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# OBJECT

The purpose of this experiment is to determine the constant of proportionality (the thermal
conductivity k) for one-dimensional steady flow of heat.
To investigate the thermal conductivity of brass in radial direction.

INTRODUCTION

Thermal conduction is the transfer of heat energy in a material due to the temperature
gradient within it. It always takes place from a region of higher temperature to a region of
lower temperature. A solid is chosen for the experiment of pure conduction because both
liquids and gasses exhibit excessive convective heat transfer. For practical situation, heat
conduction occurs in three dimensions, a complexity which often requires extensive
computation to analyze. For experiment, a single dimensional approach is required to
demonstrate the basic law that relates rate of heat flow to temperature gradient and area.
Thermal conductivity is an important concept in the earth sciences, with applications
including estimating of cooling rates of magma chambers, geothermal explorations, and
estimates of the age of the Earth. It is also important in regard to heat transport in air, to
understanding the properties of insulating material (including the walls and windows of your
house), and in many other areas.
THEORY

When the inner and outer surfaces of a thick walled cylinder are each at a different uniform
temperature, heat flows radially through the cylinder wall. The disk can be considered to be
constructed as a series of successive layers. From continuity considerations the radial heat
flow through each of the successive layers in the wall must be constant if the flow is steady
but since the area of the successive layers increases with radius, the temperature gradient
R out
R
Q ln
2 L( T )
k=

## Fig.2. Radial Heat Conduction Experiment Setup

APPARATUS

1
7

2
3

8
4

5
6

Figure 1: Unit Assembly for Heat Conduction Study Bench (Model: HE 105)

1. Control Panel

6.

Thermocouple Connectors

7.

Thermocouples

## 3. Heater Power Regulator

8.

4. Temperature Indicator
5. Temperature Selector

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

i.

## Set the power of the heater.

ii.

Wait for 25 to 30 minutes until the temperature achieved at every measuring point
is stable.

iii.

iv.

## Record temperatures for power input from 0 to 20 watts

EXPERIMENTAL DATA
Heater Power, Q
TT1
TT2
TT3
TT4
TT5
TT6
(Watts)
(C)
(C)
(C)
(C)
(C)
(C)
51.84

71.5
51.9
44.8
34.8
32.9
32.0
63.8
82.2
57.4
49.0
36.1
33.8
32.9
77.44
93.2
63.7
53.5
37.6
34.8
34.0
Distance from
T1 (m)
0.007
0.010
0.020
0.030
0.040
0.050

EXPERIMENTAL RESULT

Calculations: Using the equation given below, calculate the thermal conductivity.

## Thermal conductivity is defined as:

R out
R
Q ln
2 L( T )
k=

Heater
Power, Q
(watt)
51.84
63.8
77.44

Rin
(m)

out, Rout
(m)

Thickness
of disc, L
(m)

Different in
temperature,T
( c)

Thermal
conductivity ,k
(w/mk)
128.335

0.007

0.050

0.0032

39.5

0.007
0.007

0.050
0.050

0.0032
0.0032

49.3
59.2

126.547
127.915

Sample calculation
discussion
Q
51.84
63.8
77.44

K exp
128.335
126.547
127.915

K theo
121
121
121

Percent error, %
6.062
4.584
5.715

Chart Title

Temperature , 0c

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
7.0000000000000001E-3

0.02