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Gears

Contents

SPUR GEAR, GEAR RACK

2

GROUNDWORK CALCULATIONS

2

SCOPE OF THE PROGRAM

4

GEOMETRY OF SPUR GEARS

5

GROUNDWORK CALCULATIONS AND SCOPE

15

SPUR GEARS CALCULATION - STRENGTH - DETERMINATION OF RESULTS

16

CALCULATION OF LOADS

22

SPUR GEARS CALCULATION - STRENGTH - PITTING MAXIMUM LOADING

23

LOAD DUTY CYCLE

27

ROOT BEARING CAPACITY

29

LOAD DUTY CYCLE

32

SCUFFING LOAD CAPACITY

34

STANDARD GAUGE SPUR GEARS

40

CALCULATING GROUNDWORK

40

STANDARD GAUGE SPUR GEARS - DETERMINATION OF RESULTS

40

BEVEL-, HYPOID GEAR

45

GROUNDWORK CALCULATIONS

45

CALCULATION GEOMETRY

46

CALCULATION OF GEOMETRY

47

CYLINDRICAL WORM GEAR

72

CALCULATION BASE

72

RANGE OF APPLICATION

72

CYLINDRICAL WORM GEAR DETERMINATION OF RESULTS

73

STRENGTH PROOF

75

MDESIGN

Gears

Spur Gear, Gear Rack

With the following program based on the groundwork calculations DIN 3960, the geometry of spur gears can be calculated.

This module has different operations and possibilities for calculation profile shift.

These possibilities are the following:

- Automatic calculation and distribution of the total profile shift coefficient according to DIN 3992 (DIN 3993)

- Input of centre distance

- Input of total profile shift

- Input of profile shift

With the following program the strength examination (pitting bearing capacity, root bearing capacity, scuffing load capacity) of spur gears will be calculated. Therefore the calculation base DIN 3990 and also the international ISO 6336 can chose by the user.

With this program standard gauges for spur gears will be calculated.

The application of the Number of Teeth Thickness, Spherical Dim.-Roll Diameter DM, Deviations of Center Distance and Deviations of Teeth Thickness are optional.

Groundwork Calculations

Geometry of the Spur Gear Pair and the Gear

The groundwork calculations for this module are described by DIN 3960, edition March 1987.

The following DIN specifications will also be utilized:

- DIN 780 Module sequence for spur gears

- DIN 867 edition February 1986 (basic profile)

- DIN 3960 edition March 1987 (concept and dimension determination for spur gear pairs with involute gearing)

- DIN 3960 supplement 1, edition July 1980

MDESIGN

Gears

- DIN 3992 edition March 1964 (profile displacement for spur gears with outer gearing)

- DIN 3993 edition August 1981, part 1 - 4 (geometric design of cylindrical inner gear pairs).

Strength Examination of Spur Gears

The groundwork calculations for the module Strength Examination of Spur Gears is described by the

following DIN specifications:

- DIN 3990

Part 1

edition December 1987

(general influence factors)

- DIN 3990

Part 2

edition December 1987

(calculation of the pitting bearing capacity)

- DIN 3990

Part 3

edition December 1987

(calculation of the root bearing capacity)

- DIN 3990

Part 4

edition December 1987

(calculation of the corrosion bearing capacity)

- DIN 3990

Part 5

edition December 1987

(fatigue stress values and material qualities)

- DIN 3990

Part 6

edition December 1994

(operational stability)

- DIN 3990

Part

edition February 1989

(application standards for industrial gears)

11

- DIN 3961

edition August 1961

(ground tolerances)

- DIN 3962

Part 1

edition August 1978

(tolerances for deviation of individual determined dimensions)

- DIN 3962

Part 2

edition August 1978

(tolerances for flank line deviations)

- DIN 50 150,

edition December 1976

(conversion table for Vickers - Rockwell- Brinell hardness and ultimate strength)

- ISO 6336

Part 1

edition September

(Basic principles, influence factors)

 

2006

- ISO 6336

Part 2

edition September

(Calculation of surface durability (pitting))

 

2006

- ISO 6336

Part 3

edition September

(Calculation of tooth bending strength)

 

2006

- ISO 6336

Part 6

edition September

(Calculation of service life under variable

 

2006

load)

- ISO 1328

Part 1

edition August 2005

(Definitions and allowable values of deviations)

Gauge Design for Spur Gears

The groundwork calculations for this program are described by DIN 3960, edition March 1987.

The following DIN specifications will also be utilized:

- DIN 3961

DIN 3962

- Part 1

- DIN 3964

- DIN 3967

- DIN 3977

edition August 1978

edition August 1978

edition November

1980

edition August 1978

edition February 1981

(tolerances for spur gearing) (tolerances for deviation of individual determined dimensions) (axis position and Axis position tolerances of housing for spur gears) (flank play, tooth thickness dimension, tooth thickness tolerances) (dimension diameter for the radial or diametric standard gauge of the tooth thickness of spur gears (cylinder gears))

MDESIGN

Gears

Scope of the Program

Geometry of the Spur Gear Pair and the Gear

With the following module Spur Gear Geometry deviation profiles also from the basic profile DIN867 and ISO 53 - 1974 can be calculated (profile angle, P , topland thickness factor, s an* , topland height factor, h aP* , prominence profile).

The validity will be bounded by the following dimensions:

- inner gearing, outer gearing

- profile angle: 15° P 30°

- topland height factor: 0.7. h aP1* 1.5

- topland height factor: 0.7 h aP2* 1.5

- topland play factor: 0.1 c P* 0.4

- standard module: 0.01mm m n 70mm

- even-, helical- and double helical gearing

- lead: 0° 45°

- profile overlapping: 0.1

- topland thickness fact: 0.1 s an* 0.4

- optional allowance of the topland shortening for gears and pinions.

Cases of a specified minimum topland thickness, s a , cannot be observed, the program automatically calculates the necessary topland shortening.

Strength Examination of Spur Gears

With the following module, Strength Examination of Spur Gears the pitting bearing capacity, root bearing capacity and corrosion bearing capacity of involute spur gears of outer and inner gearing can be calculated.

For the calculation of simple and double helical gearing the lead must lie within 0 45 .

The calculable velocity ranges are

MDESIGN

Gears

- Lower critical range

(basic speed N 0.85)

- chief resonance

(0.85 < N < 1.15)

- Intermediate range

(1.15 < N < 1.5)

- Upper critical range

(N 1.5)

Qualities are considered by this program from 1 (finest class) up to 12 (roughest class).

The consideration of the profile correction as spherical broadening, base relief profile ease off and

topland relief profile ease off are possible.

The broadening factors for root, flank, and seizing can be optionally specified.

Gauge Design for Spur Gears

The scope of the program for the calculation module is determined as follows:

- Gearing quality

:

1 - 12

- Tolerance rows

:

a - h

- Dimension rows

:

21 - 30

- Axis pos. tolerance

;

js5 - js11

The following standard gauge will be calculated:

- Housed Axis Position, a

- Backlash theoretical, j t

- Standard Tooth Thickness, sn

- Tooth Width, W k

- Number of Teeth Dimension, k (optional)

- Spherical Dim.-Roll Diameter, DM (optional)

- Radial Gauge Roll/Spherical, M rK and M rR (M r )

- Diametral Gauge Roll/Spherical, M dK und M dR

- Tolerance Factor, A W* , A Mr* , A Md*

Geometry of spur gears

Clearance for expansion at initial profile, c [mm]

MDESIGN

Gears

c h hw cp mn

Notice:

If the present clearance for expansion c deviates off the initial profile of the respective clearance for expansion c P , you must make changes of head height (shorten heads) to retain clearance for expansion (DIN 3960, equation 4.3.07).

Effective

teeth number ratio, u [-]

Effective gear ratio, i eff [-]

u zz12

Pinion is driven

 

Wheel is driven

ieff zz

i eff z z

12

i

eff

eff z 12 z

z12

z

Zero centre distance, a d [mm]

ad mn2 cos z1 z 2

Sum

of profile coefficients, x g [-] xg x1 x 2 inv2 tan

w

t

awt b z z at a sin a tan sin tancos cos p inv p t

2

a cos aad cos t

d

2

Na 2

d

22

b

d

b 2

tan

wt

Transverse pressure angle, a t [°]

Pressure angle at pitch cylinder, a wt [°]

Base helix angle, b [°]

Length of path of contact-engagement, g f [mm]

g

f

0,5

2
2

MDESIGN

Gears

Notice:

The calculation of g f is only valid, if the pinion is the driving part. If the spur gear is the driving part, the calculation for g f meets length of distance of action from gearing to disengagement g a .

Length of path of contact-disengagement, g a [mm]

ga 0,5 dNa2 1 db21 db1 tan wt

a 0 , 5 d Na 2 1 d b 21 d b 1 tan w

Notice:

The calculation of g f is only valid, if the pinion is the driving part. If the spur gear is the driving part, the calculation for g f meets length of distance of action from gearing to disengagement g a .

Length of path of contact, g a [mm]

With rack:

g g

Transverse contact ratio, a [-]

Overlap ratio, [-]

Total contact ratio,

[-]

0 5

0,5

d Na 1 2 d b 21 zz 22 d Na 2 2 d b
d
Na 1
2
d
b 21
zz
22
d
Na 2
2
d
b 22

a

sin

wt

,

dNa2 1 db21 db1 b tan p pge tan t hNaPsin2 xt1 mn t et
dNa2 1 db21 db1 b tan p pge tan t hNaPsin2 xt1 mn
t
et b

Tooth thickness on tip diameter, s an [mm]

For the calculation of the teeth thickness s a on the tip diameter for pinion and gear the equation 3.5.25 from the DIN 3960 is used,

Note:

MDESIGN

Gears

The minimum teeth thickness on the tip s amin is determined through the input of the tooth-tip thickness factor s an* . This also leads to the upper threshold of the profile shift. (see DIN 3960, Picture 12).

Tooth depth, h [mm]

 

hf da

2

df

Addendum,

h a [mm]

 

ha da 2 d

Dedendum, h f [mm]

Reference diameter, d [mm]

Base diameter, d b [mm]

V- circle diameter,

d v [mm]

Pitch diameter, d w [mm]

hf da

2

df

dv db d d d cosmn cos 2 mn z t x

Pinion

Wheel

dw1 z12 zz12

dw 2 z21 zz22

With rack:

Pinion

Wheel

dw1 d1

dw 2 d2 x1 mn

Root diameter, d f [mm]

 

Pinion

 

Wheel

df df

1

1 d1 d1 2 2 mn x1 mn haP 2* 2 hfP cP1* x1

df df

2

2 d2 d2 2 2 mn x 2 mn haP1* 2 hfP cP 2* x 2

Tip diameter, d a [mm]

MDESIGN

Gears

Pinion

Wheel

da1 d1 2 mn haP1* x1 k1

da 2 d2 2 mn haP 2* x 2 k2

Theoretical tip diameter, d a_th [mm]

Pinion

 

Wheel

da1th d1 2 mn haP1* x1

da 2th

d2 2 mn haP 2* x 2

Tip shortening, k [mm]

Tip clearance, c [mm]

k a ad mn x1 x 2

k k1 k2

Pinion

 

Wheel

c1tat a da1 2dfE 2

c 2tat

a da 2 2dfE 1

Root Form Circle Diameter ,d Ff [mm]

The calculation of the root form circle diameter d Ff is calculated depending on the finish-machining (Gear rack, cutting wheel) according to DIN 3960, chapter 3.6.7.

Root Form Diameter d Nf [mm]

d 2 a sin Nf 1 wt z z 2 2 d Na 2 b
d
2
a
sin
Nf 1
wt
z z
2
2
d
Na 2 b
2
d
22
2
d
b 21
d
Nf 2
z z
2
2
2
a
sin
wt
d
Na 1
2
d
b
21
2
d
b 22
Pinion
Wheel

Notice:

For internal toothing look into DIN 3993 part 1 - 4.

Spare teeth number z n [-]

 

Pinion

 

Wheel

zn1 cos b z21 cos

zn 2 cos b z22 cos

Maximum specific sliding at point A of a pinion [-]

u

A

1

A 2A1

Maximum specific sliding at point A of the wheel [-]

MDESIGN

Gears

u

A

1

A1A2

Maximum specific sliding at point E of a pinion [-]

pbn E E pet 1 1 u u cos E E 1E 2E 1 2 b pet pbt pen cosmn cosmn pet cos cos cos b t t

Maximum specific sliding at point E of the wheel[-]

Base cylinder normal base pitch, p bn [mm]

Base cylinder transverse base pitch, p bt [mm]

normal base pitch, p en [mm]

transverse base pitch,

p et [mm]

Rack tool values to produce a pinion:

Addendum of basic rack haP 0.1* [-]

Dedendum of basic rack h fP0.1* [-]

haP *01 haP hmfPn1 *01 haP haP *2 *1 cP *2

Dedendum circle diameter of a pinion, (manufacturing) d fE1 [mm]

The calculation of dedendum circle diameter d fE1 is realised dependent on final treatment (rack, gear cutter) according to DIN 3960, section 3.6.4.

MDESIGN

Gears

Rack

Gear cutter

dfE 1 d1 2 xE 1 mn 2 haP 01

dfE 1 2 a01 da01

Rack tool values to produce a pinion:

Addendum of basic rack, h aP0.2* [-]

Dedendum of basic rack, h fP0.2* [-]

hfP *02 hfP hmfPn2 *02 haP haP *2 *1 cP *1

Dedendum circle diameter of a wheel, (manufacturing) d fE2 [mm]

The calculation of dedendum circle diameter d fE2 is realised dependent on final treatment (rack, gear cutter) according to DIN 3960, section 3.6.4.

Rack

Gear cutter

dfE 1 d2 2 xE 2 mn 2 haP 02

dfE 2 2 a02 da02

Graphical Evaluation of Results:

2 2 a 02 d a 02 Graphical Evaluation of Results: Real part geometry In the

Real part geometry

In the module "Geometry Spur Gears" are following result graphs at your disposal:

Tooth form (evolvent) of a pinion/gear

MDESIGN

Gears

Tooth space (envelope and evolvent) of a pinion/gear

Side view of a pinion/gear

Front view of a pinion/gear

Gear ring (evolvent) of a pinion/gear

Every result graph can be stored in DXF format on a hard disk or implemented in CAD systems!

of a pinion/gear Every result graph can be stored in DXF format on a hard disk
of a pinion/gear Every result graph can be stored in DXF format on a hard disk

MDESIGN

Gears

MDESIGN Gears 13
MDESIGN Gears 13

MDESIGN

Gears

MDESIGN Gears 14
MDESIGN Gears 14

MDESIGN

Gears

MDESIGN Gears Spur Gears Calculation - Strength With the following program the strength examination (pitting bearing

Spur Gears Calculation - Strength

With the following program the strength examination (pitting bearing capacity, root bearing capacity,

corrosion bearing capacity) of spur gears will be calculated. Therefore the calculation base DIN 3990 and

also the international ISO 6336 can chose by the user.

Groundwork Calculations and scope

Groundwork

The groundwork calculations for the module Strength Examination of Spur Gears is described by the

following DIN specifications:

DIN 3990

Part 1,

edition December 1987 (general influence factors)

DIN 3990

Part 2,

edition December 1987 (calculation of the pitting bearing capacity)

DIN 3990

Part 3,

edition December 1987 (calculation of the root bearing capacity)

DIN 3990

Part 4,

edition December 1987 (calculation of the corrosion bearing capacity)

DIN 3990

Part 5,

edition December 1987 (fatigue stress values and material qualities)

DIN 3990

Part 6,

edition December 1994 (operational stability)

DIN 3990

Part 11,

edition February 1989 (application standards for industrial gears)

DIN 3961

edition August 1961 (ground tolerances)

DIN 3962

Part 1,

edition August 1978 (tolerances for deviation of individual determined dimensions)

DIN 3962

Part 2,

edition August 1978 (tolerances for flank line deviations)

DIN 50150

edition December 1976 1976 (conversion table for Vickers - Rockwell- Brinell hardness and ultimate strength)

- ISO 6336

Part 1

edition September 2006 (Basic principles, influence factors)

MDESIGN

Gears

- ISO 6336

Part 2

edition September 2006 (Calculation of surface durability (pitting))

- ISO 6336

Part 3

edition September 2006 (Calculation of tooth bending strength)

- ISO 6336

Part 6

edition September 2006 (Calculation of service life under variable load)

- ISO 1328

Part 1

edition August 2005 (Definitions and allowable values of deviations)

Scope

With the following module, Strength Examination of Spur Gears the pitting bearing capacity, root

bearing capacity and corrosion bearing capacity of involute spur gears of outer and inner gearing can be

calculated.

For the calculation of simple and double helical gearing the lead must lie within 0 45 .

The calculable velocity ranges are

- Lower critical range

(basic speed N 0.85)

- chief resonance

(0.85 < N < 1.15)

- Intermediate range

(1.15 < N < 1.5)

- Upper critical range

(N 1.5)

Qualities are considered by this program from 1 (finest class) up to 12 (roughest class).

The consideration of the profile correction as spherical broadening, base relief profile ease off and

topland relief profile ease off are possible.

The broadening factors for root, flank, and seizing can be optionally specified.

Spur Gears Calculation - Strength - Determination of Results

Spur Gears Calculation - Strength- Common Factors

Primary effective flank line deflection, F x [µm]

The primary effective flank line deflection F x , presenting the absolute value of amount of manufactured

deflection and deformation of pinion and pinion shaft (measured in the locking level), is to be calculated

according to DIN 3990, part 1 as follows,

Without modification of flank

F x 1.33 fma

MDESIGN

Gears

With crowning, Base Relief:

1.33

f

F

fma 1.0 0.7 0.5 fH fH fH fsh Fbm Fbm Fbm 0.016 0.012 0.023

x

fma fma

sh

H

5

f

Helix Slope Deviation, f H [µm]

The Helix Slope Deviation f H is defined dependent on tooth width and gear ring quality according to DIN 3962, part 2.

Manufacturer s flank line deflection f ma [µm]

Flank line angle deflection f ma is defined dependent on tooth width and gear ring quality according to DIN 3962, part 2.

Without

modification and presetting:

For gear pairs with rationally chosen crowning:

For gear pairs with rationally chosen base relief:

Component of equivalent misalignment due to shaft and pinion deformation [µm]

This value will be calculated from deformation of shaft and pinion for the following cases:

Without crowning and base

relief:

For spur gears with crowning:

fsh fsh

For spur gears with base relief:

Profile form deflection f f1 [µm] for pinion or f f2 [µm] for gear

MDESIGN

Gears

Profile form deflection f f for a pinion and a gear is defined dependent on normal modulus m n and gear ring quality according to DIN 3962, part 1.

Transverse Pitch deviation f pe1 [µm] pinion and f pe2 [µm] wheel

The Transverse Pitch Deviation f pe for a pinion and a gear is defined dependent on normal modulus m n , pitch diameter d and gear ring quality according to DIN 3962, part 1.

Effective profile form deviation, f feff [µm]

Effective profile form deviation f feff , used to define the dynamic factor K V , is to be calculated as follows:

ffeff ff y1

Notice:

For f f the higher value of f f 1 and f f is used.

Effective transverse Pitch deviation f peeff [µm]

Effective transverse Pitch deviation f peeff , used to define the dynamic factor K V , is to be calculated as follows:

fpeeff fpe yp

Notice:

Look DIN 3990, part 1, section 5.3.3 for detailed information.

Rotation speed of wheel, n 2 [1/min]

NL2 NL1 n 2 Lh Lh nu1 n1 nu1

Number of loading cycles N L1 [-] of pinion and N L2 [-] of wheel

The Numbers of loading cycles is to be calculated as follows:

With rack:

MDESIGN

Gears

Resonance speed, n E1 [1/min]

NL2 NLzL1 d1

To define the relative number of revolutions N per minute you have to calculate the resonant revolutions per minute n e1 :

nE 1 2 NR 1 z1 nnE11 mcred

n e1 : n E 1 2 N R 1 z 1 nn E 11 mc

Relative number of revolutions, N R [-]

To differ the ranges of revolution numbers, necessary to define the dynamic factor K V , you have to calculate the relative number of revolutions per minute N:

Reduced mass, m red [kg/mm]

The reduced mass per mm tooth width m red is to be calculated as follows:

with:

mred ddmb11 2 1 q141 M1 dm211 q24 1 M 2 u 2

8

dm1 dm2 da1 da 2 2 2

df df 1 2

2 ddmi11 ddmi 22

q q 1

Peripheral velocity at reference diameter, v [m/s]

The Peripheral velocity at reference diameter is to be calculated as follows:

v

dw d1 1 n n 1 1

Peripheral velocity at pitch diameter, v w [m/s]

The Peripheral velocity at pitch diameter is to be calculated as follows:

v

Single tooth stiffness, c' [N/mmµm]

MDESIGN

Gears

The single tooth stiffness c', necessary to define the dynamic factor K V , is to be calculated as follows:

c cth CM CR CBS cos

Notice:

About defining the theoretical single tooth stiffness c look DIN 3990, part 1, section 9.3.1.

Single tooth stiffness ,c [N/mmµm]

The single tooth stiffness c is to be calculated as follows:

Kv Kv Kv Kv Cv NR Kv1.5 1 Cv BP c Cv 5 BP Cv c 1 Kv1.150.35 BP 2 Cv 0.75 Bf Cv 6 Bf 2 Cv Kv1.5 Bf 4 Cv 0.25 Bk Cv 7 1.5 3 1 Kv Bk 1.5 NR 1

Kv 1.15

Dynamic factor, K v [-]

The dynamic factor K V considers the effect of internal dynamic forces, caused by oscillations of pinion and gear against one another, on the flank pressure and the dedendum loading.

It is calculated according to DIN 3990, part 1, method B as follows:

Dynamic factor K V [-] under the critical range (N 0.85):

Dynamic factor K V [-] in the main resonance range (0.85 < N 1.15):

Dynamic factor K V [-] over the critical range (N 1.5):

Dynamic factor K V [-] in the intermediate range (1.15 < N < 1.5):

Face load factor K F [-] (root stress)

The face load factor K F , considering the influence of the force distribution over the tooth width on the stress at dedendum, is to be calculated as follows:

KF KH NF

MDESIGN

Gears

2

NF 1 bh bh bh 2

Notice:

for h/b is required the smaller value of h 1 /b 1 and h 2 /b 2 , for b/h < 3 substitute b/h = 3.

Face load factor K H [-] (contact stress)

The face load factor K H , considering the influence of the force distribution over the tooth width on the flank pressure, is calculated according to DIN 3990, part 1, method B as follows:

case 1:

2F 2F F F ty ty KcA KcA bKv bKv case 2: total contact ratio > 2 KF KF KH KH 0.9 2 0.4 0.9 2 0.4 c 1 FftHbpeeff c FftHbpeeff 1 1

case 2:

1 1

Transverse load factor K F [-] (root stress) and K H [-] (contact stress)

KH KH 1 2F 2F tF F KyA ty KcA c K b bKv v
KH KH 1 2F 2F tF F KyA ty KcA c K b bKv
v

The transverse load factor consider the effect of force, unevenly distributed on many tooth pairs engaged, on the flank pressure (K H ) and dedendum loading (K F ). It is calculated according to DIN 3990, part 1, method B as follows:

case 1: total contact ratio 2

1, method B as follows: case 1: total contact ratio 2 Notice: For limitations of K

Notice:

For limitations of K H and K F , look DIN 3990, part 1, section 7.3.3 or 7.3.4.

MDESIGN

Gears

Calculation of loads

Transverse tangential load F t [N] at reference diameter

The transverse tangential load F t at reference diameter is to be calculated as follows:

Ft d1 P n 1

Nominal torque T 1 [Nm] pinion, and T 2 [Nm] wheel

The Nominal torque for pinion and wheel is to be calculated as follows:

T1 Ft 2 d1

T

2

2
2

Ft 2 d

Tangential load in pitch plane, F tw [N]

Tangential load in pitch plane F tw is to be calculated as follows:

P

Frw Faw Ftw Ftw Ftw dw1 tan tan n wt 1

Radial load in pitch plane, F rw [N]

The Radial load in pitch plane F rw is to be calculated as follows:

Axial load in pitch plane, F aw [N]

The Axial load in pitch plane is to be calculated as follows:

Tooth load in pitch plane, F w [N]

The Tooth load in pitch plane F w is to be calculated as follows:

Line load [N/mm]

F w is to be calculated as follows: Line load [N/mm] F w F rw 2

Fw Frw2 Ftw2 Faw2

Linieload Ft KbA

MDESIGN

Gears

Spur Gears Calculation - Strength - Pitting Maximum Loading

Zone factor, Z H [-]

The zone factor Z H , considering the influence of the tooth flank bend at a pitch point on the flank pressure and recalculating the peripheral force at a spur section on the normal force at the pitch spur, is calculated as follows:

Elasticity

factor, Z E [ N/mm 2 ]

ZH 2cos

cos t b 2 sincos wwtt
cos t b 2 sincos wwtt

Using the coefficient of elasticity Z E you consider the influence of specific material values E (modulus of elasticity) and n (Poisson's ratio) on the flank pressure. It is to be calculated as follows:

on the flank pressure. It is to be calculated as follows: Z E 1 E 1

ZE 1 E1 121 1 E 2 22

Contact ratio factor (contact stress) Z [-]

Contact ratio factor Z , considering the influence of profile and jump overlapping on the pitting maximum loading, is calculated dependent on the gearing type as follows, straight gearing:

Helical toothing and < 1:

Helical toothing and 1:

Z 4 3 Z 4 3 1 Z 1
Z 4 3
Z 4 3 1
Z 1

Helix angle factor (contact stress) Z [-]

The helix angle factor Z considers the influence of tooth line inclinations on the pitting maximum loading and is to be calculated as follows:

DIN 3990

ISO 6336

Z cos

Z cos

Z cos1

Z cos 1

MDESIGN

Gears

Work hardening factor Z W [-]

The work hardening factor Z W considers the increase of the pitting maximum loading of a steel spur gear owing to the combination with a hardened or a substantially harder pinion with smooth teeth flanks. It is defined by means of the method B as follows:

ZLd CZL ZLs ZW 4 1 .12. 1 1 0 134 CZL

2

40

Lubricant factor Z Ld [-] and. Z Ls [-]

With the lubricant factor Z Ld (= fatigue strength) or Z Ls (= static strength) you consider the influence of the nominal viscosity on the effect of lubricant film and define it according to the method B as follows:

Notice:

To define C ZL look in DIN 3990, part 2 , section 9.2.1.1

Velocity factor Z Vd [-] and Z Vs [-]

Dependent on the peripheral velocity and the fatigue strength value for flank pressure Hlim of a softer material, the velocity factor Z Vd (= fatigue strength) or Z Vs (= static strength) is defined using the method B as follows:

ZVd CZv 2

ZZv ZVs CZL 1 0.02 08

10 C32vZv

v 2 Z Zv Z Vs C ZL 1 0 . 02 08 10 C 32

with

Notice:

To define C ZL look in DIN 3990, part 2 , section 9.2.1.1

Roughness factor Z Rd [-] and Z Rs [-]

MDESIGN

Gears

The roughness factor can be defined as follows dependent on the surface nature of teeth flanks, on the construction dimensions and on the fatigue strength value for flank pressure Hlim of a softer material of a gear pairs:

According to DIN 3990:

According to ISO 6336:

Z

Rd Rd

Z

ZRs ZRs Rz Rz 1 1

3100

310

CZR CZR

Notice:

To define C ZR look in DIN 3990, part 2 , section 9.2.1.3 and ISO 6336-2, 12.3.1.3.3

Life factor for contact stress Z NTd [-] and Z NTs [-] for pinion and wheel

The service life factor Z NTd (= fatigue strength) or Z NTs (= static strength) for a pinion and a gear is defined according to DIN 3990, part 2, method B, table 8.1.

 

-

or according to ISO 6336-2, 11.2 table 2

Notice:

The service life factor for root stress gets the value 1 while obtaining the fatigue limit. According to DIN 3990 the factor is also over the fatigue limit constant. In the ISO 6336 this factor will be reduced to 0.85 if 10 10 load changes exceeded.

Size factor (pitting) Z Xd [-] and. Z Xs [-] for pinion and wheel

- According to DIN 3990:

The size factor (flank) Z Xd (= fatigue strength) or Z Xs (= static strength) for a pinion and a gear is to be defined dependent on the material and on the normal modulus according to DIN 3990, part 2, method B, table 11.1.

- According to ISO 6336:

MDESIGN

Gears

ZXd 1

ZXs 1

Single pair tooth factor Z B [-] (pinion) and Z D [-] (wheel)

The single gearing factors Z B (pinion) or Z D (gear) consider the influence of the tooth flank bend on the

flank pressure. They are defined as follows:

Spur gearing:

M 1 1

M 1 > 1

Z B =1

Z B = M 1

M 2 1

M 2 1 M 2 > 1 External toothing Z D = M 2 Internal toothing

M 2 > 1

External

toothing

Z D = M 2

Internal toothing

Z D =1

Z D =1

Helical gearing:

   

1

1 < 1 M 1 - (M 1 - 1) < 1 M 1 - (M

< 1

M 1 - (M 1 - 1) < 1

M 1 - (M 1 - 1) 1

 
 

Z D =1

External toothing

Z B = 1

Z B =M 1

Z D =1 External toothing Z B = 1 Z B =M 1

Internal

toothing

 

Z D =1

M1 M2 ddba2222 1 HG ddba2211 H lim 1 2z ZNT 2z 1 2 tan
M1
M2 ddba2222 1
HG ddba2211 H lim 1 2z ZNT 2z 1 2 tan tan ZL ddwtba2222 ddwtba2211 Zv ZR 1 1 ZW 1 1 ZX 2z 2z 1 2
Pitting stress limit HG [N/mm²] for pinion and wheel
The pitting stress limit HG for pinion and wheel is to be calculated as follows:

Permissible contact stress HP [N/mm²] for pinion and wheel

The permissible contact stress HP for pinion and wheel is to be calculated as follows:

HP HHGmin

Nominal contact stress H0 [N/mm²]

MDESIGN

Gears

The nominal contact stress H0 is to be calculated as follows:

contact stress H 0 is to be calculated as follows: H 0 Z H Z E

H 0 ZH ZE Z Z d1Ft b uu 1

Contact stress H [N/mm²] for pinion und wheel

The contact stress H for pinion and wheel is to be calculated as follows:

Pinion

Wheel

H Z B H 0 K A K V K H K H H Z

H ZB H 0 KA KV KH KH

H Z B H 0 K A K V K H K H H Z D

H ZD H 0 KA KV KH KH

Safety factor for pitting S H [-] for pinion und wheel

SH HGH

Service-life, L h [h] for pinion und wheel

1

Lh exp ND HG daueH r exp n1 exp exp exp 0,7686 0,3705 0,2791 log log log HPHPsdauetatischr HPHPsdauetatischr HPHPsdauetatischr

0,3705 log HPHPsdauetatischr

for 10 5 < N L < 10 7 for structural steel and chilled steel, perlite or bainite pig with spheroidal graphite, perlite malleable cast iron, cemented steel or case-hardened steel, if some number of pits is allowable

10 5 < N L 10 7

10 7 < N L 10 9

ND ND ND 109 5 2 107 106

ND

3 108

for 10 5 < N L < 5·10 7 for structural steel and chilled steel, perlite or bainite pig with spheroidal graphite, perlite malleable cast iron, cemented steel or case-hardened steel

10 5 < N L 5 10 7

for 10 5 < N L < 2·10 6 chilled steel and nitrided steel, gas-nitrided or nitrid-carburized, ferrite pig with spheroidal graphite, grey iron

10 5 < N L 2 10 6

Load duty cycle

According to DIN 3990 part 6

MDESIGN

Gears

The inputted load duty cycle will be sorted according the maximum values. Then for every load level an allowable load function (according to DIN 3990 part2) and so the maximal allowable stress cycles N i will be calculated.

The sum of damage U according to Palmgren-Miner will be calculate as follow:

U

Nnii

i

Notice:

In the DIN 3990 the calculation is according to original-Miner (only stress higher the fatigue stress will be taken into consideration) The ISO 6336 calculation is according to modified -Miner (also stress smaller the fatigue stress will be taken into consideration)

As graphical evaluation you receive a pitting maximum loading diagram for a pinion and a gear:

into consideration) As graphical evaluation you receive a pitting maximum loading diagram for a pinion and

MDESIGN

Gears

MDESIGN Gears Root bearing capacity contact ratio factor Y [-] (root stress) The contact ratio factor

Root bearing capacity

contact ratio factor Y [-] (root stress)

The contact ratio factor Y (root stress) is to be calculated as follows:

for

<

1

for 1

Helix angle factor Y [-]

Y Y 0,2 1

, 8

0

The Helix angle factor Y , considering the difference in dedendum loading between the oblique gearing and the substitute straight gearing as primarily laid into the calculation groundwork in the normal section, is to be calculated as follows:

Y 1 120

Notice:

If the overlap ratio is > 1, it is set on = 1. If the tooth line inclination is > 30 , it is set on = 30 .

Stress correction factor Y ST [-]

The stress correction factor Y ST for the dimensions of standard reference test gears is set on Y ST = 2.0.

Tooth form factor Y f [-] for pinion and wheel

MDESIGN

Gears

The tooth form factor Y f considers the influence of the tooth form on the nominal bending stress and is calculated according to the method B respectively for a pinion and a gear as follows:

Y

F

6 shm m cos cos

Fnn Fen

2

Fen

n

Notice:

The values h Fe , s Fn , a Fen necessary for the calculation are exactly defined by means of an iterative method (look DIN 3990, part 3, section 3.2).

Stress correction factor Y s [-] for pinion and wheel

With the stress correction factor Y s (= notch form number) you recalculate the nominal bending stress on the local dedendum stress and involve in this way the stress raising effect of a notch (= dedendum rounding). The stress adjustment factor Y s is calculated according to the method B respectively for a pinion and a gear as follows:

L hsFnFe 1.2 0.13 L qs1.211 2L.3

YS

with:

qs 2s Fn F

Notice:

The values h Fe and s Fn and q s necessary for the calculation are exactly defined by means of an iterative method (look DIN 3990, part 3, section 3.2).

Life factor Y NTd [-] and Y NTs [-] for pinion and wheel

The service life factors Y NTd (= fatigue strength) and Y NTs (= static strength) for a pinion and a gear are defined dependent on the material and on the heat treatment according:

- DIN 3990 part 3, table 8.1

- ISO 6336-3, 12.2.2 table 1.

Notice:

MDESIGN

Gears

The service life factor for root stress gets the value 1 while obtaining the fatigue limit. According to DIN 3990 the factor is also over the fatigue limit constant. In the ISO 6336 this factor will be reduced to 0.85 if 10 10 load changes exceeded.

Relative notch sensitivity factor, Y relTd [-] and Y relTs [-] for pinion and wheel

The relative notch sensitivity factor Y relTd (= fatigue strength) and Y relTs (= static strength) for a pinion and a gear are defined dependent on the material, on the heat treatment and on the notch parameters according to DIN 3990, part 3, method B, section 9.3.

Notice

The relative reference value for the fatigue strength range can be defined by means of linear interpolation between the values for the fatigue strength and the static strength.

Relative surface factor, Y RrelTd [-] and Y RrelTs [-] for pinion and wheel

The relative surface factors Y RrelTd (= fatigue strength) and Y RrelTs (= static strength) for a pinion and a gear are defined dependent on the surface nature and on the material according to DIN 3990, part 3, method B, section 10.3.2.

Notice:

The relative surface factor for the fatigue strength range is to be defined by means of linear interpolation between the values for the fatigue strength and static strength.

Size factor Y Xd [-] and Y Xs [-] for pinion and wheel

The size factor Y Xd (= fatigue strength) and Y Xs (= static strength) for a pinion and a gear are defined dependent on modulus, material and heat treatment according to DIN 3990, part 3, method B, table 11.1.

Notice:

The size factor for the fatigue strength range is to be defined by means of linear interpolation between the values for the fatigue strength and static strength.

Tooth root stress limit FG [N/mm²] for pinion and wheel

The tooth root stress limit FG for pinion and wheel is to be calculated as follows:

FG F lim YST YNT Y relT YRrelT YX

Permissible tooth root stress FP [N/mm²] for pinion and wheel

MDESIGN

Gears

The permissible tooth root stress FP for pinion and wheel is to be calculated as follows:

FP S FFGmin

Nominal tooth root stress F0 [N/mm²]

The Nominal tooth root stress F0 is to be calculated as follows:

F F 0 F 0 bF SF KA mtn Kv FGF YF KF YS KF Y

Tooth root stress F [N/mm²] for pinion and wheel

The tooth root stress F for pinion and wheel is to be calculated as follows:

Safety factor for tooth breakage S F [-] for pinion and wheel

The safety factor for tooth breakage S F for pinion and wheel is to be calculated as follows:

Service-life L h [h] for pinion and wheel

1

exp exp Lh 0.2876 0.4037 3 106 log log FGF FPFPsdauetatischr FPFPsdauetatischr exp n1

for structural steel and chilled steel, perlite or bainite pig with spheroidal graphite, perlite malleable cast iron (10 4 <N L <3 10 6 ):

for cemented steel and case-hardened steel, chilled steel and nitrided steel, gas-nitrided or nitrid- carburized, ferrite pig with spheroidal graphite, grey iron

Load duty cycle

According to DIN 3990 part 6

MDESIGN

Gears

The inputted load duty cycle will be sorted according the maximum values. Then for every load level an allowable load function (according to DIN 3990 part2) and so the maximal allowable stress cycles N i will be calculated.

The sum of damage U according to Palmgren-Miner will be calculate as follow:

U

Nnii

i

Notice:

In the DIN 3990 the calculation is according to original-Miner (only stress higher the fatigue stress will be taken into consideration) The ISO 6336 calculation is according to modified -Miner (also stress smaller the fatigue stress will be taken into consideration)

As graphical evaluation you receive a pitting maximum loading diagram for a pinion and a gear:

into consideration) As graphical evaluation you receive a pitting maximum loading diagram for a pinion and

MDESIGN

Gears

MDESIGN Gears scuffing load capacity Flash factor according to the integral and flash temperature method X

scuffing load capacity

Flash factor according to the integral and flash temperature method X MI [-] or X MB [-]

The flash factor describes the influence of material properties of a pinion and of a gear on the flash temperature.

Integral temperature method:

XMI

Flash temperature method:

2 1 BM 14 112 2 22 1 BM uE 1 uE EE 1 2
2
1
BM
14
112
2 22
1
BM uE 1 uE
EE
1
2
X
1 E 1
MB
E
1 12