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B R Jayalekshmi 1, Deepthi Poojary V.G.2, R.Shivashankar3, Katta Venkataramana3

1

National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal 575025

ABSTRACT

The interaction among structures, their foundations and the soil medium below the foundations alter the

actual behavior of the structure considerably than what is obtained from the consideration of the structure

alone. Thus the flexibility of the support reduces the stiffness of the structure and increases the period of

the system. In the present study the dynamic characteristics of the three-dimensional structure-foundationsoil system of a building model is studied by time history analysis using modified Elcentro ground motion

record. The very soft soil and soil reinforced with Tensar geogrids placed in three layers below the

foundation is considered. Finite element analysis of the integrated system is carried out using finite element

software. The change in the dynamic characteristics of the structure due to the incorporation of the effect of

flexibility of soil and the effect of reinforced soil is noted. The time histories and Fourier spectra of

displacement and base shear are presented and the variation in structural seismic response for various

parameters is compared to that of a fixed base structure.

Key words: Dynamic soil structure interaction, time history analysis, Fourier spectra, geogrid.

INTRODUCTION

strength, soil can be reinforced with foreign material

Documented

under

capable

in

of

providing

very

high

strength

case

earthquake

histories

of

loading[8,9].

seismic

However,

field

field

quantities of the structure under seismic loading as

The structures are assumed to be resting on very soft

Model of structure - foundation - soil interacting

system

kN/m2, and a poissons ratio of 0.3. The bearing

structure system with and without geogrid

kN/m2 and 18 kN/m3. The soil is assumed to be

reinforcement is performed.

mass beyond the outermost footing is considered as 4

Structural idealization

three dimensional space frames consisting of two

element with 3 DOF at each node.

node.The Slabs are modeled with four nodded plate

which supports the superstructure, is also discretized

as 4 nodded plate bending element. The element

has bending and membrane capabilities, both in-plane

and normal loads are permitted. The behavior of

superstructure and foundation is assumed as elastic

and is modeled using two parameters, the modulus of

elasticity E and poissons ratio . Structural members

are considered to be reinforced concrete of grade

M20.Value of E is 22.36 GPa, is 0.15 and density

of concrete is 25 kN/m3. The bay length of the

building is taken as 4.0 m and height as 3 m for all

the cases. Sizes of beams and columns as 230mm x

400 mm. Thickness of slab is taken as 150mm and

wall as 230mm with density of 20 kN/m3.The

geometric sizes and loadings on the frames have been

arrived

requirement

taken as 3 kN/m2. Square footing of size 2m x 2m

with 500mm thickness is considered

for all

and two bay structures with one storey designated as

1x1x1 and 2x2x1 with fixed base and resting on very

soft soil with and without reinforcement.

geogrid designated as reinforced soil20 with the

vertical spacing between the consecutive geogrid

layers as h equal to 0.5 m. The top layer of geogrid is

located at a depth u equal to 0.5 m measured from the

bottom of the foundation. The width of the geogrid

reinforcements under the foundation is calculated as

b equal to the total footing area and extending a

distance of B i.e. width of footing, beyond the

outermost footing . The depth of reinforcement, d,

below the bottom of the foundation can be given as d

= u + (N-1) B where N is the number of layers of

geogrid [3] as shown in the fig1. The specification of

the geogrid considered is Tensar SR2. Its tensile

strength is taken as 150 kN/m with 2% strain and

thickness of 1.2 mm with weight of 0.85 kg/m2 . The

geogrid elements have been idealized as 4 nodded

plate

element,

with

bending

and

membrane

modulus of elasticity E =2.065 x 107 and poissons

ratio = 0.2.

Ground motion

METHODOLOGY

Three-dimensional finite element modeling of the

whole structure foundation soil system is generated

Fig.1 Foundation on geogrid reinforced soil

The effect of dynamic soil structure interaction of

reinforced and non reinforced soft soil on the

building frames is studied under the modified

acceleration time history that correspond to a peak

ground acceleration of 0.5 g of the earthquake ground

motion of Imperial Valley Earthquake, Station

Elcentro (1940).The Predominant period of this

motion lies in the range of 1.16 Hz to 3.79 Hz. Fig

3.represents

the acceleration

type of transient analysis, Alpha and Beta damping

are calculated from modal damping ratios, i , for a

particular mode of vibration i, based on Rayleigh

Damping [1], such that the critical damping is taken

as 5%.

Elcentro motion

The seismic structural response of 1x1x1 and 2x2x1

building for Elcentro motion with and without

geogrids is studied. The variation of natural period

and structural response for various parameters like

roof displacements and base shear for very soft soil

with and without geogrids are tabulated in table 1 and

Fourier spectra of the same are presented in fig 8 to

fig 15 and comparisons are made with those obtained

Natural

2x2x1 i Period (sec) 0.43

Displacemen

ii t

0.54

185

Base Shear

iii (kN)

1028.5 4728.06

0.55

25.55

26.64

195.34

336.53

360.92

4952.16

359.73

381.52

geogrids,

base condition.

of

reinforced soil

the

the

increase

response

in

quantities.

structural

The

response

predominant

1x1x1 structure lies in the range of 1.5 Hz to 2.7 Hz

It is observed here that, natural period increases as

the number of bays increases and the percentage

variation of natural period decreases with increase in

number of bays for the building models.

undergoes

considerable

displacement

in

this

this response by 40 % for one bay structure and 24 %

for the two bay structures. Similar variation is

CONCLUSIONS

increase in the displacement and base shear in

quantities for Elcentro Earthquake

Frame

type

Parameters

Natural period(sec)

0.60

0.50

0.40

1X1X1

0.30

2X2X1

0.20

0.10

0.00

Fixed

soil w ith

geogrid

soil w ithout

geogrid

Support condition

% Variation

Reinforce

Reinforce

Fixed d soil20

Soil20

d soil20 Soil20

Natural

1x1x1 i Period (sec) 0.37

Displacemen

ii t

0.52

Base Shear

iii (kN)

352.48 1266.89

0.53

41.4

43.81

141.88

362.478 402.42

1376.52

259.42

290.53

and 2x2x1 building

Displacement(mm)

250.00

200.00

150.00

1X1X1

100.00

2X2X1

50.00

0.00

Fixed

soil w ith

geogrid

soil w ithout

geogrid

and 2x2x1 building

2x2x1 building

Baseshear kN

6000.00

5000.00

4000.00

1X1X1

3000.00

2X2X1

2000.00

1000.00

0.00

Fixed

soil with

geogrid

soil without

geogrid

and 2x2x1 building

1x1x1 building

1x1x1 building

2x2x1 building

1x1x1 building

1x1x1 building

REFERENCES

[1] Anil, K. Chopra (2003) Dynamics of structures

Theory and application to Earthquake Engineering

, Prentice hall , New Delhi.

[2] Bowles, J.E. (1998).Foundation Analysis and

design, McGraw Hill, New York.

Fig 14. Variation of Base Shear for 2x2x1 building

Bearing capacity and settlement, CRC press, New

York.

[4] IS 1893 (Part I): 2002 Criteria for Earthquake

Resistant Design of Structures - General provisions

and Buildings, Bureau of Indian Standards, New

Delhi.

[5] IS 456:2000 Plain and Reinforced Concrete

Code of Practice, Bureau of Indian standards, New

Delhi.

2x2x1 building

analysis

of

reinforced

soil-foundation-structure

soft soil beds with appropriate number of layers,

positioning and stiffening properties of geosynthetics,

the seismic response quantities can be reduced closer

to the fixed base condition.

for design Loads ( Other than Earthquake ) for

buildings and structures ,

Bureau of Indian

Standards , New Delhi.

[7] John P. Wolf (1985) , Dynamic Soil-Structure

Interaction , Prentice- Hall, Inc , Englewood Cliffs,

New Jersey

[8] Christopher Burke , Hoe I.ling and Huabei

Liu(2004), Seismic Response Analysis of a Fullscale reinforced soil retaining wall,17 th ASCE

Engineering Mechanics conference, newmark,DE.

[9] C.R.Patra , B.M.Das and C. Atalar (2005),

Bearing Capacity of embedded strip foundation on

geogrid-reinforced sand , Geotextiles and

Geomembranes, vol 23 , 454-462.

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