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Cent. Eur. J. Eng.

4(3) 2014 293-302


DOI: 10.2478/s13531-013-0164-z

Central European Journal of Engineering

A New Monitoring Technique for the Grounding Grids


Research Article

Y. Chikarov1 , T. T. Lie 1 , N. -K. C. Nair2


1 Faculty of Designs & Creative Technologies, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand
2 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand

Received 11 December 2013; accepted 10 April 2014

Abstract: The performance and reliability of grounding grids depend on its structural integrity. If grounding conductors are
damaged, it may cause misoperation of protective relay which leads to trip feeders unnecessarily. It can also
cause not only failures on the surroundings such as the grounding grid, secondary circuits cables, and structural
elements but also voltage hazard for human. The circuits may attain unacceptable voltages when short-circuit fault
currents occur in these grids. This paper presents the development of a new technique to monitor the operating
conditions of the grounding grids of high voltage apparatus and systems without any diggings and forced outages.
New concept, principals, a technique and a device shown in the paper have never been described before by the
other authors. The technique is based on the evaluation of the electromagnetic field distribution pattern over the
damaged horizontal elements of the grid.
Keywords: Grounding Safety Monitoring Distribution Short Circuit
Versita sp. z o.o.

1.

Introduction

The grounding grids elements are hidden in depth of


the soil structure. Due to dampness, presence of salts
and acids, electric corrosion, freezing process and etc.,
some elements may become damaged. This can lead
to dysfunctional of circuits that use ground as reference
node (benchmark) under abnormal operating conditions.
It may also result in high voltage hazards appearance
on electrical equipments frames, damages of insulation,
thermal destructions. As a result, it may potentially cause
hazardous situations in and around the electric power
plant.
The existing technology of the grounding monitoring

E-mail: tek.lie@aut.ac.nz

is currently determined by measuring some parameters


as follows: (i) resistance of the grounding grids; (ii)
the potential value of the most dangerous points of
electric power plant; and (iii) integrity testing of separate
parts of the grounding to evaluate the grounding grids
operation (whether the various parts of the ground grid
are interconnected with low resistance copper) [13].
Unfortunately, the above mentioned measurements do not
show a complete picture of the grounding grids state. This
is due to the fact that the actual configuration of the
grids and characteristics of its elements change within
the period of operation and thus, it may not meet the
requirements of the normal operating standards. It may
result in the outages of the grounding grids main functions
and growth of ground potential rise (GPR), touch and step
voltages, uneven potential distribution. Even though, the
resistance of the grounding grid is low, with a tendency
of single-phase-to-earth current increasing, the GPR can
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A New Monitoring Technique for the Grounding Grids

be substantial and exceeds limited values especially when


some horizontal elements of the grid are damaged.
There is a number of existing research papers
investigating the damaged horizontal elements
location [47]. However, the existing works are only able
to approximately identify an area of the integrity failure.
This is not good enough because it is very important to
identify the exact location of the failure. Moreover, the
existing techniques are not accurate enough, laborious
and unable to examine each horizontal element.
The proposed study in this paper is to develop an
algorithm for monitoring the grounding grids condition
and a device that is capable of locating the exact point
of failure without laborious work such as diggings.
The main contribution of this paper is to introduce a new
approach and technique to monitor the integrity of the
grounding grids based on the features revealed during
the mathematical and experimental analysis.

2. Features of processes in
grounding with damaged horizontal
conductors
The theoretical development of the analysis of the
processes in the grounding grids [8, 9] shows that the
patterns of the current distribution in the current carrying
conductor with and without failures and magnetic field
distribution over it are different.
The mathematical analysis is based on a number of
theories including Bio-Savart Law [9], graphs and matrices
analysis.
The distribution of the magnetic field value captured over
the horizontal element can be described thanks to BiotSavart law [9]. In accordance to this law the magnitude
of the magnetic field is proportional to the current in the
conductor and varies as the inverse square of the distance
from the source.
dH =

I sin
dx,
4r 2

(1)

where: I - current that flows through the element; dx =


|dp| - length element; r - distance from the element dx
to P; - angle between the element dx and r.
After geometrical conversion and integration of
expression (1) with the assumption that the current
I in each element decreases uniformly because of leakage
currents into the soil

x
I = I0 1
l

(2)

one can have



x
I0 1
l
I0 (l x)
l

H=
=
(3)
4
a a2 + l2
4 a a2 + l2
The final expression can be written in relative values
a
x
I
where: a = , x = , I0 =
l
l
l
I0 l2 (1 x)
I0 l(l x l)

=
2
2
2
4 a a l + l
4 a l2 a 2 +12
I0 (1 x)

=
4 a a 2 +1
(4)
When the horizontal element is physically integrated, one
can expect a gradual decrease of the current and magnetic
field values along the element from their maximum to a
minimum range.
In reality, the values of the current and magnetic field
subside down not to absolute zero. It happens because
there are several other horizontal elements in parallel
with their own currents and magnetic fields which create
additional feeding to the element under consideration.
During the network mathematical quasi static analysis,
utilizing graph theory and matrices analysis [9, 10] the
current and potential distribution in the grounding grids
with and without damaged elements were obtained.
Furthermore, for the purpose of more advanced analysis
of the processes, a computer modelling is used. In order
to obtain more specific characteristics of the current and
potential distribution the grounding circuit is narrowed
down to 2 meshes (section A) as shown in Figure 1. It
is possible to do like this since the process of current
dissipation is similar in all meshes: current flows from the
source through the elements into ground.
A modified scheme for the computer modelling is shown
in Figure 2(a) and Figure 2(b). The horizontal element
between meshes I and II is chosen as a damaged one. To
observe a current distribution in the element, ammeters
and oscilloscopes are installed in the circuit.
The
resistance of the middle element is recalculated taking
into account possible failures resistance (which was
evaluated experimentally).
The values of the elements Rme.i and Rleak.i which are
distributed self-resistances and resistances to the leakage
currents of the horizontal conductors Rhor are presented
in [9].
Figure 3 represents the regime when the horizontal
element in the middle of the mesh is damaged. The
resistance of the gap can be varied in a wide range
depending on the soil resistivity.
As it can be seen from Figure 2 and Figure 3, the
character of the current distribution along the conductor
H=

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Figure 1.

Four Meshes Section for Analysis.

from the computer modelling has the same pattern as


from the mathematical analysis in [9](see Figure 3(a) and
Figure 3(b)). If the element is physically integrated,
a current curve is almost uniform without steep drops.
However, if the element is damaged and has a breakage,
there is a substantial drop in the point of the failure due to
high resistance of soil. Moreover, once the failure crops
up (which is shown as 1.5 resistance), the directions
of the currents before and after the point of failure are
different.
In order to verify and justify the results of the mathematics
and computer modelling described in the previous work [5],
the experimental work on the grounding has been done as
well. The grounding grid consists of two meshes of steel
horizontal elements bonded to each other by means of
bolt connection as shown in Figure 4(a). The horizontal
elements (E2) integrity and failure are imitated by the
switch position (S) located in the middle of the element.
Open position of the switch S means damaged element
condition. Closed position of the switch means that the
element is integrated. All elements of the experimental
grounding grid are buried into soil at a depth of 30-40 cm.
The soil structure has sandy loam top stratum (15 cm)
and clay as the bottom one. The diameter of round cross
section conductors is 10 mm. The grounding grid area is
approximately 16 sq. m. During the experiments, an AC
source was connected in different ways to create a number
of circuits for different analysis [10, 11].
After the injection of the test current into the grid, signals
captured on the surface of the earth above the grid can be
processed and the damaged horizontal element and the
location of its failure can be pinpointed.
The experimental studies showed and proved the validity
of provisions obtained from the mathematical and

computer modelling [11].


As one can see from Figure 4(b), if the horizontal element
in the grounding grid does not have any failures, the
distribution of the potential and current along the grid and
electromagnetic field over the grid will have even character
without steep drops. On the contrary, if the element is
damaged, there is a drop at the point of failure since the
resistance of earth in the gap between two parts of the
damaged element is much bigger than the resistance of
the element itself.
Moreover, as it can be seen from Figure 4(b) and
Figure 4(c) when the element is damaged, the currents
before and after the point of failure have opposite
direction. It is also shown when the element is physically
integrated; the directions of currents are the same.
These features of the current and potential distribution
in the damaged and physically integrated elements can
be used for establishment of a new technique for the
horizontal elements monitoring.
During the process of the horizontal elements failures
detection, it is necessary that the effect of electromagnetic
fields generated by the equipment of the power plant
(noise) and currents flowing through its grounding grid
were kept at a minimum value. This requirement can be
satisfied if the level of a measured signal is much higher
than the magnitude of the noise. There are two options
to satisfy this condition. One option is to use heavy
duty source of signals. The other option is to use signal
with frequency different from the fundamental one (50 or
60 Hz).
It is preferably to use the second option because a
captured signal on the surface of the earth can be
processed and thus, the point of failure can be detected
without tripping the electric power plant.
During the grounding grids monitoring, the most suitable
waveform of the test current is a square (rectangular)
waveform. This is because the signal has steep fronts
that can be easily detected by means of electromagnetic
sensors on the surface.
In order to eliminate noises influence for the investigated
grounding grids, it is better to use the test signal of even
harmonics that is far from the fundamental one. One of
the best options is to choose 400 Hz control frequency
signal. It is 8th harmonic which is pretty far from the
fundamental one but it does not substantially change the
elements impedances.

3.

Development of a new technique

In order not to create forced outages to the power supply


of the load, the main requirements for the proposed
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(a)

(b)

Figure 2.

Simulation with Damaged Horizontal Element (a) R = 0 and (b) R = 1.5 .

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(a)

(a)

(b)
(b)

Figure 3.

(a) Current Distribution along Conductor without


Damages, (b) Current Distribution along Damaged
Conductor.

(b)

technique used for the grounding investigation are as


follows:
1. The technique must be an universal tool for the
grounding grids of the whole variety of power
plants;
2. The power plant must be at a normal operation
regime (common mode);
3. The "noise" of the power plant created due to
appearance of the current of normal operation and
faults must be cancelled (eliminated) and must not
have any influence on the test current injected into
the grounding grid;
4. The proposed technique must be able to monitor all
the horizontal elements of the grid;
5. A new device for the monitoring of grounding grids
must be portable and easy to use.
The monitoring technique comprises two main parts.
During the first step of investigation, an impulse signal
generator is connected with its both ends to the most
remote points (enclosures pigtails) at the territory of

Figure 4.

(a) Grounding Device under Test, (b) Current Distribution


with Damaged Horizontal Element, (c) Equivalent Circuit
of Distribution.

electric power plant. By means of such a connection, this


scheme provides current flow through all elements of the
grounding grid as shown in Figure 5(a). The current value
is adjusted to be high enough for the detection on the
surface of the earth.
While moving above the grounding grid, an operator is
able to see the maximum readings of the device above the
horizontal elements. Thus, the operator determines the
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(a)

At this stage, the operator moves along the "suspicious"


horizontal elements detected at the previous step of the
grounding investigation procedure. The device shows the
location of failure when the operator is moving over it by
means of sound or light signal. In general, regardless of
the grounding grid type, the algorithm of the described
technique is presented in the flowchart as shown in
Figure 6.

4. Device for
Investigation
(b)

Figure 5.

Grounding Device Investigation (a) Step 1, (b) Step 2.

trace (location) of the grounding elements. It is important


since within years the real position of the elements may
change due to variations in the grounding scheme which
is not always noted in the documentation.
At the same time while moving along the horizontal
elements, the operator notices areas and elements with
a substantial drop of the captured signal potential values.
At this point, this sign may indicate a fact of the damaged
horizontal element location. The horizontal elements
without failures will not have such a noticeable potential
drop.
The second step implies another circuit when one terminal
of the generator is connected to any enclosures pigtail
and the other one to the remote probe (vertical electrode).
In this case, the scheme provides current from the
horizontal elements of the grounding grid into the soil
structure and then to the probe as shown in Figure 5(b).

the

Grounding

The proposed technical device consists of two main parts:


an impulse square wave form generator which is connected
to the grounding and a processing unit carried by the
operator.
A circuit of the impulse generator is presented in Figure 7.
The generator in Figure 7 consists of a tiny square wave
form impulse multivibrator made on elements DD1.1 DD1.6 and two bipolar transistors to form the output
current signal [12]. The scheme has a resistor R3 to
vary impulses frequency. As an example, the CD4049
microchip was used for the initial pulses generation.
Sensors that are used consist of ferromagnetic cores of
approximately 8 mm in diameter and windings made of
0.2 mm radius copper wire. To ease the investigation of
the grounding grids condition, the sensors are located
on an auxiliary measuring rod made of insulated material
(wood and plastic) as shown in Figure 8.
In line with all the above requirements the functional
diagram of the processing unit can be presented as shown
in Figure 9.
In order to obtain a magnitude of the captured sensors
signals enough to process; the future device should have
not only the logical part but also a part to amplify
the captured signals. As a base of such amplification,
operational amplifiers (OpAmps) can be used [13].
As one can see from the scheme (see Figure 9) the
captured signals from each sensor above the horizontal
element arrive to the input of the amplifier units (A1 and
A2 ). The main goal of the amplifier units is to increase a
peak to peak value of the captured signals for the further
processing. After that, the amplified signals of required
frequency are peaking out by means of filters (F1 and F2 ).
The rest of the sensors signals are noises which do not
proceed beyond filters and thus, they are not processed.
Further, the amplified and filtered signals are applied
to inputs of a logical part of the device, so called
phase comparison and indication unit (PCIU). This part
provides a logical processing of the captured signals.
It compares phases of the captured signals above the

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Figure 6.

Algorithm of Grounding Investigation.

Figure 7.

Circuit of Impulse Generator.

horizontal element and sends a signal to trigger the


signal indicator (SI) if a damaged horizontal element of
grounding is detected. The module also indicates a level
of the captured signal above the horizontal element in
order to find where it is located.

The signal indicator has two parts: (i) yellow LEDs to


visualize the current direction in the horizontal elements
and level of the captured signal above the element; (ii) a
red LED plus a speaker as the failure detector in order to
locate the point where the horizontal element is damaged.

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Figure 10.
Figure 8.

Amplification Units of Device.

View of Sensors and Measuring Rod.

operational amplifiers. Despite theoretically operational


amplifiers have a huge gain, in practice it is useful to
have two chains of amplifiers. It will ease the process of
amplification and reduce the signal distortions.
As one can see from Figure 10, there are 3 resistors
connected to the input of the first amplifier in each chain.
They provide a step change of the gain value depending
on the soil resistivity thereby providing sensitivity of the
device.
Units F1 and F2 shown in Figure 9 contain the active filter
as a base for getting the peak out of the control signal.
One of the possible circuits for the band-pass filters of
certain frequency is shown in Figure 11 [14].

Figure 9.

Functional diagram of device.

During the investigation of the grounding by observing the


changes of the current directions and hearing the sound
of the speaker (or by observing the active red LED), one
can detect the damaged element and to locate the point
of failure.
Figure 10 represents an internal structure of the A1 and
A2 units. Each part of the unit consists of a chain with two

The main logical part of device is PCIU (see Figure 12).


This unit provides logical processing of the captured
signals. The PCIU compares phases of the signals and
gives a digital output to trigger the signal indicator if the
horizontal element of grounding is damaged. The unit
also shows the directions of the current in the horizontal
element and the level of the captured signal.
The Indication Module (IM) of the scheme is needed in
order to evaluate the level of the detected signal above
the horizontal elements. This unit has a band of LEDs
made as display to visualize signals level.
The "failure" LED flashing happens only if signals from
both sensors are not overlapped. In turn, signals do not
overlap if they have different directions. Otherwise, if
there is no failure and the current direction in the element
is the same there will be no indication since a logical
element "&" does not have activated inputs.

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Figure 11.

5.

Filters Unit of Device.

Conclusion

The paper presented a new concept for the grounding


devices investigation.
The principles and features
explained in the paper have never been described
anywhere else in the scientific world.
During the mathematical analysis and computer modelling
several new features were revealed and used for a new
technique creation. The technique includes a sequence
of steps for the grounding examination as described.
A possible structure of the device to provide such an
investigation is presented and described. The base of the
device may be not only microchips as explained but also
modern programmable logical controllers.
Considerable benefits of this new technique compared to
the other existing methods are time and labour reduction
for the grounding grids investigation and increase of
accuracy of failures location. The existing techniques and
devices are able to identify only an approximate area of
where the damaged conductor might be. They are not able
to pinpoint the exact location point of the failure itself.
The introduced technique and device can detect not only
the damaged element without any digging but also show

Figure 12.

Logical Part of Device.

the point of the failure which is even more important with


increase of the grounding elements length.

References
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Substation Grounding, The Institute of Electrical and
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Potentials of a Ground System, IEEE Press, New
York, 1984
[3] IEEE Std. 142-1991, IEEE recommended practice
for grounding of industrial and commercial power
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BOOK, 2007
[4] Ma Y. , Karady G. G., Investigating grounding grid
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[5] Zhang B., Zhao Z., Xiang C., Lin L., Diagnosis
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A New Monitoring Technique for the Grounding Grids

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the electromagnetic method, IEEE Transactions on


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[10] Chikarov Y., Lie T. T., & Nair N., Safety parameters
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