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12 Ansichten9 SeitenThe following study consists of the thermal evaluation of the enclosure of a reinforced concrete biodigester, through the theoretical analysis of the influence of each component of the materials in the whole mixture, depending on the distinct values of thermal conductivity of the concrete. To determine this variable in each specific case, a review of the theoretical models developed over the years by experts in the field has been made to find the most suitable model for the case under study. The effect on the thermal conductivity of the variation in type and proportion of the basic elements making up the concrete is studied: the aggregate, the cement, the water/cement ratio, the porosity and the humidity among others, with the aim of providing a tool for estimating the thermal conductivity of a concrete created with the desired proportions. This tool is designed in the form of a nomogram for each specific case, in which conventional concrete, concrete with recycled aggregate from construction and demolition waste (CDW) and lightweight structural concrete are differentiated.

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The following study consists of the thermal evaluation of the enclosure of a reinforced concrete biodigester, through the theoretical analysis of the influence of each component of the materials in the whole mixture, depending on the distinct values of thermal conductivity of the concrete. To determine this variable in each specific case, a review of the theoretical models developed over the years by experts in the field has been made to find the most suitable model for the case under study. The effect on the thermal conductivity of the variation in type and proportion of the basic elements making up the concrete is studied: the aggregate, the cement, the water/cement ratio, the porosity and the humidity among others, with the aim of providing a tool for estimating the thermal conductivity of a concrete created with the desired proportions. This tool is designed in the form of a nomogram for each specific case, in which conventional concrete, concrete with recycled aggregate from construction and demolition waste (CDW) and lightweight structural concrete are differentiated.

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12 Ansichten9 SeitenThe following study consists of the thermal evaluation of the enclosure of a reinforced concrete biodigester, through the theoretical analysis of the influence of each component of the materials in the whole mixture, depending on the distinct values of thermal conductivity of the concrete. To determine this variable in each specific case, a review of the theoretical models developed over the years by experts in the field has been made to find the most suitable model for the case under study. The effect on the thermal conductivity of the variation in type and proportion of the basic elements making up the concrete is studied: the aggregate, the cement, the water/cement ratio, the porosity and the humidity among others, with the aim of providing a tool for estimating the thermal conductivity of a concrete created with the desired proportions. This tool is designed in the form of a nomogram for each specific case, in which conventional concrete, concrete with recycled aggregate from construction and demolition waste (CDW) and lightweight structural concrete are differentiated.

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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/enbuild

a, , Esteban Lpez Lpez b ,

Francisco Manuel Dez Ramrez a , Francisco Ballester Munoz

c

Agustn Valcarce Polanco

a

b

c

Department of Transport and technology of Projects and Processes, University of Cantabria, Santander, Cantabria, Spain

Biocantaber S.L., Santa Cruz de Bezana, Cantabria, Spain

Teican Medioambiental S.L., Boo de Pilagos, Cantabria, Spain

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 2 August 2012

Received in revised form 17 October 2012

Accepted 24 November 2012

Keywords:

Thermal conductivity

Concrete

Lightweight aggregate

Recycled aggregate

a b s t r a c t

The following study consists of the thermal evaluation of the enclosure of a reinforced concrete biodigester, through the theoretical analysis of the inuence of each component of the materials in the whole

mixture, depending on the distinct values of thermal conductivity of the concrete.

To determine this variable in each specic case, a review of the theoretical models developed over the

years by experts in the eld has been made to nd the most suitable model for the case under study.

The effect on the thermal conductivity of the variation in type and proportion of the basic elements

making up the concrete is studied: the aggregate, the cement, the water/cement ratio, the porosity and

the humidity among others, with the aim of providing a tool for estimating the thermal conductivity of

a concrete created with the desired proportions.

This tool is designed in the form of a nomogram for each specic case, in which conventional concrete, concrete with recycled aggregate from construction and demolition waste (CDW) and lightweight

structural concrete are differentiated.

2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Within the increasingly important setting of energy efciency

and renewable energy, the following study is focused on energy

savings in the generation of biogas, a technology which according

to the Spanish Renewable Energy Plan 20112020, will increase by

more than 50% over the period of the plan [1,2].

To take advantage of energy from biogas generated in anaerobic digesters using cogeneration, the use of internal combustion

engines is currently the most widespread mode for the production

of electricity. These engines provide a moderate electric performance, about 3540% efciency, while the remainder of the energy

is lost, up to 9095% in heat production and 510% in noise generation.

This heat is consumed in the biogas generation process, for heating the digesters. The efcient design of thermal insulation of these

digesters can enable much of this heat to be assigned to processes

other than the generation of biogas, such as drying digestates, or

district heating within the area where heat is supplied to farms,

greenhouses, pools, urban areas, etc.

This study originates from previous research carried out by the

research group entitled Thermal evaluation and optimization for

biogas-producing biodigesters. The possibilities provided by concrete, enable this research line to be continued with the aim of

studying the degree to which the material of the biodigester can

reduce the thermal conductivity of the walls. This lower thermal

conductivity makes the biogas production more energy efcient

and, owing to the lower consumption of the digester, reduces the

amount of CO2 emitted.

2. Determination of the thermal conductivity of concrete

2.1. Initial analysis

Thermal transmittance U (W/m2 K) is dened as the amount of

energy passing through a specic surface area in a time unit. It is

given by the following expression [3]:

U=

0378-7788/$ see front matter 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2012.11.036

(1)

where RT is the total thermal resistance of the construction component (m2 K/W).

In the same way, the thermal resistance of a homogeneous thermal layer is dened by the expression [3]:

R=

Corresponding author.

1

RT

e

(2)

where e is the thickness of the layer (m), is the thermal conductivity of the material of the layer (W/m K).

311

by Valore, as a function of the conductivities p and a of the cement paste and

aggregate, and the fraction Va of the volume of aggregate. ACI 122R-02 [12].

a value between 0.09 and 2.30 W/m K, basically depending on the

type of aggregate, its composition and its air content. Nevertheless,

the presence of humidity is a determinant factor in the nal thermal

resistance of the material [4].

While values of thermal conductivity of concrete are reported in

the different norms, the variation of the components in the mixture

in the concrete leads to different values and trends, which are difcult to obtain if the calculations are not performed experimentally.

Fig. 2. Comparison between the results obtained through the application of Valores

Cubic Model [1012] and the experimental results obtained by Kim et al. dry conditions [13]. Polynomial extrapolations in both cases.

Due to the lack of tests in this study, the most important theoretical models within the subject area were reviewed in order to

determine which one ts the case studies with greatest precision.

Thus, several models were considered, such as the one proposed

by Campbell-Allen and Thorne (1963) [5], whose fundamental characteristics are based on the decomposition of concrete in its phases;

the model known as the Effective Medium Approximation (EMA),

with application to porous media, which is applied to concrete in

various studies [6], such as Hamilton and Crosser, cited in Refs.

[68]; and the advanced models proposed by Zimmerman (1989)

[9], Verma et al. (1991), Tavman (1996), Bouguerra (1998) and

Jagjiwanram (2004), which as well as taking into account porosity,

introduce the shape, size, angularity, etc. of the pores [6].

However, due in part to the difculty associated with estimating

certain variables in the absence of experimental measurements,

and partly to the good results obtained, for the development of

this study, another model, based on the analysis of the thermal

conductivity of concrete as a two-phase system, is used. It is named

the cubic model [10].

The model can be used to calculate the conductivity of concrete

H depending on the conductivity of the cement paste P , the conductivity of the aggregate a and its volume Va . As shown in Fig. 1,

the model consists of a cubic unit of volume of aggregate enclosed

in a layer of cement with a thickness of (1(Va )1/3 )/2 [1012]:

(2/3)

H = P [Va

(2/3)

+ 1 Va

(2/3)

/(Va

(2/3)

Va + (Va /((a Va

/P )

)))]

Fig. 3. Comparison between the results obtained using the correction applied by

Valore to his Cubic Model [1012] and the experimental results obtained by Kim et

al. wet conditions [13]. Polynomial extrapolations in both cases.

limestone aggregate are 0.77 W/m K and 2.91 W/m K [13].

These conditions are interpreted using Valores Cubic Model and

the experimental and theoretical cases are reected in Table 1 and

Table 2, both in dry and in wet state [1012].

It can be observed that in both cases, values obtained for

the thermal conductivity of concrete using Valores Cubic Model

are very close to those obtained through experimental studies

(Figs. 2 and 3).

3. Thermal analysis of conventional and non-conventional

concretes

3.1. Conventional concrete

Variations in type and volume of aggregate are one of the most

important aspects to evaluate the thermal conductivity of concrete.

(3)

In the experimental study of Kim et al. [13], an equation was

developed based on the seven parameters with greatest effect on

the thermal conductivities of concrete, mortar and cement paste

(age, volume of aggregate, water/cement ratio, type of additives,

ne aggregate fraction, temperature and humidity conditions) [6].

Some of the results obtained were used to conrm that the theoretical model proposed by Valore is suitable for the case under study.

This study uses a cement paste with a specic weight of

3.15 kg/dm3 , specic surface of 321 m2 /kg, a water/cement ratio

of 0.4 and characteristic compressive strength of 36 MPa. The

and Koronthalyova [15]. Potentially extrapolated trendline.

312

from construction and demolition waste. Polynomial extrapolations.

of theSpanish Technical Building Code (Cdigo Tcnico de la Edicacin, CTE) [14] will be taken into account, where 2 W/m K is

considered to be a suitable value for a hard/very hard limestone

(Table 3).

Thus, the thermal conductivity of aggregate largely determines

the quality of thermal insulation of concrete. According to Valore,

using quartzite aggregate instead of limestone aggregate [14] can

produce a concrete with a 50% higher values of thermal conductivity.

Cement paste also plays a relevant role in determining the

thermal conductivity of the mixture, so that w/c ratio has an outstanding inuence in this aspect.

An increase in the w/c ratio leads to a rise of the volume of the

micropores in the cement paste [6]. The higher porosity results in

a decrease of the thermal conductivity of the mixture, due to the

higher volume of air.

Correlations between w/c ratio and hydration of the cement

paste have been studied, providing the porosity values.

weight). Obtained from the inspection and extraction of the components of the

samples of 250 g of recycled aggregate.

Extracted from Ref. [18].

Table 1

Thermal conductivity values obtained by Kim et al. [13] for given conditions of w/c ratio, ne aggregate/total aggregate proportion and aggregate volume.

w/c (%)

Aggregate volume

40

40

40

40

40

40

40

39

39

39

39

39

39

39

0.70

0.63

0.56

0.49

0.35

0.21

0.00

Concrete (wet)

Concrete (dry)

2.46

2.33

2.24

1.96

1.71

1.39

1.16

1.96

1.94

1.77

1.53

1.28

1.00

0.77

Table 2

Thermal conductivity values obtained by applying the Cubic Model proposed by Valore [1012]. Values from the study of Kim et al. [13] have been taken account.

Aggregate volume

0.80

0.75

0.70

0.65

0.60

0.55

0.50

0.45

0.40

0.35

0.30

0.25

0.20

Aggregate (limestone)

Cement paste

Concrete (dry)

Concrete (wet)

2.91

0.77

2.23

2.10

1.97

1.86

1.75

1.65

1.56

1.47

1.38

1.30

1.22

1.15

1.08

2.79

2.63

2.46

2.32

2.19

2.06

1.95

1.84

1.72

1.63

1.53

1.44

1.35

313

Fig. 8. Nomogram for conventional concrete, based on the recommendations of the ACI Norm 211.1-91 [19].

relationship between total porosity and thermal conductivity of

cement mortars and cement pastes (in dry conditions):

=

1

(2 /0.063)

(4)

Table 3

Thermal conductivity values of different aggregate type CTE [14].

Type of aggregate

Thermal conductivity

(W/m K)

Limestone

Siliceous

Granite

Sandstone

Basalt

Quartzite

2.0

2.6

2.8

3.0

3.5

4.0

of the concrete (m3 /m3 ).

Values obtained from the graph are better suited to cement

pastes and aerated concretes, where porosity is a determining factor of their main features (Fig. 4).

However, in order to determine the thermal conductivity of

cement paste in function of w/c ratio, the study of Kim et al. [13]

has been taken into account in this study. Results can be observed

in Table 4.

The previously used value of 0.77 W/mK was determined

according to this study, and correspond to the w/c value of 0.4 in

dry conditions, as shown in Table 4.

3.2. Lightweight structural concrete

The Spanish Structural Concrete Regulation (Instruccin de

Hormign Estructural, EHE) considers structural lightweight

314

density of between 1.2 kg/dm3 and 2 kg/dm3 , with a proportion of

lightweight aggregate, either natural or articial, excluding in this

category other lightweight concretes, such as cellular concrete and

concrete without nes [17].

Within this type of aggregate, the features of expanded clay

and expanded shale stand out structurally. These are the most

widely used lightweight aggregates, achieving with them concrete

densities between 0.6 and 1.9 kg/dm3 , with strengths of between

12 N/mm2 and 25 N/mm2 [4].

According to the Constructive Elements Catalogue of the CTE

[14], the characteristic thermal conductivity of expanded clay

varies between 0.148 and 0.095 W/m K, a very much lower value

than that of limestone, producing concretes with very high thermal

resistance.

In the graph of Fig. 5 developed using Valores Cubic Model

[10,11] (for a concrete with a soft consistency, a maximum aggregate size of 12.7 mm, a w/c ratio of 0.4, a cement content of

482.5 kg/m3 , with a 65% by volume of aggregate, of which 54%

is coarse aggregate, and 46% is ne aggregate), the variation of

the thermal conductivity, as the proportion of coarse lightweight

aggregate is modied, can be observed.

Table 4

Effects of the w/c ratio on the thermal conductivity of cement pastes, Kim et al. [13].

Extrapolation from 0.4 to 0.6 w/c ratio has been made.

w/c (%)

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

Cement paste (wet)

20 C

20 C

1.26

1.22

1.20

1.16

1.13

1.10

1.07

1.03

0.98

0.96

0.86

0.77

0.71

0.64

0.56

0.49

Table 5

Dosage per m3 for different percentages of recycled aggregate in a H25 concrete

[18].

Components

0%

20%

50%

100%

Cement (kg)

Water (kg)

Sand (kg)

Gravel coarse (kg)

Gravel medium size (kg)

Recycled gravel (kg)

w/c

Paste/aggregate

275

178.75

843.01

751.96

225.91

0

0.65

0.36

275

178.75

877.77

564.69

169.65

183.58

0.65

0.36

275

178.75

848.6

349.67

105.05

454.72

0.65

0.36

275

178.75

868.15

0

0

830.11

0.65

0.36

EHE 08 [17] describes recycled concrete, as concrete made with

recycled coarse aggregate, obtained from the crushing of concrete

waste.

Thus, it is logical to think the recycled aggregate from construction and demolition waste would display lower values of thermal

conductivity mainly due to the presence of an aggregate with a

lower density and thermal conductivity than the natural aggregate,

but also due to higher porosity.

Based on visual separation carried out in the Faculty of Civil Engineering of the University of Cantabria in the Integral construction

waste assessment plan [18], typical percentages of composition of

a recycled concrete are provided (Fig. 6).

Table 6

Dosage per m3 for different percentages of recycled aggregate in a H40 concrete

[18].

Components

0%

20%

50%

100%

Cement (kg)

Water (kg)

Sand (kg)

Gravel coarse (kg)

Gravel medium size (kg)

Recycled gravel (kg)

w/c

Paste/aggregate

380

190

713.9

882.2

121.59

0

0.50

0.45

380

190

744.45

665.28

91.69

189.24

0.50

0.45

380

190

709.54

414.06

57.07

471.12

0.50

0.45

380

190

714.56

0

0

874.04

0.50

0.45

315

This separation is essential to establish how each component affects the total composition, and elucidate a mean

thermal conductivity, which is valid to be assigned in the

study.

In this study, dosages are established for two types of concrete

(H25 and H40), according to the CEDEX indications, varying the

proportion of coarse aggregate and recycled aggregate from 0 to

100%, as shown in Table 5 and Table 6.

of the mixture. It is known that the dry density of the recycled

concrete under study is 2.185 kg/m3 .

An interpolation trough the different percentages in the recycled

aggregate has been made in order to obtain the average value of its

thermal conductivity (Table 7). It is necessary to know the percentages of volume of each component to estimate their importance in

the aggregate.

Table 7

Main characteristics of recycled aggregate [18].

Material

Density (kg/m3 )

Percentage (weight)

Percentage (volume)

Mortar

Gravel

Brick

Asphalt

Gypsum

1900

2450

2300

2100

750

1.4

2.00

0.85

0.70

0.30

52

44

1.50

1.50

0.70

57.45

37.70

1.37

1.50

1.97

316

estimated from the following equation:

recycled =

(1 V1 + 2 V2 + + n Vn )

(V1 + V2 + + Vn )

thermal conductivity, which in turn is more inuenced by the percentage of recycled aggregate present.

(5)

is the total volume of each aggregate (m3 /m3 ).

The different percentages of aggregate, the content of cement

and the w/c ratio of each concrete, along with the average thermal conductivity of the recycled aggregate, 1.58 W/m K, allowed

the chart from Fig. 7 to be elaborated for the two specic cases

mentioned [18].

A decrease in thermal conductivity of the mixture can be

observed as the proportion of recycled aggregate increases.

The difference between the two concretes is basically due to

a greater proportion of cement paste, with a lower thermal conductivity, which implies a lower aggregate content, with a higher

4. Results

As a result of the investigation, a set of nomograms have been

developed to facilitate the choice of components and their proportions in the concrete, in order to obtain the best use of energy. As

was mentioned, the variation of a single component within the

material, not only affects the complete mixture, but also directly

alters the other components, making it difcult to assess the effect

of variation of each element independently.

These nomograms provide a complete picture of each individual

case, enabling the engineer in a simple way to observe the effect

of changes in the proportions and type of each component on the

concretes thermal conductivity (Figs. 811).

Table 8

Strength of concrete in terms of w/c ratio and percentage of recycled aggregate.

w/c ratio

0.35

0.40

0.45

0.50

0.55

0.60

0.65

0.70

0% recycled

aggregate

2050% recycled

aggregate

100% recycled

aggregate

59.00

50.00

43.00

37.50

33.00

29.25

26.00

23.25

54.88

46.51

40.00

34.88

30.70

27.21

24.19

21.63

51.30

43.48

37.39

32.61

28.70

25.43

22.61

20.22

317

consistency and specic air content, instead of the use of the w/c

ratio [23].

Ranges of values are determined that reect the results found in

dozens of tests, rstly, for a concrete in which the thick aggregate

is substituted (sand lightweight), and secondly for a complete

substitution of the aggregate (all lightweight).

For the case dealt with in the guides, a conductivity of cement

paste of 0.7 W/m K is assumed, with a coarse aggregate/ne aggregate ratio of 1.5/1. Natural limestone aggregate was used, with a

thermal conductivity of 2 W/m K, and expanded clay as a structural

lightweight aggregate, with a thermal conductivity of 0.12 W/m K,

obtained as the mean of the range of values contained in the Catalogue of construction components of the CTE [14].

5. Discussion

The guide consists in the graphic interpretation of the recommendations of the American Concrete Institute (ACI) in its

document Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Normal,

Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete (ACI 211.1-91) [19].

The cement content for each water/cement ratio is determined

and then, assuming a constant thermal conductivity in the cement

paste of 0.7 W/m K, and depending on the type of aggregate considered [20], the thermal conductivity of the dry concrete is obtained.

The damp state, according to Valore [1012], would require multiplying the latter value by 1.25.

4.2. Recycled concrete with aggregate from construction and

demolition waste

To plot the strength versus w/c ratio curves, the recommendations followed in Ref. [21] are taken into account. The study assumes

a concrete made with CEM-I-42.5 R cement, silica sand, crushedlimestone coarse aggregate, the same maximum size of 20 mm and

recycled aggregate with 31% presence of adhered mortar with a

density of 1.74 kg/dm3 .

The De La Pena formulation, related to the percentage of w/c

and the characteristic strength of concrete control was chosen. For

the different proportions, reduction coefcients listed in Ref. [21]

are assumed (Table 8).

Due to the many variables which affect the thermal conductivity

of concrete, it is necessary to x some of them, while taking into

account that their ideal proportions vary as ratios are varied. In this

way, the thermal conductivity of the cement paste is assumed to

be constant with a value of 0.7 W/m K, and the cement content is

given in Table 9:

Thermal conductivity of recycled aggregate and limestone

aggregate is assumed to be 1.58 W/m K and 2 W/m K respectively.

Thermal conductivity of the mixture is reduced as the recycled

aggregate is more important within the amount of aggregate. The

proportion coarse aggregate/ne aggregate has been always constant with a value of 1.50.

4.3. Lightweight structural concrete

Both graphs are based on the study developed to compile the

Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for lightweight concrete (ACI 211.2-98) [20,22]. The strength of lightweight structural

concrete is generally related to the content of cement for a specic

so that the results of their use are similar to the values of thermal

conductivity observed in the literature.

Although, the studies consulted about recycled concrete do not

cover aspects such as its thermal behavior, which is an important

aspect to consider in the future for this type of concrete. Moreover, studies about thermal conductivity in structural lightweight

concrete are more frequent.

Thus, in the study of Wang and Tsai [24], several types of

lightweight concrete have been analyzed, formed from three different particle density of sintered dredged silt. They use three different

w/c ratios, 0.39, 0.48 and 0.69, with a constant amount of water,

150 kg/m3 , and the ratio lightweight coarse aggregate/natural ne

aggregate remains constant between 55/45 and 60/40, so that the

use of the sand lightweight concrete nomogram is justied.

The results differ slightly, given that the values of thermal

conductivity obtained in [24] range between 0.55 W/m K and

0.7 W/m K, while the nomogram gives a value of 0.7 W/m K.

On the other hand, lightweight concretes with expanded perlite have been analyzed in the study of Sengul et al. [25]. They

use cement contents of around 300 kg/m3 and w/c ratios of 0.55.

The study conrms that the reduction in thermal conductivity of

concrete when replacing 80% of its aggregate by light aggregate is

65%.

When comparing this case with the nomograms, in rst place, a

conventional concrete with a thermal conductivity of 1.5 W/m K

is obtained (300 kg/m3 cement, w/c 0.55 and water content of

165 kg/m3 ). With the same composition, substituting 80% of the

aggregate in the all lightweight nomogram, a value of thermal conductivity of 0.5 W/m K is obtained, which is similar to the

value obtained by reducing 65% of the initial thermal conductivity

(0.525 W/m K).

Also, concretes of higher thermal resistance can be analyzed.

In the study of Mohammad Al-Baijat [26], it is not specied the

concrete composition, but nevertheless they obtain two different

values of thermal conductivity, in the rst case using limestone

aggregate and basalt aggregate for the second case. The results are

values of 1.75 W/m K and 2.3 W/m K respectively.

If a concrete with a value of thermal conductivity of 1.75 W/m K

is obtained using limestone aggregate when conventional concrete nomogram is used, and all the proportions of the mixture

remains constant, it is observed that the replacement of this aggregate by basalt, provides a concrete with a thermal conductivity of

2.4 W/m K.

Table 9

Content of cement for each percentage of recycled aggregate.

6. Conclusions

0%

300

20%

350

50%

375

100%

400

provides some advantages which derive from the versatility of

318

materials, with good ever-increasing, mechanical strength and low

energy consumption [4].

In the study, the variation in volume and type of aggregate,

water/cement ratio, humidity and porosity, etc. enable concretes to

be obtained with different thermal properties, without undergoing

substantial changes in composition.

The use of recycled concrete with aggregate from construction and demolition waste, mechanically proven through numerous

trials over the years, provides concrete with a better energy performance, which added to the substantial reduction in the impact on

the environment and its cost, makes this material a good alternative

to consider in designing biodigesters.

Finally, structural lightweight concrete, which increases the

strength/weight ratio, which is low in conventional concrete, provides the greatest savings in energy consumption of all cases

studied. It has been demonstrated that a mixture with good

mechanical performance can still provide good thermal behaviour.

Although in this case, the cost of the concrete is increased, its

evaluation value is subject to the benet contributed by the signicant savings in energy consumption that this type of concrete

provides.

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Energtica 20112020, Evaluacin Ambiental Estratgica.

[3] Cdigo Tcnico de la Edicacin, Documento Bsico HE Ahorro de Energa.

[4] Manuel Fernndez Cnovas, Hormign, Novena Edicin, Septiembre 2011.

I.S.B.N.: 978-84-380-0364-0.

[5] D. Campbell-Allen, C.P. Thorne, The thermal conductivity of concrete, Magazine

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[6] C. Becchio, S.P. Corgnati, A. Kindinis, S. Pagliolico, Improving environmental sustainability of concrete products: Investigation on MWC thermal and

mechanical properties, Energy and Buildings 41 (2009) 11271134.

[7] M.I. Khan, Factors affecting the thermal properties of concrete and applicability

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