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4 ESO Academics - UNIT 03 - POLYNOMIALS. ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONS

- 4 ESO Academics - Unit 03 - Exercises 4.3.5 - Factorizing Polynomials. Algebraic Fractions.
- 4 ESO Academics - UNIT 01 - REAL NUMBERS AND PERCENTAGES
- 4 ESO Academics - Unit 03 - Exercises 4.3.1 - Polynomials
- 4 ESO Academics - Unit 06 - Exercises 4.6.1 - Areas and Volumes.
- 4 ESO ACADEMICS - UNIT 0 - NUMBERS
- 4 ESO Academics - Unit 03 - Exercises 4.3.4 - The Remainder Theorem. Roots of a Polynomial.
- 4 ESO Academics -Unit 02 - Exercises 4.2.2 - Radicals
- 4 ESO - Unit 02 - Exercises 4.2.1 - Powers
- 1 ESO - UNIT 04 - INTEGER NUMBERS
- 4 ESO Academics - Unit 03 - Exercises 4.3.3 - Division of Polynomials. Ruffini´s Rule.
- 4 ESO Academics - Unit 0 - Exercises 0.6
- 4 ESO Academics - Unit 0 - Exercises 0.5
- 4 ESO Academics - UNIT 04 - EQUATIONS AND INEQUATIONS
- 1 ESO - Unit 04 - Exercises 4.1 - Integers
- 4 ESO Academics - Unit 03 - Exercises 4.3.2 - Powers and Polynomial Identities.
- 4 ESO Academics - Unit 04 - Exercises 4.4.3 - Inequations
- 1 ESO - Unit 03 - Exercises 3.5 - HCF
- 4 ESO Academics - Unit 05 - Exercises 4.5.2 - Other Types of Systems of Equations.
- 4 ESO Academics - Unit 01 - Exercises 1.4.
- 1 ESO - Unit 03 - Exercises 3.7 - HCF and LCM Problems

You are on page 1of 16

November

1.

1.1.

MONOMIALS.

A Monomial is an Algebraic Expression containing one Term which may be a

fractional exponents. (Mono implies one and the ending nomial is Greek for part).

2a

3

The number is called Coefficient and the variables are called Literal Part. If the

literal part of a monomial has only one letter, then the Degree is the exponent of the

letter. If the literal part of a monomial has more than one letter, then the degree is the

addition of the exponents of the letters.

The degree of 5 3 is 3

The degree of 2 2 3 is 2 + 3 + 1 = 6

MATH VOCABULARY: Monomial, Algebraic Expression, Term, Variable, Coefficient,

Literal Part, Degree, Polynomial.

1.2.

You can add monomials only if they have the same literal part (they are also

called like terms). In this case, you add the coefficients and leave the same literal part.

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.1

Unit 03

November

3 + 5 = 8

3 2 2 You cannot add the terms because they have different literal part.

1.3.

If you want to multiply two or more monomials, you just have to multiply the

2 7 3 3 = (2 3) 7+3 = 6 10

If you want to divide a monomial by a monomial of the same or lower degree,

you just have to divide the coefficients, and subtract the exponents of the equal

letters.

10 5 2 2 = (10 2) ( 52 ) = 5 3

1.4.

POLYNOMIALS.

A Polynomial is the addition or subtraction of two or more monomials (which

are called Terms). If there are two monomials, it is called a Binomial, if there are three

monomials, it is called a Trinomial. The Degree of the polynomial is the highest degree

of the terms that it contains.

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.2

Unit 03

November

You usually write polynomials with the terms in Decreasing order of exponents. We

say that a polynomial is Complete if it has terms of every exponent from the degree of the

polynomial until you get down to the Constant Term.

Cubic, Quartic.

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.3

Unit 03

1.5.

November

EVALUATING POLYNOMIALS.

value of the variable: = . You must substitute the variable for the value , and

Evaluate ( ) = 4 3 2 + + 1 at = 2

(2) = 24 3 22 + 2 + 1 = 16 12 + 2 + 1 = 7

MATH VOCABULARY: Numerical Value.

1.6.

When adding or subtracting polynomials you must add or subtract each like

term of the polynomial, that is, monomials that have the same literal part. (You must

use what you know about the addition of monomials).

If ( ) = 2 + 3 4; () = 3 + 2 + 1 and ( ) = + 3

Find () + ( ) () = ( )

( ) = ( 2 + 3 4) + ( 3 + 2 + 1) ( + 3) =

= 3 + 2 + 3 + 2 ( ) + (4) + 1 3 = 3 + 2 + 6 6

1.7.

MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS.

A Monomial times a multi-term polynomial. To do this, we have to expand the

brackets.

2( 2 + 3 4) = (2 ) ( 2 ) + (2 ) (3 ) + (2 ) (4) =

= 2 3 6 2 + 8

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.4

Unit 03

November

every term by every term.

If ( ) = 2 + 3 4 and ( ) = + 3, find ( ) ( )

() ( ) = ( 2 + 3 4 ) ( + 3) =

= 2 ( + 3) + 3 ( + 3) 4 ( + 3) =

= 3 + 3 2 3 2 + 9 + 4 12 =

= 3 + 13 12

1.8.

To extract factors from polynomials we have to see with variables and factors

Extract factors from 6 2 2 3 2 + 30 2

= 3(2 + 10)

2.

POWER OF POLYNOMIALS.

The Power of a polynomial, (), is the multiplication of the polynomial

(), n times.

2.1.

() () ()

() =

BINOMIALS POWERS.

To solve the power of a binomial we have to use the Tartaglia's Triangle, also

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.5

Unit 03

November

To know the development of a binomial raised to the nth power we use the

nth+1 row of the triangle to find the coefficients.

( + ) = + + + +

( ) = + () = () + () + + () + ()

The exponents of and must add always .

( + )2 = 2 3

( + )2 = 2 0 + 21 0+1 + 22 0+2 =

= 2 + 2 + 2

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.6

Unit 03

November

( )5 = 5 6

( )5 = 5 ()0 + 51 ()0+1 + 52 ()0+2 + 53 ()0+3

+ 54 ()0+4 + 55 ()0+5 =

= 5 54 + 103 2 102 3 + 54 5

3.

POLYNOMIAL IDENTITIES.

Some special products are called Polynomial Identities, and they serve to solve

(2 + 2 )2 = (2)2 + 2 (2) ( 2 ) + ( 2 )2 = 4 2 + 4 3 + 4 =

= 4 + 4 3 + 4 2

(4 )2 = (4)2 2 (4) () + ()2 = 162 8 + 2

(2 + ) (2 ) = (2)2 ()2 = 4 2 2

Square of the Difference, Product of a Sum and a Difference.

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.7

Unit 03

4.

November

DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS.

The division of polynomials is similar to the division of natural numbers. When

you divide polynomials you get a quotient and a remainder. In general, if you divide

the polynomial () by the polynomial () and the quotient and the remainder are

() and () respectively.

() = () () + ()

When the remainder is , we have that () = () (). In this case, the

Divide A(x) = 2 5 7 2 + 3 1 by ( ) = 3 2 2 + 1

+2 5

2 5

+4 4

7 2

+3

9 2

+3

9 2

2 2

+4 4

4 4 +8 3

+8 3

8 3 +16 2

+7 2

2 2

2 2

+4

( )

+1

+8

()

2 5 7 2 + 3 1 = ( 3 2 2 + 1) (2 2 + 4 + 8) + (7 2 9)

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.8

Unit 03

4.1.

November

It is very common to divide a polynomial by ( ):

(3 3 + 4 2) ( 2) ( ) = 3 2 + 6 + 16 () = 30

Using the above rules

Step 1: Set the coefficients of the dividend in one line. If the polynomial is not

complete, complete it by adding the missing terms with zeroes. Draw two

perpendicular lines like this:

3

Step 2: At the bottom left, place the opposite of the independent term of the

divisor:

2

Axel Cotn Gutirrez

3

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.9

Unit 03

November

Step 4: Multiply this coefficient by the divisor and place it under the following

coefficient.

3

Step 6: Repeat Steps 4 and 5 until you get the last number, like this:

16

30

12

32

The last number obtained, 30, is the remainder of the division. The quotient is

a polynomial of one degree less than the dividend polynomial and whose coefficients

are the ones obtained in the division. The Coefficients of the Quotient are 3, 6 16.

In this example, the quotient polynomial is:

( ) = 3 2 + 6 + 16

MATH VOCABULARY: Ruffinis Rule.

Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.10

Unit 03

4.2.

November

When the coefficients of a polynomial () are integers, if ( ) is a factor

(). So if you are looking for factors of a polynomial (), have a try with the linear

factors ( ) where is a divisor of the constant term of ().

5.

Remember that you can calculate the number value of a polynomial at a given

The number value of the polynomial () at = is the same as the remainder of

PROOF:

P(x) = (x a) Q(x) + R

(3 3 + 2 2 + 5 3) ( + 1)

Using the theorem:

(1) = 3(1)3 + 2(1)2 + 5(1) 3 = 9 ( ) = 9

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.11

Unit 03

6.

November

ROOTS OF A POLYNOMIAL.

A number is called a Root of a polynomial () if () = . The roots (or

One of the most important uses of Ruffinis rule is to find the roots of a

polynomial.

Find the roots of ( ) = 2 2

The constant term is 2, so its divisors are 1 2. Starting with 1:

1

+2

+2

= ( ) 0

= ( )

= ( )

As the polynomial has a second degree we dont need to test the last divisor. The roots

are 1 2. We can also solve it using the remainder theorem

MATH VOCABULARY: Roots, Zeroes.

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.12

Unit 03

7.

November

FACTORIZING POLYNOMIALS.

Factoring a polynomial means rewriting it as a product of polynomials of the

lowest degree as possible that can be multiplied together to give us the polynomial

that you started with.

2 16 = ( + 4) ( 4)

There are different techniques for factorizing polynomials:

16 3 2 = 2(8 2 1)

2 16 = ( + 4) ( 4)

The roots of the polynomial ( ) = 2 + 6 are using the quadratic formula,

2 3

( ) = 3 2 2 5 + 6

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.13

Unit 03

November

1

2

2 5

+6

1 6

2 +6

0

() = 3 22 5 + 6 = ( 1) ( + 2) ( 3)

( ) = 2 4 4 3 + 14 2 8

We can extract , and (2,4,8,14) = 2

( ) = 2 ( 3 2 2 + 7 4) = 2 ( )

Factorizing ( ), the divisors or 4: 1, 2, 4. We test with 1

1

1 2 +7

+1 +1

4

8

1 1 +8 12 = () 0

We test with +1:

+1

1 2 +7

1 3 +4

1 3

+4

= ()

( 1) () = 2 ( ) = 2 ( 1) ( 2 3 + 4)

The last one can be factorizing using again Ruffini or using the quadratic formula:

Axel Cotn Gutirrez

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.14

Unit 03

November

= 4

=

= 1

2 = +1

2 (1)

2

( ) = 2 ( 1) ( 2 3 + 4) = 2 ( 1) ( 1) ( + 4) =

= 2 ( 1)2 ( + 4)

Quadratic Formula.

8.

ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONS.

An Algebraic Fraction is the quotient of two polynomials, that is:

()

()

2 3 2 + 4

1

The same calculations that you do with numerical fractions can be done with

algebraic fractions. As you usually do with numerical fractions, you can simplify

algebraic fractions factoring the polynomials in the numerator and in the

denominator. Dividing by the H.C.F. of numerator and denominator you will get the

simplest form of the algebraic fraction.

2 ( + 1) ( 2)2 ( 3)

6 6 5 + 9 4 + 4 3 12 2

=

=

=

( 1) ( + 2) ( 3)

3 2 2 5 + 6

2 ( + 1) ( 2)2 ( 3) 2 ( + 1) ( 2)2

=

=

( 1) ( + 2)

( 3)

( 1) ( + 2)

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.15

Unit 03

November

As you usually do with numerical fractions, you can also add, subtract, multiply

or divide algebraic fractions. (To add or subtract algebraic fractions you need to

reduce to common denominator).

Mathematics 4 ESO

4.3.16

- 4 ESO Academics - Unit 03 - Exercises 4.3.5 - Factorizing Polynomials. Algebraic Fractions.Uploaded byGoheim
- 4 ESO Academics - UNIT 01 - REAL NUMBERS AND PERCENTAGESUploaded byGoheim
- 4 ESO Academics - Unit 03 - Exercises 4.3.1 - PolynomialsUploaded byGoheim
- 4 ESO Academics - Unit 06 - Exercises 4.6.1 - Areas and Volumes.Uploaded byGoheim
- 4 ESO ACADEMICS - UNIT 0 - NUMBERSUploaded byGoheim
- 4 ESO Academics - Unit 03 - Exercises 4.3.4 - The Remainder Theorem. Roots of a Polynomial.Uploaded byGoheim
- 4 ESO Academics -Unit 02 - Exercises 4.2.2 - RadicalsUploaded byGoheim
- 4 ESO - Unit 02 - Exercises 4.2.1 - PowersUploaded byGoheim
- 1 ESO - UNIT 04 - INTEGER NUMBERSUploaded byGoheim
- 4 ESO Academics - Unit 03 - Exercises 4.3.3 - Division of Polynomials. Ruffini´s Rule.Uploaded byGoheim
- 4 ESO Academics - Unit 0 - Exercises 0.6Uploaded byGoheim
- 4 ESO Academics - Unit 0 - Exercises 0.5Uploaded byGoheim
- 4 ESO Academics - UNIT 04 - EQUATIONS AND INEQUATIONSUploaded byGoheim
- 1 ESO - Unit 04 - Exercises 4.1 - IntegersUploaded byGoheim
- 4 ESO Academics - Unit 03 - Exercises 4.3.2 - Powers and Polynomial Identities.Uploaded byGoheim
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- 1 ESO - Unit 03 - Exercises 3.5 - HCFUploaded byGoheim
- 4 ESO Academics - Unit 05 - Exercises 4.5.2 - Other Types of Systems of Equations.Uploaded byGoheim
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