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# Unit 03

November

1.

## MONOMIALS AND POLYNOMIALS.

1.1.

MONOMIALS.
A Monomial is an Algebraic Expression containing one Term which may be a

## number, a Variable or a product of numbers and variables, with no negative or

fractional exponents. (Mono implies one and the ending nomial is Greek for part).
2a
3

## ; 5; 2; 450 2 are monomials

The number is called Coefficient and the variables are called Literal Part. If the
literal part of a monomial has only one letter, then the Degree is the exponent of the
letter. If the literal part of a monomial has more than one letter, then the degree is the
addition of the exponents of the letters.

The degree of 5 3 is 3

The degree of 2 2 3 is 2 + 3 + 1 = 6
MATH VOCABULARY: Monomial, Algebraic Expression, Term, Variable, Coefficient,
Literal Part, Degree, Polynomial.
1.2.

## ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF MONOMIALS.

You can add monomials only if they have the same literal part (they are also

called like terms). In this case, you add the coefficients and leave the same literal part.

## Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.1

Unit 03

November

3 + 5 = 8

3 2 2 You cannot add the terms because they have different literal part.
1.3.

## MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION OF MONOMIALS.

If you want to multiply two or more monomials, you just have to multiply the

## coefficients, and add the exponents of the equal letters.

2 7 3 3 = (2 3) 7+3 = 6 10

## (2 2 ) (5 2 3 ) = (2) 5 ( 1+2 ) ( 2+0 ) ( 1+3 ) = 10 3 3 4

If you want to divide a monomial by a monomial of the same or lower degree,
you just have to divide the coefficients, and subtract the exponents of the equal
letters.
10 5 2 2 = (10 2) ( 52 ) = 5 3

## (122 ) (3) = (12 3) (21 ) (10 ) = 4

1.4.

POLYNOMIALS.
A Polynomial is the addition or subtraction of two or more monomials (which

are called Terms). If there are two monomials, it is called a Binomial, if there are three
monomials, it is called a Trinomial. The Degree of the polynomial is the highest degree
of the terms that it contains.

## Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.2

Unit 03

November

You usually write polynomials with the terms in Decreasing order of exponents. We
say that a polynomial is Complete if it has terms of every exponent from the degree of the
polynomial until you get down to the Constant Term.

Cubic, Quartic.

## Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.3

Unit 03

1.5.

November

EVALUATING POLYNOMIALS.

## Evaluating a polynomial () is calculating its numerical value at a given

value of the variable: = . You must substitute the variable for the value , and

## calculate the value of the polynomial ().

Evaluate ( ) = 4 3 2 + + 1 at = 2

(2) = 24 3 22 + 2 + 1 = 16 12 + 2 + 1 = 7
MATH VOCABULARY: Numerical Value.
1.6.

When adding or subtracting polynomials you must add or subtract each like

term of the polynomial, that is, monomials that have the same literal part. (You must

If ( ) = 2 + 3 4; () = 3 + 2 + 1 and ( ) = + 3
Find () + ( ) () = ( )

( ) = ( 2 + 3 4) + ( 3 + 2 + 1) ( + 3) =

= 3 + 2 + 3 + 2 ( ) + (4) + 1 3 = 3 + 2 + 6 6
1.7.

MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS.
A Monomial times a multi-term polynomial. To do this, we have to expand the
brackets.
2( 2 + 3 4) = (2 ) ( 2 ) + (2 ) (3 ) + (2 ) (4) =
= 2 3 6 2 + 8

## Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.4

Unit 03

November

## A Multi-term polynomial times a multi-term polynomial. We have to multiply

every term by every term.
If ( ) = 2 + 3 4 and ( ) = + 3, find ( ) ( )
() ( ) = ( 2 + 3 4 ) ( + 3) =

= 2 ( + 3) + 3 ( + 3) 4 ( + 3) =
= 3 + 3 2 3 2 + 9 + 4 12 =
= 3 + 13 12

1.8.

## EXTRACTING FACTORS OF POLYNOMIALS.

To extract factors from polynomials we have to see with variables and factors

## are repeating it.

Extract factors from 6 2 2 3 2 + 30 2

## 6 2 2 3 2 + 30 2 = (2) (3) + () (3) + (10) (3) =

= 3(2 + 10)

2.

POWER OF POLYNOMIALS.
The Power of a polynomial, (), is the multiplication of the polynomial

(), n times.

2.1.

() () ()
() =

BINOMIALS POWERS.
To solve the power of a binomial we have to use the Tartaglia's Triangle, also

## Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.5

Unit 03

November

To know the development of a binomial raised to the nth power we use the
nth+1 row of the triangle to find the coefficients.
( + ) = + + + +

( ) = + () = () + () + + () + ()
The exponents of and must add always .
( + )2 = 2 3
( + )2 = 2 0 + 21 0+1 + 22 0+2 =

## Axel Cotn Gutirrez

= 2 + 2 + 2

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.6

Unit 03

November

( )5 = 5 6
( )5 = 5 ()0 + 51 ()0+1 + 52 ()0+2 + 53 ()0+3
+ 54 ()0+4 + 55 ()0+5 =

= 5 54 + 103 2 102 3 + 54 5

## MATH VOCABULARY: Tartaglia's Triangle, Pascal's Triangle.

3.

POLYNOMIAL IDENTITIES.
Some special products are called Polynomial Identities, and they serve to solve

## The Square of the Sum: ( + ) = + +

(2 + 2 )2 = (2)2 + 2 (2) ( 2 ) + ( 2 )2 = 4 2 + 4 3 + 4 =
= 4 + 4 3 + 4 2

## The Square of the Difference: ( ) = +

(4 )2 = (4)2 2 (4) () + ()2 = 162 8 + 2

## The Product of a Sum and a Difference: ( + ) ( ) =

(2 + ) (2 ) = (2)2 ()2 = 4 2 2

## MATH VOCABULARY: Polynomial Identities, Algebraic Expressions, Square of the Sum,

Square of the Difference, Product of a Sum and a Difference.

## Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.7

Unit 03

4.

November

DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS.
The division of polynomials is similar to the division of natural numbers. When

you divide polynomials you get a quotient and a remainder. In general, if you divide
the polynomial () by the polynomial () and the quotient and the remainder are
() and () respectively.

() = () () + ()
When the remainder is , we have that () = () (). In this case, the

## polynomial () is divisible by (), that is, () is a factor or divisor of ().

Divide A(x) = 2 5 7 2 + 3 1 by ( ) = 3 2 2 + 1
+2 5
2 5

+4 4

7 2

+3

9 2

+3

9 2

2 2

+4 4

4 4 +8 3
+8 3

8 3 +16 2
+7 2

2 2

2 2
+4

( )

+1
+8

()

2 5 7 2 + 3 1 = ( 3 2 2 + 1) (2 2 + 4 + 8) + (7 2 9)

## Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.8

Unit 03

4.1.

November

## DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY ( ). RUFFINIS RULE.

It is very common to divide a polynomial by ( ):
(3 3 + 4 2) ( 2) ( ) = 3 2 + 6 + 16 () = 30
Using the above rules

## But this division can also be done using Ruffinis rule:

Step 1: Set the coefficients of the dividend in one line. If the polynomial is not
complete, complete it by adding the missing terms with zeroes. Draw two
perpendicular lines like this:
3

Step 2: At the bottom left, place the opposite of the independent term of the
divisor:

## Step 3: Bring down the first coefficient.

2
Axel Cotn Gutirrez

3
Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.9

Unit 03

November

Step 4: Multiply this coefficient by the divisor and place it under the following
coefficient.
3

## Step 5: Add the two coefficients.

Step 6: Repeat Steps 4 and 5 until you get the last number, like this:

16

30

12

32

The last number obtained, 30, is the remainder of the division. The quotient is

a polynomial of one degree less than the dividend polynomial and whose coefficients
are the ones obtained in the division. The Coefficients of the Quotient are 3, 6 16.
In this example, the quotient polynomial is:
( ) = 3 2 + 6 + 16
MATH VOCABULARY: Ruffinis Rule.
Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.10

Unit 03

4.2.

November

## RUFFINIS RULES USES.

When the coefficients of a polynomial () are integers, if ( ) is a factor

## of () and is also an integer number, then is a divisor of the constant term of

(). So if you are looking for factors of a polynomial (), have a try with the linear
factors ( ) where is a divisor of the constant term of ().

5.

## THE REMAINDER THEOREM.

Remember that you can calculate the number value of a polynomial at a given

## value of the variable (1.5.). The Remainder Theorem states:

The number value of the polynomial () at = is the same as the remainder of
PROOF:

## the division () ( ) . That is, () = .

P(x) = (x a) Q(x) + R

## Find the remainder of this division using the Theorem:

(3 3 + 2 2 + 5 3) ( + 1)
Using the theorem:
(1) = 3(1)3 + 2(1)2 + 5(1) 3 = 9 ( ) = 9

## Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.11

Unit 03

6.

November

ROOTS OF A POLYNOMIAL.
A number is called a Root of a polynomial () if () = . The roots (or

## zeroes) of a polynomial are the solutions of the equation () = .

One of the most important uses of Ruffinis rule is to find the roots of a
polynomial.
Find the roots of ( ) = 2 2
The constant term is 2, so its divisors are 1 2. Starting with 1:
1

+2

+2

= ( ) 0

= ( )

= ( )

As the polynomial has a second degree we dont need to test the last divisor. The roots
are 1 2. We can also solve it using the remainder theorem
MATH VOCABULARY: Roots, Zeroes.

## Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.12

Unit 03

7.

November

FACTORIZING POLYNOMIALS.
Factoring a polynomial means rewriting it as a product of polynomials of the

lowest degree as possible that can be multiplied together to give us the polynomial
that you started with.
2 16 = ( + 4) ( 4)
There are different techniques for factorizing polynomials:

## Taking out common factor:

16 3 2 = 2(8 2 1)

## Using Polynomial Identities:

2 16 = ( + 4) ( 4)

## Using the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra:

The roots of the polynomial ( ) = 2 + 6 are using the quadratic formula,
2 3

## Using Ruffinis Rule:

( ) = 3 2 2 5 + 6

## Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.13

Unit 03

November

1
2

2 5

+6

1 6

2 +6
0

() = 3 22 5 + 6 = ( 1) ( + 2) ( 3)

## A combination of the previous ones:

( ) = 2 4 4 3 + 14 2 8
We can extract , and (2,4,8,14) = 2
( ) = 2 ( 3 2 2 + 7 4) = 2 ( )
Factorizing ( ), the divisors or 4: 1, 2, 4. We test with 1
1

1 2 +7
+1 +1

4
8

1 1 +8 12 = () 0
We test with +1:
+1

1 2 +7

1 3 +4

1 3

+4

= ()

( 1) () = 2 ( ) = 2 ( 1) ( 2 3 + 4)
The last one can be factorizing using again Ruffini or using the quadratic formula:
Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.14

Unit 03

November

## (3) (3)2 4 (1) 4 3 5

= 4
=
= 1
2 = +1
2 (1)
2

( ) = 2 ( 1) ( 2 3 + 4) = 2 ( 1) ( 1) ( + 4) =
= 2 ( 1)2 ( + 4)

## MATH VOCABULARY: Factorizing Polynomials, Fundamental Theorem of Algebra,

8.

ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONS.
An Algebraic Fraction is the quotient of two polynomials, that is:
()
()
2 3 2 + 4

1

The same calculations that you do with numerical fractions can be done with
algebraic fractions. As you usually do with numerical fractions, you can simplify
algebraic fractions factoring the polynomials in the numerator and in the
denominator. Dividing by the H.C.F. of numerator and denominator you will get the
simplest form of the algebraic fraction.
2 ( + 1) ( 2)2 ( 3)
6 6 5 + 9 4 + 4 3 12 2
=

=
=
( 1) ( + 2) ( 3)
3 2 2 5 + 6
2 ( + 1) ( 2)2 ( 3) 2 ( + 1) ( 2)2
=

=
( 1) ( + 2)
( 3)
( 1) ( + 2)

## Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.15

Unit 03

November

As you usually do with numerical fractions, you can also add, subtract, multiply
or divide algebraic fractions. (To add or subtract algebraic fractions you need to
reduce to common denominator).

## Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.16