Gears
Contents
SPUR GEAR, GEAR RACK 
2 
GROUNDWORK CALCULATIONS 
2 
SCOPE OF THE PROGRAM 
4 
GEOMETRY OF SPUR GEARS 
5 
GROUNDWORK CALCULATIONS AND SCOPE 
15 
SPUR GEARS CALCULATION  STRENGTH  DETERMINATION OF RESULTS 
16 
CALCULATION OF LOADS 
22 
SPUR GEARS CALCULATION  STRENGTH  PITTING MAXIMUM LOADING 
23 
LOAD DUTY CYCLE 
27 
ROOT BEARING CAPACITY 
29 
LOAD DUTY CYCLE 
32 
SCUFFING LOAD CAPACITY 
34 
STANDARD GAUGE SPUR GEARS 
40 
CALCULATING GROUNDWORK 
40 
STANDARD GAUGE SPUR GEARS  DETERMINATION OF RESULTS 
40 
BEVEL, HYPOID GEAR 
45 
GROUNDWORK CALCULATIONS 
45 
CALCULATION GEOMETRY 
46 
CALCULATION OF GEOMETRY 
47 
CYLINDRICAL WORM GEAR 
72 
CALCULATION BASE 
72 
RANGE OF APPLICATION 
72 
CYLINDRICAL WORM GEAR DETERMINATION OF RESULTS 
73 
STRENGTH PROOF 
75 
MDESIGN
Gears
Spur Gear, Gear Rack
With the following program based on the groundwork calculations DIN 3960, the geometry of spur gears can be calculated.
This module has different operations and possibilities for calculation profile shift.
These possibilities are the following:
 Automatic calculation and distribution of the total profile shift coefficient according to DIN 3992 (DIN 3993)
 Input of centre distance
 Input of total profile shift
 Input of profile shift
With the following program the strength examination (pitting bearing capacity, root bearing capacity, scuffing load capacity) of spur gears will be calculated. Therefore the calculation base DIN 3990 and also the international ISO 6336 can chose by the user.
With this program standard gauges for spur gears will be calculated.
The application of the Number of Teeth Thickness, Spherical Dim.Roll Diameter DM, Deviations of Center Distance and Deviations of Teeth Thickness are optional.
Groundwork Calculations
Geometry of the Spur Gear Pair and the Gear
The groundwork calculations for this module are described by DIN 3960, edition March 1987.
The following DIN specifications will also be utilized:
 DIN 780 Module sequence for spur gears
 DIN 867 edition February 1986 (basic profile)
 DIN 3960 edition March 1987 (concept and dimension determination for spur gear pairs with involute gearing)
 DIN 3960 supplement 1, edition July 1980
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 DIN 3992 edition March 1964 (profile displacement for spur gears with outer gearing)
 DIN 3993 edition August 1981, part 1  4 (geometric design of cylindrical inner gear pairs).
Strength Examination of Spur Gears
The groundwork calculations for the module Strength Examination of Spur Gears is described by the
following DIN specifications:
 DIN 3990 
Part 1 
edition December 1987 
(general influence factors) 
 DIN 3990 
Part 2 
edition December 1987 
(calculation of the pitting bearing capacity) 
 DIN 3990 
Part 3 
edition December 1987 
(calculation of the root bearing capacity) 
 DIN 3990 
Part 4 
edition December 1987 
(calculation of the corrosion bearing capacity) 
 DIN 3990 
Part 5 
edition December 1987 
(fatigue stress values and material qualities) 
 DIN 3990 
Part 6 
edition December 1994 
(operational stability) 
 DIN 3990 
Part 
edition February 1989 
(application standards for industrial gears) 
11 

 DIN 3961 
edition August 1961 
(ground tolerances) 

 DIN 3962 
Part 1 
edition August 1978 
(tolerances for deviation of individual determined dimensions) 
 DIN 3962 
Part 2 
edition August 1978 
(tolerances for flank line deviations) 
 DIN 50 150, 
edition December 1976 
(conversion table for Vickers  Rockwell Brinell hardness and ultimate strength) 

 ISO 6336 
Part 1 
edition September 
(Basic principles, influence factors) 
2006 

 ISO 6336 
Part 2 
edition September 
(Calculation of surface durability (pitting)) 
2006 

 ISO 6336 
Part 3 
edition September 
(Calculation of tooth bending strength) 
2006 

 ISO 6336 
Part 6 
edition September 
(Calculation of service life under variable 
2006 
load) 

 ISO 1328 
Part 1 
edition August 2005 
(Definitions and allowable values of deviations) 
Gauge Design for Spur Gears
The groundwork calculations for this program are described by DIN 3960, edition March 1987.
The following DIN specifications will also be utilized:
 DIN 3961
DIN 3962
 Part 1
 DIN 3964
 DIN 3967
 DIN 3977
edition August 1978
edition August 1978
edition November
1980
edition August 1978
edition February 1981
(tolerances for spur gearing) (tolerances for deviation of individual determined dimensions) (axis position and Axis position tolerances of housing for spur gears) (flank play, tooth thickness dimension, tooth thickness tolerances) (dimension diameter for the radial or diametric standard gauge of the tooth thickness of spur gears (cylinder gears))
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Gears
Scope of the Program
Geometry of the Spur Gear Pair and the Gear
With the following module Spur Gear Geometry deviation profiles also from the basic profile DIN867 and ISO 53  1974 can be calculated (profile angle, _{P} , topland thickness factor, s _{a}_{n}_{*} , topland height factor, h _{a}_{P}_{*} , prominence profile).
The validity will be bounded by the following dimensions:
 inner gearing, outer gearing
 profile angle: 15° _{P} 30°
 topland height factor: 0.7. h _{a}_{P}_{1}_{*} 1.5
 topland height factor: 0.7 h _{a}_{P}_{2}_{*} 1.5
 topland play factor: 0.1 c _{P}_{*} 0.4
 standard module: 0.01mm m _{n} 70mm
 even, helical and double helical gearing
 lead: 0° 45°
 profile overlapping: _{} 0.1
 topland thickness fact: 0.1 s _{a}_{n}_{*} 0.4
 optional allowance of the topland shortening for gears and pinions.
Cases of a specified minimum topland thickness, s _{a} , cannot be observed, the program automatically calculates the necessary topland shortening.
Strength Examination of Spur Gears
With the following module, Strength Examination of Spur Gears the pitting bearing capacity, root bearing capacity and corrosion bearing capacity of involute spur gears of outer and inner gearing can be calculated.
For the calculation of simple and double helical gearing the lead must lie within 0 45 .
The calculable velocity ranges are
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Gears
 Lower critical range
(basic speed N 0.85)
 chief resonance 
(0.85 < N < 1.15) 
 Intermediate range 
(1.15 < N < 1.5) 
 Upper critical range 
(N 1.5) 
Qualities are considered by this program from 1 (finest class) up to 12 (roughest class).
The consideration of the profile correction as spherical broadening, base relief profile ease off and
topland relief profile ease off are possible.
The broadening factors for root, flank, and seizing can be optionally specified.
Gauge Design for Spur Gears
The scope of the program for the calculation module is determined as follows:
 Gearing quality 
: 
1  12 
 Tolerance rows 
: 
a  h 
 Dimension rows 
: 
21  30 
 Axis pos. tolerance 
; 
js5  js11 
The following standard gauge will be calculated:
 Housed Axis Position, a
 Backlash theoretical, j _{t}
 Standard Tooth Thickness, sn
 Tooth Width, W _{k}
 Number of Teeth Dimension, k (optional)
 Spherical Dim.Roll Diameter, DM (optional)
 Radial Gauge Roll/Spherical, M _{r}_{K} and M _{r}_{R} (M _{r} )
 Diametral Gauge Roll/Spherical, M _{d}_{K} und M _{d}_{R}
 Tolerance Factor, A _{W}_{*} , A _{M}_{r}_{*} , A _{M}_{d}_{*}
Geometry of spur gears
Clearance for expansion at initial profile, c [mm]
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Gears
c h hw cp mn
Notice:
If the present clearance for expansion c deviates off the initial profile of the respective clearance for expansion c _{P} , you must make changes of head height (shorten heads) to retain clearance for expansion (DIN 3960, equation 4.3.07).
Effective
teeth number ratio, u []
Effective gear ratio, i _{e}_{f}_{f} []
u zz12
Pinion is driven 
Wheel is driven 

ieff _{z}_{z} 
12 
i 
eff z12 z 
Zero centre distance, a _{d} [mm]
ad mn2 cos z1 z _{} _{2} _{}
Sum
of profile coefficients, x _{g} [] xg x1 x 2 inv2 tan
_{w}
t
awt b z z at a sin a tan sin tancos cos _{}_{}_{} p inv p t
2
a cos aad cos _{}_{} t _{}_{}_{}_{}
d
2
Na 2
d
22
b
d
b 2
tan
wt
Transverse pressure angle, a _{t} [°]
Pressure angle at pitch cylinder, a _{w}_{t} [°]
Base helix angle, _{b} [°]
Length of path of contactengagement, g _{f} [mm]
g
f
0,5
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Gears
Notice:
The calculation of g _{f} is only valid, if the pinion is the driving part. If the spur gear is the driving part, the calculation for g _{f} meets length of distance of action from gearing to disengagement g _{a} .
Length of path of contactdisengagement, g _{a} [mm]
ga 0,5 dNa2 _{1} db21 db1 tan _{}_{} _{w}_{t} _{}_{}_{}_{}
Notice:
The calculation of g _{f} is only valid, if the pinion is the driving part. If the spur gear is the driving part, the calculation for g _{f} meets length of distance of action from gearing to disengagement g _{a} .
Length of path of contact, g _{a} [mm]
With rack:
g g _{}_{}
Transverse contact ratio, _{a} []
Overlap ratio, []
Total contact ratio,
[]
0 5
0,5
a
sin
wt
,
Tooth thickness on tip diameter, s _{a}_{n} [mm]
For the calculation of the teeth thickness s _{a} on the tip diameter for pinion and gear the equation 3.5.25 from the DIN 3960 is used,
Note:
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Gears
The minimum teeth thickness on the tip s _{a}_{m}_{i}_{n} is determined through the input of the toothtip thickness factor s _{a}_{n}_{*} . This also leads to the upper threshold of the profile shift. (see DIN 3960, Picture 12).
Tooth depth, h [mm]
hf da 2 
df 

Addendum, 
h _{a} [mm] 

ha da 2 d 
Dedendum, h _{f} [mm]
Reference diameter, d [mm]
Base diameter, d _{b} [mm]
V circle diameter,
d _{v} [mm]
Pitch diameter, d _{w} [mm]
hf da
2
df
dv db d d d cosmn cos 2 mn z t x
Pinion 
Wheel 
dw1 z12 zz12 
_{d}_{w} _{2} _{} _{z}_{2}_{1} zz22 
With rack:
Pinion 
Wheel 
dw1 d1 
dw _{2} d2 x1 mn 
Root diameter, d _{f} [mm]
Pinion 
Wheel 

df df 
_{1} _{1} d1 d1 2 2 mn x1 _{} mn haP _{2}_{*} 2 hfP cP1* x1 _{} 
df df 
_{2} _{2} d2 d2 2 2 mn x _{2} _{} mn haP1* 2 hfP cP _{2}_{*} x _{2} _{} 
Tip diameter, d _{a} [mm]
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Gears
Pinion 
Wheel 
da1 d1 2 mn _{} haP1* x1 k1 _{} 
da _{2} d2 2 mn _{} haP _{2}_{*} x _{2} k2 _{} 
Theoretical tip diameter, d _{a}_{_}_{t}_{h} [mm]
Pinion 
Wheel 

da1th d1 2 mn _{} haP1* x1 _{} 
da _{2}_{t}_{h} 
d2 2 mn _{} haP _{2}_{*} x _{2} _{} 
Tip shortening, k [mm]
Tip clearance, c [mm]
k a ad mn x1 x 2
k k1 k2
Pinion 
Wheel 

c1tat a da1 _{2}_{d}_{f}_{E} 2 
c 2tat 
a da 2 2dfE 1 
Root Form Circle Diameter ,d _{F}_{f} [mm]
The calculation of the root form circle diameter d _{F}_{f} is calculated depending on the finishmachining (Gear rack, cutting wheel) according to DIN 3960, chapter 3.6.7.
Root Form Diameter d _{N}_{f} [mm]
Notice:
For internal toothing look into DIN 3993 part 1  4.
Spare teeth number z _{n} []
Pinion 
Wheel 

zn1 cos _{}_{} _{b} _{} z21 cos _{}_{}_{} 
zn 2 cos _{}_{} _{b} _{} z22 cos _{}_{}_{} 

Maximum specific sliding at point A of a pinion []
u
A
1
A 2A1
Maximum specific sliding at point A of the wheel []
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Gears
u
A
1
A1A2
Maximum specific sliding at point E of a pinion []
pbn _{E} _{E} pet 1 1 u u cos _{}_{} _{}_{}_{} _{E} _{E} _{1}_{E} _{2}_{E} _{}_{} 1 2 _{b} _{} pet pbt pen cosmn _{c}_{o}_{s}_{m}_{n} pet _{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{} cos cos cos b _{}_{} t _{t} _{}
Maximum specific sliding at point E of the wheel[]
Base cylinder normal base pitch, p _{b}_{n} [mm]
Base cylinder transverse base pitch, p _{b}_{t} [mm]
normal base pitch, p _{e}_{n} [mm]
transverse base pitch,
p _{e}_{t} [mm]
Rack tool values to produce a pinion:
Addendum of basic rack haP _{0}_{.}_{1}_{*} []
Dedendum of basic rack h _{f}_{P}_{0}_{.}_{1}_{*} []
haP *01 haP hmfPn1 *01 haP haP *2 *1 cP *2
Dedendum circle diameter of a pinion, (manufacturing) d _{f}_{E}_{1} [mm]
The calculation of dedendum circle diameter d _{f}_{E}_{1} is realised dependent on final treatment (rack, gear cutter) according to DIN 3960, section 3.6.4.
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MDESIGN
Gears
Rack 
Gear cutter 
dfE _{1} d1 2 xE _{1} mn 2 haP _{0}_{1} 
dfE _{1} 2 a01 da01 
Rack tool values to produce a pinion:
Addendum of basic rack, h _{a}_{P}_{0}_{.}_{2}_{*} []
Dedendum of basic rack, h _{f}_{P}_{0}_{.}_{2}_{*} []
hfP *02 hfP hmfPn2 *02 haP haP *2 *1 cP *1
Dedendum circle diameter of a wheel, (manufacturing) d _{f}_{E}_{2} [mm]
The calculation of dedendum circle diameter d _{f}_{E}_{2} is realised dependent on final treatment (rack, gear cutter) according to DIN 3960, section 3.6.4.
Rack 
Gear cutter 
dfE _{1} d2 2 xE _{2} mn 2 haP _{0}_{2} 
dfE _{2} 2 a02 da02 
Graphical Evaluation of Results:
Real part geometry
In the module "Geometry Spur Gears" are following result graphs at your disposal:
Tooth form (evolvent) of a pinion/gear
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Gears
Tooth space (envelope and evolvent) of a pinion/gear
Side view of a pinion/gear
Front view of a pinion/gear
Gear ring (evolvent) of a pinion/gear
Every result graph can be stored in DXF format on a hard disk or implemented in CAD systems!
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Gears
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Gears
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Gears
Spur Gears Calculation  Strength
With the following program the strength examination (pitting bearing capacity, root bearing capacity,
corrosion bearing capacity) of spur gears will be calculated. Therefore the calculation base DIN 3990 and
also the international ISO 6336 can chose by the user.
Groundwork Calculations and scope
Groundwork
The groundwork calculations for the module Strength Examination of Spur Gears is described by the
following DIN specifications:
DIN 3990 
Part 1, 
edition December 1987 (general influence factors) 
DIN 3990 
Part 2, 
edition December 1987 (calculation of the pitting bearing capacity) 
DIN 3990 
Part 3, 
edition December 1987 (calculation of the root bearing capacity) 
DIN 3990 
Part 4, 
edition December 1987 (calculation of the corrosion bearing capacity) 
DIN 3990 
Part 5, 
edition December 1987 (fatigue stress values and material qualities) 
DIN 3990 
Part 6, 
edition December 1994 (operational stability) 
DIN 3990 
Part 11, 
edition February 1989 (application standards for industrial gears) 
DIN 3961 
edition August 1961 (ground tolerances) 

DIN 3962 
Part 1, 
edition August 1978 (tolerances for deviation of individual determined dimensions) 
DIN 3962 
Part 2, 
edition August 1978 (tolerances for flank line deviations) 
DIN 50150 
edition December 1976 1976 (conversion table for Vickers  Rockwell Brinell hardness and ultimate strength) 

 ISO 6336 
Part 1 
edition September 2006 (Basic principles, influence factors) 
15
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Gears
 ISO 6336 
Part 2 
edition September 2006 (Calculation of surface durability (pitting)) 
 ISO 6336 
Part 3 
edition September 2006 (Calculation of tooth bending strength) 
 ISO 6336 
Part 6 
edition September 2006 (Calculation of service life under variable load) 
 ISO 1328 
Part 1 
edition August 2005 (Definitions and allowable values of deviations) 
Scope
With the following module, Strength Examination of Spur Gears the pitting bearing capacity, root
bearing capacity and corrosion bearing capacity of involute spur gears of outer and inner gearing can be
calculated.
For the calculation of simple and double helical gearing the lead must lie within 0 45 .
The calculable velocity ranges are
 Lower critical range
(basic speed N 0.85)
 chief resonance 
(0.85 < N < 1.15) 
 Intermediate range 
(1.15 < N < 1.5) 
 Upper critical range 
(N 1.5) 
Qualities are considered by this program from 1 (finest class) up to 12 (roughest class).
The consideration of the profile correction as spherical broadening, base relief profile ease off and
topland relief profile ease off are possible.
The broadening factors for root, flank, and seizing can be optionally specified.
Spur Gears Calculation  Strength  Determination of Results
Spur Gears Calculation  Strength Common Factors
Primary effective flank line deflection, F _{} _{x} [µm]
The primary effective flank line deflection F _{} _{x} , presenting the absolute value of amount of manufactured
deflection and deformation of pinion and pinion shaft (measured in the locking level), is to be calculated
according to DIN 3990, part 1 as follows,
Without modification of flank
F x 1.33 fma
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Gears
With crowning, Base Relief:
1.33
f
F
fma 1.0 0.7 0.5 fH fH fH _{} _{} _{} fsh Fbm Fbm Fbm 0.016 0.012 0.023
x
fma fma
sh
H
5
f
Helix Slope Deviation, f _{H} _{} [µm]
The Helix Slope Deviation f _{H} _{} is defined dependent on tooth width and gear ring quality according to DIN 3962, part 2.
Manufacturer s flank line deflection f _{m}_{a} [µm]
Flank line angle deflection f _{m}_{a} is defined dependent on tooth width and gear ring quality according to DIN 3962, part 2.
Without
modification and presetting:
For gear pairs with rationally chosen crowning:
For gear pairs with rationally chosen base relief:
Component of equivalent misalignment due to shaft and pinion deformation [µm]
This value will be calculated from deformation of shaft and pinion for the following cases:
Without crowning and base
relief:
For spur gears with crowning:
fsh fsh
For spur gears with base relief:
Profile form deflection f _{f}_{1} [µm] for pinion or f _{f}_{2} [µm] for gear
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Gears
Profile form deflection f _{f} for a pinion and a gear is defined dependent on normal modulus m _{n} and gear ring quality according to DIN 3962, part 1.
Transverse Pitch deviation f _{p}_{e}_{1} [µm] pinion and f _{p}_{e}_{2} [µm] wheel
The Transverse Pitch Deviation f _{p}_{e} for a pinion and a gear is defined dependent on normal modulus m _{n} , pitch diameter d and gear ring quality according to DIN 3962, part 1.
Effective profile form deviation, f _{f}_{e}_{f}_{f} [µm]
Effective profile form deviation f _{f}_{e}_{f}_{f} , used to define the dynamic factor K _{V} , is to be calculated as follows:
ffeff ff _{}_{} y1
Notice:
For f _{f} _{} the higher value of f _{f} _{} _{1} and f _{f} _{}_{} is used.
Effective transverse Pitch deviation f _{p}_{e}_{e}_{f}_{f} [µm]
Effective transverse Pitch deviation f _{p}_{e}_{e}_{f}_{f} , used to define the dynamic factor K _{V} , is to be calculated as follows:
fpeeff fpe yp
Notice:
Look DIN 3990, part 1, section 5.3.3 for detailed information.
Rotation speed of wheel, n _{2} [1/min]
NL2 NL1 n 2 Lh Lh nu1 n1 nu1
Number of loading cycles N _{L}_{1} [] of pinion and N _{L}_{2} [] of wheel
The Numbers of loading cycles is to be calculated as follows:
With rack:
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Gears
Resonance speed, n _{E}_{1} [1/min]
NL2 NLzL1 d1
To define the relative number of revolutions N per minute you have to calculate the resonant revolutions per minute n e1 :
nE 1 2 NR 1 z1 nnE11 mcred
Relative number of revolutions, N _{R} []
To differ the ranges of revolution numbers, necessary to define the dynamic factor K _{V} , you have to calculate the relative number of revolutions per minute N:
Reduced mass, m _{r}_{e}_{d} [kg/mm]
The reduced mass per mm tooth width m _{r}_{e}_{d} is to be calculated as follows:
with:
mred ddmb11 2 1 q141 _{M}_{1} dm211 q24 1 _{M} _{2} u 2
8
dm1 dm2 da1 da 2 2 2
df df 1 2
2 ddmi11 ddmi 22
q q 1
Peripheral velocity at reference diameter, v [m/s]
The Peripheral velocity at reference diameter is to be calculated as follows:
v
dw d1 _{1} n n _{1} _{1}
Peripheral velocity at pitch diameter, v _{w} [m/s]
The Peripheral velocity at pitch diameter is to be calculated as follows:
v
Single tooth stiffness, c' [N/mmµm]
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The single tooth stiffness c', necessary to define the dynamic factor K _{V} , is to be calculated as follows:
c cth CM CR CBS cos _{}_{}_{}_{}_{}
Notice:
About defining the theoretical single tooth stiffness c look DIN 3990, part 1, section 9.3.1.
Single tooth stiffness ,c _{} [N/mmµm]
The single tooth stiffness c _{} is to be calculated as follows:
Kv Kv _{K}_{v} Kv Cv _{} NR _{K}_{v}_{1}_{.}_{5} _{1} Cv BP c _{}_{} Cv _{5} _{}_{} BP Cv c _{1} Kv1.150.35 BP _{2} Cv 0.75 Bf Cv _{6} Bf _{2} Cv Kv1.5 Bf _{4} Cv 0.25 Bk Cv _{7} 1.5 _{} _{3} 1 Kv Bk _{1}_{.}_{5} NR _{}_{} _{} 1
Kv _{1}_{.}_{1}_{5}
Dynamic factor, K _{v} []
The dynamic factor K _{V} considers the effect of internal dynamic forces, caused by oscillations of pinion and gear against one another, on the flank pressure and the dedendum loading.
It is calculated according to DIN 3990, part 1, method B as follows:
Dynamic factor K _{V} [] under the critical range (N 0.85):
Dynamic factor K _{V} [] in the main resonance range (0.85 < N 1.15):
Dynamic factor K _{V} [] over the critical range (N 1.5):
Dynamic factor K _{V} [] in the intermediate range (1.15 < N < 1.5):
Face load factor K _{F} _{} [] (root stress)
The face load factor K _{F} _{} , considering the influence of the force distribution over the tooth width on the stress at dedendum, is to be calculated as follows:
KF _{}_{} KH _{} NF
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Gears
2
NF 1 bh bh bh 2
Notice:
for h/b is required the smaller value of h _{1} /b _{1} and h _{2} /b _{2} , for b/h < 3 substitute b/h = 3.
Face load factor K _{H} _{} [] (contact stress)
The face load factor K _{H} _{} , considering the influence of the force distribution over the tooth width on the flank pressure, is calculated according to DIN 3990, part 1, method B as follows:
case 1:
2F 2F F F _{t}_{y} _{t}_{y} KcA KcA bKv bKv case 2: total contact ratio > 2 _{K}_{F} _{}_{} _{K}_{F} _{}_{} _{K}_{H} _{}_{} _{K}_{H} _{}_{}_{} _{0}_{.}_{9} _{} _{2} _{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{} _{0}_{.}_{4} _{0}_{.}_{9} _{} _{2} _{} _{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{} _{0}_{.}_{4} _{} _{c} _{1} _{}_{} _{}_{} _{F}_{f}_{t}_{H}_{b}_{p}_{e}_{e}_{f}_{f} _{c} _{}_{} _{F}_{f}_{t}_{H}_{b}_{p}_{e}_{e}_{f}_{f} _{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{} _{1} _{} _{1}
case 2:
1 1
Transverse load factor K _{F} _{} [] (root stress) and K _{H} _{} [] (contact stress)
The transverse load factor consider the effect of force, unevenly distributed on many tooth pairs engaged, on the flank pressure (K _{H} _{} ) and dedendum loading (K _{F} _{} ). It is calculated according to DIN 3990, part 1, method B as follows:
case 1: total contact ratio 2
Notice:
For limitations of K _{H} _{} and K _{F} _{} , look DIN 3990, part 1, section 7.3.3 or 7.3.4.
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Calculation of loads
Transverse tangential load F _{t} [N] at reference diameter
The transverse tangential load F _{t} at reference diameter is to be calculated as follows:
Ft d1 P n _{1}
Nominal torque T _{1} [Nm] pinion, and T _{2} [Nm] wheel
The Nominal torque for pinion and wheel is to be calculated as follows:
T1 Ft _{2} d1
T
2
Ft 2 d
Tangential load in pitch plane, F _{t}_{w} [N]
Tangential load in pitch plane F _{t}_{w} is to be calculated as follows:
P
Frw Faw Ftw Ftw Ftw dw1 tan tan _{}_{} n _{}_{}_{} _{w}_{t} _{1} _{}
Radial load in pitch plane, F _{r}_{w} [N]
The Radial load in pitch plane F _{r}_{w} is to be calculated as follows:
Axial load in pitch plane, F _{a}_{w} [N]
The Axial load in pitch plane is to be calculated as follows:
Tooth load in pitch plane, F _{w} [N]
The Tooth load in pitch plane F _{w} is to be calculated as follows:
Line load [N/mm]
Fw Frw2 Ftw2 Faw2
_{L}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{e}_{l}_{o}_{a}_{d} _{} _{F}_{t} _{} _{K}_{b}_{A}
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Spur Gears Calculation  Strength  Pitting Maximum Loading
Zone factor, Z _{H} []
The zone factor Z _{H} , considering the influence of the tooth flank bend at a pitch point on the flank pressure and recalculating the peripheral force at a spur section on the normal force at the pitch spur, is calculated as follows:
Elasticity
factor, Z _{E} [ N/mm ^{2} ]
ZH 2cos
Using the coefficient of elasticity Z _{E} you consider the influence of specific material values E (modulus of elasticity) and n (Poisson's ratio) on the flank pressure. It is to be calculated as follows:
ZE 1 _{E}_{1} 121 1 _{E} _{2} 22
Contact ratio factor (contact stress) Z _{} []
Contact ratio factor Z _{} , considering the influence of profile and jump overlapping on the pitting maximum loading, is calculated dependent on the gearing type as follows, straight gearing:
Helical toothing and < 1:
Helical toothing and 1:
Helix angle factor (contact stress) Z _{} []
The helix angle factor Z _{} considers the influence of tooth line inclinations on the pitting maximum loading and is to be calculated as follows:
DIN 3990 
ISO 6336 
Z _{}_{} cos _{}_{}_{} 
Z cos1 
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Gears
Work hardening factor Z _{W} []
The work hardening factor Z _{W} considers the increase of the pitting maximum loading of a steel spur gear owing to the combination with a hardened or a substantially harder pinion with smooth teeth flanks. It is defined by means of the method B as follows:
ZLd CZL ZLs ZW 4 _{}_{}_{}_{} _{1} _{.}_{1}_{2}_{.} 1 1 _{} 0 _{1}_{3}_{4} CZL
_{2}
40
Lubricant factor Z _{L}_{d} [] and. Z _{L}_{s} []
With the lubricant factor Z _{L}_{d} (= fatigue strength) or Z _{L}_{s} (= static strength) you consider the influence of the nominal viscosity on the effect of lubricant film and define it according to the method B as follows:
Notice:
To define C _{Z}_{L} look in DIN 3990, part 2 , section 9.2.1.1
Velocity factor Z _{V}_{d} [] and Z _{V}_{s} []
Dependent on the peripheral velocity and the fatigue strength value for flank pressure _{H}_{l}_{i}_{m} of a softer material, the velocity factor Z _{V}_{d} (= fatigue strength) or Z _{V}_{s} (= static strength) is defined using the method B as follows:
_{Z}_{V}_{d} _{} _{C}_{Z}_{v} _{} 2
ZZv ZVs CZL 1 0.02 08
10 C32vZv _{}
with
Notice:
To define C _{Z}_{L} look in DIN 3990, part 2 , section 9.2.1.1
Roughness factor Z _{R}_{d} [] and Z _{R}_{s} []
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MDESIGN
Gears
The roughness factor can be defined as follows dependent on the surface nature of teeth flanks, on the construction dimensions and on the fatigue strength value for flank pressure _{H}_{l}_{i}_{m} of a softer material of a gear pairs:
According to DIN 3990:
According to ISO 6336:
Z
Rd Rd
Z
ZRs ZRs _{R}_{z} _{R}_{z} 1 1
3100
310
CZR CZR
Notice:
To define C _{Z}_{R} look in DIN 3990, part 2 , section 9.2.1.3 and ISO 63362, 12.3.1.3.3
Life factor for contact stress Z _{N}_{T}_{d} [] and Z _{N}_{T}_{s} [] for pinion and wheel
The service life factor Z _{N}_{T}_{d} (= fatigue strength) or Z _{N}_{T}_{s} (= static strength) for a pinion and a gear is defined according to DIN 3990, part 2, method B, table 8.1.
 
or according to ISO 63362, 11.2 table 2 

Notice: 

The service life factor for root stress gets the value 1 while obtaining the fatigue limit. According to DIN 3990 the factor is also over the fatigue limit constant. In the ISO 6336 this factor will be reduced to 0.85 if 10 ^{1}^{0} load changes exceeded. 
Size factor (pitting) Z _{X}_{d} [] and. Z _{X}_{s} [] for pinion and wheel
 According to DIN 3990:
The size factor (flank) Z _{X}_{d} (= fatigue strength) or Z _{X}_{s} (= static strength) for a pinion and a gear is to be defined dependent on the material and on the normal modulus according to DIN 3990, part 2, method B, table 11.1.
 According to ISO 6336:
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MDESIGN
Gears
ZXd 1
ZXs 1
Single pair tooth factor Z _{B} [] (pinion) and Z _{D} [] (wheel)
The single gearing factors Z _{B} (pinion) or Z _{D} (gear) consider the influence of the tooth flank bend on the
flank pressure. They are defined as follows:
Spur gearing:
M _{1} 1 
M _{1} > 1 
Z _{B} =1 
Z _{B} = M _{1} 
M _{2} 1
M _{2} > 1
External
toothing
Z _{D} = M _{2}
Internal toothing
Z _{D} =1
Z _{D} =1
Helical gearing:
1 < 1 M _{1}  (M _{1}  1) < 1 M _{1}  (M _{1}  1) 1 Z _{D} =1 External toothing Z _{B} = 1 Z _{B} =M _{1} 
Internal 

toothing 

Z _{D} =1 
Permissible contact stress _{H}_{P} [N/mm²] for pinion and wheel
The permissible contact stress _{H}_{P} for pinion and wheel is to be calculated as follows:
HP HHGmin
Nominal contact stress _{H}_{0} [N/mm²]
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MDESIGN
Gears
The nominal contact stress _{H}_{0} is to be calculated as follows:
_{H} _{0} ZH ZE Z _{}_{} Z _{}_{} _{d}_{1}_{F}_{t} _{} _{b} _{} uu 1
Contact stress _{H} [N/mm²] for pinion und wheel
The contact stress _{H} for pinion and wheel is to be calculated as follows:
Pinion 
Wheel 


_{H} ZB _{H} _{0} KA KV KH _{}_{} KH _{} 

_{H} ZD _{H} _{0} KA KV KH _{}_{} KH _{} 
Safety factor for pitting S _{H} [] for pinion und wheel
SH HGH
Servicelife, L _{h} [h] for pinion und wheel
1
Lh exp ND _{H}_{G} _{d}_{a}_{u}_{e}_{H} _{r} exp n1 exp exp exp 0,7686 0,3705 0,2791 log log log HPHPsdauetatischr HPHPsdauetatischr HPHPsdauetatischr
0,3705 log HPHPsdauetatischr
for 10 ^{5} < N _{L} < 10 ^{7} for structural steel and chilled steel, perlite or bainite pig with spheroidal graphite, perlite malleable cast iron, cemented steel or casehardened steel, if some number of pits is allowable
10 ^{5} < N _{L} 10 ^{7}
10 ^{7} < N _{L} 10 ^{9}
_{} _{N}_{D} _{N}_{D} _{N}_{D} _{} _{} _{} _{1}_{0}_{9} _{5} _{2} _{} _{} _{1}_{0}_{7} _{1}_{0}_{6}
_{N}_{D}
_{3} _{} _{1}_{0}_{8}
for 10 ^{5} < N _{L} < 5·10 ^{7} for structural steel and chilled steel, perlite or bainite pig with spheroidal graphite, perlite malleable cast iron, cemented steel or casehardened steel
10 ^{5} < N _{L} 5 10 ^{7}
for 10 ^{5} < N _{L} < 2·10 ^{6} chilled steel and nitrided steel, gasnitrided or nitridcarburized, ferrite pig with spheroidal graphite, grey iron
10 ^{5} < N _{L} 2 10 ^{6}
Load duty cycle
According to DIN 3990 part 6
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Gears
The inputted load duty cycle will be sorted according the maximum values. Then for every load level an allowable load function (according to DIN 3990 part2) and so the maximal allowable stress cycles N _{i} will be calculated.
The sum of damage U according to PalmgrenMiner will be calculate as follow:
U
Nnii
i
Notice:
In the DIN 3990 the calculation is according to originalMiner (only stress higher the fatigue stress will be taken into consideration) The ISO 6336 calculation is according to modified Miner (also stress smaller the fatigue stress will be taken into consideration)
As graphical evaluation you receive a pitting maximum loading diagram for a pinion and a gear:
28
MDESIGN
Gears
Root bearing capacity
contact ratio factor Y _{} [] (root stress)
The contact ratio factor Y (root stress) is to be calculated as follows:
for
<
1
for 1
Helix angle factor Y _{} []
Y Y _{} 0,2 1
_{} , 8
0
The Helix angle factor Y _{} , considering the difference in dedendum loading between the oblique gearing and the substitute straight gearing as primarily laid into the calculation groundwork in the normal section, is to be calculated as follows:
Y _{} 1 _{1}_{2}_{0}
Notice:
If the overlap ratio is > 1, it is set on = 1. If the tooth line inclination is > 30 , it is set on = 30 .
Stress correction factor Y _{S}_{T} []
The stress correction factor Y _{S}_{T} for the dimensions of standard reference test gears is set on Y _{S}_{T} = 2.0.
Tooth form factor Y _{f} [] for pinion and wheel
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Gears
The tooth form factor Y _{f} considers the influence of the tooth form on the nominal bending stress and is calculated according to the method B respectively for a pinion and a gear as follows:
Y
F
6 shm m cos cos
Fnn Fen
2
Fen
n
Notice:
The values h _{F}_{e} , s _{F}_{n} , a _{F}_{e}_{n} necessary for the calculation are exactly defined by means of an iterative method (look DIN 3990, part 3, section 3.2).
Stress correction factor Y _{s} [] for pinion and wheel
With the stress correction factor Y _{s} (= notch form number) you recalculate the nominal bending stress on the local dedendum stress and involve in this way the stress raising effect of a notch (= dedendum rounding). The stress adjustment factor Y _{s} is calculated according to the method B respectively for a pinion and a gear as follows:
L hsFnFe 1.2 0.13 L qs1.211 2L.3
YS
with:
qs 2s Fn F
Notice:
The values h _{F}_{e} and s _{F}_{n} and q _{s} necessary for the calculation are exactly defined by means of an iterative method (look DIN 3990, part 3, section 3.2).
Life factor Y _{N}_{T}_{d} [] and Y _{N}_{T}_{s} [] for pinion and wheel
The service life factors Y _{N}_{T}_{d} (= fatigue strength) and Y _{N}_{T}_{s} (= static strength) for a pinion and a gear are defined dependent on the material and on the heat treatment according:
 DIN 3990 part 3, table 8.1
 ISO 63363, 12.2.2 table 1.
Notice:
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Gears
The service life factor for root stress gets the value 1 while obtaining the fatigue limit. According to DIN 3990 the factor is also over the fatigue limit constant. In the ISO 6336 this factor will be reduced to 0.85 if 10 ^{1}^{0} load changes exceeded.
Relative notch sensitivity factor, Y _{} _{r}_{e}_{l}_{T}_{d} [] and Y _{} _{r}_{e}_{l}_{T}_{s} [] for pinion and wheel
The relative notch sensitivity factor Y _{} _{r}_{e}_{l}_{T}_{d} (= fatigue strength) and Y _{} _{r}_{e}_{l}_{T}_{s} (= static strength) for a pinion and a gear are defined dependent on the material, on the heat treatment and on the notch parameters according to DIN 3990, part 3, method B, section 9.3.
Notice
The relative reference value for the fatigue strength range can be defined by means of linear interpolation between the values for the fatigue strength and the static strength.
Relative surface factor, Y _{R}_{r}_{e}_{l}_{T}_{d} [] and Y _{R}_{r}_{e}_{l}_{T}_{s} [] for pinion and wheel
The relative surface factors Y _{R}_{r}_{e}_{l}_{T}_{d} (= fatigue strength) and Y _{R}_{r}_{e}_{l}_{T}_{s} (= static strength) for a pinion and a gear are defined dependent on the surface nature and on the material according to DIN 3990, part 3, method B, section 10.3.2.
Notice:
The relative surface factor for the fatigue strength range is to be defined by means of linear interpolation between the values for the fatigue strength and static strength.
Size factor Y _{X}_{d} [] and Y _{X}_{s} [] for pinion and wheel
The size factor Y _{X}_{d} (= fatigue strength) and Y _{X}_{s} (= static strength) for a pinion and a gear are defined dependent on modulus, material and heat treatment according to DIN 3990, part 3, method B, table 11.1.
Notice:
The size factor for the fatigue strength range is to be defined by means of linear interpolation between the values for the fatigue strength and static strength.
Tooth root stress limit _{F}_{G} [N/mm²] for pinion and wheel
The tooth root stress limit _{F}_{G} for pinion and wheel is to be calculated as follows:
_{F}_{G} _{F} _{l}_{i}_{m} YST YNT Y _{} _{r}_{e}_{l}_{T} YRrelT YX
Permissible tooth root stress _{F}_{P} [N/mm²] for pinion and wheel
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MDESIGN
Gears
The permissible tooth root stress _{F}_{P} for pinion and wheel is to be calculated as follows:
FP S FFGmin
Nominal tooth root stress _{F}_{0} [N/mm²]
The Nominal tooth root stress _{F}_{0} is to be calculated as follows:
_{F} _{F} _{0} _{F} _{0} _{b}_{F} SF KA _{} _{m}_{t}_{n} Kv FGF YF KF YS _{}_{} KF Y _{} _{}
Tooth root stress _{F} [N/mm²] for pinion and wheel
The tooth root stress _{F} for pinion and wheel is to be calculated as follows:
Safety factor for tooth breakage S _{F} [] for pinion and wheel
The safety factor for tooth breakage S _{F} for pinion and wheel is to be calculated as follows:
Servicelife L _{h} [h] for pinion and wheel
1
exp exp Lh 0.2876 0.4037 3 106 log log _{F}_{G}_{F} FPFPsdauetatischr FPFPsdauetatischr exp n1
for structural steel and chilled steel, perlite or bainite pig with spheroidal graphite, perlite malleable cast iron (10 4 <N L <3 10 6 ):
for cemented steel and casehardened steel, chilled steel and nitrided steel, gasnitrided or nitrid carburized, ferrite pig with spheroidal graphite, grey iron
Load duty cycle
According to DIN 3990 part 6
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MDESIGN
Gears
The inputted load duty cycle will be sorted according the maximum values. Then for every load level an allowable load function (according to DIN 3990 part2) and so the maximal allowable stress cycles N _{i} will be calculated.
The sum of damage U according to PalmgrenMiner will be calculate as follow:
U
Nnii
i
Notice:
In the DIN 3990 the calculation is according to originalMiner (only stress higher the fatigue stress will be taken into consideration) The ISO 6336 calculation is according to modified Miner (also stress smaller the fatigue stress will be taken into consideration)
As graphical evaluation you receive a pitting maximum loading diagram for a pinion and a gear:
33
MDESIGN
Gears
scuffing load capacity
Flash factor according to the integral and flash temperature method X _{M}_{I} [] or X _{M}_{B} []
The flash factor describes the influence of material properties of a pinion and of a gear on the flash temperature.
Integral temperature method:
XMI
Flash temperature method:
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