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Is Human Activity Substantial (large in amount) Responsible for Global Climate Change?

PRO (yes)
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC) stated the following in its Nov.
2014 "Climate Change 2014 Synthesis Report,"
available at ipcc.ch:
"Human influence on the climate system is clear,
and recent anthropogenic emissions of
greenhouse gases are the highest in history.
Recent climate changes have had widespread
impacts on human and natural systems.
Warming of the climate system is unequivocal,
and since the 1950s, many of the observed
changes are unprecedented over decades to
millennia. The atmosphere and ocean have
warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have
diminished, and sea level has risen.
Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions have
increased since the pre-industrial era, driven
largely by economic and population growth, and
are now higher than ever. This has led to
atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide,
methane and nitrous oxide that are
unprecedented in at least the last 800,000 years.
Their effects, together with those of other
anthropogenic drivers, have been detected
throughout the climate system and are extremely
likely [95% confidence] to have been the
dominant cause of the observed warming since
the mid-20th century."
Nov. 2014 - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC)
James E. Hansen, PhD, former Director of the
Goddard Institute for Space Studies at NASA, et
al., stated the following in their Aug. 6, 2012 study
"Perception of Climate Change," published in
the Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences:
"The greatest barrier to public recognition of
human-made climate change is probably the
natural variability of local climate…
Actions to stem emissions of the gases that cause
global warming are unlikely to approach what is
needed until the public recognizes that humanmade climate change is underway and perceives
that it will have unacceptable consequences…

CON (no)
Patrick Moore, PhD, Chair and Chief Scientist of
Greenspirit Strategies Ltd. and former Director of
Greenpeace International, stated the following in
his Feb. 25, 2014 Senate Environment and Public
Works Committee testimony "Natural Resource
Adaptation: Protecting Ecosystems and
Economies," available at epw.senate.gov:
"There is no scientific proof that human emissions
of carbon dioxide (CO2) are the dominant cause
of the minor warming of the Earth’s atmosphere
over the past 100 years. If there were such a
proof it would be written down for all to see. No
actual proof, as it is understood in science,
exists...
When modern life evolved over 500 million years
ago, CO2 was more than 10 times higher than
today, yet life flourished at this time. Then an Ice
Age occurred 450 million years ago when CO2
was 10 times higher than today. There is some
correlation, but little evidence, to support a direct
causal relationship between CO2 and global
temperature through the millennia. The fact that
we had both higher temperatures and an ice age
at a time when CO2 emissions were 10 times
higher than they are today fundamentally
contradicts the certainty that human-caused CO2
emissions are the main cause of global warming."
Feb. 25, 2014 - Patrick Moore, PhD
Richard S. Lindzen, PhD, Emeritus Professor of
Meteorology at the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology (MIT), stated the following in his
article, "Climate of Fear: Global Warming
Alarmists Intimidate Dissenting Scientists into
Silence," Wall Street Journal, Apr. 12, 2006:
"There have been repeated claims that this past
year's hurricane activity was another sign of
human-induced climate change. Everything from
the heat wave in Paris to heavy snows in Buffalo
has been blamed on people burning gasoline to
fuel their cars, and coal and natural gas to heat,
cool and electrify their homes. Yet how can a
barely discernible, one-degree increase in the
recorded global mean temperature since the late
19th century possibly gain public acceptance as
the source of recent weather catastrophes? And
how can it translate into unlikely claims about

Christy. limiting further warming to a maximum of several tenths of a degree Celsius.[C]limate models overestimate the response of temperature to greenhouse gas increases.. naturally… New discoveries explain part of the warming found in traditional surface temperature datasets. containing overstated confidence in their assertions of high climate sensitivity. Widely publicized consensus reports by 'thousands' of scientists are misrepresentative of climate science. and it has been known for almost two centuries that this carbon dioxide traps heat. is still possible.James E. 1. 2012 before the US Senate Environment and Public Works Committee. provided the following testimony on Aug. the Earth is very large. such as Mount Global temperature has risen about a degree since the late 19th century.Div.. such as the one in Texas and Oklahoma in the summer of 2011. levels of CO2 in the atmosphere have increased by about 30% over the same period.. every year. but it would require a rising price on carbon emissions sufficient to spur transition to a clean energy future without burning all fossil fuels. Sensors on satellites have measured the sun’s output with great accuracy and found no overall increase during the past half century.Richard S. Also shown was a lack of evidence to blame humans for an increase in extreme events." available at the website of the US Global Change Research Program: "Multiple lines of independent evidence confirm that human activities are the primary cause of the global warming of the past 50 years... 2006 ." Apr. Recent high profile heat waves. It isn't just that the alarmists are trumpeting model results that we know must be wrong.. raise the question of whether these extreme events are related to the on-going global warming trend. implies that we can say with a high degree of confidence that events such as the extreme summer heat in the Moscow region in 2010 and Texas in 2011 were a consequence of global warming. such as the current central US drought. and gas. and extreme events will continue to occur somewhere. and CO2 should contribute to future warming. PhD The US Global Change Research Program stated in its May 2014 "US National Climate Assessment. PhD. However.. and clearing of forests have increased the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by more than 40% since the Industrial Revolution.. are evidence of human-caused climate change.. The burning of coal.gov: "It is popular again to claim that extreme events. 2012 . by more than an order of magnitude. It is a simple fact that CO2 is plant food and the world around us evolved when levels of CO2 were . what the public fails to grasp is that the claims neither constitute support for alarm nor establish man's responsibility for the small amount of warming that has occurred. oil. There are many other human-induced stresses on life… yet global warming caused by fossil fuel burning may be a unique threat because of the millennial time scale of anthropogenic carbon within surface carbon reservoirs. PhD John R. These claims are true. Data show that natural factors like the sun and volcanoes cannot have caused the warming observed over the past 50 years.. available at epw.. ." Aug. It has been argued that a scenario phasing out carbon emissions fast enough to stabilize climate this century. Professor of Atmospheric Science and Director of the Earth System Science Center at the University of Alabama at Huntsville.future catastrophes?. Hansen. Actually. Large volcanic eruptions during this period. 12. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture and other human activities add to the atmospheric burden of heat-trapping gases.. M. It is that they are trumpeting catastrophes that couldn't happen even if the models were right as justifying costly policies to try to prevent global warming. Lindzen.. which has been attributed with a high degree of confidence to human-made greenhouse gases.. 6. One cannot convict CO2 of causing any of these events.. This partial warming is unrelated to the accumulation of heat due to the extra greenhouse gases. because they've happened in the past before CO2 levels rose.senate.. but related to human development around the thermometer stations. The increase of these extreme anomalies. the weather is very dynamic.

PhD. more importantly. 2007 article "Implications of the Secondary Role of Carbon Dioxide and Methane Forcing in Climate Change: Past." published in Physical Geography: "There is no quantitative evidence that varying levels of minor greenhouse gases like CO2 and CH4 have accounted for even as much as half of the reconstructed glacial-interglacial temperature changes or.US Global Change Research Program Richard A. M. And. 2012 OP-ED "The Conversion of a ClimateChange Skeptic. stated the following in his Nov. Our [Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature project] results show that the average temperature of the earth’s land has risen by two and a half degrees Fahrenheit over the past 250 years. from poor station quality (we separately analyzed good stations and poor ones) and from human intervention and data adjustment (our work is completely automated and hands-off). we used virtually 100 percent). for the large variations in global ice volume on both land and sea over the past 650kyr [650. That fingerprint is absent. 2013 article "Harrison H.. Honorary Associate Fellow of Engineering at the University of Wisconsin at Madison and former US Senator and NASA Astronaut." May 2014 .Willie Soon.000 years]. including an increase of one and a half degrees over the most recent 50 years. Last year.. Moreover.. Professor of Physics at Princeton University. Our green world is a consequence of atmospheric CO2. PhD. Present. 1. 2007 . threw doubt on the very existence of global warming. following an intensive research effort involving a dozen scientists.. PhD. PhD Harrison H. from data selection (prior groups selected fewer than 20 percent of the available temperature stations.. it appears likely that essentially all of this increase results from the human emission of greenhouse gases. I concluded that global warming was real and that the prior estimates of the rate of warming were correct. Professor of Physics at the University of California at Berkeley and Faculty Senior Scientist at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. food for plants means food for people..John Christy. This paper shows that changes in solar insolation [amount of solar energy hitting the earth] at climatically sensitive latitudes and zones exceed the global radiative forcings [greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere traping solar heat] of CO2 and CH4 by severalfold. PhD.Pinatubo in 1991. but also enhances the yields of our food crops... PhD.. In fact.Div Willie Soon.com: "The cessation of observed global warming for the past decade or so has shown how exaggerated ." Aug. 2012 . Schmitt and William Happer: In Defense of Carbon Dioxide. in my mind. Its magnitude is five to ten times what they are today. if not for human activities... from both orbital variations and intrinsic solar magnetic luminosity variations." Nov. The extra CO2 we are putting into the atmosphere not only invigorates the biosphere. This implies natural warming and cooling variations." available at www. I’m now going a step further: Humans are almost entirely the cause.nytimes. and William Happer. [O]ur record is long enough that we could search for the fingerprint of solar variability." available at wsj. This is a tremendous benefit to nature and us in my view. global climate would actually have cooled slightly over the past 50 years. have exerted a short-term cooling influence. stated the following in their May 8. [T]he popular notion of CO2 and CH4 radiative forcing as the predominant amplifier of glacialinterglacial phase transitions cannot be confirmed… Our basic hypothesis is that long-term climate change is driven by insolation changes.com: "Three years ago I identified problems in previous climate studies that. Muller. We carefully studied issues raised by skeptics: biases from urban heating (we duplicated our results using rural data alone). Schmitt. Physicist at the HarvardSmithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Geologist. stated the following in his July 28. In our papers we demonstrate that none of these potentially troublesome effects unduly biased our conclusions. How definite is the attribution to humans? The carbon dioxide curve gives a better match than anything else we’ve tried. based on the historical record of sunspots.. and Future.

for the first time in the 4+ billion year history of the Earth capable of altering the largest geophysical system on the planet – the climate – and we are doing it on a human time scale of years and decades. until the Paleogene period (beginning about 65 million years ago). The incredible list of supposed horrors that increasing carbon dioxide will bring the world is pure belief disguised as science. would be a benefit… We know that carbon dioxide has been a much larger fraction of the earth's atmosphere than it is today. Schmitt. For most plants. PhD The Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change. far from being a ‘pollutant’ in need of reduction.E." [Editor's Note: The Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature Project published the results of its research on Oct. complex global climate models. CEO of the Pacific Institute. 2013 . and for the animals and humans that use them. approaching 400 parts per million. We are. we have become powerful enough to overwhelm slow geological cycles. more carbon dioxide. and there are few who do not attribute the CO2 increase to the increase in humanity's use of fossil fuels. Proponents of the notion that increases in the air's CO2 content lead to global warming point to the past century's weak correlation between atmospheric CO2 concentration and global air temperature as proof of their contention. 2011. Levels were 3. There isn't the slightest evidence that more carbon dioxide has caused more extreme weather. The current levels of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere. and as we have learned how to mobilize vast quantities of carbon-based fossil fuels (ironically. There is also little doubt the earth has warmed slightly over the same period." available at co2science. However. PhD. variations in global temperature correlate much better with solar activity and with complicated cycles of the oceans and atmosphere. and the geological record shows that life flourished on land and in the oceans during those times. or more. And ironically.William Happer. PhD Harrison H. they typically gloss over the fact that correlation . in a position statement written by Chairman C. with consequences we are only just beginning to comprehend. Idso. As the planet’s population has grown to 7 billion people. but there is no compelling reason to believe that the rise in temperature was caused by the rise in CO2. climate contrarians and skeptics.] July 28. "Earth Atmospheric Land Surface Temperature and Station Quality in the United States" .Richard A.. 2012 article "Climate Change.. created over geologic time scales) to satisfy our short-term energy demands. 11.com: "Climate does change naturally for reasons well understood by scientists. our effect on the climate is still slow enough for policy makers.000 ppm. "Berkeley Earth Temperature Averaging Process" (1MB) . Idso. our analysis does not depend on large.org: "There is little doubt the air's CO2 concentration has risen significantly since the inception of the Industrial Revolution.. are low by the standards of geological and plant evolutionary history." May 8. and Vice President K. committing the planet to more and more change… NASA's and most other computer predictions of human-caused warming have been—and how little correlation warming has with concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide. PhD Peter Gleick.. 16. Disbelief. Muller. 2012 . As many scientists have pointed out.. as four draft papers: "Influence of Urban Heating on the Global Temperature Land Average" . PhD. and "Decadal Variations in the Global Atmospheric Land Temperatures" . Our result is based simply on the close agreement between the shape of the observed temperature rise and the known greenhouse gas increase. stated the following in its 2008 publication "Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming: Where We Stand on the Issue. and those simply not paying attention to either actively deny it or to just look the other way. PhD.D. stated the following in his Jan. But it does so over thousands or tens of thousands of years – time scales so slow as to be imperceptible to humans… Human-caused climate changes are different..consistent with the calculated greenhouse effect — extra warming from trapped heat radiation." available at forbes. and the Collision Between Human and Geologic Time. the huge computer programs that are notorious for their hidden assumptions and adjustable parameters.

It is based on ignoring or disbelieving it.org: "[T]he scientific case for human-caused climate change is clear. many studies have revealed that the numbers and intensities of extreme weather events have remained relatively constant over the last century. 2010 report "Advancing the Science of Climate Change." May 19. One of these was that sea level would rise...[T]he inability to comprehend the planetary influence of humans isn’t based on reviewing and rejecting the scientific evidence. and that a hundred years is not enough time to establish the validity of such a relationship when it comes to earth's temperature history.. Those who perpetrated possibly the greatest deception in human history that CO2 is causing global warming/climate change are scared." available at www. As discussed in the following chapters. Projections of future climate change indicate that Earth will continue to warm unless significant and sustained actions are taken to limit emissions of GHGs. There is also a multitude of evidence that this warming results primarily from human activities. the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and Al Gore were in serious disagreement. as documented in more recent years. including decreases in the amounts of ice stored in mountain glaciers and Polar Regions. especially burning fossil fuels and other activities that release heat-trapping greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere. 10." available at the website of Canada Free Press: "Claims that recent severe weather and flooding in the US are proof of human CO2 impacts on global climate are scientific nonsense.we note that increases and decreases in atmospheric CO2 concentration not only did not precede the changes in air temperature. and droughts.. Proponents of the CO2-induced global warming hypothesis often predict that extreme weather events such as droughts. however." available at the website of the National Academy of Sciences: "[H]uman activities are influencing the climate. they followed them." Jan. As a consequence of melting ice and warming oceans..A Letter from Michael Mann. stated the following in his Feb. 2010 . These changes in turn pose significant risks to both human and ecological systems. changes in ocean chemistry. former Geography Professor at the University of Winnipeg. The evidence includes independent assessments of thermometer records documenting the degree and extent of modern warming.. floods." 2008 . stated the following in his July 7.National Academy of Sciences Michael E. scientific evidence that the Earth is warming is now overwhelming. the diminution of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheet. These increases in temperature and GHG concentrations are driving a multitude of related and interacting changes in the Earth system.Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change Tim Ball. Another was Arctic sea ice except it returned to long term normal levels last winter . In fact. 2010 article "Science Supports Climate Change Claims . It includes the unprecedented melting of glaciers and.three glacial terminations and four glacial inceptions . Mann.. PhD The National Academy of Sciences stated the following in the introduction to their May 19..voicesweb. PhD. there is no evidence to support this claim. and changes in the frequency and intensity of heat waves.. but it foundered when the two Nobel Peace Prize winners. Hence. 2008 article "Alarmists Use Weather to Promote Global Warming Hoax. precipitation events. and by hundreds to thousands of years. PhD.Peter Gleick.. which is clear to 97-98% of climate scientists publishing in the field. and hurricanes will become more numerous and/or extreme in a warmer world. Events are driving them to extreme. the global sea level is does not imply causation. In thus considering the seven greatest temperature transitions of the past half-million years . unsubstantiated and even ridiculous claims and threats. 2012 . the climate history of the past half-million years provides absolutely no evidence to suggest that the ongoing rise in the air's CO2 concentration will lead to significant global warming. increases in sea level. Professor in the Departments of Meteorology and Geosciences at Pennsylvania State University. 16.

. the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) and computer modelers who believe that CO2 is the cause of global warming still predict the Earth is in store for catastrophic warming in this century… Global warming of the past century (0. It is expected to increase by another 1. PhD The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) stated the following in its publication "Feeling the Heat. has switched back forth between these two modes every 25-30 years (known as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation or PDO).in particular. the warming since 1977) is over.rising and at an accelerating rate..008%) was not the cause of the warming . Eleven of the last 12 years are the warmest on record. but only when human influences . Theoretical climate models predict these things to happen.8° C to 4° C by the year 2100 . None of these sudden global climate changes could possibly have been caused by human CO2 input to the atmosphere because they all took place long before anthropogenic CO2 emissions began. Those same models project far more profound and potentially damaging impacts of climate change if action is not taken to stabilize greenhouse gas levels this next decade.a rapid and profound change . methane. The principal reason for the mounting thermometer is a century and a half of industrialization: the burning of ever-greater quantities of oil. Emeritus Professor of Geology at Western Washington University. 2008 . In 1977 the Pacific abruptly shifted from its cool mode (where it had been since about 1945) into its warm mode. PhD.. Continental drought is becoming more pronounced in many extratropical regions. they are pushing the global temperature to artificially high levels and altering the climate.int (accessed May 12. and coal. and without them the world would be a cold and barren place. The Pacific Ocean has a warm temperature mode and a cool temperature mode. the cutting of forests." Feb. Sadly.. 2010): "The average temperature of the earth's surface has risen by 0. The cause of the ten earlier 'natural' climate changes was most likely the same as the cause of global warming from 1977 to 1998. PhD Don J.Michael E.. increasing greenhouse gas concentrations due to fossil fuel burning—are included. and there is an increase in the destructive potential of Atlantic hurricanes that influence the east and Gulf coasts. gasoline. Mann. and this initiated global warming from 1977 to 1998… Global warming (i. The minute increase of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere (0. 2014 article "Global Cooling Is Here. Southwest. and NASA announced the one year anomaly was due to changes in wind patterns. Easterbrook. Proponents of human caused climate change will.should the necessary action not be taken." available at unfccc. and in the past century.. and nitrous oxide. Unless people understand the basic science they will continue the fraud and pressure politicians into even more damaging energy and environmental policies." July 7. 2010 . such as the deserts of the U..000 years. they keep some of the sun's warmth from reflecting back into space. especially carbon dioxide.74 degrees C since the late 1800s.e.it was a continuation of natural cycles that occurred over the past 500 years. But in augmented and increasing quantities.Tim Ball. continue their practice of claiming natural events as unnatural.S. 10.they are critical for life on earth.." .." available at globalresearch. some who are opposed to taking action to combat the potential threat have engaged in a smear campaign that appears intended to distract the public and policymakers from the reality of the threat as policymakers begin to consider taking more serious action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions... and the practice of certain farming methods. These activities have increased the amount of 'greenhouse gases' in the atmosphere.ca: "Despite no global warming in 10 years and recording setting cold in 2007-2008. stated the following in his June 28. So they return to their central theme of convincing you that normal weather events are abnormal. Such gases occur naturally ..8° C) is virtually insignificant when compared to the magnitude of at least 10 global climate changes in the past 15.

.Andrew Dessler. Director of the Program in Atmospheres.. the science of climate change is strong. natural cycles and volcanoes. Numerous plant and animal species. PhD.The current warming trend is expected to cause extinctions. PhD. Principal Research Scientist at the Earth System Science Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. stated the following in their Mar.. already weakened by pollution and loss of habitat." available at the Heartland Institute website: "A high percentage of meteorologists and/or climate scientists do not agree that the climate changes we have seen are mostly manmade.. 2008 article "Global Warming as a Natural Response to Cloud Changes Associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.. Spencer. PhD. then mankind’s CO2 emissions are not strong enough to have caused the global warming we’ve seen over the last 100 years.Don J. Need to Confront Climate Change Is Clear. PhD." May 12. Professor in the Department of Atmospheric Sciences at Texas A&M University. Recent severe storms. stated the following in his Oct. stated the following in his Feb. no one has been able to propose a credible alternative mechanism that can explain the present-day warming without heat-trapping gases produced by human activities. for example.. the Science Is Solid." available at drroyspencer. in general. We should all call out faulty science wherever we see it. 2010 article. 15. 7. while not threatened in this way." Apr... "MIT Professor's Climate Change Op-Ed Proven False. carbon dioxide alone has increased by about 40 percent. Human beings. [T]he global climate models will never be able to replicate the complex global atmosphere / ocean environment and its continuing changes.. [H]umans have taken over from nature as the dominant influence on our climate. 2010 . carbon dioxide and methane. 6. including the blind belief (without any evidence beyond the faulty models) that humans are largely responsible for climate change. Easterbrook. These increases have been brought about by fossil fuel June 28. . are not expected to survive the next 100 years. I believe most of the changes that have been observed are due to multi-decadal and multi-century changes in deep global ocean currents. such as changes in energy from the sun." published in the Boston Globe: "[C]oncentrations of the two most important longlived greenhouse gases.. have been increasing since the dawn of the industrial era. 7. 2010 article "Despite Uncertainties. more beneficial for humanity." published in the Houston Chronicle: "Contrary to what one might read in newspapers. Our own work and the immense body of independent research conducted around the world leaves no doubt. Professor Emeritus of Atmospheric Science at Colorado State University. 2010 . et al. 2014 . Many scientists believe a slightly warmer world would be.N..com: "[W]e are finding satellite evidence that the climate system is much less sensitive to greenhouse gas emissions than the U. It has been noted that vegetation growth is enhanced by higher CO2 levels. floods and droughts.. are likely to face mounting difficulties.William Gray. and Climate at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC. Thousands of us think the larger part of the climate changes we have observed over the last century are of natural origin. 20. appear to show that computer models predicting more frequent 'extreme weather events' are on target. 6." Mar. "On Global Warming.United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Andrew Dessler. PhD Kerry Emanuel. But despite years of intensive observations of the Earth system. There is no question that natural causes. The small changes in climate we have seen so far and the changes we will likely see in the coming decades are not potentially dangerous. continue to affect temperature today. 2010 . 2010 article.. stated the following in his Apr.. 2007) climate models suggest that it is.. PhD William Gray. Such changes have yet to be properly incorporated into the global models or into most climate modelers’ thinking. And if that is true. Oceans. PhD Roy W.

[R]ecent satellite measurements .. oil. PhD . natural gas and forests. and complex models . such as earlier arriving springs.Steven F." Feb. Here is what scientists have found is happening to our climate: man-made global-warming pollution traps heat from the sun and increases atmospheric temperatures.. 2010 . The rate of rise of surface temperature is.however imperfect each is in isolation . we cannot rule out the possibility that the changes of recent decades are part of a natural rebound from the 'Little Ice Age' that followed the medieval warm period and ended in the 19th century. droughts. larger than any natural change we have been able to discern for at least the past 1. FK Weyerhaeuser Fellow at the American Enterprise Instutute for Public Policy Research. potentially dangerous human alteration of climate. increasing acidity of the ocean. 2010 article "In Denial. the effects of air pollution.Kerry Emanuel. we should not lose track of the simple fact that theory. and shrinking Arctic Ocean ice caps?." available at www. While the PDO is primarily a geographic rearrangement in atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns in the North Pacific. Above all.aei. Disputes within climate science concern the nature and magnitude of feedback processes involving clouds and water vapor.. 27. if the medieval warm period was indeed as warm or warmer than today. and temperatures have increased over the same period.. [G]lobal temperatures have been rising for roughly the past century and have so far increased by about 1. and wind patterns in the upper atmosphere may explain the retreat of glaciers and sea ice better than greenhouse gases.. and heat waves. Several studies of Arctic warming conclude that changes in ocean currents. stated the following in his Mar. But when the dust settles. former Vice President of the United States and Chairman of the Board at the Alliance for Climate Protection.Roy W.. Hayward.5 years .have been increasing rapidly with the growth in the burning of coal..000 years. 15. If the climate system is less sensitive to greenhouse gases than the climate campaign believes. Hurricanes are predicted to grow stronger and more destructive. PhD Steven F. Hayward..support the Pacific Decadal Oscillation as a potential major player in global warming and climate change. such as sunspot activity and gamma ray bursts." published in the New York Times: "[T]he scientific enterprise will never be completely free of mistakes.even though they span only 7. 20." Oct. it is well known that such regional changes can also influence weather patterns over much larger areas.. though their [M]ost of the warming could be the result of a natural cycle in cloud cover forced by a wellknown mode of natural climate variability: the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). What is important is that the overwhelming consensus on global warming remains unchanged. Jr. in spite of all its complexity and uncertainties. 2010 . and the incidence of weather hazards such as floods. and although there is robust scientific literature on the issue.org: "The models the IPCC uses for projecting a 3 to 4 degree Celsius increase in temperature all assume large positive (that is.." Mar.combustion and changes in land use. Spencer.... temperaturemagnifying) feedbacks from a doubling of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. 2010 article "We Can't Wish Away Climate Change. PhD.. PhD Al Gore.and seas are rising. And. what we are left with is the evidence.. storms. uncertainties about the rate at which the oceans take up heat and carbon dioxide. These uncertainties are reflected in divergent predictions of climate change made by computer models. and the nature and importance of climate change effects such as rising sea level. 2008 . even the skeptic community is divided about whether solar activity is a primary cause of recent climate variation. actual observations of the planet. then what is causing plainly observable changes in the climate. cloud formation. stated the following in his Feb. These pollutants especially carbon dioxide . 15..4 F.all point to ongoing. receding glaciers.. 15. Almost all of the ice-covered regions of the Earth are melting . The IPCC downplays theories of variations in solar activity.

" available at www.. stated the following in its Apr. 27.300 years in the Northern Hemisphere.epa. Predictions of future climate come from computer models. Marshall Institute James M. even as the severity of flooding increases.The George C. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). it is most likely to be natural — not man-made. which are very incomplete approximations of the behavior of the real climate system. we will probably see an average global temperature increase of 3 to 7°F by 2100. We know that greenhouse gases trap heat. Jr. Increases in global temperatures will most likely change our planet’s climate in ways that will have significant long-term effects on people and the environment. The levels of these gases are increasing at a faster rate than at any time in hundreds of thousands of years. global warming… The media have missed the big pieces of the puzzle when it comes to the Earth’s temperatures and mankind’s carbon dioxide (C02) emissions. If human activities continue to release greenhouse gases at or above the current rate. . Since the late 1800s. average temperatures are rising.number is expected to decrease. stated the following in its July 23.. Most of this recent warming is very likely the result of human activities.. Whatever the threat of climate change to humanity. Marshall Institute.' a period of global cooling lasting from about 1400 to the 1800s AD.. [N]atural flows of CO2 in and out of the Earth’s surface average about 20 times the human contribution." Apr.. life expectancy. 2009 publication "Frequently Asked Questions about Global Warming and Climate Change. Within the past 30 years.US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) The George C. Droughts are getting longer and deeper in many mid-continent regions. which is. 2009 publication "The Cocktail Conversation Guide to Global Warming.org: "[G]lobal surface temperatures have not increased since about 1998..gov: "I am going to speak today about the most mediahyped environmental issue of all time. a science and public policy organization. the one degree Fahrenheit rise coincided with the greatest advancement of living standards. a natural recovery from the 'Little Ice Age.. Many human activities release 'greenhouse gases' into the atmosphere. The seasonal predictability of rainfall and temperatures is being disrupted.gov: "The Earth's climate is changing. Past climate information suggests the warmth of the last half century is unusual in at least the previous 1.Al Gore. the rate of warming across the globe has been approximately three times greater than the rate over the last 100 years. Inhofe. the world’s average surface temperature is believed to have warmed about 1°F. and greater warming after that.. The most rapid warming has occured in recent decades. not scientific facts. posing serious threats to agriculture. It is very simplistic to feign horror and say the one degree Fahrenheit temperature increase during the 20th century means we are all doomed. The predictions of future climatic changes are hypotheses.marshall. stated the following in his Sep.. in part.” available at epw. United States Senator (R-OK)... food production and human health in the history of our planet.senate. First of all. 2010 . 25. If humans continue to emit greenhouse gases at or above the current pace." Feb. 2006 speech "Hot & Cold Media Spin: A Challenge to Journalists Who Cover Global Warming. we will continue to increase average temperatures around the globe. 2009 ." July 23.. The rate of species extinction is accelerating to dangerous levels.. So it is hard to argue that the global warming we experienced in the 20th century was somehow negative or part of a catastrophic trend." available at www. 2009 .. In most places.

independent observations confirm the reality of global warming. permafrost. just as man-made CO2 emissions rose sharply. and atmospheric water vapor. why do so many in the media ignore the many skeptical scientists who cite these rather obvious inconvenient truths?" Sep.5°F) over the past 140 years. Let me repeat. These changes are broadly consistent with long? understood physics and predictions of how the climate system is expected to respond to human?caused increases in greenhouse gases. which resulted in harsh winters which froze New York Harbor and caused untold deaths.8°C (1.The American Geophysical Union stated the following in its Aug. Fossil fuel burning dominates this increase. what the climate alarmists and their advocates in the media have continued to ignore is the fact that the Little Ice Age. snow cover. long before manmade CO2 emissions could have impacted the climate. something that the media almost never addresses are the holes in the theory that C02 has been the driving force in global warming. and future emissions will influence the climate system for millennia. Alarmists fail to adequately explain why temperatures began warming at the end of the Little Ice Age in about 1850. present. 25." available at the website of the American Geophysical Union: "Human activities are changing Earth’s climate. Human?caused increases in greenhouse gases are responsible for most of the observed global average surface warming of roughly 0. Inhofe . temperatures got colder after C02 emissions exploded. they document decreases in the extent of mountain glaciers. prompting the media and many scientists to fear a coming ice age. ended about 1850." Aug. At the global level. atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other heat?trapping greenhouse gases have increased sharply since the Industrial Revolution. Then about 1940. 2006 . If C02 is the driving force of global climate change.American Geophysical Union (AGU) Second. our past. Extensive. 2013 position statement "Human-Induced Climate Change Requires Urgent Action. Because natural processes cannot quickly remove some of these gases (notably carbon dioxide) from the atmosphere. These observations show large?scale increases in air and sea temperatures. and Arctic sea ice. The changes are inconsistent with explanations of climate change that rely on known natural influences.James M. So trying to prove man-made global warming by comparing the well-known fact that today's temperatures are warmer than during the Little Ice Age is akin to comparing summer to winter to show a catastrophic temperature trend. the temperatures began a decline that lasted until the 1970’s. sea level. In addition. 2013 .