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Aesthetic value

Aesthetic values such as

refreshing fragrance of the flowers,
taste of berries,
softness of mossed,
melodious songs of birds, etc. compel the human beings to
preserve them.
The earths natural beauty with its colour and hues, thick
forest, and graceful beasts has inspired the human beings
from their date of birth to take necessary steps for its

Similarly botanical and zoological gardens are the means of

biodiversity conservation and are of aesthetic values.
Only for your information

Human beings derive great enjoyment from natural environment. The

shapes, structure and colour stimulate our senses. Eco-tourism (to enjoy
the aesthetic value of biodiversity)

Remember 2-3 points only

Should we be concerned about

loss of biodiversity?

What we know:

The Earth is losing species at an alarming rate

In the past 500 years, we know of approximately

1,000 species that have gone extinct


Some 75 per cent of the genetic diversity of crop

plants been lost in the past century.
Some scientists estimate that as many as 3 species per hour are
going extinct and 20,000 extinctions occur each year.
Roughly one-third of the worlds coral reef systems have been
destroyed or highly degraded.
About 24 per cent of mammals and 12 per cent of bird species
are currently considered to be globally threatened.
More than 50 per cent of the worlds wetlands have been
drained, and populations of inland water and wetland species
have declined by 50per cent between 1970 and 1999.
No need to memorize line by line, only for your information


Natural causes:
Narrow geographical area
Low population
Low breeding rate
Natural disasters
Anthropogenic causes:
Habitat modification
Overexploitation of
selected species


Global warming and
climate change
Domino effect

Poaching of wildlife

What is Poaching ?

only for your information

Poaching is not limited to animals ,its

also for plants too.!!
only for your information

How does poaching affect the environment ?

Stop Poaching.!!

Habital loss

Reason of habitat loss :

Solutions :

No need to memorize line by line, but go through it twice

Man Wildlife

Causes of Man-Animal Conflicts:

i. Habitat fragmentation and shrinking of habitat give rise to shrinking

of space, food etc in the forest result in animals stray out of habitat in
search of food, water or shelter.
This habitat fragmentation may be result of many reasons, for
example, construction of roads especially big Highways and canals
passing through dense jungles and the big mines.
Animals cannot pass these canals and roads easily and they are
localized and their natural balance is disturbed.

ii. Encroachment in the forest lands by local people has resulted in

shrinkage of wildlife habitats especially on the fringes which has
increased the pressure on the limited natural resources in the forest
iii. Most incidences of man-animal conflicts are noticed during
summer when water becomes scarce. The livestock and wild animals
have to share the limited water sources on the fringes or inside forest
but go through it twice to remember the points

Only for your information

The wild animals involved in these conflicts in this area are mostly
Tiger, Leopard, Wild boar, Bear, Hyena, Blue bull, Chital, Sambar,
Monkeys etc.
The crops like paddy, sugarcane, banana, pulses and vegetables etc are
badly damaged mostly by wild boars, deer and blue bulls in this area
which raid into the crops frequently leaving the owner farmers crying
and cursing.

No need to memorize line by line neither the data

After 250 nilgai or blue bulls were

shot in Bihar on 9th June, 2016
because acres of crops were being
destroyed in areas where they
exist in large numbers and
regularly stray onto farms growing
crops like wheat and pulses. is
found in small patches around the

Ways to reduce the conflicts..!

Extinct Species

The current loss of biodiversity and the related changes in the environment are
now faster than ever before in human history and there
is no sign of this process slowing down. Many animal and plant population have
declined in numbers, geographical spread, or both.
Species extinction is a natural part of Earths history. Human activity has
increased the extinction rate by at least 100 times compared to the natural rate.
Extinct species- are plants or animals that once lived on Earth that have
completely disappeared.

No need to memorize line by line,

The dodo was a bird endemic to the Indian Ocean island

of Mauritius.
It stood about a metre (3.3 feet) tall, weighing about 20
kilograms (44 lb).
The dodo was first mentioned by Dutch sailors in 1598.
By 1681, all dodos had been killed by hungry sailors or
their domesticated animals.
The extinction of the bird, within 80 years of its
discovery, made people realize for the first time that
humans could induce the extinction of plants and

Endangered Species

An Endangered Species- is a plant or animal

that is in danger of becoming extinct.
List of endangered species
A Threatened Species- plants or animals that
may become endangered in the near future


No. of Indian

% of Indian species

Species Threatened
In India












Freshwater Fish






Source- Based on Kumar 2000



No need to memorize the data, only for your information

How can we conserve biodiversity ?

Restoration of Biodiversity
Imparting Environmental Education
Population Control
Reviewing the agriculture practice
Controlling Urbanization
Control over pollution.
Conservation through Biotechnology


Biodiversity inventories
Conserving Biodiversity in protected HabitatsIn situ conservation
Ex situ conservation
Seed Bank, Gene Bank, Pollen Bank, DNA

Gene Bank


Bandhavgarh National Park

Conservation measures of biodiversity

Ex-situ conservation:
Refers to conservation of components of biodiversity outside their
natural habitats, e.g. zoos, museums, gene banks, botanic
Used for threatened and endangered species to avoid their
extinction; also known as captive
In-situ conservation:
Refers to conservation of ecosystems and natural habitats
including maintenance and recovery of viable populations of species
in their natural habitats.
National parks and game reserves - These are different from
zoological gardens and are established on terrestrial and aquatic
ecosystems with the objective to preserve wildlife that cannot coexist with human beings and human activities. National parks are
under the jurisdiction of central government
while game reserves are managed by the local county council.

(a) In-situ conservation:

In these areas, hunting, firewood collection, timber harvesting etc.

are prohibited so that the wild plants and animals can grow and
multiply freely without any hindrance.
Some protected areas are:
Cold desert (Ladakh and Spiti),
Hot desert (Thar),
Saline Swampy area (Sunderban and Rann of Kutch),
Tropical moist deciduous forest (Western Ghats and north East) etc.
Protected areas include national parks, sanctuaries and biosphere
reserves. There are 37,000 protected areas throughout the world. As
per World Conservation Monitoring Centre, India has 581 protected
areas, national parks and sanctuaries.

Many National Parks and Sancturies have been established to

preserve wildlife in their natural environment. There are about 89
national parks in India. Some of them are given below along with
important species found there.
Kaziranga sanctuary (Assam) One-horned rhinoceros
Manas sanctuary (Assam) Wild buffaloes
Gir forest (Gujarat) Lions, chital, sambar, wild bears
Kelameru bird sanctuary (Andhra Pradesh) Pelicans and marine birds
Dachigam sanctuary (Jammu and Kashmir) Kashmir stags, Himalayan
tahr, wild goats, sheep, antelopes.
Bandipur sanctuary (Karnataka) Indian bison, elephants, langurs
Periyar sanctuary (Kerala) Elephants, barking deer, sambhar
Kanha National Park (Madhya Pradesh) Tiger, leopards, wild dogs
Simipal National Park (Orissa) Mangroves, marine turtles lay eggs
Bharatpur bird sanctuary (Rajasthan) Ducks, herons
Corbett National Park (Uttaranchal) Tigers, barking deer, sambar, wild
bear, rhesus monkey.
Jaladpara sanctuary (West Bengal) Rhinoceros

go through it twice


These are the areas where only wild animals (fauna) are
present. The activities like harvesting of timbers, collection
of forest products, cultivation of lands etc. are permitted as
long as these do not interfere with the project. That is,
controlled biotic interference is permitted in sanctuaries,
which allows visiting of tourists for recreation. The area
under a sanctuary remains in between 0.61 to 7818 km.
(i) Nandankanan Zoological Park
(ii) Chandaka Elephant reserve
(iii) Simlipal Tiger Reserve
(iv) Bhitarkanika Wild life Sanctuary
(v) Gharial project at Tikarpada
(vi) Chilika (Nalaban) Sanctuary

go through it twice

(b) Ex-situ conservation:

Ex-situ conservation involves maintenance and breeding of

endangered plants and animals under partially or wholly
controlled conditions in specific areas like zoo, gardens,
nurseries etc. That is, the conservation of selected plants
and animals in selected areas outside their natural habitat
is known as ex-situ conservation.
The stresses on living organisms due to competition for
food, water, space etc. can be avoided by ex-situ
conservation there by providing conditions necessary for a
secure life and breeding.
Some important areas under these conservation are:
(i) Seed gene bank,
(ii) Field gene bank;
(iii) Botanical gardens;
(iv) Zoos.

Biodiversity Seed banks in India

It has been estimated that 37% all living species may to vanish in the
next century due to climate change.
Many of them may vanish due to climate changes, human activities or due to
natural disasters before we can understand their importance. Hence, it is
important to not only know about biodiversity and also to take action to
conserve them for our future generation. Here comes the role of seed banks.

Rice seed diversity

Agro-biodiversity can be divided into two


Intraspecific diversity covers the genetic variety within a

single species such as different sub-species of rice, Basmati
rice, Thai Jasmine rice, Japanese Mochi rice, Sona Masuri, etc.
Interspecific diversity refers to the number and types of
different species such as potatoes, carrots, peppers, lettuce

Hot Spots:

Norman Myers, a British Ecologist, developed the concept

of hot spots in 1988 to designate priority areas for in situ
conservation. According to him, the hot spots are the
richest and the most threatened reservoirs of biodiversity
on the earth. The criteria for determining a hot spot are:
i) The area should support >1500 endemic species,
ii) It must have lost over 70 % of the original habitat

Twenty-five biodiversity hot spots have been identified in

the world. These hot spots are characterized by posing
exceptionally high biodiversity.
For example the total area of these 25 hot spots cover 1.4%
of the total land area, support 44% of plant and 35%
terrestrial vertebrates.
No need to memorize the data, only for your information

Hot Spots:

Hot spots are the areas with high density of biodiversity or mega
diversity which are most threatened at present.
Out of 25 hot spots in world, two are located in India namely
North-East Himalayas and Western Ghats.

The hot spots are determined considering four factors:

(i) Degrees of endemism;
(ii) Degree of expectation
(iii) Degrees of threat to habitat due to its degradation and
fragmentation and
(iv) Number of Species diversity.

Biodiversity of India:

As per available data, the varieties of species living on the

earth are 1753739. Out of the above species, 134781 are
residing in India although surface area of India is 2% of the
earths surface. Wild life Institute of India has divided it into ten
biogeographical regions and twenty five biotic provinces.
Biogeographical regions are:
(i) Trans Himalayas,
(ii) Gangetic plain,
(iii) Desert,
(iv) Semiarid zone;
go through it twice
(v) Western Ghats;
(vi) Deccan peninsula,
(vii) North eastern zone,
(viii) Coastal lands
(ix) Himalayas,
(x) Islands.