is 11.27dB for the resonant frequency 6.708 GHz.

300
250
200
150
100
50
0
-50
-100
-150

Impedance

im(Z(1,1))

re(Z(1,1))

5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0


Freq[GHz]
Fig 3.4 Radiation Pattern of gain (antenna 3.)
Fig 3.6 Impedance matching(antenna 2)

at theta=900 and phi=900

Table 5 shows the comparison of gain,


resonant frequency and Bandwidth among the three
antennas. Antenna 3 has maximum bandwidth, 2.1
GHz.

The variation of gain with frequency for


antenna 1, antenna2 and antenna 3 is shown in
figure 3.5. Antenna 2 has maximum gain 12.27 dB
but comparatively narrow bandwidth. Antenna 3
has 11.27 dB gain with 2.1 GHz bandwidth.
Theoretical results calculated from MATLAB, for
antenna 1 are compiled in Table 4.
Resonant
Frequency(GHz)
Power Radiated
Quality Factor
Energy Stored
Table 4.

Structures
antenna 1
antenna 2
antenna 3

6.59
47.14
6.68
41.80 x 10-7

Gain(dB)
8.796
12.27
11.27

fr(GHz)
6.89
6.708
7.53

Table 5.

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B.W(GHz)
0.76
0.642
2.1

IEEE - 31661

IV .CONCLUSION.
This paper reported a technique of gain
enhancement of 39.49% and bandwidth enhancement
of 35.85% as compare to simple aperture coupled
DRA. The Proposed design can be used in Wi-Max
,WLAN and Bluetooth.
V ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I would like to thanks my Project Guide, Dr.
Rajveer S Yaduvanshi and friends Meena Maurya
and Jatin Gaur for their continuous support and
encouragement.

REFERENCES :[1] R.K.Mongia and P. Bhartia, Dielectric


resonator
antennasA review and general design relations for resonant
frequency and bandwidth, Int.J. Microwave MillimeterWave Eng., vol. 4, pp. 230247, July 1994.
[2]

Ittipiboon, A. and R. K. Mongia, Theoretical and


experimental investigation on rectangular dielectric resonator
antenna," IEEE Transaction on Antennas and Propagation,
Vol. 45, No. 9, 1348{ 1356, Sep. 1997.

[3]

Y. M. M. Antar and Z. Fan, Characteristics of aperture


coupled rectangular dielectric resonator antenna, Electron.
Lett., vol. 31, pp. 12091210, July 995.

[4]

R. F. Harrington, Time Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields.


New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961.

[5] Y. Coulibaly, M. Nedil, L. Talbi and T. A. Denidni,


Design of High Gain and Broadband Antennas at 60 GHz for
underground communication system.
[6] K. M. Luk, K. W. Leung, and K. Y. Chow, Bandwidth and
gain enhancement of a dielectric resonator antenna with the
use of a stacking element, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol.
14, no. 4, pp. 21521, Mar. 1997
[7] Y. Coulibaly, M. Nedil, L. Talbi and T. A. Denidni, High
GainCylindrical Dielectric Resonator With Superstrate For
BroadbandMillimeter
Wave
Underground
Mining
Communications,
ANTEM
and
The
American
Electromagnetics conference, Ottawa, July 2010.

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