Sie sind auf Seite 1von 40
Unsymmetrical Bending Dr Alessandro Palmeri < A.Palmeri@lboro.ac.uk>

Unsymmetrical Bending

Dr Alessandro Palmeri

< A.Palmeri@lboro.ac.uk>

Unsymmetrical Bending Dr Alessandro Palmeri < A.Palmeri@lboro.ac.uk>

Teaching schedule

Week

Lecture 1

Staff

Lecture 2

Staff

Tutorial

Staff

1

Beam Shear Stresses 1

A P

Beam Shear Stresses 2

A

P

---

---

2

Shear centres

A P

Basic Concepts

J

E-R

Shear Centre

A

P

3

Principle of Virtual forces

J

E-R

Indeterminate Structures

J

E-R

Virtual Forces

J

E-R

4

The Compatibility Method

J

E-R

Examples

J

E-R

Virtual Forces

J

E-R

5

Examples

J

E-R

Moment Distribution - Basics

J

E-R

Comp. Method

J

E-R

6

The Hardy Cross Method

J

E-R

Fixed End Moments

J

E-R

Comp. Method

J

E-R

7

Examples

J

E-R

Non Sway Frames

J

E-R

Mom. Dist

J

E-R

8

Column Stability 1

A P

Sway Frames

J

E-R

Mom. Dist

J

E-R

9

Column Stability 2

A P

Unsymmetric Bending 1

A P

Colum Stability

A P

10

Unsymmetric Bending 2

A P

Complex Stress/Strain

A P

Unsymmetric

A P

Bending

11

Complex Stress/Strain

A P

Complex Stress/Strain

A P

Complex

A P

Stress/Strain

 

Christmas

Holiday

12

 

Revision

 

13

   

14

 

Exams

15

 

Mo@va@ons (1/2)

Many cross sec@ons used for structural elements (such us Z sec@ons or angle sec@ons) do not have any axis of symmetry

How does the theory developed for symmetrical bending can be extended to such sec@ons?

any axis of symmetry •   How does the theory developed for symmetrical bending can be

Mo@va@ons (2/2)

Z Z X X Y Y Z Z Y Y X X
Z Z
X X
Y Y
Z Z
Y Y
X X

The figure shows the finite element model of

a

can@lever beam with

Z

cross sec@on

subjected to its own weight, in which the gravita@onal (ver@cal) load induces lateral sway (horizontal),

exaggerated for clarity

How can we predict

this?

4

Learning Outcomes

When we have completed this unit (2 lectures + 1 tutorial), you should be able to:

Determine the principal second moments of area AND the principal direc@ons of area for unsymmetrical beam’s cross sec@ons

Evaluate the normal stress σ x in beams subjected to unsymmetric bending

Further reading

Further reading •   R C Hibbeler, “Mechanics of Materials”, 8th Ed, Pren@ce Hall – Chapter
Further reading •   R C Hibbeler, “Mechanics of Materials”, 8th Ed, Pren@ce Hall – Chapter

R C Hibbeler, “Mechanics of Materials”, 8th Ed, Pren@ce Hall – Chapter 6 on “Bending”

T H G Megson , “Structural and Stress Analysis”, 2nd Ed, Elsevier – Chapter 9 on “Bending of Beams” (eBook)

beam’s axis

beam’s axis

Symmetrical Bending (1/3)

Our analysis of beams in bending has been restricted so far ( part A) to the case of cross sec@ons having at least one axis of symmetry, assuming that the bending moment is ac@ng either about this axis of symmetry (a), or about the orthogonal axis (b)

M y y G x z
M y
y
G
x
z

(a)

(a) , or about the orthogonal axis (b) M y y G x z (a) (ri

(right hand)

σ x < 0

co m p res s iv e

s tres s

axis of symmetry

σ x > 0

tensile

stress

co m p res s iv e

s tres s

tensile

stress

σ x < 0 σ x > 0 y G x z
σ x < 0
σ x > 0
y
G
x
z
stress co m p res s iv e s tres s tensile stress σ x <

M z

(b)

axis of symmetry

7

Symmetrical Bending (2/3)

Right-Hand Rule M y If the thumb point to the posi0ve direc0on of the axis,
Right-Hand Rule
M y
If
the thumb
point to the
posi0ve direc0on
of
the axis,
then the curling
of
the other
fingers give
direc0on of
the posi0ve
the bending
y
G
axis of symmetry
x
Noteworthy: Some0mes a double-
headed arrow is used to represent a
moment (as opposite to a single-headed
arrow used for a force)
z
M z
8
beam’s axis

beam’s axis

Symmetrical Bending (3/3)

G
G
M y y σ x > 0
M y
y
σ x > 0

x

z

axis of symmetry

The simplest case when the bending moment M y acts about the axis y , orthogonal to the axis of symmetry z

Therefore, the beam bends in the ver@cal plan G xz

The direct stress σ x is given by:

Eq. (1)

σ x = M y z

I yy

9

beam’s axis

Unsymmetrical Bending (1/3)

The case of unsymmetric bending deals with:

EITHER a bending moment ac@ng about an axis which is neither an axis of symmetry, nor orthogonal to it ( le9) OR a beam’s cross sec@on which does not have any axis of symmetry ( right)

M y y G x z beam’s axis
M y
y
G
x
z
beam’s axis
M y y x z
M y
y
x
z
G
G

axis of symmetry

10

Unsymmetrical Bending (2/3)

The first case is trivial, and can be solved by using:

Decomposi@on of the bending moment:

M p

= M y co s(α )

M q = M y sin(α )

p = M y co s( α ) M q = − M y si n(

Superposi@on of effects:

σ x ( A) = M p d M q e

I pp

= M y

2

d

I

/ 2

qq

I pp

co s(α ) + e sin(α )

I pp

11

Unsymmetrical Bending (3/3)

Par@cular cases…

Unsymmetrical Bending (3/3) •   Par@cular cases… σ x ( A ) = M y ⋅

σ x ( A) = M y d

I pp

2

Bending about the strong axis

= M y ⋅ d I pp 2 Bending about the strong axis σ x (

σ x ( A) = M y e

I

qq

Bending about the weak axis

Product Moment of Area (1/3)

Let’s introduce a new quan@ty, I yz , called “Product Moment of Area”

Defined as:

I yz

=

A

d

yz A

If and only if I yz =0, a bending moment ac@ng on one of these two axes will cause the beam to bend about the same axis only, not about the orthogonal axis (symmetric bending)

I.e. a ver@cal transverse load will not induce any lateral sway and a lateral transverse will not cause any ver@cal movement

Product Moment of Area (2/3)

The product moment of area is defined mathema@cally as the integral of the product of the coordinates y and z over the cross sec@onal area

I yz = yzdA

A

z over the cross sec@onal area ∫ I y z = yz d A A 14

14

Similarly the second moments of area I yy and I zz are the integrals of the second power of the other coordinate, z 2 and y 2

I yy = z 2 d A

A

I zz =

A

y 2 dA

G is the centroid of the cross sec@on

Product Moment of Area (3/3)

The “Parallel Axis Theorem” (also known as Huygens-Steiner Theorem) can be used to determine the product moment of area I yz , as well as the second moments of area I yy and I zz , provided that:

The cross sec@on can be split into simple blocks, e.g. rectangular blocks The corresponding quan@@es for the central axes η (eta) and ζ (zeta), parallel to y and z , are known

y i ( < 0 ) G y z i ( > 0 ) Γ
y i ( < 0 )
G
y
z i ( > 0 )
Γ
i
η
i
z
A ( i )
ζ i

I yy =

I ηη

( i ) + z i 2 A ( i )

 

i

I zz =

I ζζ ( i ) + y i 2 A ( i )

i

I yz =

( i

I

)

ηζ

+ y i z i A ( i )

 

i

15

Moments of Area: Worked Example

(1/5)

n m ? ? n
n
m
?
?
n
Moments of Area: Worked Example (1/5) n m ? ? n 1.   Split the cross

1. Split the cross sec@on in rectangular blocks

m

2. Calculate the area of each block

A (1 ) = 30 × 30 = 900

A ( 2 ) = 30 × 50 = 1, 500

3. If the posi@on of the centroid G is unknown

Calculate the first moment of each block about two arbitrary references axes

moment of each block about two arbitrary references axes Q m ( 1 ) = A

Q m (1) = A (1) × 15 = 13, 500

Q n (1) = A (1) × 15 = 13, 500

Q

(

m

2 ) = A ( 2 ) × 45 = 67, 500

Q

(

n

2 ) = A ( 2 ) × 25 = 37, 500

Moments of Area: Worked Example

(2/5)

n m ? ? n
n
m
?
?
n

Calculate the posi@on of the centroid

m

d m =

i Q m = 81, 000

( i )

A ( i )

2, 400
i

= 33.75

d n =

Q n

i

( i )

A ( i )

i

=

51, 000

 

= 21.25

 

2, 400

i = 51 , 000   = 21 . 25   2 , 400 4.  
i = 51 , 000   = 21 . 25   2 , 400 4.  

4. Calculate the two second moments of area (and the product moment of area, if needed) for each block

I ηη (1 ) = 30 × 30 3

12

= 67, 500

I ζζ (1 ) = 30 × 30 3

12

= 67, 500

I ηζ (1 ) = 0

I ηη ( 2 ) = 50 × 30 3

12

= 112, 500

I ζζ ( 2 ) = 30 × 50 3

12

= 312, 500

I ηζ ( 2 ) = 0

17

Moments of Area: Worked Example

(3/5)

5. Calculate the coordinates of the centroid Γ i of each block…

y 1 = 21. 25 30

= 6. 25 > 0

2

z 1 = 33. 75 30

2

= 18. 75 < 0

y 2 =

50 ⎝ ⎜

2

21. 25

= 3. 75 < 0

z 2 = 30 + 30 33. 75

2

= 11. 25 > 0

25 ⎞ ⎟ ⎠ = − 3 . 75 < 0 z 2 = 30 +

Moments of Area: Worked Example

(4/5)

6. Apply the Parallel Axis Theorem for the two second moments of area…

I yy =

 

I

(

i )

A

(

i )

z

2

)

i

(

ηη

+

 

i

=

67, 500 + 900 × ( 18.75 ) 2

+112, 500 + 1, 500 × (11.25 ) 2

=

686, 250

 

I zz =

 

I

(

i )

A

(

i )

y

i 2 )

i

(

ζζ

+

 

=

67, 500 + 900 × (6.25 ) 2

+312, 500 + 1, 500 × ( 3.75 ) 2

=

436, 250

 
× ( 6 . 2 5 ) 2 + 312 , 500 + 1 , 500

19

Moments of Area: Worked Example

(5/5)

7. … And the product moment of area

∑ ( i ) ( i ) + A y z i ) I yz
( i )
( i )
+ A
y z
i )
I yz =
i (
I
ηζ
i
= 0 + 900 × 6.25 × ( −18.75 )
+0 + 1, 500 × ( −3.75 ) × 11.25
= −168, 750
z i ) I yz = i ( I ηζ i = 0 + 900 ×

n

n

Rota@ng the Central Axes

Answer: The points of coordinates { I mm ,I mn } will describe a circle
Answer: The points of
coordinates { I mm ,I mn }
will describe a circle
G
y ≡ m
n
z
m
n
m
n
m
m
m
n

QuesBon: What happens to second moment of area ( I mm ) and product moment of area ( I mn ) if we rotate the central axes of reference for a given cross sec@on?

Product moment of area (+ ve, -ve or null) Mohr’s Circle Z I yy I
Product moment of
area (+ ve, -ve or null)
Mohr’s
Circle
Z
I yy
I zz
I mm
Y
Second moment of
area (always + ve)

I mn

- I yz

I yz

21

n

n

n

m

m

n

n n n m m n ≡ Mohr’s Circle (1/6) •   Named arer the German

Mohr’s Circle (1/6)

Named arer the German civil engineer Chris@an Oso Mohr (1835-1918), the Mohr’s circle allows determining the extreme values of many quan@@es useful in the stress analysis of structural members, including minimum and maximum values of stress, strain and second moment of area

Product moment of area (+ ve, -ve or null) Mohr’s Circle Z y ≡ m
Product moment of
area (+ ve, -ve or null)
Mohr’s
Circle
Z
y ≡ m
I yy
I zz
I mm
Y Second moment of
area (always + ve)
m
G m m n
G
m
m
n

n

z

I mn

- I yz

I yz

22

m

Mohr’s Circle (2/6)

G
G

y

I mn

z Z n R I C I I yy I I zz I ave Y
z
Z
n
R I
C I
I yy
I
I zz
I ave
Y

- I yz

mm

I yz

We can draw the Mohr’s circle, once its centre C I and its radius R i are known:

The centre is always on the horizontal axis, whose posi@on is the average of the second moments of area about two orthogonal axes, e.g. I yy and I zz

C I

{

I

ave

, 0}

I ave = I yy + I zz

2

=561,250

From simple geometrical

considera@ons (Pythagoras’ theorem), the radius requires the product moment of area as well

R I =

2 ⎛ I yy − I zz ⎜ ⎞ 2 ⎟ + I yz ⎝
2
⎛ I yy − I zz
2
+ I yz
⎝ ⎠
2

=210,004

Mohr’s Circle (3/6)

G y m I mn
G
y
m
I mn

α

z Z n R I C I I yy I I zz I ave M
z
Z
n
R I
C I
I yy
I
I zz
I ave
M
Y

- I yz

mm

I yz

Points Y and Z in the Mohr’s circle, representa@ve of the central axes y and z in the cross sec@on, are the extreme points of a diameter

A rota@on of an angle α of the central axes in the cross sec@on corresponds to an angle in the Mohr’s circle (in the same direc@on), i.e. twice the angle in the Mohr’s plane

Mohr’s Circle (4/6)

G
G
Mohr’s Circle (4/6) G y I mn z Z R I C I I yy P

y

I mn

z Z R I C I I yy P I min Q I I zz
z
Z
R I
C I
I yy
P
I min
Q
I
I zz
I ave
I max
Y

- I yz

mm

I yz

We can determine the maximum and minimum values of the second moment of area for a given cross sec@on:

I max = I ave + R I

I min = I ave R I

=771,254

=351,246

The axes p and q associated with the extreme value of I are called “principal axes of iner@a”

They are orthogonal each other

In this example:

I pp = I max è p - p is the strong( est)

axis in bending I qq = I min è q - q is the weak( est) axis in bending, e.g. to be used when calcula@ng the Euler’s buckling load

Mohr’s Circle (5/6)

G y
G
y

I mn

Mohr’s Circle (5/6) G y I mn α zq = α yp α yp z Z

α zq = α

yp

α yp

z Z R I 2α zq C I I yy P I min Q 2α
z
Z
R I
2α zq
C I
I yy
P
I min
Q
2α yp
I
I zz
I ave
I max
Y

- I yz

mm

I yz

We can also evaluate the inclina@on of the principal axes p and q with respect to reference axes y and z

In this example:

α yp = α zq = 1 2 sin 1

⎛ ⎞ I yz ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ R I ⎠
I yz
R I ⎠

=26.7°

In general, you don’t know whether p is the strong axis or the weak axis, but it’s for sure one of the two extreme values

Mohr’s Circle (6/6)

G y
G
y

I mn

Mohr’s Circle (6/6) G y I mn α zq = α yp α yp z Z

α zq = α

yp

α yp

z Z R I 2α zq C I I yy P I min Q 2α
z
Z
R I
2α zq
C I
I yy
P
I min
Q
2α yp
I
I zz
I ave
I max
Y

- I yz

mm

I yz

For any beam’s cross sec@on, the principal axes p and q always sa@sfy the mathema@cal condi@on

p and q always sa@sfy the mathema@cal condi@on –   That is, their representa@ve points P

That is, their representa@ve points P and Q in the Mohr’s circle belong to the horizontal axis

An axis of symmetry is always a principal axis of the area

Mohr’s Circle: Par@cular Cases

M m y G x m m
M m
y G
x
m
m
Mohr’s Circle: Par@cular Cases M m y G x m m z M m y G

z

Mohr’s Circle: Par@cular Cases M m y G x m m z M m y G
M m y G x m z m
M m
y G
x
m
z
m

If for a given cross sec@on I min = I max , then all the central axes m will have the same second moment of area, i.e. I mm = I min = I max , and all the central axes m will be principal axes of area, i.e. I mn =0

This is the case, for instance, of both circular and square shapes

The neutral axis (where σ x =0) will always coincide with the axis about which the bending moment is applied

beam’s axis

Bending about Principal Axes

σ x < 0

s G principal axis
s
G
principal axis
about Principal Axes σ x < 0 s G principal axis co m p res s

co m p res s iv e

tres s

M p p
M p
p

x

σ x > 0

tensile

stress

In general, a bending moment M ac@ng about the principal

p

axis p will cause the beam to bend in the orthogonal G xq plane

The simple formula of direct stress σ x due to pure bending can be resorted to:

q

Distance (with sign) to the neutral axis

σ x = M p q Eq. (2) I pp –   Similar to Eq.
σ x = M p q
Eq. (2)
I pp
–   Similar to Eq. (1)

q ( < 0 )

M

Normal Stress due to Unsymmetrical Bending: General Procedure (1/4)

M y G α α y yp p z
M y
G
α
α
y
yp
p
z

M y ( > 0 )

α α yp M p ( > 0 )
α
α
yp
M
p ( > 0 )

q

If the bending does not act along one of the principal axis ( p and q ), then the bending moment can be decomposed along the principal axes

In the figure, M is the bending moment about the horizontal axis (due, for instance, to the dead load):

y

M p = M y co s (α )

M q = M y s in (α )

M q ( > 0 )

Normal Stress due to Unsymmetrical Bending: General Procedure (2/4)

M y G α α y yp p z
M y
G
α
α
y
yp
p
z

q

M p ( > 0 ) α α zq M z ( > 0 )
M p ( > 0 )
α
α
zq
M z ( > 0 )

If the bending does not act along one of the principal axis ( p and q ), then the bending moment can be decomposed along the principal axes

Similarly for the case of the

bending moment M z (due, for instance, to some lateral forces):

M p = M z sin(α )

M q = M z cos(α )

Normal Stress due to Unsymmetrical Bending: General Procedure (3/4)

M y G α α y yp p z
M y
G
α
α
y
yp
p
z

p

q

p G q x q σ x
p
G
q
x
q
σ x

Once M and M are known, the normal stress σ x (+ ve in tension) can be computed with the expression:

p

q

Eq. (3)

σ x = M p q

− M q p I pp I qq
− M q p
I pp
I qq

p and q here are the distances from the principal axes of the point where the stress σ x is sought

Normal Stress due to Unsymmetrical Bending: General Procedure (4/4)

M y G y x z M z
M y
G
y
x
z M z

As an alterna@ve, the following binomial formula can be used

Eq. (4)

σ x = β y + γ z

where the coefficients beta ( β) and gamma ( γ) are given by:

β

γ

= M z I yy + M y I yz

2

I yy I zz I yz

= M y I zz + M z I yz

2

I yy I zz I yz

33

Neutral Axis (1/2)

Along the neutral axis the normal stress σ x is zero, that is:

σ x = β y + γ z = 0

The centroid G ≡{0,0} belongs to the neutral axis, and indeed y G =0 and z G =0 sa@sfies the above equa@ons

elastic neutral axis
elastic neutral axis
z G =0 sa@sfies the above equa@ons elastic neutral axis y N G y N x
y N G y N x z M z
y
N
G
y
N
x
z M z

We need a second point N≡{ y N ,z N } to

draw the straight line GN represen@ng the neutral axis: we can choose a convenient value for the coordinate z N , e.g. the bosom edge of the cross sec@on, and the associated value of y N is given by:

β y N + γ z N = 0

y N = γ z N

β

z N

34

Neutral Axis (2/2)

•   Although the bending acBon is about the verBcal axis z , the neutral
•   Although
the bending
acBon is about the verBcal
axis z ,
the neutral axis is
not verBcal
two flanges are parBally
• The
in tension, parBally in
compression
elastic neutral axis y N
elastic neutral axis
y N
G y x N tension z M z
G
y
x N
tension
z M z

z N

compression

35

Normal Stress Calcula@ons:

Worked Example (1/3)

⎪ = 10 6 ⎧ M y A≡{-8.75,-33.75} ⎨ ⎪ M z = 0 ⎩
= 10 6
⎧ M y
A≡{-8.75,-33.75}
⎪ M z = 0
β = − M z I yy + M y I yz
= 0.623
2
M
I zz −
I yy
I yz
y
G
y
α
= M y I zz
+ M z I yz
yp
γ
= 1.610
2
I yy I zz − I yz
B≡{21.25,
26.25}
z

I yy = 686, 250

I pp = 771, 254

I zz = 436, 250

I qq = 351, 246

I yz = 168, 750

α yp = 26. 7°

σ

x ( A)

=

β y A + γ z A

 

=

0.623 × 8.75 1.610 × 33.75

=

59.80

σ x (B ) = β y B + γ z B = +55. 51

3636

Normal Stress Calcula@ons: Worked Example (2/3) ⎧ M p = M y cos(α yp )
Normal Stress Calcula@ons:
Worked Example (2/3)
⎧ M p =
M y cos(α yp ) = 893, 092
M z = − M y sin(α yp ) = −449, 874
M
y
G
y
α
yp
M p q A
− M q p A
σ x ( A) =
I
I pp
qq
894, 092 × ( −23.00 )
=
z
771, 254
( −449, 874 ) × ( −26.21)

I yy = 686, 250

I pp = 771, 254

I zz = 436, 250

I qq = 351, 246

I yz = 168, 750

α yp = 26. 7°

351, 246

= 59.80

σ x (B ) = M p q B

I pp

M q p B

I

qq

= +55. 51

3737

elas0c neutral axis

Normal Stress Calcula@ons:

Worked Example (2/3)

compression N M y tension G y
compression
N
M y
tension
G
y

point of max tensile stress

z

point of max compressive stress

Assume:

y N = d n = 21. 25

Calculate:

σ x (N ) = β y N + γ z N

I yy = 686, 250

I pp = 771, 254

I zz = 436, 250

I qq = 351, 246

I yz = 168, 750

α yp = 26. 7°

= 0. 623 × 21. 25 + 1. 610 × z N = 0

z N = 13. 24

610

1.

= 8. 22

(which gives the neutral axis GN)

3838

Key Learning Points (1/2)

1. The simple formula of bending stress, σ x = M y z / I yy , is valid if and only if y is a principal axis for the cross sec@on

That is, if and only if the product moment of iner@a is I yz =0 This is the case, for instance, when y and/or z are axis of symmetry

2. To calculate I yz one can split the cross sec@on in elementary blocks, sum the contribu@on from each block and use the parallel axis theorem

Important: I yz can be nega@ve, posi@ve or null

Key Learning Points (2/2)

3. Knowing I yy, I zz and I yz , one can draw the Mohr’s circle for the second moment of area, which allows determining the extreme values (I min and I max ) and their direc@ons

4. In the general case of unsymmetrical bending, the normal stress is given by the formula

σ x = β y + γ z

where β and γ depend on the components of the bending moments (M y and M z ) as well as on I yy, I zz and I yz

5. The above formula allows determining the inclina@on of the neutral axis