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Summary of Weather

Modification Activities
Reported in 1979
Rockville, Maryland

July 1980

u.s. DEPARTMENT OF

COMMERCE

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration


Office of Research and Development

Summary of Weather
Modification Activities
Reported in 1979
Mason T. Charak
Atmospheric Programs Office

Rockville, Maryland 20852


July 1980

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE


PhIlIpM. Klutznlek, Secretary

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration


Rich...d A. FllWlk. Administrator

Office of Research and Development


Ferris Web$ler,AssistanlAltnimtator

CONTENTS

Abstract . .
Introduction .
Data base
Sununary of data
Number of activities
Operators and sponsors
Target areas and their locations
Purpose of activity
Techniques and apparatus . .
Seeding agents and dispensing rates
Sunnnary of reported data for 1979 - .
Safety and environmental factors
Federal activities .
Nonfedera1 activities . . . .

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10
10

Comparison of data reported since 1973 .


Number of activities . .
Operators and sponsors
Target areas and locations . .
Duration of modification activities
Seeding agents
Concluding remarks
Reference
............

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Appendixes
A. Public Law 92-205
E, Reporting rules .
C-1, Initial report.
C-2, Inter1m/fina1 report.
C-3, Daily Log form . . . . .
D, Weather modification activity reports

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SUMMARY OF WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIES


REPORTED IN 1979

ABSTRACT
This report summarizes weather modification activities
reported to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in calendar year 1979. Information is presented on the purposes, locations, sponsors, operators,
equipment, techniques, target areas, seeding agents,
seeding duration, operational procedures, and environmental factors associated with the activities. The data
for 1979 are compared with the data reported for 1973 - 78,
and some trends are noted.

INTRODUCTION
All nonfederally sponsored attempts to modify the weather must be reported
to the Secretary of Commerce in compliance with Public Law 92-205 enacted
in 1971. The Secretary delegated the responsibility for administering the
reporting program to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA) a year later. Relevant Federal agencies agreed to report their
weather modification activities to NOAA in 1973. As a result, NOAA maintains
and publishes the only complE!te record of information on weather modification projects undertaken in the United States and its territories. This
information provides factual data on prior and current weather modification
experiments and operational projects. Timely reporting of activities
supplies information that can be used to assess the possibility of harm to
persons, property, or the environment, or of interference with Federal or
other research projects.
The reports of weather modification activities on file wi th NOAA furnish
useful information for several other purposes. Persons planning projects,
writing news articles, or preparing term papers request historical and
current data for individual states, regions, or the United States.
Congressional staffs, Federal and State officials, and private citizens
inquire or complain about weather modification activities that are thought
to be associated with adverse weather conditions. On occasion, plaintiffs,
defendents, or their lawyers ask for records of activities in connection
with law suits. All requests for data are honored by either a telephone
reply, copies of reports, letters, or referrals.
In addition. NOAA's reporting program serves two functions on the international scene. On March 26, 1975, the Government of the United States and
the Government of Canada signed an agreement to exchange information on
weather modification activities carried out in or over the territory of

either country within 200 miles of their international Doundary. The Atmospheric Environment Service is the Canadian agency designated to implement
the information exchange with NOAA. On a broader scale, NOAA provides inforIllation on annual activities in the United States to the World Meteorological
Organization for publication in its yearly "Register of National Weather
Modification Projects", a compilation of experiments and operat.ions conducted within member countries.
The reporting procedures include t.he submittal of Initial, Interim, and
Final Reports covering weather modification activities for individual target
areas. An Initial Report is required at least 10 days prior to the start
of the act.ivity. Interim Report.s are required for those projects active
on January 1 of each year and must. be filed within 45 days from that date.
A Final Report Is to be submitted vithin 45 days after completion of the
weather modification activity or project. A \.leather modification activity
is considered active until a Final Report is filed with NOAA.
A project may be carried out int.ermit.t.ent.ly at one location for one or
more years, or a project. may begin and end within a year. Often. projects
are completed early in a year and rest.arted near the end of t.hat. year at the
same locat.ion with the same techniques. In t.his case, only one project
at the one location would be used in summarh:ing the number of projects and
target areas for the calendar year; however the seeding data for both projects at the one location are used in preparing sUll1lllary information.
Copies of t.he reporting law, reporting procedures, and the reporting
forms are attached as appendices A, B, and C, respectively, to t.his report.
Requests for information on the report.ing procedures, the reporting forms,
a.nd the reported activities ahould be directed to:

Atmospheric Programs Office, RD-2


Office of Research and Development
NOAA
6010 Executive Blvd.
Rockville, KD 20852 (Tel. (301) 443-8108)
This summary report. covers nonfederal and Federally sponsored weather
modification activit.ies report.ed to NOAA for calendar year 1979. It includes analyses of data on project purposes, sponsors, operators, target:
locat.ions, target. areas, modification techniques, apparatus, and seeding
agents. Additional information is provided on the number of modificat.ion
days, duration of seeding activities, and amounts of seeding agent.s. Also
included is a brief discussion of reported information on operational
safeguards and environmental factors associated with weather modification
activities. The result.a of the data reported in 1979 are compared with the
previously published data for 1973 - 78 t.o determine possible trends in the
number and character of weather modificat.ion activities in t.he Unit.ed States.

DATA BASE
The data base for this sUl!Illlary of weather modification activities is ccmposed of the Initial, Interilll, and Final Reports submitted to NOAA. On
receipt of an Initial Report, NOAA assigns a file number for the activity;
appendix D is a list of the 64 activities analyzed herein for 1979. The
records and other information obtained under the reporting procedures are
available for inspection at NOAA on written request.
All reports are reviewed, and requests are sent or telephoned to the
operators when the data are incomplete; replies to these infrequent requests for additional information are usually prompt. Experience with the
reporting program shows that the information 1lIOst often requiring a followup request concerns sponsor and operator identification, target area maps,
aircraft and equipment used, dispersal rates of modification agents, date
on which final weather modification activity occurred, and signature.
NOAA maintains surveillance of activities through news-clipping services,
National Weather Services Offices. and technical publications, scientific
conferences, and personal contacts with the weather modification community
to ensure that weather modification activities are properly reported. This
monitoring procedure disclosed four fog dispersal activities that had not
been reported because of misunderstandings between the operator and sponsor
regarding responsibility for reporting. After notification of the requirement to report, the operators submitted tIle proper information. There is no
evidence that any other attempts to modify weather by scientifically accepted techniques were not reported during 1979.

SUIIIlIary of Data
The reported information for calendar year 1979 has been arranged in
several categories for convenience in analyzing the data. These categories
are discussed in the following sections.

Number of Activi ties


Inspection of tIle 64 reports of weather modificat.ion activity listed in
appendix D shows that the following pairs of projects were carried out at
the same locations in 1979:

335,382
338,376
339,373
341,386
343,380
344,375
345-379

346,388
347,387
348d9.0
349,383
353,381
354,394
355,377
356,378

These 15 pairs of duplicative project locations were subtracted from the


64 total reported activities to obtain 49 separate activity locations as
shown in table 1. The figures also show that 20 percent of the separately
located activities in 1979 were supported totally or in part by Federal
funds.
Table 1.--Weather modification activities
in the United States during C'I 1979

Total reported .activities


Separate activities
Nonfederal
Federal (all or in part)

64
49
39
10

Operators and Sponsors


An analysis of table 2 and the records of the reported activities shows
that 15 commercial weather modification firms carried out 69 percent of all
the project.s during 1979. Two companies carried out. 6 projects each or
24 percent of the total activities. The eleven water districts comprised
the largest group of sponsors and supported 22 percent of the year' 8
activities; seven States supported 24 percent of the projects. Six
activities had more than one sponsor.

Table 2.--()perators and Sponsors of Weather


Modification Activities for C'i 1979

Federal
Nonfederal
Commercial
Water Districts
Universities
Utilities
States
Cities
Airlines
Private
Resorts
Community Associations

2
23
15
5
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

3
4.
34

4
2
0
0
0
0
0
0

4
43
0
11
2

3
7
2
10
1
3
4

10
45
0
11
2
4
12
2

1
3
4

Target Areas and Their Locations


Table 3 lists the number of weather modification activities and the
cumulative target area for each State during the year. The total target
area for the 19 States divided by the area of the United States
(3,675,633 mi 2 ) was 3.3 percent. Ninety-two percent of the activities
were located west of the Mississippi River during the reporting period.
California had the largest nlJ1D.ber of activities, but Montana's one
project had the largest target area.

Talile. 3.--Activities and CullJulative Target Area.


By State

CY 1979

Alaska
California
Colorado
Delaware
Florida
Idaho
Illinois
Kansas
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
North Dakota
Oklahoma
Oregon
South Dakota
Texas
Utah
Washington
WyOOling

2
12
3
1

1
4

2
1
1
1

5
3

3
8,464
5,960
1,800
4,800
2,252
3,200
10,400
25,520

1,152
6,743
15,578

340

1
1

10
2,682

3
4
4
3
54*

12,650

21,060

"

70

123,880

*F1ve projects were conducted in adjoining States and crossed state


boundaries.

Purpose of Activity
Table 4 shows that the preponderance of weather modification activities
were to increase precipitation. Seven activities had two purposes -- rain
increase and hail alleviation. Two activities reported that no seeding
had been performed.

Table 4.

Purpose of weather modification activities

Purpose
Increase precipit.ation
Alleviate hail
Clear fog
Research/testing

CY 1979

33
7
9
7

Techniques and Apparatus


Table 5 shows that ground-based AgI burners were used in 41 percent of
the activities in CY 1979. Aircraft were used in 69 percent. of t.he 49
reported projects during t.he year. Fourt.een percent of t.he act.ivit.ies
used both aircraft and ground-based seeding apparatus. Ground-based
silver iodide (AgI) generators for precipitation enhancement were either
pyrotechnic flares, liquid-fueled burners with acetone and propane. or the
arc-type. These systems generate AgI smoke part.icles which are carried
into the clouds by natural air motions. Other ground equipment included
liquid propane emitted as vapor from masts to suppress fog.
Aircraft were fitted with dispensers or augers and doors or chutes to
disperse pellets of dry ice into fog or clouds. In many activities,
aircraft were equipped with liquid-fueled AgI generators or burners and
with pyrotechnics; the latter could be ejected into clouds or could be
burned in place on the trailing edge of the wing. Another aircraf..t:
method used in CY 1979 featured the use of both dry ice and pyrotechnics
for precipitation enliancement.

Table 5.--Weather modification apparatus, seeding


agents and activities' in IT 1979

Apparatus and Agent


Only ground-based AgI generators
(burners)

13

Ground-based AgI generators and


aircraft AgI pyrotechnics
Ground-based propane dispensers
Ag! burners and pyrotechnics on
aircraft
AgI pyrotechnics only on aircraft

12

Aircraft with C02 dispensers

13

Aircraft with pyrotechnics and


CO 2 dispensers
Aircraft with Ag! generators and
C02 dispensers
Aircraft with polyelectrolyte
dispenser

Seeding Agents and Dispensing Rates


The active agents used for the reported weather modification activities
were silver iodide (AgI), crushed frozen carbon dioxide (dry ice (C02)),
propane, and polyelectrolyte (a polymeric material having electrical
charge). Table 5 shows AgI was used in most of the reported activities,
both air and ground-based. Dry ice was the second most used agent. In
many projects, two modification agents were used. One project used
polyelectrolyte.
Dispensing rates for the seeding materials varied with the location of
the apparatus, the type of equipment, and the purpose of the activity.
For example. the dispensing rate for AgI from one ground-based, arc-type
generator used for increasing precipitation can be set at 0.5 or 2.0 grams
per hour. A single, ground-based, propane fired liquid-fueled generator
can dispense up to 22 grams of Ag! per hour. One liquid-fueled generator
on an airplane can dispense 240 grams of AgI per hour. A single

pyrotechnic flare attached to the aircraft wing will burn for about 5
minutes with an output of 75 grams of AgI; an ejectaole flare will burn
for about 30 seconds and emit 5 to 20 grams of AgIo When dry ice is used,
the dispensing rate is measured in kilograms per hour from the airpl?ne
during its traverse of fog or clouds.

Surmnaty of Reported Data for CY 1979


Table 6 presents a surmnary
number of modification days,
seeding agents. Of interest
days and the lack of Federal
5 provide additional data on

of data reported in CY 1979 and covers the


hours of operation, and amounts of the various
are the small number of nonfederal research
hail suppression activities. Tables 3, 4 and
the reported activities.

Table 6.--Summary of reported data for CY 1979

Federal

Nonfederal

Total

(a)

Modification days
(cumulative)

147

1,091

1,238

(b)

Modification days
(increase precipitation)

113

974

1,087

(0)

Modification days
(hail suppression)

133

133

(d)

Modification days
(fog dispersal)

34

56

90

(e)

Modification days
(research)

54

22

76

(f)

Airborne apparatus
operation (hours)

355

2,043

2,398

(g)

Ground-based apparatus
operation (hours)

(h)

Dry Ice (kg)

(1)

Silver iodide, dispensed


(kg)

(j)

Liquid propane (gal)

(k)

Polyelectrolyte (kg)

984

14,621

15,605

1,530

15,933

17,463

224

678

902

11,077

11,077

641

641

Safety and Environmental Factors


The Initial Report form includes questions on the safety and
environmental aspects of the weather modification activity being reported.
Information is sought on the availability of Federal or State
Environmental Impact Statements, the provi"sions made to acquire the latest
weather and other environmental conditions and forecasts, the operational
safety procedures for the activity, and any environmental guidelines
related to the possible effects of the operations. For CY 1979, the
information on safety and environmental considerations was similar to
that of prior years. Some examples of the safety and environmental
information submitted with the Initial Report of Federal and nonfederal
weather modification activities are given below.

Federal Activities
In three Federally-supported projects in California, the forecasting of
seedable conditions was made by the project meteorologists, using all
available National ,,,eather Service (NWS) data and forecasts. The
possibility of flood or avalanche danger was determined through contacts
with the m..s, the United States Forest Service, and State water officials
When such dangers were noted, the seeding activity would be suspended.
With regard to environmental effects, the operator planned to monitor the
silver concentration in precipitation and surface waters in the target
areas.
The operations plan for the Department of Interior's Sierra Cooperative
Pilot Project requires that the contractor establish a field weather
forecast office in support of daylight operations and special storm
situations. Forecasters would be supplied with rawinsonde, radar, and
NWS data as well as information provided by three automatic environmental
surface observation platforms. Safety considerations included suspension
of seeding operations by the site director when he believes the
activity may cause or aggravate a threat to life or property. Even the
use of small quantities of seeding materials will be terminated under
severe storm conditions where hail, flood, or avalanche danger is high.
In the 1979 Texas HIPLEX field program, operations would not be conducted within a NWS delineated severe weather watch or warning area. If
unexpected severe weather developed that was not forecasted, the Project
Director was to .suspend act.ivity while the severe weather remained in
the area.

Nonfederal Activities
For a ground-based, cloud seeding operation to increase snowpack in
north and central Colorado, the contractor planned to use regular govern10

ment. weat.ner dat.a including surface and upper air veat.her dat.a, syno1?t.ic
surface and upper level lQaps and wind dat.a frOlll rawinsondes and piba1s.
Also availaBle would be radar dat.a, haH-hourly sat.e1lit.e maps from che
NWS and ot.her forecast.ing aids t.o asrisc in se1ect.ing scorm periods
suit.able for modificat.ion. With regard to safety, toe contractor's
continuous monitoring of incoming weatlier data allo,,"s for any necessary
adjustments or termination in the seeding operation. There would also be
liaison between the met.eorological control office and the program
participants and field maintenance technicians located near the project.
areas as to any developing conditions tnat might. warrant a change in the
operation.
The North Dakota Cloud Modification Program was carried out in three
areas of the State. As noted on t.he Initial Reports, "Each Field Office
will be assist.ed in operations by the Forecast Office in acquiring the
lat.est information pertaining t.o weather advisories and warnings.
"Safety procedures and envirorunent.al guidelines have been included in
t.he operat.ional program by use of NWS dat.a pertaining to flood forecasts
and local weat.her conditions, etc. Each county authority has also been
empowered with t.he ability to stop operations for any given period of
time. The director also has the power to enjoin seeding activities if it
is determined tnat the public or environmental health is in jeopardy."
For an operational cloud seeding program in southeastern Illinois the
following statements were submit.ted with t.he Initial Report.
"The National Weather Service in Illinois is cooperating with the overall
project to the extent of providing meteorological information available
from various stations. The project supervisor for the contract.or will
maintain a once-each-three-hour surveillance of meteorological data available from NWS s.ources during the operational periods. Visual observations
will be made at the radar site. The project radar system will be located
at the Williamson County Airport (Marion), I.llinois, and the system will
be utiliz.ed for data acquisition and recording before, during, and after
311 seedtng events.
"The relationship between meteorological conditions and aircraft launch
decistons provtde primary guidelines for operations. If, and when.
precipitation amounts are excessive or severe storms indicat.e a potential
threat to people within the operational area, the cloud seeding prograrll
has a built.-in, shut-down procedure. Personnel at the sponsor level are
interfaced with the program for operational decision processes on a daily
basis. The program is designed primarily for benefit of the agricultural
conmunity ...

11

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COMPARISON OF DATA REPORTED SINCE 1973

the CY 1979 data frOn! the preceeding sections of this report on weather
modification activities have been combined with the previously published
data for CY 1973 - 78 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
1979). Accordingly, Table 7 provides data on several aspects of the
reported activities for the calendar years 1973 - 79. Some of the data
for 1973 - 78 have been adjusted to account for the recently reported fog
dispersal projects as noted under the section "DATA BASE".

Number of Activities
the data on the number of activities at separate locations suggest a
decreasing trend after 1975. except for 1977 - a year of critical
water shortages in several areas of the country. Nonfederal activities
also tend to follow this general trend, 'i'1hereas Federal activities favor
no particular trend.

Operators and Sponsors


The data indicate a decrease in the number of cOlllllercial modifiers
beyond C'i 1974 and in the Federal operating agencies after C'i 1975.
COI'llIllunity sponsorship of local weather modification projects has dropped
appreciably since FY 1977; municipal water or conservation district and
utility sponsorship has shown no large change over the years. However.
State sponsorship has increased appreciably since CY 1975.

Target Areas and Locations


The number of States with weather modification activities peaked in
CY 1975. Several projects covered adjoining States. for example.
California and Nevada. A reviev of the reported target locations clearly
shovs that the States west of the Hississippi River have most of the
yearly activities. In the eastern part of the United States. Illinois.
Michigan. Delaware. and Georgia have had operational weather modification
projects.
The total target area for activities in the United States peaked in
CY 1977 and dropped sharply in CY 1979. Although the total target area
ranges from 3 to 8 percent of the area of the United States, at no time
during any year are all activities underway at the same time. Thus, on
anyone day. the total target area would be quite small. The average
target area for nonfog activities in CY 1979 decreased by 29 percent from
13

C'f 1978.

Duration of Modification Activities


The total nUIllber of days on which weather modification was attempted
varied from year to year as did the number of days devoted to attempts to
increase precipitation or to disperse fog. However. for both types of
weather modification activity. the trend in the number of days per year
after CY 1977 is dO"Wllward.
The hours during which fog or cloud seeding was carried out from aircraft indicated no certain trend over the reporting period. However. the
hours of ground-based operation showed a definite increasing trend until
Cf 1979.

Seeding Agents
The use of dry ice (C02) to increase airport visibility in periods of
supercooled fog. to create clearings in stratus clouds. or to increase
precipitation in other cloud formations generally was greater until
C'f 1978 when usage dropped abruptly. The peak year for seeding with silver
iodide was 1975. The Air Force relied on liquid propane vented to the
atmosphere in order to alleviate supercooled fog at two of its airbases
in the United States; however. no obvious trend was observed in the data.
The peak year for using polyelectrolytes to dissipate warm fog was 1976.

CONCWDING REMARKS

cr

1979 had less weather modification activity than any year since the
reporting program began in cY 1973. In cOlIl.parison with C'f 1978. the
number of activities in cY 1979 was 20 percent lower; community sponsorship was 63 percent less; target area was decreased by 47 percent; total
modification days were 26 percent fewer; the amount of silver iodide used
was 40 percent less; and the number of hours of ground generator operation
was diminished by 80 percent. There were increases in the number of
commercial modifiers, municipal sponsors. and fog modification days.
Seven years of data on reported weather modification activit iss in the
United States do not allow reliable conclusions about the trend in
Federal and nonfederal experiments or operations. In particular. all
estimates of trends in the data were clouded by the dat.a by cr 1977. a
year of maximum activity in weather modification. However ~ a comparison
of C'f 1979 data with the average of the six prior years shows that 1979
act.ivities were 29 percent. less; the t.arget. area was 35 percent less; the

14

ntmlber of modification days was 39 percent less; the alIlOunt of silver


iodide was 27 percent less; and the hours of ground-based generator
operation vas 72 percent less.

REFERENCE

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Weather Modification


Reporting Program. 1973 - 1978, National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration, RockVille, Maryland, June 1979, 75 pp.

15

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APPENDIX A.

Public Law 92-205

Public Law 92-205


9Znd Congre... H. R. 6893

December 18. 1971

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mm'el'Cill or ionprofit. "00 is r:rformin, 'Il'ht&er m(,difi

;;:~~.~~~~~:::;..tof~~:1lJo.~;'.~~~!n:~lmlll01ee. :I~n~ OJ'


(II) TI~ tenn - ... wher modilic:Dtion" muns any al;th,itv )l\'rlormed
with the intllllion of producing artificial changes in the Composition.
behior,ordymullirsoflhe"'t.nl)!p~
UJ Till tlntl -l-niUtl :)tlltef" includes Ihl senni 51:1tll., 11.1 VlSt .. id of Cohllubin. the Coml1lonwealth of PUlrto Rieo, lind 1I11)' tlrri
to'1 or insular poosession of the United Stlltu.

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cHion ..ttlvities, including: Il.ttempts, whith t .. ke place ill the t'nited
$t.. te~ ,Iud !h,,11 publish SlUrnrHlrtes Ihereof
time to time
lie
d.t.,mlillu.
(b) .\l1l't'fIOrh, doeumlllts. :lnd other inform..tion rteeived bT the
~~I.. ~tl~.:t~I;~~II:~\;~':fr:~I~~~~e.~~t sll>1l1 be nlade ...:tlbhIe
(e) ~n ~")in: out th.. pr01'isions of this stetion, the Secl'lt't...,.
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United St.llt<'5l'nde ",1 i.a othlMO'i"t lln:l.-:lil..bll to the publi.:, u:....,pt

ft'Oll\

tl,utsuehlnfon"~tiollshallbedi;;dosed_

(1) 10 otht'r

.F.<lu:II GO\trnllllllt departments,

uflici~lsf...roJ1i<"'I:llll;ellp,ml't''1l1t$t;

ft~lIcies,

Reo.reb,
Pl'b~h"~h...

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u s~ .. ~. 791.

Ind

Il) III lin) jlllliei:ll'lrot"l'e.hn&! umlu. COllrt order formulated


10 pl?Sl;'M"e tbl conric!('nt~lity of IUch information- '\II"ithout

ill\r:;~~lfi~I;~lS.lki!:::~~~\o

hulth

saf~tT.

protect their
and
Stc. l. (ll) Thl Steretsr.. m3.. obc:lln from IIny ptl"SOn ,..hoslll,:ti". l>,>t"'rlt,. of
ities rebt", 10 "'t,t!lfr mo<1ilication by rule. subren". or otbe.....iM rueh S.Ortta"..
~nform~tioll in Iht fnrm of tfSlillll)ll~, books, reto",5, or otlLer .... rit.Inll'!i.m~\ re""irt the ktf'l'i.":::':Ind furnishill;::of sueh reports nnd rec:ords. IIna m~\ makf sud, lllspeetion of thl books. ~<:ords, and (,other
...rilinp anu premi:t's :Inrll'ropertl of .. nJ person lIS mll.1 be dll:ned

~t:b~17this:~~l~~fti:t~~ii ~;:;:e~:r';.i~dtt~I~~f~~~inf~~:

tion _ilh respc III ...nieh :ldeq\l"ce and authoritl.life data"n11 .r..il
Ibl", :rom :any FedenlllKlnq.

17

Pub.
.ono... pl\ ......

f...w 9l_l05
December 18. 1911
of oontuD!..&ey by, or "tn.t to tlbe)' II mbpcolllll Sl!rved

(b) In ca

rJ:~edanltaf:.1'; !:~"cli:~~~oi~~ti~~:k ~~~sitSrif:I:;a~ :.!si~':

or transad3 business. upon application b, tho Altorlllll." C:I1I!JWI"lII, shall


~::=:~;Ot~;:.~~~~:~~~~lIlZht~
aIllla.ilare to.,. meh order of the court. mal be punishcod 1>1 aueh
court as a contempt tbereof. .
5"- 5 .MI1 person \\"ho 1010wiDgl,. IJ:ld ",ill full)' \"iolll.U$ sertion 2
oftbisAct, or aIll rule issued thereunder,shll.t1 upon emlvictioll thereof
be 6.ned not.lfIOre.than 510,000.
fl:t~~Ju::~~~r;:rt~~~~~o~I~~II~O;~:

~UIlIll

so, 1873, aIld Junll30, ltH,

to

carry out the pnn'isiaJDof

Approved Decembe-i- i 8. 1971.

-=Rr ~: :~~~~ ~~=: :: ~::.::.::t

::::1

ani

r.... lp

COI/OIUSSlOllUlUtOIO.Wol.lnOU1),

s.pt.

Z'. U"'14.~d Ul4pu .. 4 Hou...

D... 6. oo"d4.~4.1'l4 J>U1I4 So..-t., '!O'0ndo4.


DM.t. Ilo..... onour... d 1n5.,,&to iLIIl.n4loo"u.

I.

e-O"')'

APPENDIX B

19

APPENDIX 8

auus AHD

IEGULAT10NS

20

APPENDIX B
lUllS ANO IfGUlA110NS

21

APPENDIX B
RULES AND REGUlATIONS

22

e-.lea ill KCOIlI.e willllllstnldions lIII melse _Iorwanl copy;

TO: Atmosphedc Programs Offic. (1ID-2)


M.-l_.lOc_;c
1!... vlll M.....,I

~A......... h.ric."'lftl".... "

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j,.. 12-31_80'

U.~D!."R1.. fllTOFc:O/lOMUc:1
IlULOC!".IC ""D"T"OS ~.IC:"O'"

lOin" REPo.T O. WEATHER MODIFICATID,


(P.l. 2OS, 92ND. CONGRESS)

"'U.fCTEOT~""'.UOO.

DU.O~""U"f."

IOOD'~ICU_.CT"'ITlIl

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23

I'~""""'"

APPENDIX C-l
INSTRUCTIONS FOR INITIAL REPORT ON WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIES

"This report is required by Plblic '-- 92-205;85 Stat 735; 15 U.s.c. 33(1). Knowing and willful violation of
.ny rule Idopted under the ;arthorily of Section 2 of PLb/ic L- 92-205 sh.1l subject lhr person violatilllil wth
to fine of not tl'l()rr th., $10.000, upon convietionlhrreof.
H

Orw completed toPV of this forrn is to be nteeived 10 days or mort prior to lCtual modification aetivitieL A
NOAA file number will be auigned by the Administrator aftrr receipt of lhe initial report for each project or

activity.
A $l,leplemrntal rrlXJl1 in a letter form refrrring to the appropriate NOAA file number must be made to the
Administrator if the "Initial Report" is found to contain any mat.rial inaccuracies. misstatements, and
omissions, or if there arechangts in plarufor the projeetor aetivity.
4For uOIlptions, see Sections 908.4(b) and lei, Part 908 otTitle 15, Code of Federal Regulations.

item 1.

Enter designation, if any, used by operator for the projeet or aetivity.

Item 2.

Enter: tal Date first actuel weather modification activity is to be undertaken;

Item 3.

Enter too purpose of the project or activity: e.g., rainfall incrt8!i1l, hail suppression, cold fog
dispersal-etc.

Item 4.

Enter: la) N;;wnlI, phone number, affiliation, Il'Id lMtcIr\!$$ of the primary
projeet Is to be performed (lponsorl.

{bl Dateon which final weather modification .ctivity ilexpected to occur.

prr$OO

for whom the

(bl Name, phorw number, .ffiliation, and addr\!$$ of the penon primarily responsmlt for
carryingOllttheprojeetloperetorl.
Item 5.

A map should be attadled showing $ile af1d 10000000n of target _ , control area, coded number
m location of each item of ground-ba5ed _ather modification apparatus and coded numbel'" and
location of key reingiIQeI, raclarl, or other precipitation meuuring devices. Also show location of
airport lor airborneoperationL

Item 6.

Describe the weather modification epparatus, modification lI9Intl, and the tec::hniquel to be used.
This would include type of ground or airborne apperetu, to be u$8d, type of modification material
to be dispensed, rate of dilpen,ing material in grems PM hour or other appropriate units, type of
precipitation gages to be Uled in target and control areal, and any other pertinent information
sum as type of radars, type of aircraft tobe used,tachniquel to beamployed, (e.g" cloud base
seeding at 10,000 feet msl).

Item 7.

List name, phone number, affiliation, and address of the responsible individuill from whom log

Item 8.

Pro1Oide .ppIicable .nswerlto questions as indicated.

hem 9.

This item il to perrnit the reporting person to indOOe any information not cowred by items 1
through 8 but which he feels il significant or of interest. It is also to be used to include any
information not cowred elsewtlere that the Administrator may request.

books or other rllCOrdl mey be obtained.

24

APPENDIX C-2

~UI<"

A,.....I<UVl:U, U.".Il. NU. "_1004

APPi'lOVALEXPIRES11-31_80

O'NTE'''''~EPO~T

o
Ct:mple'e;n.e<otcbo<e .. ~hin"""",;"""on,e.er>e.odlot""lltdme<",y:
TO: Atll"lOspheric Programs Office (RD-2)
No.io"ol O<eoo;< o"d A,,"o.p~e,;< Ad.,io;."otlO"
Roekvm.,Mo,ylond 10851

,.,

IIUIUIEROFMODIF'CUIOII
OAY5 FER"AJOR PURPOSE

".

TOTALS

lHPORT
OAnOIl'flNICllp'HAL'fIEATMERIolOOIFICUIOIIACTI.'TYOCCURRED(ForFi",,1 Rel'Q'lCJt,ly)

I'''"''""'

FlNAI. REPORT

APPENDIX C-2
INSTRUCTIONS FOR INTERIM AND FINAL REPORTS

Any person engaged in any weather modification project or activity in the United States on January 1 in any
year shall submit one copy of this form setting forth asofsuch date the information required with respect to
each such rontinuingproject or activity not previously furnished in a prior interim report. The box indicating
"Interim Report" should be checked. The January 1 date shall not apply if other arrangemenUhave previously
been made with the written approval of the Administrator of NOAA. The report shall be received by NOAA
not later than 45 days following the end of the rep::lrted period.
Upon completion of a project or activity one copy of this report shaU be submitted and the box checked
indicating "Final Report." The final report shall be received by NOAA not later than ~ after the
completion of the projeet or activity.
The NOAA File Number should be filled in for any project for which the Administrator has assigned a file
number.
A supplemental report in letter form referring to the appropriate NOAA fUe number must be made to the
Administrator if the "Interim" or "Final" reports are found to contain any material inaccuracies,
misstatements, and omissions.

The information in Items (al through (e) on the report form should be provided as prescribed below for the
months to which the report pertains. If no data are applicable for any given item in any month, enter zero.
Item fa).

Enter number of days on which actual weather modification activities took place.

Item /bl.

Enter in the appropriate column number of days on which modification activities were conducted,
segregated by each of the major purposes of the activities, Normallv, the total of entries in /b)
would equal total in (a).

Item (c).

Enter number of modification missions that were carried out.

Item (d).

Enter in the appropriate column total number of hours of operation of each type of weather
modification apparatus, (I.e" net hours of agent release). If the form does not contain sufficient
space, report additional types on a separate sheet.

Item (e).

Enter in the appropriate column total amount of agent used, by type. lfthe form does not contain
sufficient space, report additional types on a separate sheet.

The totals for these items shall be provided for the period covered by the interim report.

FINAL REPORT
The final report shall oontain the information required for interim reports, to the extent not previously
reported. In addition, the items designated as "Totals for Final Report" should be reported. This information
should pertain to the entire project or activity period, rather than only the period since the last interim report.
At the spaoo at the end of the form, enter the ~ on which final weather modification activity occurred.

26

~ ~

cl ~

~ ~

~L

::

f-+i+_H----+-+-++-+-+-+-rH----t-t---r---t--i

APPENDIX C-J
INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETING DAILY LOG FORM

DAILY LOG OF ACTIVITIES


This it'awggt$ted form to beUied inreoordlng the information requirec! to be kept by Section 908.8, P.t
908 of Title 15. Code of Feder.1 Regulations. Other logs Il'IIIvbe used, providing they ODtlt.in the informaion
required. A UI::I1...... form is prorided on whidl to report dotily log of .etiities for lad'! unit of _aher
modification 'PPlntUl. The form is swuble for r~it'G opeution of n:tividUlI items of ground or airborne
.pparatus. In the ~ provided abooVll the columns, write the des~tion of the weather modifIcation
.ppar.g;, coded to refer to the description required bV Sections 908.8 fbi (1).nd 908.8 Icl. Part 908 of Trtle
15, Code of Federal Regulations, thl month arod vear of deilV record, the name of the operator, iilOd the
NOAA file number. These or other logs containing the required information shall be retained lor 5 years: they
e"!!! to be sent to NOAA.

ElCplanationofcolumnsfollows:
CoL (1l

State lbt' of the-..thtr modifiation activity.

Col. (2)

Give each aircnft po$ition or 10eolian oluch item of wuther modilication .pp.nt1.lS
during,ach modifialtion mission. Maps mav be used.

Col. (3)
and (4)

State local time when modification lCtivitv began and ended. Ullil 24hour dock time
(e.g., 0100 signifies 1:00 A.M. end 2300 signifies 11:00 P.M.). For intermittent
operations, the start and end of the total sequenoe i1fe IICCtptable.

Cot. (51

Give dLM"atlon of oPM"ation of each unit of weather modlfiC8tion appar1ItUl, in hourl.nd


minUl:. (Col. 5" Col. 4 Col. 3J.

Cot. 161

Describe tPeof modif"lCI'tion aQl!m: 1/IIId.

Gillll rate of disperHI of agent during the period of actual operation of weather

Col. (B)

Give total amount of modification fgent used. If more than ona agent was used, report
total fOl"eadl type wjMlately.

Col. (91, (101,


(111.1121& 031

Check once 10r e~ dlY on ..... ich modifiCMion activities were conducted, segr8Qilted by
eactlofthtlNjol'"purpQlJI$oftheaeti"'tilli.

Col.

modifj~tlonapparatus,bvhourorotharapproprietet(meperiod.

On the d.ily

log sheet fOl" tht lut daV of eadl month, gillll monthlv totals. for Columns (51, (81. (91. 1101,
(11},(12),and(13).

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