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# Friction Problems

Problem # 1
A block of mass M = 10 kg is sitting on a surface inclined at angle = 45. Given that the
coefficient of static friction is s = 0.5 between block and surface, what is the minimum
force F necessary to prevent slipping? What is the maximum force F that can be exerted without
causing the block to slip?

## Hint and answer for Problem # 1

The minimum force required to prevent slipping is the minimum force that will prevent the block
from sliding down the incline. It is Fmin = 10gsin(45)10gcos(45)x0.5. The maximum force that
can be exerted without causing the block to slip is the maximum force that can be exerted
without causing the block to slide up the incline. It is Fmax = 10gsin(45)+10gcos(45)x0.5.
Answer: Fmin = 34.65 N, Fmax = 103.94 N

Problem # 2
In the previous problem use = 15. What is the maximum force pushing down the incline so
that the block doesn't slip? What is the maximum force pushing up the incline so that the block
doesn't slip?
Hint and answer for Problem # 2
The maximum force pushing down the incline is 10gcos(15)x0.510gsin(15). The maximum
force pushing up the incline is 10gcos(15)x0.5+10gsin(15).
Answer: Fmax = 21.97 N (pushing down the incline), Fmax = 72.69 N (pushing up the incline)

Problem # 3
A conveyor is dumping sand onto a cone shaped pile. Given that the coefficient of static friction
between the sand grains is s, what is the maximum angle ?

## Hint and answer for Problem # 3

The maximum sliding angle is . By analogy, we can analyze this as a block sitting on an incline
which has friction. The force of gravity pulling down on the block is F1 = Mgsin, where M is the
mass of the block. The maximum friction force opposing the sliding is F2 = Mgcoss. At some
angle the block will be on the verge of sliding. This is the maximum angle and occurs
when F1 = F2. The maximum angle can be solved from this.

Problem # 4
A uniform ladder of length L is leaning against the side of a building, as shown. A person of
mass m = 75 kg is standing on it. The mass of the ladder is M = 10 kg. The coefficient of static
friction between the ground and ladder is s1 = 0.5, and the coefficient of static friction between
the wall and ladder is s2 = 0.3. What is the minimum angle so that the ladder doesn't slip?

## Hint and answer for Problem # 4

This is a good static equilibrium problem. It is particularly interesting because almost everyone
has stood on a ladder before, but little thought is usually given to the minimum angle to avoid
slipping. It is something you just sense intuitively.
The minimum angle must correspond to the case where the person is standing at the very top
of the ladder, since this produces a limiting condition where ladder slip is most likely.
Use the following sign convention: The upward and rightward direction is positive. The
downward and leftward direction is negative. Counterclockwise rotation is positive. Clockwise
rotation is negative.

Apply the condition of rotational equilibrium. Take the sum of the moments about the base of the
ladder. This gives us: mgLcos+Mg(L/2)cosN2sinLF2cosL = 0, where N2 is the
(horizontal) normal force at the wall, F2 is the (vertical) friction force at the wall, and L/2 (in the
second term) corresponds to the midpoint of the ladder and is the point at which the
gravitational force acts, since the ladder is uniform. Call this equation (1).
Apply the condition of horizontal equilibrium: N2 = F1, where F1 is the (horizontal) friction force at
the ground. Call this equation (2).
Apply the condition of vertical equilibrium: -Mgmg+F2+N1 = 0, where N1 is the (vertical) normal
force at the ground. Call this equation (3).
The maximum allowable friction force at the wall is: F2 = s2N2. Call this equation (4).
The maximum allowable friction force at the ground is: F1 = s1N1. Call this equation (5).
Combine equations (1)-(5) to obtain an equation for . Note that the length of the
ladder L cancels out. We have:
tan = (2m+MMs1s2)/(2s1m+2s1M). We can then substitute the known values to calculate ,
which is the minimum angle to prevent slipping.

Problem # 5
Two boards are bolted together with two bolts, as shown. The squeeze force between the
boards is 500 lbs. If the shear strength of each bolt is 5000 lbs and the coefficient of static
friction between the boards is s = 0.5, what is the maximum force F that can be applied to the
boards and not pull them apart?

## Hint and answer for Problem # 5

To pull the boards apart the friction force between the boards, plus the shear strength of the
bolts, must be exceeded. Therefore the maximum pull force must be below the force needed to
do this. Hence, Fmax = 2x5000+500x0.5.

Problem # 6
A 50 kg crate is being pushed on a horizontal floor at constant velocity. Given that the coefficient
of kinetic friction between crate and floor is k = 0.1, what is the push force F? (Answer: 49 N)

Problem # 7
In the previous problem we are given that the coefficient of static friction between crate and floor
is s = 0.2. What is the minimum force F to overcome friction with the floor? (Answer: 98 N)

Problem # 8
Two children throw a rope over a tree branch and hang off each end. The children have a mass

of 40 kg and 50 kg. What is the minimum coefficient of static friction between rope and tree
branch so that the rope doesn't slip? To solve this consider the general equation T2 = T1e,
where T1 andT2 are the rope tensions on the two ends (with T2 > T1), is the coefficient of static
friction between rope and tree branch, and is the angle of contact between rope and branch,
in radians. For example, if the rope wraps completely around the branch then the angle = 2.