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Theories of personality

Psychoanalytic Theory
Sigmund Freud
Biography
Name: Sigmund Freud
Birth Date: Moravia (Czechoslovakia)
Birth Place: May 6, 1856
Significant Person: Anna Freud (Child Psychoanalyst)
Wife: Martha Bernays
Teacher: Ernst Brucke
Major Influence:
Josef Breuer
Neurotic behavior are concerned with the Marital Bed
Jean Charcot
Nervous disorder were always a question of a genital
Rudolf Chrobak
A patiend with sever anxiety and impotent husband could not be prescribed Rx:
A normal Penis , dose to be repeated
Early Conflicts

He suffered Oedipal, and neurosi and drove him to new heights, this called
Creative illness

People who opposes to his theory as Sexuality as primary movers of behavior :


Josef Breuer
Carl Jung
Alfred Adler
Wihelm Fliess
Freud and Cocaine
He proposed used of cocaine as substitute to morphine(less addictive but found
addictive)
Books
The studies on hysteria
Discusses the psychological treatment on (hysteria, loss of speech, headache,
paralyisi) no physical cause
Interpretation of Dream
The cornerstone of the Freud Theory
Last Years

He suffered from Jaw and mouth cancer and undergone 33 operations


BASIC NATURE OF HUMAN BEINGS

Instinct and Psychic Energy


Drive Reduction.
Believes that human are motivated by innate instinct(force and need) that
produced a psychological state of tension or arousal(drive) that causes you to
experience unpleasant, such as hunger and thirst.
It restore the body to a previous state of equilibrium
Pleasure Principle
Believes that human goal is to obtain pleasure and avoid unpleasant or pain
Ultimate version of this theory:
Humans are motivated by to major instinct: Sexual and Aggressive Instinct
Sexual Instinct (Eros)
Sexuality Views
Whole range of erotic and pleasurable experience
Erotogenic Zones
body has many parts of producing sexual gratification
whole body is an erotogenic zone
Destructive Instinct
human it-self aims at returning to its previous state of nonexistence
Sexual and Aggressive Instinct
These two types of instincts are fused together, Thus any erotic act, even
sexual intercourse, is also partly aggressive, whereas any aggressive act, even
murder, is partly erotic. Both the sexual and destructive instincts are present at
birth.
External conflict and internal conflict.
People has a instinct for incest and lust killings but most society or people do not
tolerate this behavior therefore it is unavoidable for them to have a conflict called
Intrapsychic conflict
Believes that we have to sublimate our conflict into more socially acceptable
behavior to avoid psychopathologic disorders.
But this are not satisfying and it will left with some unpleasant psychological
tension.
Psychic Energy (Libido) and Cathexis
Psychic Energy

Each of us possesses a more or less fixed supply of psychic energy. If a


relatively large amount is usurped by one component of personality, or is
expended in pathological forms of behavior, less will be available for other
components or for healthy activities.
Forces in Sexual instinct only
It attaches itself to mental representations of objects that will satisfy instinctual
needs, a process known as cathexis (process of investment of mental energy in
person or object)
The infant therefore develops a strong desire for her and invests a great deal of
psychic energy (libido) in thoughts, images and fantasies of her.

Psychic Determinism and Parapraxes


Psychic Determinism
states that nothing in the psyche happens by chance; all mental (and physical)
behavior is determined by prior causes.
Parapraxes
erroneous actions
self inficted injuries
Freudian slips
THE STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY
Topographic Model
Unconscious, Preconscious, and Conscious
states that the act of relegating material to the unconscious (repression)
originates from the preconscious or conscious, and should therefore be
accessible to awareness.
all that is repressed is unconscious, but not all that is unconscious is repressed
Structural Model (three constructs)
Id, Ego, and Superego
THE ID
only component of personality that is present at birth.
The id is entirely unconscious
id transforms biological needs into psychological tension (drives).
totally illogical and amoral
Pleasure principle
Wish-fulfillment.
irrational, impulsive, and image-producing mode of thought is known as the
primary process
In a sense, the biological component of personality.

The EGO
Starting at about age 6 to 8 months,
Formation of the ego is aided by experiences that help the infant to differentiate
between self and not-self, notably those concerning its own body.
Although the ego is also interested in pleasure, it suspends the pleasure principle
in favor of the reality principle delays the discharge of tension until a suitable
object can be found. This makes it possible to avoid errors, such as drinking from
a bottle of bleach when you are thirsty; to avoid punishment
The rational, pleasure-delaying, problem-solving, and self-preservative mode of
thought representative of the ego is known as the secondary process
LIMITED SUPPLY of PSYCHIC ENERGY
The stronger the ego, the healthier the personality.
In a sense, the psychological executive of personality.

Task of Ego(Danger , Anxiety)


from the external world,
from the libido of the id,
from the severity of the superego
Anxiety
Realistic (or objective) anxiety is caused by danger in the environment
Neurotic anxiety concerns the harm that will result from yielding to a powerful
and dangerous id impulse.
Moral anxiety is caused by acts or wishes that violate ones standards of right
and wrong (the superego, discussed later) and includes feelings of shame and
guilt.
Defense Mechanisms
Repression
most important of these is (Freud, 1915/1963f), which (as we have seen)
consists of unconsciously eliminating threatening material from awareness and
being unable to recall it on demand.
Conflict within your own psyche
Reaction Formation
where threatening emotions, beliefs, or motives are repressed and are
unconsciously replaced by their opposites.
Although reaction formations may seem sincere, they can usually be identified by
their extreme and compulsive nature.
making possible the primary goal of self-deception.
Displacement
Involves the transfer of feelings or behaviors from a dangerous object to one that
is less threatening.

A person who is angry with the boss may maintain a discreet silence, then go
home and shout at a family member.
Self-inflicted injuries (parapraxis or even to suicide.
Projection
conceals dangerous impulses by unconsciously attributing them to other people
or things
For example, projected anger may lead to the belief that you are disliked, hated,
or being persecuted by other people.
In displacement, you know that you are angry and choose a safer target; in
projection, you repress your anger and believe that other people are angry at
you. Also, projection always operates unconsciously, whereas some
displacements may be conscious. Although projection plays a significant role in
the development of paranoid behavior,
Denial
ego may also protect itself by refusing to face an unpleasant truth
threat occurs in the external world,
Denial is often accompanied by another defense mechanism, fantasy, where
unfulfilled needs are gratified in ones imagination.
Rationalization
consists of using and believing superficially plausible explanations in order to
justify unacceptable behavior
Intellectualization
Threatening emotions may unconsciously be separated from related thoughts or
memories
Some patients in psychotherapy seek relief by repressing their pain and talking
unemotionally about their problems, thereby failing to make progress because
they do not feel what they are saying.
Undoing
involves rituals that symbolically negate a previous act or thought that causes
feelings of guilt
A well-known literary example is that of Lady Macbeth, who murders the king and
later tries to undo this heinous act (get the blood off her hands) with compulsive
handwashing gestures.
Identification
Reducing painful feelings of self-contempt by becoming like objects that are
illustrious and admired, such as idols, aggressors, or lost loves; a defense
mechanism that may be partly or wholly unconscious. (2) The healthy desire to
become like ones parents.
Regression

Unconsciously adopting behavior typical of an earlier and safer time in ones life;
a defense mechanism. A reverse flow of libido to an object previously
abandoned, or to an earlier psychosexual stage.
Sublimation
Unconsciously channeling illicit instinctual impulses into socially acceptable
behavior. A form of displacement, but one that represents ideal behavior.
Introjection
Unconsciously incorporating someone elses values or personal qualities into
ones own personality.
Superego
Superego is partly conscious and partly unconscious.
special part of the ego that observes and sits in judgment above the rest
It starts to develop out of the ego during the third to fifth year of life
conscience punishes illicit thoughts and actions
ego ideal rewards desirable behavior.
the superego proves to be a harsh masterand another potential source of
danger.
the social component of personality.
It involves not only the introjection of parental standards, but also the resolution
of the childs Oedipus complexa major Freudian construct that will be
discussed in the following section
THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALITY
Psychosexual Stages
Pregenital stage
The Oral Stage
Mouth, lips, tongue
About age 01 years.
Feeding(breast feeding, pleasure)
Frustration when taught to stop thumb sucking and biting)
Oral behavior such as smoking and eating; passivity and gullibility (and the
opposites).
Anal Stage.
Anus
About age 13 years
Toilet training
Erotic gratification from the bodily sensations involved in excretion.
control over the environment by contributing or withholding the feces
Orderliness, parsimoniousness, obstinacy (and the opposites).
Urethral Stage.
Urethra (canal carrying urine from the bladder)

Bed wetting
bladder now becomes an erotogenic zone,
Ambition (and the opposite).
Phallic Stage.
Penis, clitoris
About age 25 years.
Oedipus complex
Electra complex, but Freud rejected this term
her superego is weaker, she has more diffi culty forming effective sublimations,
and she is more likely to become neurotic
Vanity, recklessness
(and the opposites)
Latency Period.
Sexual impulses become deemphasized during the latency period, which occurs
at about age 512 years and is not a true psychosexual stage.
Genital Stage.
Penis, vagina
Adulthood; the goal of normal development.
The inevitable difficulties of life
A more sincere interest in others, effective sublimations, realistic enjoyments.
Narcissism now yields to a more sincere interest in other people,
the womans primary erotogenic zone shifts from the (pregenital) clitoris to the
vagina.
Fixation and Character Typology
Fixation
some libido inevitably remains attached (fixated) to the pregenital erotogenic
zones.
Regression
The reverse fl ow of libido back to an earlier psychosexual stage or objectchoice. As with fixation, a certain amount is normal. The most likely objects of
regression are ones that were strongly fixated
FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF
PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY
Dream interpretation
the interpretation of dreams is the royal road to a knowledge of the unconscious
activities of the mind
Manifest Content, Latent Dream-Thoughts, and the Dream-Work.
Manifest Content
part of a dream that you remember (or could remember) upon awakening is the
manifest content
Latent Dream-Thoughts

The unconscious impulses, beliefs, emotions, conflicts, and memories concealed


behind the faade of manifest
Dream-work
the process that converts latent thoughts into manifest content
Causes of Neurosis
lack of physical affection -it difficult for the infant to distinguish self from not-self
too much frustration during a psychosexual stage will result in harmful fixations
The child may suffer such traumatic events as observing the parents sexual
intercourse (the primal scene),
being threatened with castration.
Psychosis
Freuds view of psychopathology as a difference in degree does extend to
psychosis, but he regards a moderately well-functioning ego as essential for
treatment and rejects the use of psychoanalytic therapy with psychotics.
Condensation
The unconscious combination of various symbols or words into a single entity
with several meanings.
Countertransference
An unconscious displacement of emotion or behavior, by the psychoanalyst, from
some other person to the patient.
Days residues
Memories of the preceding day that trigger a dream because they are related to
important unconscious issues.
Free association
Saying whatever comes to mind, no matter how silly or embarrassing it may
seem. The fundamental rule of psychoanalytic therapy, used to bring
unconscious material to consciousness. (Emmy von N.), who asked that he
refrain from interrupting so she could say what was on her mind
Insight
An emotional and intellectual understanding of the causes and dynamics of ones
behavior, achieved by bringing unconscious material to consciousness.
Primary gain
The partial discharge of libido provided by neurotic symptoms.
Secondary gain
An incidental advantage provided by neurotic symptoms, such as avoiding
unpleasant tasks or receiving sympathy from others.
Transference
An unconscious displacement of emotion or behavior, by the patient, from some
other important person (such as a parent) to the psychoanalyst. Produces the
attachment that makes positive therapeutic change possible, but may defeat the
therapy if it becomes overly negative.
Transference neurosis

A major intensification of transference, wherein the relationship to the analyst


becomes even more important than the problems that originally brought the
patient into psychoanalytic therapy.
Working through
The process by which the patient in psychoanalytic therapy becomes convinced
that formerly unconscious material is true, learns to avoid repressing it, and
gradually refi nes this new knowledge into appropriate and effective behavior.
Psychotherapy
Anna O. Severe sexual and intellectual deprivation during her childhood and
adolescence, followed by the fatal illness of her beloved father, produced a
veritable museum of neurotic and psychotic symptoms: paralyzed limbs,
hallucinations, a second personality that lived exactly one year in the past,
nervous coughing, sleepwalking, and various speech disordersand perhaps a
hysterical pregnancy as well, although this has been disputed.
Reason for abandoning
Treated using Hypnosis but it is temporary(acted more like a cosmetic cover-up
than successful surgery.) Freud
And some of Freuds patients were unable to achieve a trance state, partly
because he wasnt a particularly good hypnotist
gradually developed the form of psychotherapy that has become known as
psychoanalysis.
Therapeutic Procedures: Free Association, Resistance, Transference, and
Others.
Free Association
Patient in classical psychoanalytic therapy reclines on a couch while the analyst
sits to the rear, out of view.
enables the patient to relax physically and devote more energy to the demanding
mental tasks that are required. It also prevents the patients regressions from
being disrupted by the analysts facial expressions and gestures
from four to six times per week, for approximately 50 minutes (and up to 100
dollars or more) per session,
the patient is required to say whatever comes to mind (the aforementioned
technique of free association). Nothing may be held back, no matter how silly,
embarrassing, or trivial it may seem:
Criticisms and Controversies
Female Sexuality
Freuds belief that women are inferior creatures with defective sexual organs,
weaker superegos, and a greater predisposition to neurosis is regarded by
virtually all modern psychologists as absurda truly major blunder

psychoanalytic belief that clitoral orgasm is an inferior and pregential form of


sexuality, and that vaginal orgasm is the only mature version,
Sexuality and Rigidity
Freudian theory has been strongly attacked for its heavy emphasis on sexuality:
the universality of the Oedipus complex, libido, the psychosexual stages,
attributing all psychopathology to malfunctions of the sexual drive, regarding
most dream symbols as sexual, and so forth.
Pessimism and Drive Reduction
Freuds picture of the dark side of personality has also provoked strong criticism.
Freuds emphasis on drive reduction has also come under heavy fi re. A wealth of
experience suggests that people are also motivated by desires for increases in
tension, and actively seek out excitation and stimulation.
Psychic Energy.
it is impossible to measure the amount of psychic energy that is invested in a
given cathexis, fi xation, or regression