Sie sind auf Seite 1von 7

Proceedings of the National Conference on Manufacturing Innovation Strategies & Appealing Advancements

April 19, 2013, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India


Efficiency enhancement in pump assembly

line through lean tools
R.Prabhu1 , K.Natarajan2, N.Ganesh kumar3

P.G scholar ,PSG College of Technology

Professor, PSG College of Technology
Assistant Professor, PSG College of Technology

Abstract: This paper concentrates on the productivity

improvement by reducing the lead time of the product in a small
scale pump manufacturing industry. In this case study the
company faces a problem of not being able to meet the customer
demand on time due to assembly difficulties. A time study and a
simulation followed by identification of the non-value added time
is recorded. A current state map is charted to identify the wastes
and help to design assembly systems incorporating the lean
concept. 5s implementation is made to overcome the orderliness
difficulties. The improvement of assembly process was executed
by balancing the assembly line based on the takt time, which
reduces production time and idle time. Finally the results and
improvements achieved after implementation of these concepts
are shown.
Keyword: Lean manufacturing, Value stream mapping, 5s,

Line balancing.
The implementation of a lean manufacturing strategy allows
strengthening the phase sequence that leads to operational
excellence, a continuous improvement, and the elimination of
nonvalue-added activities. Thus, the influence of lean
practices contributes substantially with the operating
performance of plants and the use of lean tools allows the
improvement of results. The tool value stream mapping
(VSM) is applied as a way to progress toward lean
manufacturing and as a formula to lead the activities of
improvement. In this sense, the contribution of internal
operations and its scheduling is specially important. the
simulation of the assembly activities also help in identifying
the wastes and the idle times of the assembly work stations.
the simulation also helps in determining the outcome of the
work process based on the recorded time.
This paper focuses on the improvement in productivity
through the implementation of the lean concepts. In order to

achieve a better productivity a balanced assembly line is

essential based on the takt time. To make the assembly line a
balanced one precedence diagram is drawn for analyzing the
precedence constraints and the analysis helps in coupling the
assembly line activity from one work station to another work
station based on the takt time and assembly precedence
constraints. The line balancing concept brings a better
environment of assembly operations with a lesser idle time
than the existing sequence. The main concept of reducing the
lead time and optimizing the assembly line effectively
according to the takt time is done using the lean concept line
balancing. After balancing the assembly line, the operation
which is identified as a bottle neck operation is splitted and
engaged with another workstation for optimizing the
performance of the other workstations which results in a
balanced work station leading to reduced lead time and lesser
idle time

Lean manufacturing has received sample attention in
academic literature and practical performance, from how the
lean production concept was formulated and disseminated [1]
Nils Boysen, Malte Fliedner a,Armin Scholl illustrartes the
special flow-line production systems which are of great
importance in the industrial production of high quantity
standardized commodities. Recently, assembly lines even
gained importance in low volume production of customized
products [2] H.J.Warnecke, M.Heuser defines about Lean
production and explains that it is a system of measures and
methods which when taken all together to bring about a lean
and explains about the systematic approach of manufacturing
systems in lean manufacturing concept.

Copyright 2013 by PSGCT

[3] Rachna Shah , Peter T. Ward, attempt to clarify

the semantic confusion surrounding lean production by
conducting an extensive literature review using a historical
evolutionary perspective intracing its main components and
the list of items selected to represent lean production,
empirically identifying 10 underlying components. In doing so,
we map the operational space corresponding to conceptual
space surrounding lean production. Configuration theory
provides the theoretical underpinnings and helps to explain the
synergistic relationships among its underlying components
which in turn helps in taking an initial step foward clarifying
the concept of lean production and develops and validates a
multi-dimensional measure of lean production [4] Ma
Ga(Mark)Yang , PaulHong, Sachin B.Modi explores the
relationships between lean manufacturing practices,
environmental management and business performance. The
hypothesized relationships of this model are tested with data
collected from international manufacturing firms. The
findings suggest that prior lean manufacturing experiences are
positively related to environmental management practices.
[5] Rachna Shah , Peter T. Ward explains about the likelihood
of implementing manufacturing practices that are key facets of
lean production systems such as 5s and total quality
management. [6] S. H.Eryuruk, F. Kalaoglu, M. Baskak
explains problem of multi-model assembly line balancing in a
Fig 1: Methodology
clothing company for two models. Information about
definitions and solution methods related to assembly line
Data collection followed by the analysis of the assembly
operations which help in identifying the wastes and non-value
added activities through which a simulation model is made for
determining the actual output of the assembly operations. A
manual simulation is performed for indicating the non-value
Methodology followed in this case study is based on the lean
added times and the inventory times through which the wastes
concepts which includes a 5s implementation, time study,
are identified. After charting the current state map of the
analyzing the non-value added time and wastes, manual
assembly operations, the balancing of the assembly is done
simulation of the product flow in the assembly operations,
mainly based on the precedence constraints in the assembly
balancing the assembly line and analyse the improvements
workstations and the operations which are performed in the
achieved using the implementation of the lean tools as shown
workstations based on the precedence of the activities.
in fig1
The definition of a time standard is the time required to
produce a product at a work station with the following three
(1) A qualified, well-trained operator,
(2) Working at a normal pace,
(3) Doing a specific task.
These three conditions are essential to the understanding of
time study.
The time standard is one of the most important pieces of
information produced in the manufacturing department. It is
used to develop answers for the following problems:
Determining the number of production people to

Scheduling the machines, operations, and people to

do the job and deliver on time

Copyright 2013 by PSGCT

Determining the assembly line balance, determining

the correct amount of work, and balancing the work

Determine individual worker performance and

identifying operations that are having problems so
that the problems can be corrected.

The Arena simulation package is capable of modelling a

variety of discrete and continuous systems. Arena is used to
simulate full production runs, over an arbitrary time period.
The machines are aligned and simulation is done .the
assembly operation is simulated using arena model shown in
fig 2 in which an output of 51 parts is obtained.


The Manual simulation of the assembly activity includes the
identification of non-value added activity and inventory in
terms of time through the part movement in the assembly
workstations. The manual simulation shown in Table 1 helps
in identifying various operation sequence and helps in
determining the time difference between consecutive finishing
of product in the assembly line
Fig 2: Simulation model of the assembly operations

Table 1 : Manual Simulation of Assembly operations

Thus, the manual simulation indicates the waiting time of the
worker and the inventory time in which the part movement for
two consecutive cycles have been performed for simulating
the working process in the assembly workstation.

5S practice is one of the techniques to improve quality

environment, health and safety at the workplace. Evaluation of
5S practice can be done through implementation of 5S. it
enables each company to identify the potential level of quality
improvement and at the same time can analyze their ability
and weakness of each division in the company. at each
division in the company. 5S practice is a technique used to
establish; maintain quality environment in an organization
effectively and promised the employees to be more self
5s implementation in the assembly shop floor is improper
such that there are many difficulties in the working condition
such as irregular arrangement of fasteners according to their
specifications as shown in fig 3 and improper arrangement of
motor casings in the motor assembly work station which
includes safety and fatigue related problems to the assembly


The simulation of the existing assembly activity comprises of
the modelling and simulating activity of the work stations
based on the cycle times which were taken during the working
in a 20 cycle timing of the part movements in the assembly
stations. The simulation of these assembly operations include
the creation of the simulation model based on the assembly
layout which is a linear layout.
The model of simulation has been built by using the
software package Arena. it is used to simulate full production
runs, over an arbitrary time period. It is allows designing a
facility to get a glimpse of how the production lines might
operate in reality. arena makes obvious any production
bottlenecks, overly-idle resources, storage areas that are too
small or large and any potential issues with respect to labour
attending to the processing of parts.

Fig 3: Lack of 5s in the motor assembly workstation

Copyright 2013 by PSGCT

the main ows, starting with raw material and ending with the
customer (Rother and Shook, 1999). These actions consider
the ow of both information and materials within the overall
supply chain. The ultimate goal of VSM is to identify all types
of waste in the value stream and to take steps to try and
eliminate these (Rother and Shook, 1999). While researchers
have developed a number of tools to optimize individual
operations within a supply chain, most of these tools fall short
in linking and visualizing the nature of the material and
information ow throughout the companys entire supply
chain. Taking the value stream viewpoint means working on
the big picture and not individual processes.

Fig 4: Improper arrangement of motor casings in shop floor


The rst step is to choose a particular product or product

family as the target for improvement. The next step is to draw
a current state map that is essentially a snapshot capturing
how things are currently being done. This is accomplished
while walking along the actual process, and provides one with

A value stream is a collection of all actions (value-added as

well as non-value-added) that are required to bring a product
(or a group of products that use the same resources) through

Fig 5: Current state map of the assembly operations

a basis for analyzing the system and identifying its
weaknesses. The third step in VSM is to create the future state
map, which is a picture of how the system should look after
the in efficiencies in it have been removed.
The Value stream mapping for the assembly activity shown
in fig 5 is used in determining the lead time of the product and
identify the value added time as well as the non-value added
activity in the assembly workstations and for charting the
standard work sequence of the assembly activity VSMs are
used to map work processes, material flow, and information


Assembly lines are production systems developed to meet the
requirements of mankind, which continue to grow day by day.
The demand for greater product variability and shorter life
cycles has caused traditional production methods to be
replaced with assembly lines. The aims of these systems are to
manufacture products at production rates in the shortest time,
in the most productive way.
An assembly line can be defined as a system which is formed
by arranging workstations along a line. At these workstations,
work pieces can be transferred by using labour force as well

Copyright 2013 by PSGCT

as equipment,and tasks are assembled taking into

consideration precedence constraints and cycle time.The
decision problem of optimally balancing the assembly work
among the workstations is known as the assembly line

Fig 6: Precedence diagram of the assembly operations.

The balancing of the assembly workstations is done based
on the precedence constraints and the takt time 7.2 mins, of
the assembly activity with the help of precedence diagram
shown in fig 6. For balancing the line work activity of the
fourth work station is coupled with fifth work station and an
activity of fifth station is coupled with sixth workstation
considering the precedence constraints as shown in fig 8.

Fig 10 Arrangement of motor casing in shelf

Fig 7: Workstations before line balancing

Fig 8: Workstations after line balancing
Thus the pump assembly line is balanced by blower casing
operation from the fourth workstation i.e, pump assembly to
the fifth workstation i.e, the testing workstation. And similarly
the fan and casing attachment operation from the testing
workstation is coupled with the sixth workstation i.e, finishing
workstation as shown in fig 8. Leading to an improvement of
12% increase in the productivity.
In order to improve the effectiveness of the workstations and
operating conditions 5s has been implemented which helps in
eliminating the operator fatigue and improve the safe
ergonomic conditions and The 5S implementation in the
shopfloor will eliminate the un-necessary wastes.
The improvements in the implementation of 5s is
made that includes the introduction of bins and trays with tags
in it for easier identification of fasteners as shown in fig 9 and
a shelf is designed for proper arrangement of the motor
casings which results in reducing the worker fatigue and
improve the working environment as shown in fig 10.

Fig 9: 5s implementation in motor assembly workstation

The Improvements in the assembly workstations are
calculated and the results are displayed here as shown in
table 4 with the consideration of predicting the benefits
coming out of the proposals made in the shopfloor, however

Copyright 2013 by PSGCT

these implementations reach the objective of lead time

Idle Time % = ((C-ti))/(n*C)*100
C= Takt Time
Ti= Total time for workstation i
n=Number of work station
Station no










Preferred work

Idle time



Table 2: Idle times before Line Balancing


Total Idle time = (1.8+0+1+2.2+2+2.1) = 9.1

Efficiency % = ((C-ti))/(n*C)*100 = 78.35%

Preferred work

Idle time









This paper delivers the evidence of valid advantage when
applying lean principle such as implementation of 5s and line
balancing to a pump industry. The papers clearly point out the
reduction in lead time in lot of assembly operations and
improvement in the whole shop floor and thereby eliminating
mostly all unwanted wastage. and clearly defines the
implementation of line balancing in assembly workstations.
Finally, the complete success of the application of lean
viewpoint in the long run with depends on close teamwork
between the operator and the management which results in
Improved productivity.



[1] Nils Boysen , Malte Fliedner , Armin Scholl, A
classification of assembly line balancing problems. European
Journal of Operational Research 183 (2007) 674693

Table 3: Idle times after Line Balancing

Total Idle time = (1.8+0+1+1.1+0.5+0.2) = 4.6
Efficiency % = ((C-ti))/(n*C)*100 = 89.12%

[2] H.J.Warnecke, M.Heuser, Lean production,

Production Economics 49(1995) 37,43

Int. J.

[3] Rachna Shah , Peter T. Ward, Defining and developing

measures of lean production, Journal
of Operations
Management 25 (2007) 785805
[4] Ma Ga(Mark)Yang , PaulHong, Sachin B.Modi, Impact
Of Lean Manufacturing And Environmental Management On
Business Performance: An Empirical Study Of Manufacturing
Firms, Int. J. Production Economics 129 (2011) 251261

Table 4: Comparing of results before and after Improvements.

[5] Rachna Shah , Peter T. Ward, Lean Manufacturing:

context, practice bundles, and
performance, Journal of
Operations Management 21 (2003) 129149

Copyright 2013 by PSGCT

[6] S. H.Eryuruk, F. Kalaoglu, *M. Baskak, Assembly Line

Balancing in a Clothing Company, January / March 2008,
Vol. 16, No. 1 (66)
[7] Jose Fernando Gonc Alves and Jorge Raimundo De
Almeida (2002), A hybrid genetic algorithm for assembly
Line balancing, Journal of Heuristics, 8: 629642, 200
Tom, E, "The Lean Manufacturing Handbook,
Continental Design and Engineering", Second Edition,
February (2009).
Ralph M. Barnes, 2009, Motion and Time Study Design
and Measurement of Work, seventh edition, Wiley India Pvt

Copyright 2013 by PSGCT