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Question No: 15 Give types of relations (02 Marks)

Unary Relationship
Binary relationship
Ternary Relationship
Question No: 16 Briefly explain what is Partial Dependency (02 Marks)
The participation of an entity in a relationship is total when all entities of that set might
be participant in the relationship otherwise it is partial e.g. if every Part is supplied by a
Supplier then the SUPP_PART relationship is total. If certain parts are available without
a supplier than it is partial
Question No: 17 Give at least 03 types of Anomalies which Normalization handles (03 Marks)
Redundancy
Insertion Anomaly
Deletion Anomaly
Updation Anomaly

The first thing is the redundancy. Like in this table of CLASS the course ID C3456 is being
repeated for faculty ID F2345 and similarly the room no 104 is being repeated twice. Second is the
insertion anomaly. Suppose we want to insert a course in the table, but this course has not been
registered to any student. But we cannot enter the student ID, because no student has registered this
course yet. So we can also not insert this course. This is called as insertion anomaly which is
wrong state of database. Next is the deletion anomaly. Suppose there is a course which has been
enrolled by one student only. Now due to some reason, we want to delete the record of student. But
here the information about the course will also be deleted, so in this way this is the incorrect state of
database in which infact we want to delete the information about the student record but along with
this the course information has also been deleted. So it is not reflecting the actual system. Now the
next is updation anomaly. Suppose a course has been registered by 50 students and now we want to
change the class rooms of all the students. So in this case we will have to change the records of all
the 50 students. So this is again a deletion anomaly
Question No: 19 Briefly explain what is a primary key and give example. (05 Marks)
A candidate key chosen by the database designer to act as key is the primary key. An
entity type may have more than one candidate keys, in that case the database designer has to
designate one of them as primary key, since there is always only a single primary key
in an entity type . If there is just one candidate key then obviously the same will be
declared as primary key

Question No: 20 What are the benefits of using default values? (05 Marks)
Default Value:
This constraint means that if we do not give any value to any particular attribute, it
will be given a certain (default) value. This constraint is generally used for the
efficiency purpose in the data entry process. Sometimes an attribute has a certain
value that is assigned to it in most of the cases. For example, while entering data for
the students, one attribute holds the current semester of the student. The value of this
attribute is changed as a students passes through different exams or semesters during
its degree. However, when a student is registered for the first time, it is generally
registered in the first semesters. So in the new records the value of current semester
attribute is generally 1. Rather than expecting the person entering the data to enter 1 in
every record, we can place a default value of 1 for this attribute. So the person can
simply skip the attribute and the attribute will automatically assume its default value.
Q- Define Relationship
A relationship is any association, linkage, or connection between the entities of interest to the
business . Each relationship has a name, an optionality (optional or mandatory), and a degree (how
many). A relationship is described in real terms.
Q- What do you know about insertion anomaly?
Suppose we want to insert a course in the table, but this course has not been registered to any
student. So we cannot enter the student ID, because no student has registered this course yet. So we
can also not insert this course. This is called as insertion anomaly which is wrong state of database.
Q- Define the first normal form.
First Normal Form:
A relation is in first normal form if and only if every attribute is single valued for each
tuple. This means that each attribute in each row, or each cell of the table, contains
only one value. No repeating fields or groups are allowed
what do you know about partial dependency? (2)
In database terminology, a partial functional dependency occurs when the value in a non-key
attribute of a table is dependent on the value of some part of the table's primary key (but not all of
it).
Q22:-Define domain of an attribute? (2)
Domain is the set of possible values that an attribute can have, that is, we specify a set of values
either in the form of a range or some discrete values, and then attribute can have value out of those
values. Domain is a form of a check or a constraint on attribute that it cannot have a value outside
this set.
Q23:-Define relationship type? (3)
A relationship type is an abstraction of a relationship i.e. a set of relationships instances sharing
common attributes.

MIDTERM EXAMINATION
Spring 2010
CS403- Database Management Systems (Session - 4)
Ref No: 1356458
Time: 60 min
Marks: 38
Student Info
StudentID:

BC080402322

Center:

OPKST

ExamDate:

5/28/2010 12:00:00 AM

For Teacher's Use Only


Q
1
2
No.
Marks
Q No.

16

10

11

12

13

14

15

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

Marks
Q No.
Marks

Total

Question No: 1

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


User

rights information is stored in


Physical database
Catalog
Logical database
Buffer
Question No: 2

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one

Making
a change to the conceptual schema of a database but not affecting the existing external schemas is an example of

Physical data independence.


Concurrency control.
Logical data independence.
Functional dependency
Question No: 3

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


Which

of the following is NOT a feature of Context DFD?


one process (which represents the entire system)
all sources/sinks (external entities)
data flows linking the process to the sources and sinks (external entities)
sub-processes (which explain and decomposed the major process into small
processes)
Question No: 4

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


A

relation (from the relational database model) consists of a set of tuples, which implies that
all tuples in a relation must be distinct.

relational model supports multi-valued attributes whose values can be represented in sets.

for any two tuples, the values associated with all of their attributes may be the same.

all tuples in a particular relation may have different attributes.

Question No: 5

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


Choose

the symbol that corresponds to a discriminator attributes.

Question No: 6

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


Identify

the constraint that limits the values that can be placed in a column.

NOT NULL
CHECK
FOREIGN KEY
UNIQUE
Question No: 7

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


Given

are the relations of student and Instructor

Consider the following table obtained using Student and Instructor relations.

Which relational algebra operation could have been applied on the pair of relations Student and Instructor to
obtain the above data?

Instructor Student

Student Instructor
Instructor Student
Student Instructor
Question No: 8

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


Identify

the correct statement with respect to normalization.

Normalization is a formal technique that can be used only at the starting phase of the database design.
Normalization can be used as a top-down standalone database design technique.
The process of normalization through decomposition must achieve the lossless join
property at any cost whereas the dependency reservation property is sometimes
sacrificed.
The process of normalization through decomposition must achieve the dependency
reservation property at any cost whereas the lossless join property is sometimes
sacrificed.
Question No: 9

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one

Consider the relation Interview(CandidateNo, InterviewDate, InterviewTime, StaffNo, RoomNo)


and the following functional dependencies.
FD1 : CandidateNo, InterviewDate -> InterviewTime, StaffNo, RoomNo
FD2 : RoomNo, InterviewDate, InterviewTime -> StaffNo, CandidateNo
FD3 : StaffNo, InterviewDate -> RoomNo
Which of the following is correct?

The relation Interview is in 3NF


The relation Interview is in BCNF.
The FD3 violates 3NF.
The FD2 violates 2NF.
Question No: 10

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


Identify

the INCORRECT statement among the given.


An entity may be an object with a physical existence like a car, a house or an Employee.
One cannot consider something which has conceptual existence like a course in a degree
program as an entity.

Age can be considered as a single value attribute of a person.


An entity type describes the schema or intension for a set of entities which share the same
structure.

Question No: 11 ( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one

Structural constraints of a relationship type refer to

identifying the owner entity type relevant to a given entity type


whether the existence of an entity depends on it being related to another entity via the
relationship type.

the role that a participating entity from the entity type plays in each relationship instance.
the constraints applicable in granting access to tables, columns and views in a database
schema.

Question No: 12

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


A

collection of concepts that can be used to describe the structure of a database


Database
DBMS
Data model
Data
Question No: 13

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


An

entity can be logically connected to another by defining a ____.


hyperlink
common attribute
primary key
superkey
Question No: 14

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one

The
____ constraint specifies whether each entity supertype occurrence must also be a member of at
least one subtype.
specialization
uniqueness
inheritance
completeness
Question No: 15

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one

Database management systems, operating systems, applications and utilities are all examples of
____.
hardware
software
computer infrastructure
input and output
Question No: 16

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


Which

of the following concepts is applicable with respect to 2NF?


Full functional dependency
Any kind of dependency
Transitive dependency
Non-transitive dependency

Question No: 17

( Marks: 2 )
What do

you know about Insertion anomaly?

Insertion anomaly indicates that we cannot insert a fact about one entity until we have an additional fact
about another entity.

Question No: 18

( Marks: 2 )
Define

domain of an attribute.

In computing, the attribute domain is the set of values allowed in an attribute. For the relational model it is
a requirement that each part of a tuple be atomic. The consequence is that each value in the tuple must be
of some basic type, like a string or an integer. For the elementary type to be atomic it cannot be broken into
more pieces.

Question No: 19

( Marks: 2 )

Label the following diagram


1...
2...
Question No: 20

( Marks: 3 )
Why

do the relational data model considered as simple?


The relational model for database management is a database model based on first-order predicate logic The
relational model provide a declarative method for specifying data and queries: we directly state what
information the database contains and what information we want from it, and let the database management
system software take care of describing data structures for storing the data and retrieval procedures for
getting queries answered

Question No: 21

( Marks: 3 )

What is
the intersection operation in relational algebra?
The intersection operation also has the requirement that both the relations should be union compatible,
which means they are of same degree and same domains. It is represented by. If R and S are two relations
and we take intersection of these two
relations then the resulting relation would be the set of tuples, which are in both R and
S. Just like union intersection is also commutative.
R_S=S_R
INTERSECTION Example

Question No: 22

( Marks: 5 )
The

following diagram describes a part of an ER diagram.

Considering the above diagram, which of the given statements are True and which are False.
i-Entity2 is a weak entity. True
ii-Cardinality ratio for Entity1:Entity2 in Rel1 is 1:N. True
iii-Attrib6 represents an attribute which is having composite nature. False
iv-Attrib3 is a kind of a derived attributes. True
v-Entity2 is participating totally in the Rel1 relationship.

Question No: 23

( Marks: 5 )
How to

implement one-to-many relationship while designing tables?

If the primary key in a parent table matches multiple foreign keys in a child table, then the
relationship is one-to-many. This relationship is common in database applications. For example,
an application for a sports league might access a team table and a player table. Each team has
multiple players, and each player belongs to a single team. Every row in the child table (player)
has a foreign key identifying the player's team. This foreign key matches the team table's

primary key.
When designing such entity beans, you must decide whether both tables are represented by
entity beans, or just one.
CS403 Database Management System
Question No: 1 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Making a change to the conceptual schema of a database but not affecting the existing external schemas
is an example of
Physical data independence.
Concurrency control.
Logical data independence.
Functional dependency
Question No: 2 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
GRANT SELECT, UPDATE(Designation) ON Employee TO Amali,Hiruni WITH GRANT
OPTION;
What does this SQL statement do?
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Grant permission to Amali,only to retrieve data from Employee table and grant permission to Hiruni,
only to update the designation from Employee table.
Grant permission to Hiruni in order to grant, select and update permission to Amali.
Grant permission to Amali & Hiruni to update designation of employees in the Employee table.
Grant permission to Amali and Hiruni to update all data except designation in Employee table.
Question No: 3 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which key word is available in SQL to enforce referential integrity?
Check
Primary Key
Set Default
Unique
Question No: 4 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following statements are Data Definition Language command?
INSERT
UPDATE
GRANT
TRUNCATE

Question No: 5 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


How many clustered index(es) do each database table have?
2
3
5
1
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Question No: 6 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is true about DELETE command?
is DDL Command.
Resets identity of the table.
cannot activate a trigger.
Can be Rolled back.
Question No: 7 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following will be deleted relating to a table if you use TRUNCATE command?
all rows in a table
indexes
table structure and its columns
constraints
Question No: 8 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is not true about De-normalization?
It is the process of attempting to optimize the performance of a database
De-normalization is a technique to move from lower to higher normal forms of database modeling
In de-normalization it is required to add redundant data.
It enhances the performance of DB
Question No: 9 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is not a feature of TRANSACTION?
Users should be able to regard the execution of each transaction as atomic.
Each transaction, run by itself.
must preserve the consistency of the database
dependant on other concurrent transactions

Question No: 10 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Which of the following gives all the fields from employee table named as EMP?
select * from EMP;
select emp* from EMP'
select emp_id where EMP;
select * where EMP;

Question No: 11 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Suppose there are 4 fields in a table named CUST (customer_id, first_name, last_name, phone). Which of
the following gives all the information of the customers in the table whose last name is ALI?
SELECT * FROM CUST WHERE last_name='ALI';
SELECT * FROM CUST WHERE last_name=ALI;
SELECT * FROM CUSTOMER WHERE name=ALI;
SELECT * FROM CUSTOMER WHERE last_name=ALI;
Question No: 12 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Identify the correct statement with respect to normalization.
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Normalization is a formal technique that can be used only at the starting phase of the database design.
Normalization can be used as a top-down standalone database design technique.
The process of normalization through decomposition must achieve the lossless join
property at any cost whereas the dependency reservation property is sometimes
sacrificed.
The process of normalization through decomposition must achieve the dependency
reservation property at any cost whereas the lossless join property is sometimes
sacrificed.
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Question No: 13 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is not true with respect to denormalization?
A denormalized data model is not the same as a data model that has not been normalized
Denormalization takes place before the normalization process
It is an attempt to optimize the performance of database
Denormalization process can not be initiated before the Database design
Question No: 14 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is incorrect with respect to indexed sequential files?
New records are added to an overflow file
Record in main file that precedes it is updated to contain a pointer to the new record
The overflow is merged with the main file during a batch update
Multiple indexes for the same key field cannot be setup
Question No: 15 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following types of partitioning reduces the chances of unbalanced partitions?
vertical
List
Hash
Range
Question No: 16 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
DML commands are used for:

inserting data into databases


creating databases
destroying databases
creating DB objects
Question No: 17 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is INCORRECT with respect to file systems?
At the physical level, pointer or hashed address scheme may be employed to provide a certain degree
of data independence at the user level.
A logical record is concerned with efficient storage of information in the secondary storage devices.
Some physical organisations use pointers to record blocks to locate records on disk.
The efficiency of a file system depends on how efficiently operations such as retrieve, insert, update,
delete may be performed on the information stored in the file.
Question No: 18 (Marks: 1) - Please choose one
which of the following is correct regarding Dataflow diagram?
Single DFD is required to represent a system
The dataflow must be bidirectional
Created at increasing levels of detail
Used to represent the relationships among the external entities
Question No: 19 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Select the correct statement among the following on proper naming of schema constructs:
Entity type name applies to all the entities belonging to that entity type and therefore a plural name is
selected for entity type.
In the narrative description of the database requirements, verbs tend to indicate the names of
relationship types.
The nouns arising from a database requirement description can be considered as names of attributes.
Additional nouns which are appearing in the narrative description of the database
requirements represent the weak entity type names.
Question No: 20 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Structural constraints of a relationship type refer to
identifying the owner entity type relevant to a given entity type
whether the existence of an entity depends on it being related to another entity via the
relationship type.
the role that a participating entity from the entity type plays in each relationship instance.
the constraints applicable in granting access to tables, columns and views in a database
schema.

Question No: 21 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


Identify the correct statement.
Entity integrity constraints specify that primary key values can be composite.
Entity integrity constraints are specified on individual relations.
Entity integrity constraints are specified between weak entities.
When entity integrity rules are enforced, a tuple in one relation that refers to another relation must
refer to an existing tuple.
Question No: 22 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
What is the impact of setting multiple indexes for the same key, in index sequential files?
Multiple indexes for the same key can not be set
It increases efficiency
It decreases efficiency
It will increase complexity as the access time will be increased
Question No: 23 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is not true regarding Indexes?
Index can be defined even when there is no data in the table
It support Range selections
It can be created using Create Index statement
It can not be created on composite attributes
Question No: 24 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
While recovering data, which of the following files does a recovery manager examines at first?
A system file
Log file
Data dictionary
Metadata
Question No: 25 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
The main memory of a computer system is also known as
ROM
RAM
PROM
Hard disk
Question No: 26 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
_______is a control that enables users to select one option from an associated list; users can also type an
option.

Combo box
Button
Text box
Static area
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Question No: 27 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
_______ records data by burning microscopic holes in the surface of the disk with a
laser.
Hard disk
RAM
Optical disk
Floppy disk
Question No: 28 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of following is NOT generally the aim of data partitioning and placement of data?
Reduce Workload
Balance Workload
Merging different relations
Speed up rate of useful works.
Question No: 29 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
ALTER TABLE exams
RENAME COLUMN Q_description TO Question_Descp, Std_ID to Student_ID.
Syntax of ALTER TABLE is NOT correct.
True
False
Question No: 30 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is true regarding Index?
Index can only be created for a single table in database
Index can maximum be created for two tables in database
Index should be created for every table in the database
Index can be created for every table in the database
Question No: 31 ( Marks: 1 )
What is procedural DML?

Procedural DML or Low level: DML requires a user to specify what data are needed and
how to get those data. Procedural as the name specifies, it not only requires a user to
specify what data is needed but also the procedure how to retrieve it.

Question No: 32 ( Marks: 1 )


What does RAM stand for?
Ram stands for random access memory. It is the main memory of the computer.
Question No: 33 ( Marks: 2 )
Which DML statement changes the values of one or more columns based on some
conditions.
The UPDATE statement changes the values of one or more columns based on some condition. This updated
value can also be the result of an expression or calculation.
Question No: 34 ( Marks: 2 )
Name the two primary modes for taking Locks.
There are two primary modes for taking locks: optimistic and pessimistic.
Question No: 35 ( Marks: 3 )
Give three reasons of partitioning in the process of denormalization.
The three reasons of partitioning is

reduce workload,

balance workload,

speed up the rate of useful work

Question No: 36 ( Marks: 3 )


Write any three factors which we consider while defining key in designing an
indexed sequential file?
When you design an indexed sequential file, you must define each key in the
following terms:
Position and size
Data type
Index number
Options selected
Question No: 37 ( Marks: 3 )
Create a unique index named IndexNum on the CustName column of the table
Customer.
Create unique index index_num on customer(custname);
Question No: 38 ( Marks: 5 )

Write a query to change the "status" field in the table "name_table" against the
phone 34657. Make the status as enable.
Select status from name_table where phone=34657 and status=enable;
Question No: 39 ( Marks: 5 )
Describe ATOMICITY as one of the properties of TRANSACTION.
All transactions share these properties: atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability (represented by
the acronym ACID).
Atomicity: This implies indivisibility; any indivisible operation (one which will either complete fully or
not at all) is said to be atomic. Users should be able to regard the execution of each transaction
as atomic: either all actions are carried out or none are. Users should not have to worry about the effect
of incomplete transactions (say, when a system crash occurs).
Question No: 40 ( Marks: 10 )
Explain the main components of an Index. Explain the basic features of the two types
of indexes (Ordered Index and Hash Index).
Question No: 41 ( Marks: 10 )
Make the following comparison among the indexes
Clustered vs. Un-clustered Indexes
Single Key vs. Composite Indexes with examples
Indexing on a single column of a table is the simplest and most common manifestation of an index. A single
column index is one that is created based on only one table column.
CREATE INDEX NAME_IDX
ON EMPLOYEE_TBL (LAST_NAME);
A composite index is an index on two or more columns of a table. You should consider performances when
creating a composite index. Composite index are most effective on table columns that are used together
frequently as conditions in a querys where clause.
Example:
CREATE INDEX ORD_IDX
ON ORDERS_TBL(CUST_ID, PROD_ID);
When a one column is used in the where clause then single column index is used and when more than one
column is used then composite index is used.
A composite index is likely to be larger than a single-attribute search key index because the size of entries is
larger.
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Clustered Indexes

A clustered index determines the storage order of data in a table. A clustered index is
analogous to a telephone directory, which arranges data by last name. Because the
clustered index dictates the physical storage order of the data in the table, a table can
contain only one clustered index. However, the index can comprise multiple columns (a
composite index), like the way a telephone directory is organized by last name and first
name.
A clustered index is particularly efficient on columns often searched for ranges of values.
Once the row with the first value is found using the clustered index, rows with subsequent
indexed values are guaranteed to be physically adjacent. For example, if an application
frequently executes a query to retrieve records between a range of dates, a clustered
index can quickly locate the row containing the beginning date, and then retrieve all
adjacent rows in the table until the last date is reached. This can help increase the
performance of this type of query. Also, if there is a column(s) which is used frequently to
sort the data retrieved from a table, it can be advantageous to cluster (physically sort) the
table on that column(s) to save the cost of a sort each time the column(s) is queried.
Clustered indexes are also efficient for finding a specific row when the indexed value is
unique. For example, the fastest way to find a particular employee using the unique
employee ID column emp_id would be to create a clustered index or PRIMARY KEY
constraint on the emp_id column. Note PRIMARY KEY constraints create clustered
indexes automatically if no clustered index already exists on the table and a nonclustered
index is not specified when you create the PRIMARY KEY constraint.
Non-clustered Indexes

Nonclustered indexes have the same B-tree structure as clustered indexes, with two
significant differences:
The data rows are not sorted and stored in order based on their nonclustered keys. The
leaf layer of a nonclustered index does not consist of the data pages. Instead, the leaf
nodes contain index rows. Each index row contains the nonclustered key value and one or
more row locators that point to the data row (or rows if the index is not unique) having the
key value. Nonclustered indexes can be defined on either a table with a clustered index or
a heap. In Microsoft SQL Server version 7.0, the row locators in nonclustered index
rows have two forms:
If the table is a heap (does not have a clustered index), the row locator is a pointer to the
row. The pointer is built from the file ID, page number, and number of the row on the page.
The entire pointer is known as a Row ID.
If the table does have a clustered index, the row locator is the clustered index key for the
row. If the clustered index is not a unique index, SQL Server 7.0 adds an internal value to
duplicate keys to make them unique. This value is not visible to users; it is used to make
the key unique for use in nonclustered indexes. SQL Server retrieves the data row by
searching the clustered index using the clustered index key stored in the leaf row of the
nonclustered index. Because nonclustered indexes store clustered index keys as their row
locators, it is important to keep clustered index keys as small as possible. Do not choose
large columns as the keys to clustered indexes if a table also has nonclustered indexes.

--Question (Marks: 2 )
How the normal join is different from equi join?
--Question ( Marks: 3 )
What is set difference in relational algebra? explain.
--Question ( Marks: 5 )
Table A represents E-R Model and table B represents Relational Model, match
the entries from Table A to corresponding entries in Table B
TABLE A TABLE B
A. Entity Type A. Primary (Secondary) Key
B. key Attribute B. Dmain
C. Composite Attribute C. Relation and foreign key
D. Multivalued Attribute D. Set of simple component attributes
E. Value Set E. Relation
--Question ( Marks: 10 )
Explain the significance of Data Model. Why do we have to know the specific
data model of a DBMS
*Next PAPER:*
--in data dictionary, what does CRM stand for? (1 marks)
--How many entities does a unary relationship involve? (1 marks)
-- if one super type have three subtypes, then how many relations should be
created? (2 marks)
--Write three steps for constructing a Context DFD? (3 marks)
--Briefly explain rollback and roll forward. (5 marks)
--Explain difference between Derived attribute and Multivalued attribute with the of an example. (10
marks)
Question No: 1 ( M a r k s: 1 ) http://vuzs.net
Which of the following is not a benefit of normalization?
Minimize insertion anomolies
Minimize deletion anomolies
Minimize updation anomolies
Maximize redundancy
vuzs.net
Question No: 2 ( M a r k s: 1 ) http://vuzs.net

Controlling redundancy in a database management system DOES NOT help to


avoid duplication
avoid unnecessary wastage of storage space
avoid unauthorized access to data
avoid inconsistency among data

Question No: 3 ( M a r k s: 1 ) http://vuzs.net


In a conceptual database model, which of the following most likely represents a valid identifier for a class
grades?
StudentID
StudentID, CourseID
StudentID, CourseID, InstructorID
StudentID, CourseSectionID

Question No: 4 ( M a r k s: 1 ) http://vuzs.net


Identify the operation which is NOT one of the parts of the five basic set operations in relational algebra?
Join
Union
Cartesian Product
Set Difference

Question No: 5 ( M a r k s: 1 ) http://vuzs.net


Making a change to the conceptual schema of a database but not affecting the existing external schemas is
an example of
Physical data independence.
Concurrency control.
Logical data independence.
Functional dependency

Question No: 6 ( M a r k s: 1 ) http://vuzs.net

Select the correct statement among the following on proper naming of schema constructs:

Entity type name applies to all the entities belonging to that entity type and therefore a plural name is
selected for entity type.
In the narrative description of the database requirements, verbs tend to indicate the names of
relationship types.
The nouns arising from a database requirement description can be considered as names of attributes.
Additional nouns which are appearing in the narrative description of the database requirements represent
the weak entity type names.

Question No: 7 ( M a r k s: 1 ) http://vuzs.net


Identify the constraint that limits the values that can be placed in a column.
Not null
Check
Foreign Key
Unique

Question No: 8 ( M a r k s: 1 ) http://vuzs.net


Identify the INCORRECT statement among the given.
An entity may be an object with a physical existence like a car, a house or an Employee.
One cannot consider something which has conceptual existence like a course in a degree
program as an entity.
Age can be considered as a single value attribute of a person.
An entity type describes the schema or intension for a set of entities which share the same structure.

http://vuzs.net/

Question No: 9 ( M a r k s: 1 ) http://vuzs.net


Select the correct statement among the following.
Role names are not technically necessary in relationship types when all the participating entity
types are distinct.
When different entity types participate only once in a single relationship type it is called a recursive
relationship.

Cardinality ratios for binary relationship are displayed on Entity Relationship Diagrams by using a
diamond shape notation
Partial participation which is also called existence dependency is displayed as a double line connecting
the participating entity type to the relationship

Question No: 10 ( M a r k s: 1 ) http://vuzs.net


If W, X, Y and Z are attributes of a relation, which of the following inference rules for functional dependencies
is correct?
If (X, Z) -> Y then X -> Y and Z -> Y.
If X -> Y and X -> Z then X -> (Y, Z).
If X Y then Y -> X
If X -> Y then (X, Z) -> (Y,W).

Question No: 11 ( M a r k s: 1 ) http://vuzs.net


Which of the following is not a benefit of normalization?
Minimize insertion anomolies
Minimize deletion anomolies
Minimize updation anomolies
Maximize redundancy

Question No: 12 ( M a r k s: 1 ) http://vuzs.net


A candidate key that does not have a null value and is selected to uniquely identify all other attribute values
in any given row is called a ____.
superkey
candidate key
primary key
secondary key

http://vuzs.net/

Question No: 13 ( M a r k s: 1 ) http://vuzs.net


Incase of Context-level Diagram, the system is represented by Select correct option:

One process atleast


Two processes atleast
One process only
Any number of processes

Question No: 14 ( M a r k s: 1 ) http://vuzs.net


A________is used to maintain a connection between the users of the database system.
Select correct option:
Mail server
File Server
Client-server
None of the given.

Question No: 15 Give types of relations (02 Marks)

Question No: 16 Briefly explain what is Partial Dependency (02 Marks)

Answer:
In database terminology, a partial functional dependency occurs when the value in a non-key attribute of a
table is dependent on the value of some part of the table's primary key (but not all of it).

Question No: 17 Give at least 03 types of Anomalies which Normalization handles (03 Marks)
Answer:

Redundancy
Insertion Anomaly
Deletion Anomaly
Updation Anomaly

http://vuzs.net/

Question No: 18 What is Data Definition Language (DDL) ? (03 Marks)

Answer:
The language is used to translate physical design to actual data object
Creat
Alter
Drop
Modify
Used for table and columns

Question No: 19 Briefly explain what is a primary key and give example. (05 Marks)

Answer:
The primary key uniquely identifies the entity instance in entity type.
The primary key uniquely identifies the record in table

Candidate key selected to uniquely identify the record in the table.


This is also called the successful candidate key.

Question No: 20 What are the benefits of using default values? (05 Marks)
Answer:
If we dont give value to a particular attribute it will automatically give a value to that attribute. Default value
constraint is used for efficiency purpose in data entry process.

CS403 Solved Online Quiz


By
http://vustudents.ning.com
Quiz Start Time: 11:17 AM
sec(s)

Time Left

25

Question # 1 of 10 ( Start time: 11:17:22 AM )


Total Marks: 1
Controlling redundancy in a database management system DOES NOT help to
Select correct option:
avoid duplication
avoid unnecessary wastage of storage space
avoid unauthorised access to data
avoid inconsistency among data
Quiz Start Time: 11:17 AM
sec(s)

Time Left

Question # 2 of 10 ( Start time: 11:18:38 AM )


User rights information is stored in
Select correct option:

43

Total Marks: 1

Physical database
Catalog
Logical database
Buffer

Quiz Start Time: 11:17 AM


sec(s)

Time Left

Question # 3 of 10 ( Start time: 11:20:08 AM )


Which levels are mostly used for Detailed DFD?
Select correct option:
Level-0, Level-1
Level-1, Level-2
Level-2, Level-3
Level-3, Level-4

38

Total Marks: 1

Quiz Start Time: 11:17 AM


sec(s)

Time Left

Question # 4 of 10 ( Start time: 11:21:13 AM )


Within a table, each primary key value ____.
Select correct option:

76

Total Marks: 1

is a minimal superkey
is always the first field in each table
must be numeric
must be unique

Quiz Start Time: 11:17 AM


sec(s)

Time Left

68

Question # 5 of 10 ( Start time: 11:21:45 AM )


Total Marks: 1
A primary key is an attribute (or set of attributes) that has been chosen for an entity, whose values
are used to uniquely identify a particular instance of an entity. True or false?
Select correct option:
True
False
Partially True
None of the given
Quiz Start Time: 11:17 AM
sec(s)

Time Left

54

Question # 6 of 10 ( Start time: 11:22:28 AM )


Total Marks: 1
Who is responsible for authorizing access to the database, for coordinating and monitoring its use?
Select correct option:
Database Designer
Database Administrator
End User
Application Programmer
Quiz Start Time: 11:17 AM
sec(s)

Time Left

52

Question # 8 of 10 ( Start time: 11:24:50 AM )


Total Marks: 1
Incase of Context-level Diagram, the system is represented by
Select correct option:

One process atleast


Two processes atleast
One process only
Any number of processes
Quiz Start Time: 11:17 AM
sec(s)

Time Left

77

Question # 9 of 10 ( Start time: 11:25:39 AM )


Total Marks: 1
In a three-level DBMS architecture, the ______ level interacts directly with the users.
Select correct option:
external
conceptual
internal
physical

Quiz Start Time: 11:17 AM


sec(s)

Time Left

68

Question # 10 of 10 ( Start time: 11:26:04 AM )


Total Marks: 1
Which feature of database provides conversion from inconsistent state of DB to a consistent state
ensuring minimum data loss?
Select correct option:
User accessible catalog
Data processing
Recovery service
Authorization service
Quiz Start Time: 11:27 AM
sec(s)

Time Left

60

Question # 1 of 10 ( Start time: 11:27:14 AM )


Total Marks: 1
Which of the following describes a database system?
Select correct option:
A collection of stored operational data used by the application system of some particular
enterprise
A shared collection of logically related data (and a description of this data) designed to meet
the information needs of an organisation
A collection of stored data organised in such a way that all user requirements are

satisfied by the database. In general there is only one copy of each item of data although there
may be controlled repetition of some data.
All of the above

Quiz Start Time: 11:27 AM


sec(s)

Time Left

18

Question # 2 of 10 ( Start time: 11:27:53 AM )


Total Marks: 1
Which of the following is INCORRECT statement concerning the database design process?
Select correct option:
During requirements collection and analysis phase, one can gather the data requirements of
database users.
By referring to a high level data model, it is possible to understand the data
requirements of the users, entity types, relationships and constraints.
Transformation of the high level data model into the implementation data model is called
logical design or data model mapping.
During the logical design phase of internal storage structures, access paths and file
organization for the database files are specified.
Quiz Start Time: 11:27 AM
sec(s)

Time Left

Question # 3 of 10 ( Start time: 11:29:11 AM )


User rights information is stored in
Select correct option:
Physical database
Catalog
Logical database
Buffer

70

Total Marks: 1

Quiz Start Time: 11:27 AM


sec(s)

Time Left

Question # 4 of 10 ( Start time: 11:30:04 AM )


The Entity Relation Model models
Select correct option:

76

Total Marks: 1

Entities, Relationships and Processes


Entities and Relationships
Relationships
Entities

Quiz Start Time: 11:27 AM


sec(s)

Time Left

31

Question # 6 of 10 ( Start time: 11:30:35 AM )


Total Marks: 1
Which of the following is NOT a component of a DFD?
Select correct option:
Dataflow
Datastore
External entities
Relationship between external entities

Quiz Start Time: 11:27 AM


sec(s)

Time Left

44

Question # 7 of 10 ( Start time: 11:31:48 AM )


Total Marks: 1
Making a change to the conceptual schema of a database but not affecting the existing external
schemas is an example of
Select correct option:
Physical data independence
Logical data independence
Functional dependency

Concurrency control

Quiz Start Time: 11:27 AM


sec(s)

Time Left

77

Question # 8 of 10 ( Start time: 11:32:45 AM )


Total Marks: 1
Incase of Context-level Diagram, the system is represented by
Select correct option:
One process atleast
Two processes atleast
One process only
Any number of processes
Quiz Start Time: 11:27 AM
sec(s)

Time Left

Question # 9 of 10 ( Start time: 11:33:11 AM )


An instance is
Select correct option:

23

Total Marks: 1

a particular occurance of an entity


a special type of relation
an attribute of an entity
any particular entity
Quiz Start Time: 11:27 AM
sec(s)

Time Left

71

Question # 10 of 10 ( Start time: 11:34:22 AM )


Total Marks: 1
A________is used to maintain a connection between the users of the database system.
Select correct option:
mail server
file server
client-server
none of the given

Database Systems, Chapter 1


1. What is a benefit of using a DBMS?

A.

they provide full security to data using private/public key encryption

B.

they create automatic backups

C.
D.

? they help create an environment for end users to have access to


more data
?

they provide seamless Internet access to database data

2. What is the name for an answer to a query that the DBMS sends back to the
application?

A.

DBMS result

B.

query result set

C.

question result

D.

data result

3. A single-user database that runs on a personal computer is called a(n) ____


database.

A.

workgroup

B.

distributed

C.

enterprise

D.

desktop

4. The content of any given field is the ____.

A.

database

B.

field value

C.

entity

D.

table

5. Data processing (DP) specialists are in existence because of _______.

A.

the increase in the number of computers

B.

the advent of database management systems

C.
D.

? the need to convert manual files to a matching computer file


system
?

the need to speed up processing of data

6. _____ are considered database architects.

A.

Database administrators

B.

Systems administrators

C.

Database designers

D.

Systems analysts and programmers

7. Programming in a(n) ____ may be a time-consuming and high-skill activity.

A.

COB

B.

AIS

C.

3GL

D.

DMB

8. The ____ receives all application requests and translates them into the
complex operations required to fulfill requests.

A.

query

B.

workgroup

C.

DBMS

D.

DP

9. A ____ focuses primarily on storing data used to generate information


required to make tactical or strategic decisions.

A.

distributed database

B.

workgroup database

C.

data warehouse

D.

production database

10.Accurate, relevant, and timely ____ is the key to good decision making.

A.

information

B.

processing

C.

data

D.

relationships

11. The word ____ indicates that the facts have not yet been processed to reveal
their meaning.

A.

raw

B.

information

C.

data

D.

dictionary

12.What is the maximum number of users normally supported by a workgroup


database?

A.

10

B.

30

C.

50

D.

100

13.Which of the following would result in a data anomaly?

A.

inconsistent redundant data

B.

modification of data

C.

timeliness of data

D.

obsolescence of data

14.Processed data, or ____, can be used as the basis for decision making.

A.

raw data

B.

information

C.

queries

D.

DP

15.What is the most common classification applied to a DBMS?

A.

number of users

B.

database site location(s)

C.

expected type and extent of use

D.

software manufacturer

16.Which of the following products do not provide an enterprise database?

A.

MS Access

B.

MS SQL Server

C.

IBM DB2

D.

Oracle RDBMS

17.Data ____ exists when the same data are stored unnecessarily at different
places.

A.

dependency

B.

redundancy

C.

inconsistency

D.

fragmentation

18.What is the name for data about data?

A.

unique data

B.

raw data

C.

metadata

D.

superdata

19.A ____ allows the user to specify what must be done without specifying how
it must be done.

A.

1GL

B.

2GL

C.

3GL

D.

4GL

20.Database management systems, operating systems, applications and utilities


are all examples of ____.

A.

software

B.

hardware

C.

computer infrastructure

D.

input and output

Chapter 2
Data Models
1. The most widely used conceptual model is the ____ model.

A.

implementation

B.

ER

C.

OO

D.

internal

2. What model requires the most detail in its internal model?

A.

network

B.

relational

C.

semantic

D.

entity relationship

3. In the OO data model, a class' ____ represents a real-world action such as


finding a selected PERSON's name.

A.

inheritance

B.

hierarchy

C.

interface

D.

method

4. Using network database terminology, a relationship is called a(n) ____.

A.

member

B.

owner

C.

set

D.

table

5. The ____ model adapts a conceptual model to a specific DBMS.

A.

entity

B.

internal

C.

external

D.

database

6. What type of relationship is expressed with the phrase "Employee manages


Store"?

A.

1:*

B.

1:1

C.

*:1

D.

*:*

7. A ____ is the equivalent of a file system's record type.

A.

root

B.

child

C.

segment

D.

parent

8. The hierarchical database model is based on a ____.

A.

tree structure

B.

lack of a parent segment

C.

lack of a child segment

D.

matrix

9. The ERDM is primarily geared to business applications, while the OODM


tends to focus on ____ applications.

A.

educational

B.

very specialized engineering and scientific

C.

non-commercial Internet

D.

personal

10.A(n) ____ model is independent of both hardware and software.

A.

conceptual

B.

external

C.

developmental

D.

logical

11. The network database models have ____.

A.

a navigational system that yields simple design

B.

a simple system that promotes efficiency

C.

an owner/member relationship that promotes database integrity

D.

a great deal of structural independence

12.Data models were developed to ____.

A.

model real-world events or conditions

B.

deposit data within a single file

C.

keep data within multiple data repositories

D.

allow DBMSs to maintain loose control over the database activities

13.A table is a matrix consisting of a series of row and column ____.

A.

links

B.

models

C.

systems

D.

intersections

14.What type of relationship is expressed with the phrase "Student takes


Class"?

A.

1:*

B.

1:1

C.

*:1

D.

*:*

15.What modern development has drastically changed the role and scope of the
database market?

A.

object-oriented programming

B.

the Internet

C.

Y2K

D.

mainframes

16.The object-oriented model ____.

A.

adds semantic content

B.

has no standards

C.

has a simple navigational system

D.

has a low system overhead that speeds transactions

17.One of the advantages of a relational database model is ____.

A.

structural dependence

B.

conceptual complexity

C.

complex database design

D.

easier database design

18.What is the fastest and most direct source of business rules?

A.

company documentation

B.

interviews with end users

C.

the Internet

D.

a database design document

19.Which model operates at the lowest level of abstraction?

A.

conceptual

B.

internal

C.

external

D.

physical

20.In response to the increasing complexity of applications, two new data


models emerged: the object-oriented data model and the ____ relational data
model.

A.

extended

B.

flat-file

C.

hierarchical

D.

entity

The Relational Database Model, Chapter 3


1. A candidate key that does not have a null value and is selected to uniquely
identify all other attribute values in any given row is called a ____.

A.

superkey

B.

candidate key

C.

primary key

D.

secondary key

2. A ____ functionally determines all of the row's attributes.

A.

superkey

B.

primary key

C.

foreign key

D.

combined key

3. ____ are especially useful when you are trying to determine what value(s) in
related tables cause(s) referential integrity problems.

A.

Inner joins

B.

Natural joins

C.

Outer joins

D.

Equijoins

4. Within a table, the primary key must be unique so that it will identify each row.
When this is the case, the table is said to exhibit ____ integrity.

A.

referential

B.

entity

C.

enforced

D.

key

5. A(n) ____ is an orderly arrangement used to logically access rows in a table.

A.

entity

B.

index

C.

join

D.

key

6. A table can be logically connected to another table by defining a ____.

A.

hyperlink

B.

common attribute

C.

primary key

D.

superkey

7. A ____ key is defined as a key that is used strictly for data retrieval purposes.

A.

primary

B.

foreign

C.

secondary

D.

data

8. If a foreign key contains either matching values or nulls, the table(s) that
make use of such a foreign key is/are said to exhibit ____ integrity.

A.

referential

B.

restrictive

C.

secondary

D.

redundant

9. The key's role is based on a concept known as ____.

A.

consistency

B.

availability

C.

determination

D.

uniqueness

10.A superkey that does not contain a subset of attributes that is itself a
superkey is called a ____.

A.

candidate key

B.

primary key

C.

superkey

D.

secondary key

11. The problems inherent in the many-to-many (*:*) relationship can easily be
avoided by creating a ____ entity.

A.

foreign

B.

composite

C.

related

D.

logical

12.Each table must have a ____ key.

A.

primary

B.

secondary

C.

foreign

D.

logical

13.Within a table, each primary key value ____.

A.

is a minimal superkey

B.

is always the first field in each table

C.

must be numeric

D.

must be unique

14.The ____ can be described as a detailed system data dictionary that


describes all objects within the database, including data about table names,
the table's creator and creation date, the number of columns in each table,

the data type corresponding to each column, index filenames, index creators,
authorized users and access privileges.

A.

data dictionary

B.

system catalog

C.

index

D.

rational structure

15.In a relationship, when a primary key from one table is also defined in a
second table, the field is referred to as a ____ in the second table.

A.

a combined key

B.

redundant field

C.

primary key

D.

foreign key

16.A multi-attribute key is known as a ____ key.

A.

primary

B.

super

C.

composite

D.

foreign

17.We can describe a link by observing that a ____.

A.

? primary key of one table appears again as a primary key in a related


table

B.

? foreign key of one table appears again as a foreign key in a related


table

C.

? primary key of one table appears again as a foreign key in a related


table

D.

? foreign key of one table appears again as a secondary key in a related


table

18.____________ dictates that the foreign key must contain values that match
the primatry key in the related table or must contain nulls.

A.

Entity integrity

B.

Functional dependence

C.

Referential integrity

D.

Full functional dependence

19.The ___________ of a relation is the number of its attributes.

A.

degree

B.

cardinality

C.

domain

D.

size

20.The ____________ of a relation is the number of its tuples.

A.

degree

B.

cardinality

C.

domain

D.

size

21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29. Question # 1 of 10 ( Start time: 01:13:48 PM ) Total Marks: 1
30. A ____ relationship exists when an association is maintained within a single entity.
31. Select correct option:
32.
33. Unary
34. Binary
35. Ternary
36. Weak
37.
38.
39.
40.
41. Question # 2 of 10 ( Start time: 01:14:33 PM ) Total Marks: 1
42. A collection of concepts that can be used to describe the structure of a database
43. Select correct option:
44.
45. Database
46.
47. DBMS
48.
49. Data model
50.
51. Data
52.
53.
54.
55. Question # 3 of 10 ( Start time: 01:16:00 PM ) Total Marks: 1
56. Which of the following is NOT a component of a DFD?
57. Select correct option:
58.
59. Dataflow
60. Datastore
61. External entities
62. Relationship between external entities
63.
64.
65. Question # 4 of 10 ( Start time: 01:17:27 PM ) Total Marks: 1
66. A candidate key that does not have a null value and is selected to uniquely identify all other
attribute values in any given row is called a ____.
67. Select correct option:
68.

69. superkey
70. candidate key
71. primary key
72. secondary key
73.
74.
75.
76.
77. Question # 5 of 10 ( Start time: 01:18:32 PM ) Total Marks: 1
78. A candidate key that does not have a null value and is selected to uniquely identify all other
attribute values in any given row is called a ____.
79. Select correct option:
80.
81. superkey
82. candidate key
83. primary key
84. secondary key
85.
86.
87.
88.
89. Question # 6 of 10 ( Start time: 01:19:51 PM ) Total Marks: 1
90. A primary key is an attribute (or set of attributes) that has been chosen for an entity, whose
values are used to uniquely identify a particular instance of an entity. True or false?
91. Select correct option:
92.
93. True
94. False
95. Partially True
96. None of the given
97.
98.
99.
100.
101.
102.
Question # 7 of 10 ( Start time: 01:20:37 PM ) Total Marks: 1
103.
Incase of Context-level Diagram, the system is represented by
104.
Select correct option:
105.
106.
One process atleast
107.
Two processes atleast
108.
One process only
109.
Any number of processes
110.
111.
112.
113.
Question # 8 of 10 ( Start time: 01:22:03 PM ) Total Marks: 1
114.
Data Redundancy Means
115.
Select correct option:
116.
117.
Security of data
118.
Duplication of data

119.
120.
121.
122.
123.
124.
125.
126.
127.
128.
129.
130.
131.
132.
133.
134.
135.
136.
137.
138.
users.
139.
140.
141.
142.
143.
144.
145.
146.
147.
148.

Management of data
Recovery of data

Question # 9 of 10 ( Start time: 01:23:29 PM ) Total Marks: 1


Which levels are mostly used for Detailed DFD?
Select correct option:
Level-0, Level-1
Level-1, Level-2
Level-2, Level-3
Level-3, Level-4

Question # 10 of 10 ( Start time: 01:23:42 PM ) Total Marks: 1


In a three-level DBMS architecture, the ______ level interacts directly with the
Select correct option:
external
conceptual
internal
physical

What does the abbreviation DBMS stand for?


Digital Base Mapping System.
Data Borrowing and Movement Software.
Database Management System.
Database Manipulation Software.
The advantages of Standard Query Language (SQL) include which of the following in relation to
GIS databases?
It is simple and easy to understand.
It is widely used.
It is good at handling geographical concepts.
It uses a pseudo-English style of questioning.
Which of the following are characteristics of an RDBMS?
1. It cannot use SQL.
2.Tables are linked by common data known as keys.
3.Keys may be unique or have multiple occurrences in the database.

4.Data are organized in a series of two-dimensional tables each of which contains


records for one entity.
5.Queries are possible on individual or groups of tables.
What is a 'tuple'?
An attribute attached to a record.
A row or record in a database table.
Another name for the key linking different tables in a database.
Another name for a table in an RDBMS.
Which of the following are issues to be considered by users of large corporate GIS databases?
http://vustudents.ning.com
The need for manual transfer of records to paper.
The need for multiple copies of the same data and subsequent merging after separate
updates.
The need to manage long transactions.
The need for concurrent access and multi-user update.
The need for multiple views or different windows into the same databases.
Which of the following are features of the object-oriented approach to databases?
The ability to develop database models based on location rather than state and behaviour.
The ability to represent the world in a non-geometric way.
The need to split objects into their component parts.
The ability to develop more realistic models of the real world.
The ability to develop databases using natural language approaches.
Redundancy is minimised with a computer based database approach.
http://vustudents.ning.com
True
False
The relational database model is based on concepts proposed in the 1960s and 1970s.
True
False
A row in a database can also be called a domain.
True
False
A first step in database creation should be needs analysis.
True
False
In entity attribute modelling a many to many relationship is represented by M:M.
http://vustudents.ning.com
True
False

In a networked web based GIS all communications must go through an internet map server.
True
False
In an OO database approach 'object = attributes + behaviour'.
True
False
In an OO database objects may inherit some or all of the characteristics of other objects.
True
False
Question No: 1

( Marks: 1 )

MIDTERM EXAMINATION
Spring 2010
- Please choose one
Which

of the following is NOT a feature of Context DFD?


one process (which represents the entire system)
all sources/sinks (external entities)
data flows linking the process to the sources and sinks (external entities)
sub-processes (which explain and decomposed the major process into small
processes)
Question No: 2

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


Which

of the following is true for the relational model?


Degree of a relation is the number of rows in a relation.

Null value is a blank or zero value given to an attribute value when its value is inapplicable or its value is unknown.
Complex key is a key consisting of more than one attribute.
Constraint is a rule that restricts the values in a database.
Question No: 3

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one

Which
one of the following four E-R diagrams is the typical result you obtain when you initially start with
an E-R diagram containing just two entities, A and C, in a Many-to-Many relationship, and then
introduce an associative entity (B).

Correct 3

Question No: 4

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


Which

of the following most certainly implies the need for an entire table to implement?
A binary relationship
A ternary relationship
A recursive relationship
An identifying relationship
Question No: 5

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


Which

of the following constraints enforces entity integrity?


PRIMARY KEY
FOREIGN KEY
CHECK
NOT NULL
Question No: 6

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


Which

of the following is not true about relational tables?


Column values are of the same kind.
Each row is unique.
Each column must have a unique name.
The sequence of rows is significant.
Question No: 7

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one

In a
conceptual model for a university, what type of relationship exists between Grade and Student
entities?
1:1
1:M
M:M
Ternary
Question No: 8

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one

Controlling redundancy in a database management system DOES NOT help to

avoid duplication
avoid unnecessary wastage of storage space
avoid unauthorised access to data
avoid inconsistency among data
Question No: 9

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


Which

of the following is INCORRECT with respect to file systems?

At the physical level, pointer or hashed address scheme may be employed to provide a certain degree
of data independence at the user level.
A logical record is concerned with efficient storage of information in the secondary storage
devices.
Some physical organisations use pointers to record blocks to locate records on disk.
The efficiency of a file system depends on how efficiently operations such as retrieve, insert, update,
delete may be performed on the information stored in the file.
Question No: 10

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


Which

of the following functions are NOT performed by a database administrator?

Planning, designing and implementing database systems


Establishing standards and procedures for database systems
Communicating with database users
Allocation of storage locations and data structures
Question No: 11 ( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one

Select
the correct statement about the ANSI/SPARC architecture.
The conceptual level is a level of indication between the internal level and the external level.
The internal level in a database system will definitely be relational.
Any given database has many conceptual schemas and one physical schema, but it has only one external
schemas.
The external level is not concerned with individual user perceptions, while the conceptual level is
concerned with a community user perception.

Question No: 12

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one

Which
of the following is a correct way to implement one-to-many relationship while designing tables?
by splitting the data into two tables with primary key and foreign key relationships.
using a junction table with the keys from both the tables forming the composite primary key
of the junction table.
by splitting each table into three
as a single table and rarely as two tables with primary and foreign key relationships.
Question No: 13

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


Which

of the following is not a benefit of normalization?


Minimize insertion anomolies
Minimize deletion anomolies
Minimize updation anomolies
Maximize redundancy
Question No: 14

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one

Consider the following relation R and its sample data. (Consider that these are the only tuples for the given
relation)

Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

The functional dependency (EmpNo, DeptNo) -> ProjNo holds over R.


The functional dependency EmpNo -> DeptNo holds over R.
The functional dependency ProjNo -> DeptNo holds over R.
The functional dependency (EmpNo, ProjNo) -> DeptNo holds over R.
Question No: 15

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


The

Entity Relation Model models


Entities, Relationships and Processes
Entities and Relationships
Relationships
Entities
Question No: 16

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one

As part
of database naming conventions, attribute names should use suffixes such as ID, NUMBER or
CODE for the _______.
primary key
foreign key
index
determinant
MIDTERM EXAMINATION
Fall 2009
CS403- Database Management Systems (Session - 5)
Ref No: 1024628
Time: 60 min
Marks: 38
Student Info
StudentID:

MC080408680

Center:

OPKST

ExamDate:

12/14/2009 12:00:00 AM

For Teacher's Use Only


Q
1
2
No.
Marks

Total

Q No.

10

11

12

13

14

17

18

19

20

21

22

Marks
Q No.
Marks

15

16

Question No: 1

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


User

rights information is stored in


Physical database
Catalog
Logical database
Buffer
Question No: 2

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one

Making
a change to the conceptual schema of a database but not affecting the existing external schemas is an example of

Physical data independence.


Concurrency control.
Logical data independence.
Functional dependency
Question No: 3

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


Identify

the constraint that limits the values that can be placed in a column.

NOT NULL
CHECK
FOREIGN KEY
UNIQUE
Question No: 4

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


Which

of the following enforces a relation into 1st normal form?


The domain of attribute must include only atomic values.
Every non-key attribute is fully functionally dependent on primary key
non-key attribute is non-transitively dependent on primary key.
Every non-key attribute is partially dependent on super key
Question No: 5

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one

Controlling redundancy in a database management system DOES NOT help to

avoid duplication
avoid unnecessary wastage of storage space

avoid unauthorised access to data


avoid inconsistency among data
Question No: 6

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


Which

of the following is CORRECT about database management system's languages?


Data definition languages are used to specify the conceptual schema only.
Data manipulation languages are used to create the databases.
Data manipulation languages are used for retrieval, insertion, deletion and modification of data.
Data definition langauges are only used to update data in the DBMS.

Question No: 7

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


Which

of the following is INCORRECT statement concerning the database design process?


During requirements collection and analysis phase, one can gather the data requirements of database
users.

By referring to a high level data model, it is possible to understand the data requirements of the users,
entity types, relationships and constraints.
Transformation of the high level data model into the implementation data model is called logical design
or data model mapping.
During the logical design phase of internal storage structures, access paths and file organization for the
database files are specified.
Question No: 8

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


Identify

the INCORRECT statement among the given.


An entity may be an object with a physical existence like a car, a house or an Employee.
One cannot consider something which has conceptual existence like a course in a degree
program as an entity.

Age can be considered as a single value attribute of a person.


An entity type describes the schema or intension for a set of entities which share the same
structure.

Question No: 9

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one

Select
the correct statement among the following.
Role names are not technically necessary in relationship types when all the participating entity types are
distinct.

When different entity types participate only once in a single relationship type it is called a recursive
relationship.
Cardinality ratios for binary relationship are displayed on Entity Relationship Diagrams by
using a diamond shape notation.

Partial participation which is also called existence dependency is displayed as a double line
connecting the participating entity type to the relationship.

Question No: 10

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


In a

relation, which of the following refers by the Structural constraints?


finding the owner entity type relevant to a given entity type.
the number of relationship instances which an entity can participate in.

the role that a participating entity from the entity type plays in each relationship instance.
the constraints applicable in granting access to tables, columns and views in a database
schema

Question No: 11 ( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


Identify

the correct statement.


Entity integrity constraints specify that primary key values can be composite.

Entity integrity constraints are specified on individual relations.


Entity integrity constraints are specified between weak entities.
When entity integrity rules are enforced, a tuple in one relation that refers to another relation must refer to
an existing tuple.
Question No: 12

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


Which

of the following is true about relational schema?


The sequence of columns is significant
The sequence of rows is significant.
Contains only derived attributes.
Values are atomic.
Question No: 13

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one

Identify the factor which enforces a relation in 3NF?


Every non-key attribute is fully functionally dependent on primary key
Every non-key attribute is partially dependent on super key
The domain of attribute must include only atomic values.
Every non-key attribute is non-transitively dependent on primary key.
Question No: 14

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


If W,

X, Y and Z are attributes of a relation, which of the following inference rules for functional dependencies is
correct?

If (X, Z) -> Y then X -> Y and Z -> Y.


If X -> Y and X -> Z then X -> (Y, Z).
If X
Y then Y -> X
If X -> Y then (X, Z) -> (Y,W).
Question No: 15

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one


Which

of the following is not a benefit of normalization?


Minimize insertion anomolies
Minimize deletion anomolies
Minimize updation anomolies
Maximize redundancy
Question No: 16

( Marks: 1 )

- Please choose one

A
candidate key that does not have a null value and is selected to uniquely identify all other attribute
values in any given row is called a ____.
superkey
candidate key
primary key
secondary key
Question No: 17

( Marks: 1 )
What is

sub-type discriminator?
The subtype discriminator, which you add to the super type table for a disjoint condition (or
non-overlapping condition). The purpose of the subtype discriminator is to help you avoid
having to write sub queries or joins just to find information

Such as the names of all AARP members. But when subtypes overlap, this simple
discriminator structure doesn't work. You have to modify the structure.

Question No: 18

( Marks: 1 )

In
which condition a relation in first normal form, automatically turns into the second normal
form?
Ans:
Those that do not depend upon the combination key, are moved to another table on whose
key they depend on.
Structures which do not contain combination keys are automatically in second normal
form.
Question No: 19 ( Marks: 2 )
State
the two major benefits of referential integrity constraints?
Ans;
Often, in relational database, we wish to ensure that a value that appears in one relation
for a given set of attributes also appears for a certain set of attributes in another relation.
This condition is called Referential integrity (RI). It is the concept of relationships between

tables, based on the definition of a primary key and a foreign key.


The following summarize the benefits of referential integrity:

Ensure data integrity and consistency base on primary key and foreign key ..

Increases development productivity, because it is not necessary to code SQL


statements to enforce referential constraints, the Teradata RDBMS automatically
enforces referential integrity.

Question No: 20

( Marks: 3 )

Differentiate between relation and table.


The most commonly used DBMS is the Relational Database Management System
(RDBMS). This system use table structure that saves and controls the data. A table is a
predefined category of data that consist of rows and columns. The columns save the
qualities that describe the group of data. Every row contains full record of a particular data.
Every table has a Primary key which denotes or uniquely identifies the row. These primary
keys are also used in another table just to link the two tables and are known as foreign
key.
Question No: 21 ( Marks: 5 )
Consider the following two columns. The Column A consists of terms related to the ER model and
Column B consists of terms used in the relational model.

The terms in Column A have been mapped to Column B so that it corresponds to the mapping
process of the ER Model into a Relational model. Map each of the entry in column A to the appropriate entry in
column B?

Ans
A relation is a table that holds the data we are interested in. It is two-dimensional and has rows and
columns.
Each entity type in the ER model is mapped into a relation.

The attributes become the columns.

The individual entities become the rows.

1-entity type---relation
2key attributes>>>primary or secondary keys
3->composite attribute-> relation and foreign keys

Question No: 22

( Marks: 10 )

Explain the significance of the data model. Why do we need to know the specific data
model of any DBMS?
Ans;
The term database design can be used to describe many different parts of the design of an
overall database system.
Hierarchical Model
Network Model
Relational Model
Data in a series of records, which have a set of field values attached to it. It collects all the
instances of a specific record together as a record type. These record types are the
equivalent of tables in the relational model, and with the individual records being the
equivalent of rows. To create links between these record types,
Two types of data modeling are as follows:

Logical modeling

Physical modeling

If you are going to be working with databases, then it is important to understand the
difference between logical and physical modeling, and how they relate to one another.
Logical Modeling
Logical modeling deals with gathering business requirements and converting those
requirements into a model. The logical model revolves around the needs of the business,
not the database, although the needs of the business are used to establish the needs of
the database. Logical modeling involves gathering information about business processes,
business entities (categories of data), and organizational units. After this information is
gathered, diagrams and reports are produced including entity relationship diagrams,
business process diagrams, and eventually process flow diagrams. The diagrams
produced should show the processes and data that exists, as well as the relationships
between business processes and data. Logical modeling should accurately render a visual
representation of the activities and data relevant to a particular business.
The diagrams and documentation generated during logical modeling is used to determine
whether the requirements of the business have been completely gathered. Management,
developers, and end users alike review these diagrams and documentation to determine if
more work is required before physical modeling commences.
Typical deliverables of logical modeling include

Entity relationship diagrams


An Entity Relationship Diagram is also referred to as an analysis ERD. The point of
the initial ERD is to provide the development team with a picture of the different
categories of data for the business, as well as how these categories of data are
related to one another.

Business process diagrams


The process model illustrates all the parent and child processes that are performed

by individuals within a company. The process model gives the development team an
idea of how data moves within the organization. Because process models illustrate
the activities of individuals in the company, the process model can be used to
determine how a database application interface is design.

User feedback documentation

Physical Modeling
Physical modeling involves the actual design of a database according to the requirements
that were established during logical modeling. Logical modeling mainly involves gathering
the requirements of the business, with the latter part of logical modeling directed toward
the goals and requirements of the database. Physical modeling deals with the conversion
of the logical, or business model, into a relational database model. When physical
modeling occurs, objects are being defined at the schema level. A schema is a group of
related objects in a database. A database design effort is normally associated with one
schema.
During physical modeling, objects such as tables and columns are created based on
entities and attributes that were defined during logical modeling. Constraints are also
defined, including primary keys, foreign keys, other unique keys, and check constraints.
Views can be created from database tables to summarize data or to simply provide the
user with another perspective of certain data. Other objects such as indexes and
snapshots can also be defined during physical modeling. Physical modeling is when all the
pieces come together to complete the process of defining a database for a business.
Physical modeling is database software specific, meaning that the objects defined during
physical modeling can vary depending on the relational database software being used. For
example, most relational database systems have variations with the way data types are
represented and the way data is stored, although basic data types are conceptually the
same among different implementations. Additionally, some database systems have objects
that are not available in other database systems.
Typical deliverables of physical modeling include the following:

Server model diagrams


The server model diagram shows tables, columns, and relationships within a
database.

User feedback documentation


Database design documentation