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Volume 24

Managing Editor
Mahabir Singh
Editor
Anil Ahlawat
(BE, MBA)

No. 12

December 2016

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CONTENTS

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MPP-6

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Class 12
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Competition Edge
Physics Musing Problem Set 41

70

Key Concept

72

Olympiad Problems

78

Physics Musing Solution Set 40

80

You ask, We Answer

83

Crossword

85

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Physics For you | december 16

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
OF SOLIDS AND FLUIDS
developed inside the body. The restoring force per
unit area of the body is called stress.

) some important Terms


Deforming force : External force which tries to
change in the length, volume or shape of the body
is called deforming force.
Elasticity : It is that property of the material of a
body by virtue of which the body opposes any
change in its shape or size when deforming forces
are applied to it, and recovers its original state as
soon as the deforming forces are removed.
Perfectly elastic body : The body which perfectly
regains its original form on removing the external
deforming force, is defined as a perfectly elastic
body, e.g., quartz is very nearly to a perfectly elastic
body.
Plastic body : The bodies which remain in deformed
state even after removal of the deforming force are
defined as plastic bodies.
Internal restoring force : When an external force
acts at any substance then due to the intermolecular
force there is an internal resistance produced into
the substance called internal restoring force.
At equilibrium the numerical value of internal
restoring force is equal to the external force.

) stress
When deforming force is applied on the body then
the equal restoring force in opposite direction is

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

Stress =

Restoring force

F
F
= internal = external
Area of the body
A
A

The effect of stress is to produce distortion or a


change in size, volume and shape (i.e., configuration
of the body). There are three types of stress

Longitudinal or normal stress : When object is


one dimensional then force acting per unit area
is called longitudinal stress. It is of two types :
(a) Compressive stress (b) Tensile stress
Compressive stress = F/A

Tensile stress = F/A


F

Consider a block of
solid as shown in figure.
Let a force F be applied
to the face which
has
area A. Resolve F into
two components :

F
Fn

F
Ft

(a)

Fn = F sinq called normal force and Ft = F cosq


called tangential force.
F
F sin q
\ Normal (tensile) stress = n =
A
A

Tangential or shear stress : It is defined as the


restoring force acting per unit area tangential to the
surface of the body. Refer to figure (a).
F F cos q
Tangential (shear) stress = t =
A
A
Bulk stress or volume stress :
F = PA
When the force is acting all
along the surface normal to
the area, then force acting
per unit area is known as
volume stress. The effect
of pressure is to produce
change in volume. The shape
of the body may or may not change depending
upon the homogeneity of body.
Difference between pressure and stress :

Longitudinal strain =

Stress
Stress can be either
Pressure is always
normal or tangential to
normal to the area.
the area.
Pressure on a body is Stress can be compressive
always compressive.
or tensile or shear.
Breaking stress : The stress required to cause actual
fracture of a material is called the breaking stress or
ultimate strength.
F
Breaking stress =
A
Dependence of breaking stress : Nature of
material, temperature, impurities.
Independence of breaking stress : Cross
sectional area or thickness, applied force.
Maximum load (force) applied on the wire
depends on cross sectional area or thickness,
nature of material, temperature, impurities.
The ratio of the change in configuration (i.e., shape,
length or volume) to the original configuration of
the body is called strain.
Strain =

Change in configuration
Original configuration

There are three types of strain


10

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

Dl
l

V V

Change in volume

x
L

Original volume

DV
V

x
L

) stress-strain Graph

Proportional limit : The limit in which Hooks law is


valid and stress is directly proportional to strain is
called proportional limit.
B
A

C
Yield
point

Permanent
set

) strain

Shear strain : It is defined as the angle q (in


radian), through which a face originally
perpendicular to the fixed face gets turned on
applying tangential deforming force.

Stress

Original length

Shear strain = q = tan q =

Stress is a tensor.

Change in length

Volumetric strain : It is defined


as the change in volume per
unit original volume, when
the body is deformed by
external forces.
Volumetric strain =

Pressure

Pressure is a scalar.

Longitudinal strain : It is defined


asthe increase in length per unit
original length, when the body
is deformed by external forces.

Ultimate E
tensile Fracture
strength point
Proportional
limit

Strain

Elastic limit : The maximum stress which on


removing the deforming force makes the body to
recover completely its original state.
Yield point : The point beyond elastic limit, at
which the length of wire starts increasing without
increasing stress, is defined as the yield point.

Breaking point : The position when the strain


becomes so large that the wire breaks down at last,
is called breaking point. At this position the stress
acting in that wire is called breaking stress and
strain is called breaking strain.
Elastic after effect or Elastic relaxation : The
property, by virtue of which a body does not regain
its original form immediately after removing the
deforming force but gains it after some time, is
defined as elastic relaxation.
Elastic fatigue : It is defined as the loss in the
strength (elasticity) of a material caused due to
repeated alternating strains to which the material
is subjected.
Elastic hysteresis : The
strain persists even when
the stress is removed. This
lagging behind of strain
is called elastic hysteresis.
This is the reason why the
values of strain for same
Extension or strain
stress are different while
increasing the load and
while decreasing the load.
Metals with small plastic deformation are
called brittle while metals with large plastic
deformation are called ductile.
Elasticity
restoring forces are strictly
conservative only when the elastic hysteresis
is zero, i.e., the loading and unloading stress strain curves are identical.
The material which have low elastic hysteresis
have also low elastic relaxation time.
Load or stress
Lo
ad
inc
rea
sin
Loa
g
d de
crea
sing

Longitudinal stress
Longitudinal strain

F /A F l
=
Dl
A Dl
l

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

Bulk modulus (B) : The moldulus of elasticity


of volume
Normal stress
F / A PV
B=
=
=
Volumetric strain DV / V DV
Negative sign indicates a decrease in volume
with an increase in pressure.
For ideal gases bulk modulus is of two types :
Isothermal bulk modulus, Biso = P
Adibatic bulk modulus, Badi = gP
The reciprocal of bulk modulus of elasticity is
defined as compressibility (K).
1
K=
B
Modulus of rigidity (G) : Modulus of elasticity
of shape
G=

Tangential stress F / A F
=
=
Shearing strain
q
Aq

) Poissons ratio

Within the elastic limit, the ratio of


lateral strain to the longitudinal strain
is called Poissons ratio.
Lateral strain
DD / D
s=
=
Longitudinal strain
Dl / l

l
l

l DD
D D

D Dl
The negative sign indicates that longitudinal and
lateral strains are in opposite sense.
Relation between Y, B, G and s
9 3 1
Y = 3B(1 2s), Y = 2G(1 + s), = +
Y G B
Elongation of a wire by its own weight equals to
(Mgl/2AY).
Work done in stretching a wire,
1
F
W = load extension= Dl
2
2
This work done is stored in the wire as elastic
potential energy.
So, elastic potential energy density,
or

Within elastic limit, modulus of elasticity is defined


as the ratio of the stress to the strain.
It depends on the nature of the material of the body
and is independent of its dimensions.
There are three types of moduli of elasticity
Youngs modulus (Y) : The modulus of elasticity
of length
Y=

12

) Modulus of Elasticity

s=

u=

W 1
= stress strain
V 2

) Applications of Elasticity

The thickness of metallic ropes used in cranes to


lift heavy loads is derived by the knowledge of the

elastic limit of the material and for a safety factor


of 10.
In case of twisting of a cylinder (or wire) of length L
and radius r, elastic restoring couple per unit twist
is given by
C=

pGr 4
2L

WL3
48YIg

where L is the length of a beam, Y is the Youngs


modulus for the material of the beam, and Ig is the
geometrical moment of inertia.
For a beam of circular cross section of radius r,
pr 4
Ig =
4
For a beam of rectangular cross section of
breadth b and thickness d,
Ig =

) Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle

bd 3
12

) Pressure

Depression of a beam loaded at the middle by a


load W and supported at the ends is
=

If a uniform force is exerted normal to an area (A),


then pressure (P) is defined as the normal force (F)
F
per unit area, i.e., P = .
A
Practical units : atmospheric pressure (atm), bar
and torr
1 atm = 1.01325 105 Pa = 1.01325 bar =
760 torr = 10.33 m of water
1 bar = 105 Pa
1 torr = pressure exerted by 1 mm of mercury
column = 133 Pa
Pressure is of three types
Atmospheric pressure :
Upto top of
Force exerted by air
atmosphere
Air
column on unit cross
column
Sea
Area = 1 m2
section area of sea level level
called
atmospheric
pressure (Po).
F
Po = = 101.3 kN m 2
A
\ Po = 1.013 105 N m2

Barometer is used to measure atmospheric


pressure. It was discovered by Torricelli.
Atmospheric pressure varies from place to
place and at a particular place from time to
time.
Gauge pressure : Excess pressure (P Patm)
measured with the help of pressure measuring
instrument called Gauge pressure.
Pgauge = hrg or Pgauge h
Gauge pressure is always measured with
help of manometer.
Absolute pressure : Sum of atmospheric and
Gauge pressure is called absolute pressure.
Pabs = Patm + Pgauge Pabs = Po + hrg

Buoyancy : If a body is partially or wholly immersed


in a fluid, it experiences an upward force due to the
fluid surrounding it. This phenomenon of force
exerted by fluid on the body is called buoyancy and
force is called buoyant force or upthrust.
Buoyant force, FB = rVg
r = density of fluid, V = volume of displaced fluid
Archimedes principle : It states that the buoyant
force on a body that is partially or totally immersed
in a liquid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced
by it.
Buoyant force acts vertically upward through the
centre of gravity of the displaced fluid. This point
is called centre of buoyancy. It depends upon the
effective acceleration.
If a lift is accelerated downwards with
acceleration a(a < g) then FB = rV(g a)
If a lift is accelerated downwards with a = g
then FB = rV(g a) = 0
If a lift is accelerated upward with acceleration
a then FB = rV(g + a)
Due to upthrust, the weight of the body decreases.
Wapp = W FB (W is the true weight of the body)
Decrease in weight = W Wapp = FB = Weight of
the fluid displaced
Using Archimedes principle, we can determine
relative density (R.D.) of a body as
Density of body
R.D. =
Density of pure water at 4 C
Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

13

If a body is weighed in air (WA), in water (WW) and


in a liquid (WL), then
Loss of weight in liquid
Specific gravity of liquid =
Loss of weight in water
W WL
= A
WA WW
Weight of liquid displaced = upthrust = weight of
body
This is known as law of floatation.
The floating body will be in stable equilibrium
when the metacentre lies above centre of gravity
of body.
The floating body will be in unstable equilibrium
when the metacentre lies below centre of gravity
of body.
The floating body will be in neutral equilibrium
when the metacentre coincides with centre of
gravity of body.
If a person floats on his back on the surface of
water, the apparent weight of the person is zero.

) Equation of continuity

14

Steady flow is defined as that type of flow in which


the fluid characteristics like velocity, pressure and
density at a point do not change with time.
In steady flow, all the particles passing
through a given point follow the same path and
hence a unique line of flow. This line or path
is called a streamline. Streamlines do not
intersect each other.
In an unsteady flow, the velocity, pressure and
density at a point in the flow varies with time.
Laminar flow is the flow in which the fluid particles
move along well-defined streamlines which are
straight and parallel. In this flow, the velocities
at different points in the fluid may have different
magnitudes, but their directions are parallel.
Turbulent flow is an irregular flow in which the
particles can move in zig-zag way due to which
eddies formation take place which are responsible
for high energy losses.
In compressible flow, the density of fluid varies
from point to point, whereas in incompressible
flow, the density of the fluid remains constant
throughout. Liquids are generally incompressible
while gases are compressible.
Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

The continuity equation is the mathematical


expression of the law of conservation of mass in
fluid dynamics.

A1

v1

v2

A2
v2t

v1t

) Different Types of Fluid Flow

Rotational flow is the flow in which the fluid


particles while flowing along path-lines also rotate
about their own axis. In irrotational flow, particles
do not rotate about their axis.

In the steady flow, the mass of fluid entering into a


tube of flow in a particular time interval is equal to
the mass of fluid leaving the tube.
m1 m2
=
or r1A1v1 = r2 A2v2
Dt Dt
Here r = r1 = r2 = density of fluid, v = velocity of fluid,
A = Area of cross section of tube
or A1v1 = A2v2 or Av = constant

) Bernoullis Theorem

Bernoullis equation is mathematical expression of


the law of mechanical energy conservation of fluid
dynamics.

This theorem is applied to the ideal fluids.


Characteristics of an ideal fluid are :
The fluid is incompressible.
The fluid is non-viscous.
The fluid flow is steady.
The fluid flow is irrotational.
The sum of pressure energy, kinetic energy and
potential energy per unit volume remains constant
along a streamline in an ideal fluid flow i.e.,

1
P + rv 2 + rgh = constant
2
(Energy per unit volume)
or

P v2
+ + gh = constant
r 2

(Energy per unit mass)


P v2
or
+
+ h = constant
rg 2 g
(Energy per unit weight)

In this equation,

P
is called pressure head,
rg

v2
is called velocity head and h is called
2g
gravitational/potential head.

) Applications of Bernoullis Theorem

Venturimeter : It is a device to measure the flow of


speed of incompressible fluid.
Volume of the fluid flowing out per second
2hrm g

Q = a1v1 = a1a2

v1 P2

P1

Speed of fluid at wide


neck
v1 =

r(a12 a22 )

Area = a1

Area = a2
v2
Liquid of
density m

The viscous force is directly It is independent of the


proportional to the surface area of solid surfaces in
area of contact of liquid contact.
layers.
The viscous force is directly
proportional to the relative
velocity between two layers
of a liquid.

It is independent of the
relative velocity of one
body with respect to
another body in contact.

It does not depend upon


the
normal
reaction
between the two layers of
the liquid.

It is directly proportional
to the normal reaction
between the surfaces in
contact.

2hrm g
a22

r
a12 a22

A2

P2 = P
h
H

(H h)

A1

1
Pa

Horizontal range, R = v1 t
2(H h)
= 2 gh
= 2 h(H h)
g
H
R will be maximum if h =
and Rmax = H.
2
In general as shown in figure, speed of outflow,
v1 = 2 gh +

2(P Pa )
r

) Viscosity

Viscosity is the property of the fluid by virtue of


which it opposes the relative motion between its
adjacent layers. It is the fluid friction or internal
friction.
Difference between viscosity and solid friction
Viscosity

Solid friction

It is internal friction as the It is external friction as


layer exerting the friction the friction force is due
force is internal to the to an external body.
liquid.

velocity

dv
dy
dv
is velocity gradient, h is coefficient of viscosity
dy
of fluid and A is contact area of the layers.
Stokes law : When a sphere of radius r moves
uniformly through a viscous liquid then retarding
force experienced by the sphere is, Fv = 6phrv.
Terminal velocity :
When a solid sphere
4
FB = 3 r3g
falls in a liquid then its
accelerating velocity is
Fv = 6rvT

controlled by the viscous


force of liquid and hence
it attains a constant
4

velocity which is known W= 3 r3g


as terminal velocity (vT).
At equilibrium, FB + Fv = W
4 3
4
or
pr sg + 6 phrvT = pr 3rg
3
3
2
2 r (r s)
g
or vT =
9
h
vT
The variation of velocity
with time (or distance)
is shown in the adjacent
graph.
Time or distance
F = hA

Torricellis law :
If the container is open at the top to the
atmosphere then speed of efflux v1 = 2 gh
2

Newtons law of viscosity : Viscous force acting


between two layers of a liquid flowing in streamlined
motion is given by

) Poiseuilles Formula

Volume of liquid flowing per second V through a


horizontal capillary tube of length l, radius r, across
a pressure difference P, under streamline motion,
is given by
Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

15

V=

pPr 4
P
=
8 hl
R

Liquid resistance R =

8 hl

pr
Two capillary tubes are joined in series.
P = P1 + P2 and V is same through the two tubes.
Equivalent liquid resistance, Rs = R1 + R2
Two capillary tubes are joined in parallel. Equivalent
RR
liquid resistance, RP = 1 2 .
R1 + R2

In parallel, V = V1 + V2 but pressure difference


P is same across both tubes.

) reynolds Number

The type of flow pattern (laminar or turbulent) is


determined by a non-dimensional number called
Reynolds number (Re). Which is defined as
rvd
Re =
h
where r is the density of the fluid having viscosity
h and flowing with mean speed v. d denotes the
diameter of obstacle or boundary of fluid flow.
Although there is not a perfect demarkation for
value of Re for laminar and turbulent flow but some
authentic references take the value as
Re

<1000

Type of
flow

laminar often
may be laminar
turbulent or turbulent

>2000

between
to 2000

16

On gradually increasing the speed of flow at certain


speed transition from laminar flow to turbulent
flow takes place. This speed is called critical speed.
For lower density and higher viscosity fluid, laminar
flow is more probable.
It is the property of liquid by virtue of which its
free surface possess a tendency to contract so as
to acquire a minimum possible surface area and
behave like a stretched membrane.
Quantitatively, surface tension of liquid is
F W
S= =
l A
where F is the force acting on imaginary length
l drawn tangentially to the liquid surface at rest.
Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

Formation of a bigger drop by a number of smaller


drops
When n number of smaller drops of a liquid,
each of radius r, surface tension S are combined
to form a bigger drop of radius R then
Volume of bigger drop = volume of n smaller
drops

1000

4 3
4
pR = n pr 3 or R = n1/3r
3
3
The surface area of bigger drop = 4pR2
= 4pn2/3r2, which is less than the area of n
smaller drops.
In this process energy is released, given by
W = S (4pr2n 4pR2) = 4pSr2n2/3(n1/3 1)
1 1
= 4 pSR2 (n1/3 1) = 4 pSR3
r R

) surface Tension

W is the work done in increasing the area A of


free surface of liquid at rest without any change in
temperature.
Molecules on the free surface of a liquid at rest
experience maximum downward pulling force
which gives rise to surface tension.
Surface tension depends only on the nature of liquid
and is independent of the surface area or length of
the imaginary line drawn on the free surface of
liquid at rest.
Work done in forming a liquid drop/bubble
Work done in forming a liquid drop of radius
R, surface tension S is W = 4pR2S.
Work done in forming a soap bubble of radius R,
surface tension S is W = 2 4 pR2 S = 8pR2S.
Work done in increasing the radius of a liquid
drop from R1 to R2 is W = 4 pS(R22 R12 ).
Work done in increasing the radius of a soap
bubble from R1 to R2 is W = 8 pS(R22 R12 ).

The increase in temperature of bigger drop


Dq =

3S 1 1

Jcr r R

where r = density and c = specific heat of liquid.

) Excess Pressure

Excess pressure inside a liquid drop, P = 2 S/R


Excess pressure inside a soap bubble, P = 4 S/R
Pressure difference (P) across curved surfaces of
radii R1 and R2

If the curvatures are in mutually opposite


direction, then
1
1
R1
R2
P =S
R R
1

If the curvatures are in the same direction,


then
1
1
P =S +
R2
R R
R
1

For a cylindrical surface, P =


because R1 = R and R2 =

S
R

2S
For a spherical surface, P =
R
because R1 = R2 = R

If there is an air bubble of radius R in a liquid of


density r at a depth h below the surface of liquid,
then total pressure inside that bubble is
P = P0 + hrg + 2S/R
where P0 is the atmospheric pressure and hrg is the
hydrostatic pressure.
If P1 and P2 are pressures inside the two soap bubbles
and P0 is pressure outside each bubble, then ratio of
3

) Angle of contact and capillarity


Angle of contact is defined as the angle between the

1. One end of a nylon rope of length 4.5 m and


diameter 6 mm is fixed to a tree-limb. A monkey
weighing 100 N jumps to catch the free end and
stays there. The elongation of the rope and the
corresponding change in the diameter respectively
are (Youngs modulus of nylon = 4.8 1011 N m2
and Poisson ratio of nylon = 0.2)
(a) 3.32 105 m
(b) 4.41 108 m
9
(c) 8.85 10 m
(d) 1.94 109 m.
2. Water flows in a horizontal A
B
tube as shown in the figure.
The pressure of water changes
by 600 N m2 between A and B where the areas of
cross section are 30 cm2 and 15 cm2 respectively.

2S cos q 2S
r

=
cos q =
rrg
Rrg
R
where S is the surface tension of the liquid, q is
the angle of contact, r is the density of liquid, r is
the radius of capillary tube, R is the radius of the
meniscus and g is the acceleration due to gravity.
If q > 90, i.e., meniscus is convex, h will be
negative, i.e., the liquid will fall in a capillary
tube.
If q = 90, i.e., meniscus is plane, h = 0, so no
phenomenon of capillarity.
If q < 90, i.e., meniscus is concave, h will be
positive, i.e., the liquid will rise in the capillary.
If a capillary tube is of insufficient length as
compared to height to which liquid can rise in the
capillary tube, then the liquid rises upto the full
length of capillary tube but there is no overflowing
of the liquid in the form of fountain. It is so because
the liquid meniscus adjusts its radius of curvature
so that hR = constant, i.e., hR = hR.
h=

P P
their volumes is 2 0 .
P P

tangents to solid and liquid surfaces at a point of


contact inside the liquid. It depends on the nature
of solid and liquid both and for concave meniscus,
it is acute while for convex it is obtuse.
The phenomenon of rise or fall of liquid in a
capillary tube is known as capillarity.
The rise or fall in a capillary tube is given by

The rate of flow of water (in cm3 s1) through the


tube will be
(a) 6300 (b) 1890 (c) 2315 (d) 1680.
3. Water and mercury are filled in two cylindrical
vessels up to same height. Both vessels have a hole
in the wall near the bottom. If the velocity of water
and mercury coming out of the holes are v1 and v2
respectively, then
(a) v1 = v2
(b) v1 = 13.6 v2
(c) v1 = v2/13.6

(d) v1 = 13.6 v2 .

4. A ring is cut from a platinum tube has 8.5 cm


internal and 8.7 cm external radius. It is supported
horizontally from a pan of a balance so that it comes
Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

17

in contact with the water in a glass vessel. What


is the surface tension of water if an extra weight
= 3.97 g wt is required to pull it away from water ?
(Take g = 980 cm s2)
(a) 72.04 dyne cm1 (b) 35.98 dyne cm1
(c) 54.03 dyne cm1 (d) 18.02 dyne cm1
5. A 45 kg boy whose leg bones are 5 cm2 in area and
50 cm long falls through a height of 2 m without
breaking his leg bones. If the bones can stand a
stress of 0.9 108 N m2, then the Youngs modulus
for the material of the bone is (Take g = 10 m s2)
(a) 2.25 109 N m2 (b) 2.76 108 N m2
(c) 4.42 107 N m2 (d) 3.17 109 N m2.
6. Two rods A and B of the same material and same
length have radii r1 and r2 respectively. When they
are rigidly fixed at one end and twisted by the same
couple applied at the other end, then the ratio of
the angles of twist at the ends of A and B is
(a) r2 : r1 (b) r14 : r24 (c) r24 : r14 (d) r13 : r23.
7. A large tank filled with water to a height h is said
to be emptied through a small hole at the bottom.
Find the ratio of time taken for the level of water to
fall down from h to h/2 and h/2 to zero.
(a) 1 : 2 (b) 2 + 1 (c) 2
(d) 2 1
8. The lower end of a capillary tube is dipped in water.
Water rises to a height of 8 cm. The tube is then
broken at a height of 6 cm. The height of water
column and angle of contact will be
3
3
(a) 6 cm, sin 1 (b) 6 cm, cos 1
4
4
1
1
(c) 4 cm, sin 1 (d) 4 cm, cos 1 .
2
2
9. The rate of steady volume of water through a
capillary tube of length l and radius r under a
pressure difference of P is V. This tube is connected
with another tube of same length but half the radius
in series. Then the rate of increase of steady volume
through them is (the pressure difference across the
combination is P)
16 V
17 V
V
V
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
.
17
16
16
17
10. A cylindrical vessel is filled with water up to height
H. A hole is bored in the wall at a depth h from
the free surface of water. For maximum range, h is
equal to
H
3H
H
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d) H.
2
4
4
18

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

11. Two blocks of masses 1 kg and


2 kg are connected by a metal
wire going over a smooth pulley
as shown in the figure. The
breaking stress of the metal is 1 kg
2 109 N m2. What should be the
minimum radius of the wire used
if it is not to break?
(Take g = 10 m s2)
(a) 4.6 105 m
(b) 9.2 105 m
4
(c) 2.3 10 m
(d) 2.3 105 m

2 kg

12. If two soap bubbles of different radii are connected


by a tube,
(a) air flows from bigger bubble to the smaller
bubble till the sizes become equal
(b) air flows from bigger bubble to the smaller
bubble till the sizes are interchanged
(c) air flows from the smaller bubble to the bigger
bubble
(d) there is no flow of air.
13. A rectangular film of liquid is extended from
(4 cm 2 cm) to (5 cm 4 cm). If the work done
is 3 104 J, the value of the surface tension of the
liquid is
(a) 0.250 N m1
(b) 0.125 N m1
1
(c) 0.2 N m
(d) 8.0 N m1.
[NEET Phase II 2016]
14. Three liquids of densities r1, r2 and r3 (with
r1 > r2 > r3), having the same value of surface
tension T, rise to the same height in three identical
capillaries. The angles of contact q1, q2 and q3 obey
p
> q1 > q2 > q3 0
2
p
(b) 0 q1 < q2 < q3 <
2
p
(c)
< q1 < q2 < q3 < p
2
p
(d) p > q1 > q2 > q3 > . [NEET Phase II 2016]
2
(a)

15. Two non-mixing liquids of densities r and nr


(n > 1) are put in a container. The height of each
liquid is h. A solid cylinder of length L and density
d is put in this container. The cylinder floats with
its axis vertical and length pL (p < 1) in the denser
liquid. The density d is equal to
(a) {2 + (n 1)p}r (b) {1 + (n 1)p}r
(c) {1 + (n + 1)p}r (d) {2 + (n + 1)p}r.
[NEET Phase I 2016]

16. The Youngs modulus of steel is twice that of brass.


Two wires of same length and of same area of
cross section, one of steel and another of brass are
suspended from the same roof. If we want the lower
ends of the wires to be at the same level, then the
weights added to the steel and brass wires must be
in the ratio of
(a) 4 : 1
(b) 1 : 1
(c) 1 : 2
(d) 2 : 1.
[AIPMT 2015]
17. Consider a water jar of radius R
R
that has water filled up to height H
H
and is kept on a stand of height h.
2r
Through a hole of radius r (r << R)
at its bottom, the water leaks out
h
and the stream of water coming
2x
down towards the ground has a
shape like a funnel as shown in the figure. If the
radius of the cross section of water stream when it
hits the ground is x. Then
1

(a)
(c)

H 4
x =r
H + h
H
x =r
H + h

H
(b) x = r
H + h
1
2

H
.
(d) x = r
H + h
[JEE Main Online 2016]

18. Which of the following options correctly describes


the variation of the speed v and acceleration a of a
point mass falling vertically in a viscous medium
that applies a force F = kv, where k is a constant,
on the body? (Graphs are schematic and not drawn
to scale)
v

(a)

(b)
v

(c)

v
t

(d)

a
t

[JEE Main Online 2016]


a
19. A bottle has an opening of radius a and
length b. A cork of length b and radius
b
(a + Da) where (Da << a) is compressed
to fit into the opening completely (see
figure). If the bulk modulus of cork is
B and frictional coefficient between
the bottle and cork is m then the force
needed to push the cork into the bottle is

(a) (pmBb)a
(c) (pmBb)Da

(b) (2pmBb)Da
(d) (4pmBb)Da
[JEE Main Online 2016]

20. If it takes 5 minutes to fill a 15 litre bucket from a


2
cm then the Reynolds
water tap of diameter
p
number for the flow is (density of water = 103 kg m3
and viscosity of water = 103 Pa s) close to
(a) 5500 (b) 11,000 (c) 550
(d) 1100
[JEE Main Online 2015]
SolutionS
1. (c) : As the monkey stays in equilibrium, the
tension in the rope equals the weight of the monkey.
Hence,
stress T / A
TL
Y=
=
or l =
strain l / L
AY
or elongation,
(100 N) (4.5 m)
l=
(p 9 106 m2 ) (4.8 1011 N m 2 )
=3.32 105 m

Dd / d (Dd )L
=
l/L
ld
Dd 4.5 m

Again, Poisson ratio =


or 0.2 =
or Dd =

(3.32 105 m) (6 103 m)


0.2 6 3.32 108 m
= 8.85 109m
4. 5

2. (b) : Let the velocity at A = vA and that at B = vB


2

30 cm
v
By the equation of continuity, B =
=2
v A 15 cm2
1
1
By Bernoullis theorem, PA + rv 2A = PB + rv B2
2
2
1
1
3
or PA PB = r(2v A )2 rv 2A = rv 2A
2
2
2
3
or 600 N m 2 = (1000 kg m 3 )v 2A
2
or v A = 0.4 m2s 2 = 0.63 m s 1

The rate of flow = (30 cm2) (0.63 m s1)


= 1890 cm3 s1
3. (a)
4. (b) : Let r1 and r2 be the inner and outer radius of
the ring when ring is in contact with water along its
inner and outer circumference. So, when it is pulled
out of water, the total force on it due to surface
Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

19

tension will be, F = S (2pr1 + 2pr2)


mg
F
or S =
=
2 p(r1 + r2 ) 2 p(r1 + r2 )
3.97 980
=
= 35.98 dyne cm 1
2 (22 / 7)(8.5 + 8.7)
5. (a) : Here, m = 45 kg; h = 2 m; L = 0.50 m;
A = 5 104 m2
Loss in gravitational energy
= gain in elastic energy in both leg bones
1

mgh = 2 stress strain volume


2

Here, volume = AL = 5 104 0.50 = 2.5 104 m3


\ 45 10 2
= 2(0.5 0.9 108 strain 2.5 104 )

or strain =
\ Y=

45 10 2
0.9 2.5 104

= 0.04

stress 0.9 108


=
= 2.25 109 N m2
strain
0.04

6. (c) : If a wire of length l and radius r is fixed at


one end and a torque t is applied at the other end
produces angle of twist q in the wire, then
2tl
pGr 4 q
or q =
, i.e., q 1 / r 4
t=
4
2l
pGr
4
q
r
Thus, 1 = 2
q2 r14
7. (d) : Let R be the radius of the tank and r be the
radius of the hole. Then velocity of water flowing
out of the hole, v = 2 gh . If dh is the fall in height
of water in time dt, then
dh
dh r 2
pR
= pr 2v = pr 2 2 gh ;
=
2 g dt
dt
h R2
Required ratio,
2

h /2

t1
t2

dh

h h h
= h
= 2
= 2 1
0
h
dh
h 0 2
h /2

8. (b) : When a capillary tube is broken at a height of


6 cm, the height of water column will be 6 cm. As
2S cos q
h
2S
h=
or
=
= constant
rrg
cos q rrg
20

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

8
6
=
cos 0 cos q

or

q = cos1 (3/4)

or cos q =

6 cos 0 3
=
8
4

pPr 4
; when tubes are connected in
8 hl
series, then the rate of flow of water through each
tube (V1) is same. Let (P P1) be the difference in
pressure across the first tube and P1 be the difference
in pressure across the second tube. Then

9. (c) : V =

V1 =

p(P P1 ) r 4
8 hl

or P P1 =
From (i),
V1 =

P1
16

pP1 (r / 2)4
8 hl

or P1 =

16 P
17

p(16P / 17) (r 4 / 16)


8 hl

...(i)

1 pPr 4 V

=
17 8hl 17

Rate of decrease of volume = V

V 16V
=
17 17

10. (b) : Horizontal velocity of water flowing out of


hole, u = 2 gh
Height of hole from ground level = (H h).
The time taken by water to cover vertical distance
(H h) will be
1
(H h) = gt 2 or t = 2(H h) / g
2
\ Horizontal range,
R = ut = 2 gh 2(H h) / g = 2 h(H h)
Horizontal range will be maximum if dR/dh = 0
1
i.e., 2 (hH h2 )1/2 (H 2h) = 0
2
or H = 2h or h = H/2
11. (a)
12. (c)
13. (b) : Work done = Surface tension of film
Change in area of the film
or
W = T DA
Here, A1 = 4 cm 2 cm = 8 cm2
A2 = 5 cm 4 cm = 20 cm2
DA = 2(A2 A1) = 24 cm2 = 24 104 m2
W = 3 104 J, T = ?
\

T=

3 104 1
W
=
= = 0.125 N m 1
DA 24 104 8

14. (b) : Capillary rise, h =

2T cos q
rrg

cos q
For given value of T and r, h
r
Also, h1 = h2 = h3
cos q1 cos q2 cos q3
or
=
=
r1
r2
r3
Since, r1 > r2 > r3, so for positive value of cos q
cos q1 > cos q2 > cos q3
p
For 0 q < , q1 < q2 < q3
2
p
Hence, option is (b) i.e., 0 q1 < q2 < q3 <
2
15. (b) :
h
h

d = density of cylinder
A = area of cross section of cylinder
Using law of floatation,
Weight of cylinder = Upthrust by two liquids
L A d g = nr (pL A)g + r(L pL)Ag
d = npr + r(1 p) = (np + 1 p)r
d = {1 + (n 1)p} r
16. (d) : Let L and A be length
and area of cross section of Steel
Brass
each wire. In order to have L, A
L, A
the lower ends of the wires
to be at the same level (i.e.,
Ws
Wb
same elongation is produced
in both wires), let weights Ws and Wb are added to
steel and brass wires respectively. Then by definition
of Youngs modulus, the elongation produced in the
steel wire is
Ws L
Ys A
and that in the brass wire is
WL
DLb = b
Yb A
DLs =

W/ A

as Y =

DL / L

But DLs = DLb (given)


Ws L Wb L
=
Ys A Yb A
Y
As s = 2
Yb

or

17. (a) : Let v1 and v2 be the velocities of water when


it leaks out through the hole and when it hits the
ground respectively.
Then, as per Bernoullis theorem,
v12 + 2gh = v22
Now, according to Torricellis law, v1 = 2 gH ...(i)
\ 2gH + 2gh = v22
...(ii)
According to continuity equation,
a1v1 = a2v2
or pr 2 2 gH = px 2 2 g (H + h) [Using (i) and (ii)]

x2 = r 2

(L pL)
pL

Ws 2
=
Wb 1

Ws Ys
=
Wb Yb
(given)

1/ 4
H
H
or x = r
H + h
H +h

18. (c) : Equation of motion for the point mass


...(i)
ma = mg kv
dv
dt
dv mg kv
=
or
=
mg kv m
dt
m
Integrating,
v

dv
1
mg kv = m dt

kt
t
1
v
mg
[ln(mg kv )]0 =
m
;
v
=
1

e
k
m
k
Putting (ii) in (i), we get

...(ii)

kt

mg
( kt /m ) or a = ge m
k 1 e
Hence option (c) represents the correct variation.
ma = mg k

19. (d) : Bulk modulus, B =

Normal stress
Volumetric strain

N
N
=
A (2pa)b
2 pa Da b 2Da
Volumetric strain =
=
a
pa2 b
N
a

\ B=
2 pab 2Da
N = 4pb Da B
\ Required force = Frictional force
= mN = (4pmBb)Da
P=

20. (a)

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

21

CLASS XI Series 6

CBSE

Thermodynamics
Kinetic Theory

Time Allowed : 3 hours


Maximum Marks : 70

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
(i)

All questions are compulsory.

(ii)

Q. no. 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.

(iii) Q. no. 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.
(iv) Q. no. 11 to 22 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each.
(v)

Q. no. 23 is a value based question and carries 4 marks.

(vi) Q. no. 24 to 26 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.
(vii) Use log tables if necessary, use of calculator is not allowed.

section-A

1. Can a system be heated and its temperature remains


constant?
2. Air pressure in a car tyre increases during driving.
Explain.
3. The volume of a given mass of a gas at 27 C and
1 atm is 100 cc. What will be its volume at 327 C?
4. Calculate the number of atoms in 39.4 g of gold.
Molar mass of gold is 197 g mol1.
5. During adiabatic changes, the volume of a gas
is found to depend inversely on the square of its
absolute temperature. Find how its pressure will
depend on the absolute temperature.
section-B

6. What happens to the change in internal energy


of a gas during (a) isothermal expansion and
(b) adiabatic expansion?
7. A monatomic ideal gas, initially at temperature T1
is enclosed in a cylinder fitted with a frictionless
piston. The gas is allowed to expand adiabatically to
a temperature T2 by releasing the piston suddenly.
If L1 and L2 are the lengths of the gas column before
22

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

and after expansion respectively then, what is the


ratio T1/T2?
8. Calculate the number of degrees of freedom of
molecules of hydrogen in 1 cc of hydrogen gas at
NTP.
9. Write any four fundamental postulates of the kinetic
theory of an ideal gas.
OR
At what temperature does all molecular motion
cease ? Explain.
10. Discuss whether the following phenomena are
reversible :
(a) Water fall
(b) Rusting of iron
section-c
11. A vessel A contains hydrogen and another vessel
B whose volume is twice of A contains same mass
of oxygen at the same temperature. Compare
(a) average kinetic energies of hydrogen and
oxygen molecules, (b) root mean square speeds of
the molecules and (c) pressures of gases in A and
B. Molecular weights of hydrogen and oxygen are
2 and 32 respectively.

12. Explain why


(a) There is no atmosphere on the moon.
(b) There is fall in temperature with altitude.
13. Estimate the average thermal energy of a helium
atom at (a) room temperature 27 C, (b) the
temperature on the surface of the sun 6000 K,
(c) the temperature of 10 million kelvin (the typical
core temperature in case of a star).
14. Show that the slope of an adiabatic curve at any
point is g times the slope of an isothermal curve at
the corresponding point.
15. Explain why
(a) Two bodies at different temperatures T1 and T2
if brought in thermal contact do not necessarily
settle to mean temperature (T1 + T2)/2.
(b) The coolant in a chemical or a nuclear plant
(i.e., the liquid used to prevent the different
parts of a plant from getting too hot) should
have high specific heat.
(c) The climate of a harbour town is more temperate
than that of a town in a desert at the same
latitude.

19. 1 g of water at 100 C is converted into steam at


the same temperature. If the volume of steam is
1671 cm3, find the change in the internal energy of
the system. Given latent heat of steam = 2256 J g1
and 1 atmospheric pressure = 1.013 105 N m2.
20. Ten small planes are flying at a speed of
150 km h1 in total darkness in an air space that is
20 20 1.5 km3 in volume. You are in one of the
planes, flying at random within this space with
no way of knowing where the other planes are.
On the average about how long a time will elapse
between near collision with your plane. Assume for
this rough computation that a safety region
around the plane can be approximated by a sphere
of radius 10 m.

16. Two cylinders A and B of equal capacity are


connected to each other via a stopcock. The
cylinder A contains a gas at standard temperature
and pressure, while the cylinder B is completely
evacuated. The entire system is thermally insulated.
The stopcock is suddenly opened.
Answer the following :
(a) What is the final pressure of the gas in A and B?
(b) What is the change in internal energy of the gas?
(c) What is the change in temperature of the gas?
(d) Do the intermediate states of the system (before
settling to final equilibrium state) lie on its
P-V-T surface?

OR
(a) The difference between two specific heats of a
gas is 5000 J kg1 K1 and the ratio of specific
heats is 1.6. Find the two specific heats.
(b) A cylinder containing one gram molecule of
the gas was compressed adiabatically until its
temperature rose from 27 C to 97 C. Calculate
the work done on the gas. Given g = 1.5.
21. (a) When a molecule (or an elastic ball) hits a
(massive) wall of container, it rebounds with
the same speed. When a ball hits a massive bat
held firmly, the same thing happens. However,
when the bat is moving towards the ball, the
ball rebounds with a different speed. Does the
ball move faster or slower?
(b) When gas in a cylinder is compressed by
pushing in a piston, its temperature rises.
Guess an explanation of this in terms of kinetic
theory.
(c) What happens when a compressed gas pushes
a piston out and expands ? What would you
observe?

17. Two perfect gases at absolute temperatures


T1 and T2 are mixed. There is no loss of energy.
Find the temperature of the mixture if the masses
of the molecules are m1 and m2 and the number of
molecules in the gases are n1 and n2 respectively.

22. Two thermally insulated vessels 1 and 2 are filled


with air at temperature (T1, T2), volumes (V1, V2)
and pressures (P1, P2) respectively. If the valve
joining the two vessels is opened, what will be the
temperature inside the vessel at equilibrium ?

18. A thermos flask contains coffee. It is vigorously


shaken. Consider the coffee as the system.
(a) Has any heat been added to it? (b) Has any
work been done on it? (c) Has its internal energy
changed? (d) Does its temperature rise?

section-D

23. One day Ramesh was pumping air into his


cycle tyre. He noticed that both the volume and
pressure of the air in the tyre were increasing
simultaneously. He was a bit confused as he had
Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

23

learnt in his Physics class that pressure varies


inversely with volume as per Boyle's law. Next day
he talked to his Physics teacher about this
phenomenon. The teacher thought it to be an
important phenomenon and therefore explained to
the whole class.
Answer the following questions :
(a) What are the values displayed by Ramesh and
the teacher?
(b) What is your opinion to correct the
explanation for the given observation?
section-e

24. State first law of thermodynamics and use it to


find the expression for work done during adiabatic
expansion. Write two limitations of first law of
thermodynamics.
OR
What is an isothermal process? State two essential
conditions for such a process to take place. Show
analytically that work done by one mole of an ideal
gas during isothermal expansion from volume V1
to volume V2 is given by
W = RT loge

V2
V1

What is the change in internal energy of a gas,


which is compressed isothermally?
25. What is Carnot engine ? Derive an expression for
the efficiency of a Carnot engine. On what factors
does it depend?
OR
Consider a P-V diagram in which the path followed
by one mole of perfect gas in a cylindrical container
is shown in figure.

(c) Given the internal energy for one mole of gas at


temperature T is 3/2 RT, find the heat supplied
to the gas when it is taken from state 1 to 2, with
V2 = 2V1.
26. Show that the pressure exerted by an ideal gas is
1
P = r v2, where r is the density and v is the root
3
mean square velocity.
OR
Using the law of equipartition of energy, determine
the values of CP, CV and g for (a) monatomic,
(b) diatomic and (c) triatomic gases.
solutions

1. From first law of thermodynamics,


DQ = DU + DW
DQ = nCV DT + DW
(Q DU = nCVDT)
If system has constant temperature inspite of heat
supplied then DT = 0 and DQ = DW. It means heat
supplied (DQ) to the system is used in doing work
(DW) against the surrounding.
2. A car tyre has a fixed volume (V). When car
is driven, the temperature (T) of air in its tyre
increases. So, according to Charles law, P T
at constant V, pressure of the air in the car tyre
increases.
3. Here, T1 = 27 C = 300 K, V1 = 100 cm3
T2 = 327 C = 600 K, V2 = ?
At constant pressure, V T
or

V1 T1
=
V2 T2

V2 =

V1T2
100 600
=
= 200 cm3
T1
300

4. Given, mass of gold, m = 39.4 g


Molar mass of the gold, M = 197 g mol1
Number of gold atoms in 39.4 g of gold
NA
6.023 1023 mol 1
m=
39.4 g
M
197 g mol 1
= 1.205 1023
1
constant
5. Given, V 2 \ V =
T
T2
PV
But
= constant
T
=

(a) Find the work done when the gas is taken from
state 1 to state 2.
(b) What is the ratio of temperature T1/T2,
if V2 = 2V1?
24

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

P constant
= constant or P T3

2
T
T

6. (a) Isothermal expansion : Temperature remains


constant during an isothermal change. As internal
energy is a function of temperature only, so it will
remain constant during an isothermal change.
As DT = 0, so DU = CV DT = 0
(b) Adiabatic expansion : For an adiabatic change,
DQ = 0, so from first law of thermodynamics,
DQ = DU + DW = 0 or DW = DU
During adiabatic expansion, work is done by a
gas i.e., DW is positive, so DU must be negative.
Hence internal energy of a gas decreases during an
adiabatic expansion.
7. For an adiabatic process, TV g 1 = constant
For a monatomic gas, g = 5/3
\ TV2/3 = constant
Let A = area of cross-section of the cylinder.
Then, T1(L1A)2/3 = T2(L2A)2/3
\

T1 L2
=
T2 L1

2 /3

8. At NTP, volume occupied by 1 g mole of gas


= 22400 cc
Number of molecules in 1 cc of H2

6.023 1023
= 2.688 1019
22400
Since each diatomic molecule has 5 degrees of
freedom.
\ Total number of degrees of freedom
= 5 2.688 1019 = 1.344 1020
=

9. (i) All gases consist of molecules. The molecules are


rigid elastic spheres and identical in all respects
for a given gas and different for different gases.
(ii) The size of a molecule is negligible as compared
to the average distance between molecules.
(iii) The molecules are in a state of continuous
random motion, moving in all directions with
all possible velocities.
(iv) The molecules exert no force on each other
or on the walls of the container except during
collision.
OR
All molecular motion ceases at absolute zero or
at 0 K. According to the kinetic interpretation of
temperature internal energy of an ideal gas is purely
kinetic,
3
2 E
E = kBT or T =
2
3 kB

absolute temperature average kinetic energy


of molecules
\ For temperature = 0 K, average kinetic energy = 0
Thus at 0 K, the velocity of molecules becomes zero.

or

10. (a) Water fall : It is not a reversible process. During


fall of the water, the major part of its potential
energy is converted into kinetic energy of the water.
However, on striking the ground, a part of it is
converted into heat and sound. It is not possible to
convert the heat and the sound produced along with
the kinetic energy of water into potential energy so
that the water can not rise back to its initial height.
Therefore, water fall is not a reversible process.
(b) Rusting of iron : During rusting, iron gets
oxidised by the oxygen of the air. Since it is a
chemical change so it is not a reversible process.
11. (a) For all gases at the same temperature, average
kinetic energy per molecule is same and is
3
E = kBT
2
As the gases in both vessels are at the same
temperature, so the ratio of their average kinetic
energy per molecule = 1 : 1.
(b) As vrms =
\

vH
=
vO

3RT
M

MO
32
=
= 4 :1
MH
2

(c) According to kinetic theory, P =

1m 2
v
3 V rms

where m is the mass and V is the volume of the gas.


Masses of both gases are equal. So the ratio of their
pressure is
2

V
PH v H
16 2
= O = = 32 : 1
PO vO VH
1 1

12. (a) Gravitational force of the moon is roughly 1/6th


of the gravitational force of the earth, so the escape
velocity of air molecules on the moon is smaller than
that on the earth. As the moon is in the proximity of
the Earth as seen from the sun so solar irradiance
on the moon surface is same as that of the earth.
Escape velocity of the particle on the moon is
2.38 km s1. The rms speed of the constituents of
air (O2, N2, CO2 and water vapour) lies between
0.4 km s1 to 0.8 km s1, which is smaller than
2.38 km s1. Inspite of this a significant number
of molecules have speeds greater than 2.38 km s1
Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

25

and hence escape easily. Now rest of molecules


arrange the speed distribution for the equilibrium
temperature. Again a significant number of
molecules get their speeds greater than 2.38 km
s1 and escape. Due to this continuous process, the
moon has lost its atmosphere over a long period of
time.
(b) We know, E = U + K = constant
As the molecules move higher their potential
energy (U) increase but and kinetic energy (K)
decrease and hence fall in temperature. At greater
height more volume is available for gas to expand
and hence some cooling takes place i.e., a fall in
temperature.
13. The average kinetic energy of the gas at a
3
temperature T, E = kT
2
where k = 1.38 1023 J K1
T = Temperature in kelvin
(a) T = 27 C = 27 + 273 = 300 K
3
21
E = 1.38 1023 300 = 6.21 10 J
2
(b) T = 6000 K
3
19
E = 1.38 1023 6000 = 1.242 10 J
2
(c) T = 10 106 K = 107 K
3
16
E = 1.38 1023 107 = 2.07 10 J
2
14. For an isothermal change, PV = constant
Differentiating both sides, we get
P dV + V dP = 0 or V dP = PdV
\ Slope of an isothermal curve,
P
dP
=

V
dV isothermal
For an adiabatic change, PV g = constant
Differentiating both sides, we get
P . gVg1 . dV + V g . dP = 0
\ Slope of an adiabatic curve,
gP
dP
=

V
dV adiabatic

Clearly, slope of an adiabatic curve = g slope of an


isothermal curve.
As g > 1, so an adiabatic P-V curve is steeper than
the corresponding isothermal P-V curve.
15. (a) The two bodies may have different masses and
different materials i.e., they may have different
26

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

thermal capacities. In case the two bodies have


equal thermal capacities, they would settle at
the mean temperature (T1 + T2)/2.
(b) The purpose of a coolant is to absorb maximum
heat with least rise in its own temperature. This
is possible only if specific heat is high because
Q = mc DT. For a given value of m and Q the
rise in temperature DT will be small if c is large.
This will prevent different parts of the nuclear
reactor from getting too hot.
(c) The relative humidity of a harbour town is more
than that of a desert town. Due to high specific
heat of water, the variations in the temperature
of humid air are less. Hence the climate of a
harbour town is without the extreme of hot or
cold.
16. (a) When the stopcock is suddenly opened, the
volume available to the gas at 1 atm becomes
twice the original volume and hence pressure
becomes half the original volume (Boyle's law).
Hence the pressure of the gas in each of the
cylinders A and B is 0.5 atm.
(b) As the system is thermally insulated, so DQ = 0.
Also, the gas expands against zero pressure, so
DW = 0. Hence by first law of thermodynamics,
DU = 0 i.e., there is no change in the internal
energy of the gas.
(c) As there is no change in the internal energy of
the gas, so the temperature of the gas remains
unchanged.
(d) No. The free expansion of the gas is very
rapid and hence cannot be controlled. The
intermediate states are non-equilibrium states
and do not satisfy the gas equation. In due
course, the gas returns to equilibrium state
which lies on P-V-T surface.
17. According to the kinetic theory, the average kinetic
3
energy of a gas molecule = kBT . Before mixing
2
the two gases, the average kinetic energy of all the
molecules of the gas
3
3
= kB n1T1 + kB n2T2
2
2
After mixing, the mean kinetic energy of both the
3
gases = kB(n1 + n2)T
2
where T is the temperature of the mixture. If there
is no energy loss, then

3
3
3
kB(n1 + n2)T = kB n1T1 + kB n2T2
2
2
2
n T +n T
T= 1 1 2 2
n1 + n2

18. (a) No. As the thermos flask is insulated, heat has


not been added to the coffee (DQ = 0).
(b) Yes. Some work is done by the man in shaking
the coffee against the forces of viscosity i.e., DW
is negative.
(c) By first law of thermodynamics, DQ = DU + DW.
As DQ = 0 and DW is negative, so DU is positive
i.e., internal energy of the coffee increases.
(d) Because of the increase in internal energy of the
coffee, the temperature of the coffee will also
increase.
19. Mass of water, m = 1 g = 10 3 kg
Latent heat of steam
L = 2256 J g 1 = 2256 103 J kg1
Atmospheric pressure, P = 1.013 105 N m 2
Volume of steam, Vs = 1671 cm3 = 1671 106 m3
Mass
103
Volume of water, Vw =
= 106 m3
=
Density 103
According to first law of thermodynamics,
dQ = dU + PdV or mL = dU + P(Vs Vw)
\ Change in internal energy is
dU = mL P(Vs Vw)
= 103 2256 103 1.013 105
(1671 106 106)
5
= 2256 1.013 10 106 1670
= 2256 0.1013 1670
= 2256 169.171 = 2086.829 J
20. Here, v = 150 km h1, N = 10
V = 20 20 1.5 km3.
Diameter of plane, d = 2 R = 2 10 = 20 m
= 20 103 km
N
10
n= =
= 0.0167 km3
V 20 20 1.5
Mean free path of a plane
1
=
2 d 2n
Time elapse before collision of two planes randomly,

1
t= =
v
2 d 2nv
1
=
2
1.414 3.14 (20) 106 (0.0167) (150)
225 h

OR
Here, CP CV = 5000 J kg1 K1
C
and P = 1.6 or CP = 1.6 CV
CV
\

1.6 CV CV = 5000 or 0.6 CV = 5000

or

CV =

5000
= 8333.33 J kg1 K1
0. 6

CP = CV + 5000 J kg1 K1 = 13333.33 J kg1 K1


Here, T1 = 27 + 273 = 300 K,
T2 = 97 + 273 = 370 K
Work done in adiabatic compression of the gas is
given by
W=

R
8.3 (370 300)
(T2 T1 ) =
= 1162 J
1 g
1 1.5

21. (a) Let the speed of the ball be u relative to the


wicket behind the bat. If the bat is moving
towards the ball with a speed v relative to the
wicket, then the relative speed of the ball to bat
is v + u towards the bat. When the ball rebounds
(after hitting the massive bat) its speed, relative
to bat, v + (v + u) = 2v + u, moving away
from the wicket. So the ball speeds up after
the collision with the bat. For a molecule,
this would imply an increase in temperature.
(b) When a gas in cylinder is compressed by
pushing in a piston, the speed of the molecules
or their kinetic energy increases. This increases
the temperature of the gas.
(c) When a compressed gas pushes a piston out, the
speed of the molecules or their kinetic energy
decreases. This decreases the temperature of
the gas.
22. As PV = nRT
\

n=

PV
RT

For first vessel, n1 =

P1V1
RT1

For second vessel, n2 =

P2V2
RT2

For the combined vessel, n =


But n = n1 + n2
\ P (V1 + V2 ) = P1V1 + P2V2
RT
RT1 RT2

P (V1 + V2 )
RT

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

27

or

T=

T1T2 P (V1 + V2 )
P1V1T2 + P2V2T1

As V = constant so DW = 0
Also, DQ = 0 so DU = 0 or DT = 0
i.e., T = constant
Using Boyle's law, P(V1 + V2) = P1V1 + P2V2
T T (P V + P V )
Hence, T = 1 2 1 1 2 2
P1V1T2 + P2V2T1

23. (a) The values displayed by Ramesh are good


observant, highly interested in learning physical
phenomena observed in daily life.
The values displayed by the teacher are providing
good education and undertaking the doubts of
student.
(b) Boyle's law is valid for a fixed mass of a gas.
When we pump air into a cycle tyre, air molecules
are pushed into the tyre and so the mass of the
air in the tyre increases. Hence Boyle's law is not
applicable under the given situation.
24. If some heat is supplied to a system which is capable
of doing work, then the quantity of heat absorbed by
the system will be equal to the sum of the increase
in its internal energy and the external work done by
the system on the surroundings.
Let
DQ = Heat supplied to the system by the surroundings
DW = Work done by the system on the surroundings
DU = Change in internal energy of the system
Then according to the first law of thermodynamics,
P
DQ = DU + DW
Area = A
Suppose the system is a
gas contained in a cylinder
dx
provided with a movable
piston. Then the gas does work
in moving the piston. The work
Gas
done by the system against a
constant pressure P is
DW = Force Distance
Q
= Pressure Area Distance
= PA dx
or DW = P DV
where DV = Adx = the change in the volume of
the gas.
So, the first law of thermodynamics takes the form,
DQ = DU + P DV
When the piston moves up through a small distance
dx, the work done by the gas will be
dW = PA dx = P dV
28

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

where A is the cross-sectional


area of the piston and dV = A dx
is the increase in the volume of
the gas.
Suppose the gas expands
adiabatically and changes from
the initial state (P1, V1, T1) to the
final state (P2, V2, T2). The total
work done by the gas will be
Wadiabatic =

dx

Gas
Insulating wall

V2

P dV

V1

For an adiabatic change


PV g = K or P = KV g
\

Area = A

Wadiabatic =

V2

KV

(K = constant)

dV

V1
V2

=K V
V1

V 1 g 2
dV = K

1 g V1

K
g
g
V21 V11
1 g
1
g
g
=
KV11 KV21
g 1
But K = P1V1g = P2V2g
1
g
g
\ Wadiabatic =
P1V1gV11 P2V2gV21
g 1
1
(P V P V )
Wadiabatic =
g 1 1 1 2 2
Limitations of the first law of thermodynamics are
as follows :
(i) It does not indicate the direction of transfer of
heat.
(ii) It does not tell anything about the conditions
under which heat can be converted into
mechanical work.
(iii) It does not indicate the extent to which heat
energy can be converted into mechanical work
continuously.
OR
An isothermal process is one in which the pressure
and volume of the system change but temperature
remains constant.
Essential conditions for an isothermal process to
take place are
(i) The walls of the container must be perfectly
conducting to allow free exchange of heat
between the system and the surroundings.
=

Wisothermal =

V2

P dV

V1

For n moles of a gas, PV = nRT or P =


\

Wisothermal =

V2

V1

nRT
dV = nRT
V

V2

nRT
V

V dV

V1

= nRT[lnV ]V2 = nRT(ln V2 ln V1)


1

= nRT ln
or

V2
V1

Wisothermal = 2.303 nRT log

V2
V1

= 2.303 nRT log

P1
P2

The change in internal energy of a gas, which


is compressed isothermally is zero because the
internal energy of an ideal gas depends only on
its temperature. As temperature remains constant,
there is no change in internal energy.
25. Carnot engine is an ideal reversible heat engine
that operates between two temperatures T1 (source)
and T2 (sink). The working substance is carried
through a reversible cycle of the following four
steps :
Step 1 : Isothermal expansion (AB). Place the
cylinder on the source so that the gas acquires the
temperature T1 of the source. As the gas absorbs the
required amount of heat from the source, it expands
isothermally. If Q1 heat is absorbed from the source
and W1 work is done by the gas in isothermal

expansion which takes its states from (P1, V1, T1)


to (P2, V2, T1), then
V
W1 = Q1 = nRT1 ln 2 = area ABMKA
V1
P

A(P1, V1, T1)

batic
Adiaression
p
com

(ii) The process of compression or expansion


should be very slow, so as to provide sufficient
time for the exchange of heat.
Work done by the gas when the piston moves up
through a small distance dx is given by
dW = PA dx = PdV
Area = A
where A is the cross-sectional
area of the piston and
dV = Adx, is the small
dx
increase in the volume of the
gas. Suppose the gas expands
isothermally from initial
Gas
state (P1, V1) to the final state
Conducting wall
(P2, V2). The total amount of
work done will be

Isothermal
expansion
+ Q1

B(P2, V2, T1)

Adiabatic
expansion

D(P4, V4, T2)


Q2
O

C(P3, V3, T2)

Isothermal
compression
K

Step 2 : Adiabatic expansion (BC). The gas is now


placed on the insulating stand and allowed to
expand slowly till its temperature falls to T2.
If W2 work is done by the gas in the adiabatic
expansion which takes its state from (P2, V2, T1) to
(P3, V3, T2), then
nR(T1 T2 )
W2 =
= area BCNMB
g 1
Step 3 : Isothermal compression (CD). The gas
is now placed in thermal contact with the sink
at temperature T2. The gas is slowly compressed
so that as heat is produced, it easily flows to the sink.
The temperature of the gas remains constant at T2.
If Q2 heat is released by the gas to the sink and
W3 work is done on the gas by the surroundings
in the isothermal compression which takes its state
from (P3, V3, T2) to (P4, V4, T2), then
V
W3 = Q2 = nRT2 ln 3 = area CNLDC
V4
Step 4 : Adiabatic compression (DA). The cylinder
is again placed on the insulating stand. The gas is
further compressed slowly till it returns to its initial
state (P1, V1, T1).
If W4 is the work done in the adiabatic compression
from (P4, V4, T2) to (P1, V1, T1), then
nR(T1 T2 )
W4 =
= area DAKLD
g 1

Total work done by the gas = W1 + W2


(in steps 1 and 2)
Total work done on the gas = W3 + W4
(in steps 3 and 4)
\ Net work done by the gas in one complete cycle,
Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

29

W = W1 + W2 (W3 + W4)
But W2 = W4
\ W = W1 W3 = Q1 Q2
Also, W = area ABMKA + area BCNMB
area CNLDC area DAKLD
or W = area ABCDA
Hence in a Carnot engine, the mechanical work
done by the gas per cycle is numerically equal to
the area of the Carnot cycle.
Efficiency of Carnot engine is defined as the ratio
of the net work done per cycle by the engine to the
amount of heat absorbed per cycle by the working
substance from the source.
Q
W Q1 Q2
=
=1 2
\ h=
Q1
Q1
Q1
or

h=1

nRT2 ln(V3 / V4 )
nRT1 ln(V2 / V1 )

T2
T1

OR
Given, PV1/2 = constant = C

(a) Work done by the gas


DW =

V2

V2

V1

V1

PdV =

C
V

dV

2
1
/
2
V
=C
= 2C( V2 V1 )
1
2 V1
\ DW = 2P1 V1 ( V2 V1 )
30

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

T
\

...(ii)

T1
V1
V1
1
=
=
=
2V1
T2
V2
2

3
(c) Given, U = RT
2
3
3
DU = RDT = R(T2 T1 )
2
2
3
DU = RT1( 2 1)
2
From eqn. (i)

...(iii)
(as V2 = 2V1)

(using eqn. (iii))

DW = 2P1 V1 ( V2 V1 ) = 2P1V1 ( 2 1)

Now step 2 is an adiabatic expansion, therefore


T1V2g1 = T2V3g1
...(i)
Similarly, step 4 is an adiabatic compression,
therefore
T1V1g1 = T2V4g1
...(ii)
On dividing (i) by (ii), we get
g 1
g 1
V
V
V3
V2
or 2 = 3
=
V1 V4
V1
V4
Hence, h = 1

(b) Q PV = nRT
C
C

V = nRT T =
V
nR
V

...(i)

= 2RT1 ( 2 1)
From first law of thermodynamics,
7
DQ = DU + DW = RT1 ( 2 1)
2

26. Consider an ideal gas


enclosed in a cubical
y
vessel of edge L. Also
Area = A
(vx , vy , vz)
there are n molecules
(vx , vy , vz)
per unit volume. A
vx t
z
x
molecule moving with
velocity (vx , vy , vz)
hits the planar wall (perpendicular to x-axis) of
area A. As the collision is elastic, the molecule
rebounds with the same velocity. The y and z
components of velocity do not change while the
x-component reverses sign. So the velocity after the
collision is (vx , vy , vz).
The change in momentum of the molecule
= mvx mvx = 2mvx
By the conservation of momentum, the momentum
imparted to the wall in each collision = 2 mvx
\ Number of molecules hitting wall of area A in
time Dt
1
= Avx Dt number of molecules per unit volume
2
1
= Avx Dt n
2
Total momentum transferred to the wall in time
Dt is
1
Dp = 2 mvx Avx Dt n = nmvx2 A Dt
2
Contd. on Page No. 82

integer Answer tyPe

1. A stone is thrown vertically upward. When the


stone is at point A, its distance from a certain
point O is 6 5 m at t = 0 and the component of
velocity along OA is non-zero. When it is at point
B(OB = 10 m), the component of velocity along
OB is zero. When it is at point C(OC = 6 m), the
component of velocity of the particle along OC is
zero. If the velocity of projection of the stone is
v0 = 5n m s1, then find the value of n.
2. A cord of length 64 m is used to connect a 100 kg
astronaut to a spaceship whose mass is much larger
than that of the astronaut. The value of the tension
in the cord is x 102 N. Assume that the spaceship
is orbiting near the earths surface. Also assume that
the spaceship and the astronaut fall on a straight
line from the earths centre. The radius of the earth
is 6400 km. Find the value of x.
3. A vessel contains two immiscible
1
liquids of density r1 = 1000 kg m3
3
and r2 = 1500 kg m . A solid block
2
of volume V = 103 m3 and density
d = 800 kg m3 is tied to one end
of a string and the other is tied to
the bottom of the vessel as shown
in figure. The block is immersed with 2/5th of its
volume in the liquid of higher density and 3/5th
in the liquid of lower density. The entire system is
kept in an elevator which is moving upwards with
an acceleration of a = g/2. Find the tension (in N)
the string. (Take g = 10 m s2)
4. A projectile is projected from ground with least
velocity to cross a wall 3.6 m high and 4.8 m away
from the point of projection. The range of projectile

class-Xi

n
is 8.4 m. If angle of projection is a and tan a = .
4
Find the value of n.
5. A circular tube of mass M is placed vertically on a
horizontal surface as shown in figure.
Two small spheres each of
m m
mass m, just fit in the tube

one released from the top. If


M
the tube looses contact with
the ground at q = 60 then
find the value of m/M.
6. A man weighing 60 kg is standing on a trolly
weighing 240 kg. The trolly is resting on frictionless
horizontal rails. If the man starts walking on the
trolly along the rails at a speed 1 m s1, then after
5 s, his displacement in metre relative to the ground
will be
7. A homogeneous disc with a radius 0.2 m and
mass 5 kg rotates around an axis passing through
its centre. The angular velocity of rotation of the
disc as a function of time is given by the formula
w = 2 + 6t. The tangential force applied to the rim
of the disc (in N) is
8. One end of a steel wire is fixed to ceiling of an
elevator moving up with an acceleration 2 m s2 and
a load of 10 kg hangs from other end.
Area of cross section of
the wire is 2 cm2. The
longitudinal strain in the
wire is n 106. What is the
value of n? (Take g = 10 m s2
and Y = 2 1011 N m2)
9. There are two pendulums of lengths l1 (= 81 cm)
and l2 (= 64 cm) which start oscillating. At some
Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

31

instant of time, both the pendulums are passing


from mean position in the same phase. After how
many oscillations of shorter pendulum, both the
pendulums will be in the same phase in mean
position?
10. A bus is moving with a velocity of 5 m s1 towards
a huge wall. The driver sounds a horn of frequency
165 Hz. If the speed of sound in air in 335 m s1, the
number of beats per second heard by the passengers
in the bus would be
11. A vessel has 6 g of hydrogen at pressure P and
temperature 500 K. A small hole is made in it so that
hydrogen leaks out. How much hydrogen in gram
leaks out if the final pressure is P/2 and temperature
falls to 300 K?
12. A body hanging from a massless spring stretches
it by 2 cm at earths surface. How much will the
same body stretch the spring (in cm) at height
2624 km from the surface of earth? (Take radius of
earth = 6400 km)
13. The rate of change of
position with respect
to time gives the
velocity
of
the
particle. Figure shows
position-time graph
for two particles P
and Q. The ratio of
velocities of both
particles P and Q is n. Find the value of n.
14. A transverse wave of amplitude 5 mm is generated
at one end (x = 0) of a long string by a vibrating
source of frequency 500 Hz. At a certain instant of
time, the displacement of a particle A at x = 1 m is
5 mm and that of particle B at x = 2 is +5 mm. The
wavelength of the wave is k m. Find the value of k.
15. When the system shown
in the diagram is in
450 N m1
equilibrium, the right
m
m
spring is stretched by 1 cm.

150 N m1

The coefficient of static friction between the blocks


is 0.3. There is no friction between the bottom block
and the supporting surface. The force constants
of the springs are 150 N m1 and 450 N m1
(refer figure). The blocks have equal mass of 2 kg
each. Find the maximum amplitude (in cm) of
32

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

the oscillations of the system shown in the figure


that does not allow the top block to slide on the
bottom.
solutions

1. (4) : From figure,


AC = (6 5 )2 62
= 6 5 1 = 12 m
And CB = 102 62 = 8 m
\ The maximum height attained by the ball is
H = AB = 12 m + 8 m = 20 m
\ 2
v = u2 2gH or 02 = v02 2gH
\ v0 = 2 gH = 2 10 20 = 20 m s 1 = 5n m s 1
\ n=4
2. (3) : As according to given problem the mass of
satellite M is much greater than that of astronaut m,
as the centre of mass of the system will be close
to satellite and as the satellite is orbiting close to
the surface of earth, the equation of motion of the
system (S + A) will be
GMe ( M + m)
= ( M + m)Rw2
2
h
R
R
GMe
r
Rw 2 =
=g
...(i)
Me
S
R2
M TA
and the equation of motion
m
of the astronaut will be
GMem
+ T = mr w2
2
r
GMe

T = m r w2

r2
r R 2
T = mg
R r

(Using eqn. (i))

( R + h)
R2
= mg

R
(R + h)2
2

h
h
T = mg 1 + 1 +
R R

3 mgh
R

(as r = R + h)

2

h
2h
as 1 + 1
R
R

So substituting the given data,

T=

3 100 10 64
6400 103

= 3 10

\ x=3
3. (6) : We will analyse this problem from the reference
frame of elevator.
Total buoyant force on the block,
2
3
3
2

Fb = V r2 + V r1 ( g + a) 5 1
5 1
5

5
From the condition of
equilibrium,
Fb = T + Vd(g + a)
T = Fb Vd(g + a)

v 2 sin 2a
v 2 sin 2a
R= 0
or 8.4 = 0
g
10
42
sin a cos a

v0

3.6 m

v02 =

4.8 m
8.4 m

mg

Mg

For any sphere, N + mg cos 60 =


mg
mg
= mg N =
2
2
From eqns (i) and (ii),
mg
m
= Mg
=2
2
M

mv 2
R

N+

...(ii)

6. (4) : Here, m1 = 60 kg, m2 = 240 kg, u1 = 1 m s1,


u2 = 0
If v is combined velocity of trolly and man, then
applying the principle of conservation of linear
momentum,
(m1 + m2) v = m1u1 + m2u2
m u + m2 u2 60 1 + 0
=
\ v= 1 1
= 0.2 m s1
m1 + m2
60 + 240

3
2

= ( g + a)V r2 + r1 d
5
5

As a = g/2 \ (g + a) = 10 + 5 = 15 m s2
Putting the values,
3
2

= 15 103 1500 + 1000 800 = 6 N


5
5

4. (7) : Here, R = 8.4 m, x = 4.8 m, y = 3.6 m

v02 sin 2a = 84

mv2
R

The equation of trajectory is


gx 2
y = x tan a
2v02 cos2 a

10(4.8)2
42
2
cos2 a
sin a cos a
5
3.6 = 4.8 tan a (4.8)2 tan a
42
7 n
\ tan a = 1.75 = =
or n = 7
4 4
3.6 = 4.8 tan a

5. (2) : Conserving energy for any sphere


1
0 = mg (R R cos 60) + mv 2
2
v 2 gR
=
v = gR
2
2
As shown in figure, for tube 2N cos 60 = Mg
(when it just lift off)
N = Mg
...(i)

Velocity of the man with respect to ground = 1 0.2


= 0.8 m s1
Displacement of the man is 5 s = 0.8 5 = 4 m
7. (3) : Here, r = 0.2 m, M = 5 kg, F = ?
As w = 2 + 6t
dw
\
= 6 = a, angular acceleration
dt
Now, = I a = rF sin 90
Ia 1
a
= Mr 2
r
2
r
1
6
= 5 (0.2)2
=3N
2
0. 2

\ F=

8. (3) : Tension in wire, F = m(g + a)


= 10(10 + 2) = 120 N
F
120
Stress, S = =
= 60 104 N m2
A 2 104
Strain =

S 60 104
=
= 3 106
Y 2 1011

As per question, n 106 = 3 106 or n = 3


Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

33

9. (9) : As T = 2
\

T1
=
T2

l
or T l
g

l1
=
l2

81 9
=
64 8

...(i)

Let shorter pendulum makes n oscillations, then


longer pendulum will make one less oscillation
than n to come in phase again, while passing
through mean position, i.e.,
...(ii)
nT2 = (n 1)T1 or T1 = n
T2 n 1
From (i) and (ii),
n
9
= or 8n = 9n 9 or n = 9
n 1 8

Case II : For reflected sound from the wall, bus


acts as listener uL = 5 m s1
(u + uL ) u (335 + 5) 335
u =
=
= 170 Hz
u
335 2
\ Number of beats per second = u u
= 170 165 = 5
11. (1) : Here, m = 6 g, T = 500 K
m
6
From PV =
...(i)
RT , PV =
R 500
M
M
If x g of hydrogen leaks out, then,
P
Pressure = , T = 300 K
2
P
(6 x )
...(ii)
\ 2 V = M R 300
From (i) and (ii),
2 (6 x )
6R
500 =
R 300
M
M
or 30 = (12 2x) 3 x = 1 g
12. (1) : Let g be the acceleration due to gravity at
height h.

or
34

gR 2

6400

= g

+
6400
2624
( R + h)

g g

1 g
=
2 2

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

g
x
g
1
=
or x = x0 = 2 = 1 cm
g
x0
g
2
(\ x0 = 2 m)
13. (1) : The slope of x-t graph gives velocity.
20 15
\ vP =
= 0.5 m s1
10 0
15 10
and vQ =
= 0.5 m s 1
10 0
v
0.5
\ n= P =
=1
vQ 0.5

10. (5) : Case I : The bus acts as the source


us = 5 m s1, u = 335 m s1, u = 165 Hz
u u 335 165 335
u =
=
=
Hz
u us
335 5
2

Then, g =

If m is the mass of the particle and k is the spring


constant of the spring, then
At the surface of earth, mg = kx0
...(ii)
At height h, mg = kx
...(iii)
From (ii) and (iii)

...(i)

14. (2) : y = a cos(kx wt) and a = 5 mm


At t = 0, y = a cos kx
It is given that at x = 1 m, y = 5 mm = a
cos(k) = 1
and at x = 2 m, y = +5 mm = +a
cos(2k) = 1
2
\ k = or
==2m

15. (3) : Suppose origin is at the equilibrium position


and the direction of increasing x is towards the
right. If the blocks are at the origin, the net force
on them is zero. If the blocks are displaced by a
small distance x to the right of the origin, value of
the net force on them is 4kx. Applying Newtons
second law to the two-block system gives
\
4kx = 2ma
( k = 150 N m1)
Applying Newtons second law to the lower block
gives
k(x1 x) f = ma
where x1 = initial stretch and f is the magnitude of
the frictional force.
f = k(x1 + x)
The maximum value of x is the amplitude A
and the maximum value for f is msmg. Thus,
msmg = k(x1 + A)
m mg
or A = s
x1
k
On putting the values, we get
A=

0.3 2 10
1

= 0.3 m = 3 cm
150
100

MPP-6

Class XI

his specially designed column enables students to self analyse their


extent of understanding of specified chapter. Give yourself four
marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.
Self check table given at the end will help you to check your
readiness.

Thermal Properties of Matter


Total Marks : 120

Time Taken : 60 min

NEET / AiiMs / PMTs


Only One Option Correct Type

1. On a temperature scale Y, water freezes at 160 Y


and boils at 50 Y. On this Y scale, a temperature
of 340 K is
(a) 106.3 Y
(b) 96.3 Y
(c) 86.3 Y
(d) 76.3 Y
2. Six identical conducting rods are joined as shown.
The ends A and D are maintained at 200 C and
20 C respectively. No heat is lost to surroundings.
The temperature of the junction C will be
A
200 C

(a) 60 C

(b) 80 C

D
20 C

(c) 100 C (d) 120 C

3. Two thin rods of lengths L1 and L2 at a certain


temperature are joined to each other end to end.
The composite rod is then heated through a
temperature T. The coefficients of linear expansion
of the two rods are a1 and a2 respectively.
Then, the effective coefficient of linear expansion of
the composite rod is
+ 2
(a) 1
(b) 1 + 2
2
L + L2 1
L +L
(c) 1 2
(d) 1 1 2 2
L1 + L2
L1 + L2
4. Temperature of 100 g of water in a thermoflask
remains fixed for a pretty long time at 50 C. An

equal mass of sand at 20 C is poured in the flask and


shaken for some time so that the temperature of the
mixture is 40 C. Now the experiment is repeated
with 100 g of a liquid at 50 C and an equal mass of
sand at 20 C when the temperature of the mixture
is found to be 30 C. The specific heat of the liquid
(in kJ kg1 K1) is
(Specific heat of water = 4200 J kg1 K1)
(a) 1.05
(b) 2.01
(c) 1.55
(d) 1.95
5. Two slabs A and B of different materials but of the
same thickness are joined end to end to form a
composite slab. The thermal conductivities of A and
B are K1 and K2 respectively. A steady temperature
difference of 12 C is maintained across the
K
composite slab. If K1 = 2 , the temperature
2
difference across slab A is
(a) 4 C
(b) 6 C
(c) 8 C
(d) 10 C
6. An ideal gas is expanding such that PT2 = constant.
The coefficient of volume expansion of the gas is
3
1
2
4
(b)
(c)
(d)
T
T
T
T
7. 22320 cal of heat is supplied to 100 g of ice at 0 C. If
the latent heat of fusion of ice is 80 cal g1 and latent
heat of vaporization of water is 540 cal g1, the final
amount of water thus obtained and its temperature
respectively are
(a) 8 g, 100 C
(b) 100 g, 90 C
(c) 92 g, 100 C
(d) 82 g, 100 C
(a)

Physics For you | december 16

35

8. When a liquid is heated in a glass vessel,


its coefficient of apparent expansion is
1.03 103 C1. When the same liquid is heated
in a copper vessel, its coefficient of apparent
expansion is 1.006 103 C1. If the coefficient of
linear expansion of copper is 17 106 C1, then
the coefficient of linear expansion of glass is
(a) 8.5 104 C1
(b) 9 106 C1
(c) 27 106 C1
(d) 10 104 C1

13. Assertion : For higher temperatures, the peak


emission wavelength of a black body shifts to lower
wavelengths.
Reason : Peak emission wavelength of a black body
is proportional to the fourth-power of temperature.

9. A lead bullet of unknown mass is fired with a speed


of 180 m s1 into a tree in which it stops. Assuming
that in this process two third of heat produced
goes into the bullet and one third into wood. The
temperature of the bullet raises by
(Specific heat of lead = 0.12 J g1 C1)
(a) 140 C (b) 106 C (c) 90 C (d) 100 C

15. Assertion : When hot water is poured in a beaker of


thick glass, the beaker cracks.
Reason : Outer surface of the beaker expands
suddenly.

10. What fraction of the volume of a glass flask must be


filled with mercury so that the volume of the empty
space may be the same at all temperatures?
(aglass = 9 106 C1, gHg = 18.9 105 C1)
1
1
1
1
(b)
(c)
(d)
2
7
5
4
11. The temperature of a room heated by a heater is
20 C, when outside temperature is 20 C, and it is
10 C, when the outside temperature is 40 C. The
temperature of the heater is
(a) 60 C (b) 40 C (c) 80 C (d) 100 C
(a)

12. A piece of iron is heated in a flame. It first becomes


dull red, then becomes reddish yellow and finally
turns to white hot. The correct explanation for the
above observation is possible by using
(a) Newtons law of cooling
(b) Stefans law
(c) Wiens displacement law
(d) Kirchhoff s law
Assertion & Reason Type
Directions : In the following questions, a statement of
assertion is followed by a statement of reason. Mark the
correct choice as :
(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the
correct explanation of the assertion.
(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not
the correct explanation of the assertion.
(c) If assertion is true, but reason is false.
(d) If both assertion and reason are false.
36

Physics For you | december 16

14. Assertion : While measuring the thermal


conductivity of a liquid experimentally, the upper
layer is kept hot and the lower layer is kept cold.
Reason : This avoids heating of liquid by convection.

JEE MAiN / JEE AdvANcEd / PETs


Only One Option Correct Type

16. Two identical thin metal strips, one of aluminium


and the other of iron are riveted together to form a
bimetallic strip. The temperature is raised by 50 C.
If the central planes of the two strips are separated by
2 mm and the coefficients of thermal expansion for
aluminium and iron are respectively 30 106 C1
and 10 106 C1, the average radius of curvature
of the bimetallic strip is about
(a) 50 cm
(b) 100 cm
(c) 150 cm
(d) 200 cm
17. Parallel rays of light of intensity I = 912 W m2
are incident on a spherical black body kept in
surroundings of temperature 300 K. Take StefanBoltzmann constant s = 5.7 108 W m2 K4
and assume that the energy exchange with the
surroundings is only through radiation. The final
steady state temperature of the black body is close to
(a) 330 K (b) 660 K (c) 990 K (d) 1550 K
18. A 10 W electrical heater is used to heat a container
filled with 0.5 kg of water. It is found that the
temperature of the water and the container
rises by 3 K in 15 minutes. The container is then
emptied, dried, and filled with 2 kg of an oil. It
is now observed that the same heater raises the
temperature of the container-oil system by 2 K in
20 minutes. Assuming no other heat losses in any of
the processes, the specific heat capacity of the oil is
(Specific heat of water = 4200 J kg1 K1)
(a) 2550 J kg1 K1
(b) 5100 J kg1 K1
(c) 3000 J kg1 K1
(d) 1500 J kg1 K1

heat

1L

0 1L
A

5L 6L
E
3K

2K

4K

5K

3L
4L

6K

heat flow through A and E slabs are same.


heat flow through slab E is maximum.
temperature difference across slab E is smallest.
heat flow through C = heat flow through B
+ heat flow through D.
21. The temperature drop through a two layer furnace
wall is 900 C. Each layer is of equal area of cross
section. Which of the following actions will result
in lowering the temperature T of the interface?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

lB corresponding to maximum spectral radiancy in


the radiation from B is shifted from the wavelength
lA corresponding to maximum spectral radiancy in
the radiation from A, by 1 m. If the temperature of
A is 5802 K, then
(a) the temperature of B is 1934 K
(b) lB = 1.5 m
(c) the temperature of B is 1160 K
(d) the temperature of B is 2901 K
23. A solid material is supplied
with heat at a constant rate.
E
The temperature of the
C
material varies with heat
D
A
CD = 2AB
input as shown in figure.
B
Which of the following O
Heat input
interpretations from the
graph is/are correct?
(a) AB represents the change of state from solid to
liquid.
(b) CD represents change of state from liquid to
vapour.
(c) Latent heat of fusion is twice the latent heat of
vaporization.
(d) Latent heat of vaporization is twice the latent
heat of fusion.
Temperature

19. Ice starts forming in a lake with water at 0 C, when


the atmospheric temperature is 10 C. If time
taken for 1 cm of ice to be formed is 7 hours, the
time taken for the thickness of ice to increase from
1 cm to 2 cm is
(a) 7 hours
(b) less than 7 hours
(c) more than 7 hours but less than 14 hours
(d) more than 14 hours
More than One Options Correct Type
20. A composite block is made of slabs A, B, C, D and
E of different thermal conductivities (given in
terms of a constant K) and sizes (given in terms of
length, L) as shown in the figure. All slabs are of
same width. Heat Q flows only from left to right
through the blocks. Then in steady state

Inner Outer
layer layer
1000 C

100 C
T

(a) By increasing the thermal conductivity of outer


layer.
(b) By increasing the thermal conductivity of inner
layer.
(c) By increasing the thickness of outer layer.
(d) By increasing the thickness of inner layer.
22. Two bodies A and B have thermal emissivities of
0.01 and 0.81 respectively. The outer surface areas
of the two bodies are equal. The two bodies emit
total radiant power at the same rate. The wavelength
Physics For you | december 16

37

(a) 1000 : 39
(c) 243 : 130

Integer Answer Type


1

24. A piece of ice (specific heat capacity = 2100 J kg C


and latent heat = 3.36 105 J kg1) of mass m grams
is at 5 C at atmospheric pressure. It is given 420 J of
heat so that the ice starts melting. Finally, when the
ice-water mixture is in equilibrium, it is found that
1 g of ice has melted. Assuming there is no other heat
exchange in the process, the value of m is
25. A metal rod AB of length 10x has its one end A in
ice at 0 C and the other end B in water at 100 C. If a
point P on the rod is maintained at 400 C, then it is
found that equal amounts of water and ice evoparate
and melt per unit time. The latent heat of evaporation
of water is 540 cal g1 and latent heat of melting of ice
is 80 cal g1. If the point is at a distance of lx from the
ice end A, the value of l is
26. The density of a substance at 0 C is 10 g cm3 and
at 100 C its density is 9.7 g cm3. The coefficient of
linear expansion of the substance is 10x C1. The
value of x is
Comprehension Type

A solid aluminium sphere and a solid lead sphere of same


radius are heated to the same temperature and allowed
to cool under identical surrounding temperatures. The
specific heat capacity of aluminium is 900 J kg1 C1
and that of lead is 130 J kg1 C1. The density of lead is
104 kg m3 and that of aluminium is 2.7 103 kg m3.
Assume that the emissitivity of both the spheres is the
same.
27. The ratio of rate of heat loss from the aluminium
sphere to the rate of heat loss from the lead sphere is
(a) 1 : 1
(b) 90 : 13
(c) 100 : 27
(d) 1 : 4
28. The ratio of rate of fall of temperature of the
aluminium sphere to the rate of fall of temperature
of the lead sphere is

(b) 39 : 1000
(d) 130 : 243
Matrix Match Type

29. Match the entries in column I with the entries of


column II.
Column I
Column II
(A) Bimetallic strip
(P) Conduction
(B) Chimney
(Q) Radiation
(C) Heat transfer
(R) Convection
through a metallic
wire
(D) Suns rays reach the (S) Thermal expansion of
earth
solids
A
B
C
D
(a) P
S
Q
R
(b) Q
P
R
S
(c) R
Q
S
P
(d) S
R
P
Q
30. Match the entries in column I with the entries of
column II.
Column I
Column II
(A) Temperature of the (P) Newtons law of cooling
stars
(B) Special case of
(Q) Kirchhoff s law
Stefans law
(C) Good absorbers are (R) Plancks radiation law
good emitters
(D) The energy
(S) Wiens displacement law
distribution in black
body spectrum
A
B
C
D
(a) P
Q
R
S
(b) Q
R
S
P
(c) S
P
Q
R
(d) R
S
P
Q

Keys are published in this issue. Search now! J

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ExcEllENT work !

You are well prepared to take the challenge of final exam.

No. of questions attempted

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No. of questions correct

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38

Physics For you | december 16

NoT sATisFAcTory! Revise thoroughly and strengthen your concepts.

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Unit

DUAL NATURE OF RADIATION AND MATTER


ATOMS AND NUCLEI

F Quantum Theory of Light

hc
1240
=
eV
l l(in nm)

E hu h
=
=
c
c l
If source is 100% efficient, then the number of
photons emitted per second by the source can be
given by

Intensity of light is the energy crossing per unit


area per unit time perpendicular to the direction
of propagation.
I=
f

E P
=
At A
For a point source, intensity at a distance r from
P
the source, I =
4 pr 2

Reflected photon
p2 =h

Force on surface F =
F=

2Nh
l

2Nh
Pl
2h
= n but n =
l
tl
hc

2h P l 2P

=
l hc
c

F 2P 2 I
=
=
A cA c
Force exerted on perfectly absorbing surface
Pressure =

Power of source

Incident photon
p1 = h

but change in momentum of surface = Dp =

Momentum of photon, p =

P P Pl
n=
= =
=
Energy of photon E hu hc

Force exerted on perfectly


reflecting surface
f
Let N photons are there
in time t, change in
momentum of photons
2Nh
= Dp =
l

Energy radiated from a source is in the form of


small packets which are known as photon. Photon
is not a material particle.
According to Planck the energy of a photon is
directly proportional to the frequency of the
radiation, i.e.,
E u; E = hu =

Nh
0
Incident photon
Dp
Nh
F=
= l
=
p1 = h

t
t
tl
(There are N photons in time t.)
h P
F=N =
l c
F P I
Pressure = =
=
A Ac c

No reflected
photon
p2 = 0

Physics For you | december 16

39

When a beam of light is


incident at an angle q
on perfectly reflector
surface then force
exerted on the surface
2P
2h
cos q = n cos q
l
c
2IA cos q
=
c
F 2 I cos q
Pressure = =
A
c

n
to
ho
tp
en
cid
In

F=

Re

te
lec

to
ho
p
d

f
f

h
h
=
p mv
where p = momentum of the particle, m = mass of
the particle, and v = velocity of the particle.
p2
h
f
Also, kinetic energy, K =
l=
2m
2mK

l=

40

0.286

V
For deuterons (md = 2 1.67 1027 kg) :
0.202
l=

V
Physics For you | december 16

30.835
T

h
mvrms
For gas molecules at T K
For gas molecules : l =

The wavelength of a matter wave given by l = h


p
has physical significance; its phase velocity has no
physical significance. However, the group velocity
of the matter wave is physically meaningful and
equals the velocity of the particle.
Electron diffraction experiments by Davisson and
Germer, and by G.P. Thomson, as well as many
later experiments, have verified and confirmed the
wave-nature of electrons. The de Broglie hypothesis
of matter waves supports the Bohrs concept of
stationary orbits.

n=2

n=3

For standing wave,

12.27

2mqV
V
For protons (mp = 1.67 1027 kg) :

2mkT

For electrons (me = 9.1 1031 kg) :


l=

de Broglie wavelength associated with charged


particles
h

2mK

6.62 1034

3
h
E = kT l =
2
3mkT

l=

2 1.67 1027 K
For thermal neutrons at ordinary temperatures :
K = kT
l=

For neutrons (mn = 1.67 1027 kg) :


l=

When some part of incident light on the plate


is absorbed and the remaining part is reflected
IA
then net force on the plate F = (1 + r ) and
c
F I
pressure P = = (1 + r ), where r is the reflection
A c
coefficient of the plane and 0 < r < 1.

A perfectly reflecting solid sphere of radius r is


kept in the path of a parallel beam of light of large
aperture. If the beam carries an intensity I, the force
pr 2 I
exerted by the beam on the sphere is
.
c
F Matter Waves (de Broglie Waves)
The waves associated with moving particle are called
matter waves or de Broglie waves. The wavelength
associated with a moving particle is known as
de Broglie wavelength and it is given by

For a-particles (ma = 4 1.67 1027 kg) :


0.101

l=
V
de Broglie wavelength associated with uncharged
particles

2 pr = nl =

nh
nh
or mvr =
mv
2p

F Photoelectric Effect

n=4

When light of sufficiently small wavelength is


incident on a metal surface, electrons are ejected
from the metal. This phenomenon is called the
photoelectric effect. The electrons ejected from the
metal are called photoelectrons.

Photoelectric effect is an instantaneous process,


as soon as light is incident on the metal,
photoelectrons are emitted.
Experimental set-up to study photoelectric effect
Light

Cathode

Anode

Einsteins photoelectric equation, maximum kinetic


energy of photoelectrons, K max = hu f = hc f.
l
Here, f is the work function of the metal.
The work function represents the energy needed to
remove the least tightly bound electrons from the
surface. It depends only on nature of the metal and
independent of any other factors.
If the photon energy (say for l = l0) is just sufficient
to librate the electron only, then kinetic energy
hc
of the photoelectron will be zero. Then
=f
l
hc
or l0 = = threshold wavelength
f
Corresponding threshold frequency
u0 =

c f
=
l0 h

Variation of photoelectric current with

Postulates:
f
An electron revolves in a certain stable orbit
without the emission of radiant energy.
f
Angular momentum of an electron in the orbit
is integral multiple of h/2p.
h
mvr = n
where, n = 1, 2, 3, ..., and is called
2p
principal quantum number.
f
When an electron makes a transition from a
higher orbit to a lower stable orbit, the difference
in the energy of the electron is radiated as a
photon of energy hu.

Photocurrent

Intensity (u and V are constant) and potential


difference (I and u are constant) are

Photocurrent

Stopping potential does not depend on the


distance between cathode and anode.
Quantum efficiency
number of electron emitted per second
=
nt per second
total number of photon inciden
ne
=
nph

F Bohrs Model of hydrogen Like Atoms

Another form of photoelectric equation

For u u0, stopping potential is zero.

1 1
K max = h(u u0 ) = hc
l l0

Stopping potential varies linearly with


frequency. Slope of the graph (h/e) is same for
all metals.

Intensity of light

Potential difference

Stopping potential : If the fastest electron just fails


to reach the anode, then anode potential is known
as stopping potential (V0).
hc
eV0 = K max = f = hu f
l

hu = Ei Ef
In the nth orbit of hydrogen like atom,
mv 2
1 (e)(Ze)
=

rn
4 p0
rn2
Ln = mvrn =

nh
2p
Physics For you | december 16

41

Radius of orbit,
2

n
n2 h 2 0
rn = (0.53)
rn =
2
Z
pme Z
f

f
f

Velocity of electron,
e2 Z
Z
vn =
vn

n
2h 0 n
1 cZ
Also, vn =
137 n
Ze 2
Kinetic energy of electron, K =
8p0 rn
2
Potential energy of electron, U = Ze
4p0 rn
Total energy of electron,
E = K + U = K
me 4 Z 2
Z2
En = 2 2 2 = (13.6) 2 eV
n
8h 0 n

F hydrogen spectrum

42

In an experimental set up (Coolidge tube) highly


energetic electrons are made to strike a metal
surface, X-rays come out.
Intensity variation of X-rays with wavelength is
shown in the figure. Characteristic X-rays are Ka
and Kb which have very large intensity. At other
wavelength, intensity varies gradually and these
X-rays are called continuous X-rays.
Physics For you | december 16

Total number of emission from nth state to ground


n(n 1)
.
state are
2
Ionisation energy: The minimum energy needed
to ionise an atom. Ionisation energy of a hydrogen
atom in ground state is 13.6 eV and ionisation
potential is 13.6 V.
Excitation energy is the energy needed to take the
atom from its ground state to an excited state.

Intensity

continuous and characteristic X-rays


F

Time period of the electron


2 prn 420n3h3 T1n3
Tn =
= 2 4 = 2
vn
Z me
Z

min

30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Wavelength (pm)

Cut off wavelength of X-ray spectrum is given by,


hc
l min =
, where V is accelerating potential.
eV

l min (in nm) =

1242
V (in volt)

lmin depends only on accelerating voltage (V)


not on the material of the target.
Characteristic X-rays:

into to fill this vacancy and atoms emits a


characteristic X-ray photon.
Energy levels of the atom when one electron is
knocked out is shown in the figure.

Incident electron

K-electron

h
K X-ray
(a)
f
f

(b)

(c)

Incident electron strikes a target atom.


Incident electron knocks out one of its deep
seated electrons (n = 1) and there remains a
vacancy.
One electron from higher shell (n = 2) moves

Wavelengths and frequencies of the some of the X-rays


Transition
KL

Series Line Wavelength Frequency Energy difference


K
uKa
EK EL = huKa
a
lKa

KM

lKb

uKb

EK EM = huKb

LM

lLa

uLa

EL EM = huLa

Hard X-rays: short lmin (more energy)


Soft X-rays: longer lmin (less energy)
F Moseleys Law
According to Moseleys observations, frequency of
X-rays spectrum is given by

1
0

10

20 30

40 50 60
Position number

hc
( EK EL )

lKb =

hc
( EK E M )

l La =

hc
( EL E M )

3Rc
3Rc
(Z b) so a =
4
4
Thus proportionality constant a does not depend
on the nature of target but depends on transition.

Bohrs model

Moseleys correction

1
1
2 1
2 1
DE 13.6Z 2 2 eV 13.6(Z 1) 2 2 eV
n1 n2
n1 n2

3
2

lK a =

u=

u = a ( Z b) ; where a and b are constant.

Bohrs model will give reasonable results if Z is


replaced by (Z b) with b 1.
Energy released during the transition from n = 2 to
n = 1 is given by

Wavelength

1 1
DE = hu = Rhc(Z b)2 2 2
1 2

Choose E = 0 (reference) when atom is in


ground state.
EK = energy of the atom when an electron from
the K-shell is knocked out EL, EM, EN etc. have
same interpretation.
X-rays emitted due to electronic transition
from a higher energy state to a vacancy created
in the K shell are called K X-rays.

1
1
RcZ 2
2
2
n1 n2

1
1
Rc(Z 1)2
2
2
n1 n2

1
l

1
1
RZ 2
2
2
n1 n2

1
1
R(Z 1)2
2
2
n1 n2

Physics For you | december 16

43

Braggs Law
F

It predicts the conditions under which diffracted


X-ray beams from a crystal are possible.

2d sin q = nl; n = 1, 2, 3,
n = order of spectrum, l = wavelength of X-ray
By using a monochromatic X-ray beam and noting
the angles of strong reflection, the interplanar
spacing d and several information about the
structure of the solid can be obtained.
Effect of Mass of Nucleus on Bohr Model
F
As no external force is acting on a nucleuselectron system, hence the center of mass of the
nucleus-electron system, must remain at rest.
r1

+Ze
Nucleus

+Ze

r2

CM

r1

r2 +F
e

CM

+Ze

For the electron in nth orbit


f
Radius,
2 2

Speed, vn =

mN me
mN me

Ze 2
2nh0

Physics For you | december 16

Z 2e 4 mN me

Atomic number = Number of protons (Z)


f
Mass number (A) = Number of protons (Z) +
number of neutrons (N).
f
Nuclear mass is the total mass of the protons
and neutrons.
A nuclide is a specific nucleus of an atom
characterised by its atomic number Z and mass
number A.
A
Symbolically, nuclide Z X ; X = chemical symbol
of the element
Properties of nucleons
Name Symbol Charge

2 2

n h 0
n h 0 (mN + me )
rn =
2
pZe e
pZe2 me mN
m
rn = rn e
e
rn =

44

Fcf

mN me
Reduced mass of the system, e =
mN + me
Relative picture of the atom
Rest

Energy, En =

820n2h2 (mN + me )

Z 2 e
En = En e En = (13.6 eV)

me
n2 me
Nuclear Force
F
It is the strongest force in the universe and acts only
between the nucleons.
Very short range : Only upto size of nucleus (3 or
4 fermi). More than this distance, nuclear force is
almost zero.
Very much depends upon distance : Small variation
in distance may cause of large change in nuclear
force while electrostatic force remains almost
unaffected.
Independent of charge : Interacts between n-n as
well as between p-p and also between n-p.
Spin dependent : It is stronger between nucleons
having same sense of spin than between nucleons
having opposite sense of spin.
Nature
f
Attractive : If distance is about 1 fm or above.
f
Repulsive. If distance is less than 0.5 fm.
composition of Nucleus
F
Nucleons are protons and neutrons which are
present in the nuclei of atoms.

me r
mN r
and r2 =
mN + me
mN + me

r1 =

Mass

Rest energy

Proton

+e

1.007276 u 938.28 MeV

Neutron

1.008665 u 939.57 MeV

Isotopes, Isobars, Isotones and Isomers


f
Isotopes : The atoms of an element which
have same atomic number but different mass
number.

Isobars : The atoms having same mass number


but different atomic number.
37
37
Example : 31H and 23He, 17
Cl and 16
S
f
Isotones : The nuclides having the same number
of neutrons.
37
39
Example : 17
Cl and 19
K
f
Isomers : Nuclei with same atomic number and
mass number but existing in different energy
state.
Nuclear size : The number of protons and neutrons
per unit volume is approximately constant over the
entire range of nuclei.
A
i.e.,
constant
4 3
pR
3
A R3 R A1/3
R = R0A1/3; R0 = 1.2 fermi = 1.2 1015 m
f

Nuclear density, r =

mA

Mass of nucleus
Volume of nucleus

3m
r A0
4 pR03

4
pR03 A
3
And r = 2.23 1017 kg m3
Binding Energy
F
The loss in energy which is responsible for binding
the nucleons together in a nucleus is called the
binding energy.
2

Eb = DMc where, DM = mass defect


DM = [ZmP + (A Z)mN] M
M mass of nucleus
\ Eb = [(ZmP + (A Z) mN)M] c2

Eb
A
= Average energy needed to separate a nucleus into
its individual nucleons.
Shape of BE/A is determined primarily by three
factors
f
a constant term, which originates because
nucleons interact only with their nearest
neighbours.
f
a sharp decrease for light nuclei.
f
a gradual decrease for heavy nuclei due to
coulomb repulsion of the nuclear protons.
Binding energy per nucleon, DEb /n =

Observation from the BE/A graph, energy can be


liberated in two different ways
Nuclear fission : A heavy nucleus breaks in
f
two light nuclei of comparable masses. BE per
nucleon is greater for two lighter fragments
than it is for the original nucleus.
f
Nuclear fusion : Two light nuclei combine
to form a heavier nucleus. BE per nucleon is
greater in the final nucleus than it is in the two
original nuclei.
Law
F of radioactive Decay
Rate of decay of nuclei is given by
dN
dN

N (t )
= lN (t )
dt
dt
l disintegration (decay) constant
Number of undecayed radioactive nuclei at any
time t

N(t) = N0 elt

N0 number of nuclei at time t = 0


Number of decayed nuclei,
Nd = N0 (1 elt)

Nd

N0

N0
t

Physics For you | december 16

45

Mean life = Average life = av =

1
l

A
ZX

ln 2 0.693
=
= 0.693 av
Half life = T1/2 =
l
l
1
f
Also, av = = 1.44 T1/2
l
Number of nuclei present after n half life (t = nT1/2)
N
= 0n
(2)
N
N
N
N
t /2
t /2
t /2
t /2
N 0 1
0 1
20 1
30 .... 1
n0
2
2
2
2
If a nuclide can decay simultaneously by two
different processes with different decay constants
l1 and l2, then effective decay constant of the
nuclide is, l = l1 + l2 ; and N = N0 e(l1 + l2)t
Activity of sample:
dN
= lN = lN 0 e lt
dt
= R0 e lt

R=

adecay

ZA42Y + 42 He+ Q

Q value of a-decay : Q = (mX mY mHe)c2


This energy is shared by the daughter nucleus
and the alpha particle.
The energy released during the alpha decay of
238
92 U is 4.25 MeV.

The energy supplied to emit proton from 238


92 U
is 7.68 MeV. Hence a proton cannot be released
by 238
92 U without supply of external energy.
Beta decay : It is spontaneous decay of nucleus by
emitting an electron or a positron.

b decay : n p + e + u ; ZA X b
Z +A1Y + 01 e + u

b + decay : p n + e + + u ; ZA X b
Z A1Y + +01 e + u

The mass number A of a nuclide undergoing


beta decay does not change.
Gamma decay : It is the phenomenon of emission
of one or more g-ray photon by a nucleus in its
excited state so as to acquire its ground state.

Here, R0 = lN0 is decay rate at t = 0.


Units of activity
f

Co

1 curie = 1 Ci = 3.7 1010 dps

1 Rutherford = 1 rd = 106 dps


1 Becquerel = 1 Bq = 1 dps

Alpha decay : It is spontaneous decay of a heavy


nucleus by emitting an alpha particle.

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SYSTEM OF PARTICLES
AND ROTATIONAL MOTION

CLASS XI

Centre of Mass and Centre of Gravity


l

Rotational Motion

The centre of gravity of a body coincides with


its centre of mass only if the gravitational field
does not vary from one point of the body to
other.

Mathematically,

Perpendicular distance of each particle


remains constant from a fixed line or
point and particle do not move parallel
to the line.
Angular displacement, q =

For continuous body,

Centre of mass of symmetric body


w

q = w0t + at 2

w 2 = w02 + 2aq

Torque : Turning effect of the force


about the axis of rotation.

Semi-circular disc,

w
w

Position,

Velocity,

Acceleration,
If

= 0, then

If the net external torque acting on a system


is zero, the angular momentum of the
system remains constant, no matter what
changes take place within the system.

Perpendicular axes theorem :


Iz = Ix + Iy
(Object is in x-y plane )

R2

= constant; I1w1 = I2w2


(for isolated system)

Axis
2R

2R

Spherical shell

Solid sphere

CM

A rigid body is said to be in mechanical


equilibrium, if both of its linear momentum
and angular momentum are not changing with
time, i.e., total force and total torque are zero.
Linear momentum does not change implies
the condition for the translational equilibrium
of the body and angular momentum does
not change implies the condition for the
rotational equilibrium of the body.

So,

Current decay in LR circuit,

Magnetic energy density,

The direction of the induced


current is such that it opposes
the change that has produced it.
If a current is induced by an
increasing(decreasing) flux, it
will weaken (strengthen) the
original flux.
It is a consequence of the law of
conservation of energy.

Axis

Emf induced in the coil/conductor,

Coefficient of self induction,

Self inductance of a long solenoid,

Mutual inductance,

Mutual inductance of two long coaxial solenoids,

Induced Electric
Field
l

It is produced by change in
magnetic field in a region. This
is non-conservative in nature.

This is also known as integral


form of Faradays law.

Coefficient of coupling,
For perfect coupling, k = 1 so,

l
l

R
a

I = MR2/2

Rolling Motion
l

Current growth in LR
circuit
l

Magnetic Flux and Faraday's Law


Axis

Equilibrium of a Rigid Body

Energy stored in the solenoid,

If coils are far away, then M = 0.

Lenz's Law

= constant.

Conservation of Angular Momentum

LR Circuit

Inductance

For a rigid body,

Parallel axes theorem :


IAB = ICM + Md 2

Inductors in parallel,

Angular momentum,
Work done by torque, W = tdq
Power, P = tw

R1

Moment of Inertia

For a system of particles

Energy stored in an inductor,

Axis

Axis

Motion of Centre of Mass

Inductors in series,

Here,

Axis

Semi-circular ring,
l

Equations of rotational motion


w
w = w0 + at
w

Magnetic Energy

Axis

L
l

I = MR2

Axis

CLASS XII

Combination of Inductors

Angular acceleration, a =

For discrete body,


l

Axis

Angular velocity, w =
w

Axis

ELECTROMAGNETIC
INDUCTION

Energy Consideration
in Motional emf
l

Emf in the wire, e = Bvl

Induced current,

Force exerted on the wire,

K = Ktranslational + Krotational
=

Induced emf,

Induced current,

Induced charge flow ,

Electric Generator
l

For a body rolling without slipping,


velocity of centre of mass
vCM = Rw
Kinetic energy,

Magnetic flux
Faradays law : Whenever magnetic flux linked with a coil
changes, an emf is induced in the coil.

R
l

Motional emf

Power required to move the


l

wire,
It is dissipated as Joules heat.

On a straight conducting wire, e = Bvl


On a rotating conducting wire about one end,
Here,

are perpendicular to each other.

Mechanical energ y is
converted into electrical
energy by virtue of electromagnetic induction.
Induced emf,
e = NABw sinwt = e0sinwt
Induced current,

1. Ultraviolet light of wavelength 300 nm and intensity


1.0 W m2 falls on the surface of a photosensitive
material. If two percent of the incident photons
produce photoelectrons, then the number of
photoelectrons emitted from an area of 1.0 cm2 of
the surface is nearly
(a) 2 1013 s1
(b) 3 1012 s1
13 1
(c) 4 10 s
(d) 4 1012 s1.
2. X-rays are produced in an X-ray tube by electrons
accelerated through an electric potential difference
of 50.0 kV. An electron makes three collisions in
the target before coming to rest and loses half of
its remaining kinetic energy in each of the first two
collisions. Neglect the recoil of the heavy target
atoms, the wavelength of the resulting photons in
first two collisions is (Take hc = 1243 eV nm)
(a) 49.72 pm ; 99.44 pm
(b) 47.38 pm ; 24.86 pm
(c) 52.24 pm ; 49.72 pm
(d) 49.72 pm ; 24.86 pm.
3. A normal human eye can see an object if it receives
a minimum light intensity of 2 1010 W m2,
reflected from an object. What is the minimum
number of photons of wavelength 500 nm that must
enter the pupil of the eye per second in order to see
the object if the appearance of the pupil is about
1 cm2 ? (Given h = 6.63 1034 J s ; c = 3 108 m s1)
(a) 2.5 104
(b) 2.5 105
4
(c) 5.0 10
(d) 5.0 105.
4. The stopping potential for the photoelectrons
emitted from a metal surface of work function
1.7 eV is 10.4 V. Identify the energy levels in
hydrogen atom which will emit the wavelength of
radiation used
(a) n1 = 1, n2 = 2
(b) n1 = 1, n2 = 3
(c) n1 = 2, n2 = 4
(d) n1 = 2, n2 = 5.
5. A radioactive sample decays by two different
processes. Half life for the first process is t1 and for
the second process is t2. The effective half life is
(a) t1 + t2
(b) t1 t2
t1 t2
(t1 + t2 )
(c)
(d)
.
2
t1 + t 2

6. Let u1 be the frequency of the series limit of Lyman


series, u2 be the frequency of the first line of Lyman
series, and u3 be the frequency of the series limit of
Balmer series. Then
(a) u1 + u2 = u3
(b) u2 u1 = u3
1
(c) u1 u2 = u3
(d) 3 = (1 + 2 ) .
2
7. There is a stream of neutrons with a kinetic energy
of 0.0327 eV. If the half life period of neutrons is
700 s, what fraction of neutrons will decay before
they travel a distance of 10 m?
(a) 3.96 104
(b) 3.96 105
6
(c) 3.96 10
(d) 3.96 107.
8. It is proposed to use nuclear fission reaction:
2
2
1H + 1 H

24 He
in a nuclear reactor of 200 MW rating. If the energy
from the above reaction is used with 25% efficiency
in the reactor, how many grams of deuterium will
be needed per day? The masses of 12H and 24He are
2.0141 u and 4.0026 u respectively.
(a) 115.3 g
(b) 120.3 g
(c) 125.3 g
(d) 130.3 g.
9. In a hydrogen atom, an electron jumps from the
state n to n 1 where n > > 1. The frequency of the
emitted radiation is proportional to
(a) n0
(b) n1 (c) n2
(d) n3.
10. When stopping potential is applied to the anode of
photocell, no current is observed. This means
(a) the emission of photoelectrons stops
(b) the photoelectrons are collected near the
collector plate
(c) the photoelectrons are emitted but are
reabsorbed by the photocathode itself
(d) the photoelectrons are dispersed from the side
of the apparatus.
11. The count rate of a Geiger-Muller counter for the
radiation of a radioactive material of half life of
30 min decreases to 5 s1 after 2 h. The initial count
rate was
(a) 80 s1 (b) 625 s1 (c) 20 s1 (d) 25 s1.
Physics For you | December 16

49

12. A nucleus ruptures into two nuclear parts, which


have their velocity ratio equal to 2 : 1. What will be
the ratio of their nuclear size (nuclear radius)?
(a) 31/2 : 1
(b) 1 : 31/2
1/3
(c) 2 : 1
(d) 1 : 21/3.
13. Electrons of mass m with de-Broglie wavelength
l fall on the target in an X-ray tube. The cutoff
wavelength (l0) of the emitted X-ray is
(a)

0 =

(c)

0 =

2mc2
h

2m2c 2 3
h2

2h
(b) 0 =
mc
(d) l0 = l.
[NEET Phase II 2016]

14. The half life of a radioactive substance is


30 min. The time (in min) taken between 40% decay
and 85% decay of the same radioactive substance is
(a) 15
(b) 30
(c) 45
(d) 60.
[NEET Phase II 2016]
15. If an electron in a hydrogen atom jumps from
the 3rd orbit to the 2nd orbit, it emits a photon of
wavelength l. When it jumps from the 4th orbit to
the 3rd orbit, the corresponding wavelength of the
photon will be
16
9
(a)
(b)

25
16
20
20
(c)
(d)

.
7
13
[NEET Phase II 2016]
16. Given the value of Rydberg constant is 107 m1, the
wave number of the last line of the Balmer series in
hydrogen spectrum will be
(a) 0.25 107 m 1 (b) 2.5 107 m 1
(c) 0.025 104 m 1 (d) 0.5 107 m 1.
[NEET Phase I 2016]
17. Radiation of wavelength l, is incident on a
photocell. The fastest emitted electron has speed v.
3
If the wavelength is changed to
, the speed of
4
the fastest emitted electron will be
(a)
(c)

50

1/ 2

1/ 2

4
> v
3

4
(b) < v
3

4
= v
3

3
(d) = v .
4
[JEE Main Offline 2016]

1/ 2

Physics For you | December 16

1/ 2

18. Half lives of two radioactive elements A and B are


20 min and 40 min, respectively. Initially, the
samples have equal number of nuclei. After 80 min,
the ratio of decayed numbers of A and B nuclei will be
(a) 1 : 16 (b) 4 : 1 (c) 1 : 4
(d) 5 : 4.
[JEE Main Offline 2016]
19. A hydrogen atom makes a transition from n = 2
to n = 1 and emits a photon. This photon strikes a
doubly ionized lithium atom (Z = 3) in excited state
and completely removes the orbiting electron. The
least quantum number for the excited state of the
ion for the process is
(a) 2
(b) 4
(c) 5
(d) 3.
[JEE Main Online 2016]
20. A neutron moving with a speed v makes a head on
collision with a stationary hydrogen atom in ground
state. The minimum kinetic energy of the neutron
for which inelastic collision will take place is
(a) 20.4 eV
(b) 10.2 eV
(c) 12.1 eV
(d) 16.8 eV.
[JEE Main Online 2016]
SolutionS
1. (b) : Energy incident over 1.0 cm2 = 1.0 104 J
Energy required to produce photoelectrons,
E = (1.0 104) (2/100) = 2.0 106 J
Energy of each photon,

hc (6.6 1034 ) 3 108


= 6.6 1019 J
=

300 109
Number of photoelectrons ejected
E0 =

E
2.0 106
=
= 3 1012 s1
E0 6.6 1019
2. (a) : Energy of the incident electron = 50 keV
The energy of X-ray photon produced in first
collision
50

E1 = 50 = 25 keV

2
=

Wavelength of photon produced,


hc 1243 eV nm
=
1 =
E1 25 103 eV
= 49.72 103 nm = 49.72 pm
In the second collision the electron loses energy,
25
=
= 12.5 keV
2

\
\

Energy of X-ray photon produced,


E2 = 12.5 keV
Wavelength of photon produced,
1243 eV nm
= 99.44 103 nm
2 =
3
12.5 10 eV
= 99.44 pm

3. (c) : Power of the light entering the eye,


P = IA = 2 1010 104 = 2 1014 W
If n number of photons of given wavelength enter
per second the pupil of the eye to see the object,
(2 1014 )(500 109 )
P
P
=
=
hc / hc (6.63 1034 ) (3 108 )
= 5.0 104

then n =

4. (b) : Since stopping potential, Vs = 10.4 V. The


maximum kinetic energy of photoelectrons is
Kmax = 10.4 eV. The energy of the incident photon is
given by E = Kmax + f0 = 10.4 + 1.7 = 12.1 eV
We know the energy of electron in energy level of
13.6
hydrogen atom is, En =
eV
n2
13.6
When n = 1, E1 =
eV = 13.6 eV
12
13.6
When n = 2, E2 = 2 = 3.4 eV
2
13.6
When n = 3, E3 =
= 1.51 eV
32
Here, E3 E1 = 1.51 (13.6) = 12.1 eV.
Hence the transition corresponds to n1 = 1 and n2 = 3.
5. (d) : As l = l1 + l2
t t
0.693 0.693 0.693

=
+
or t = 1 2
t
t1
t2
t1 + t2
6. (c) : We know that series limit means the shortest
possible wavelength (maximum photon energy)
and first line means longest possible wavelength
(i.e., minimum photon energy).
1
1
As = Rc , where R is Rydberg constant.
2
2
n1 n2
For series limit of Lyman series, n1 = 1, n2 =
\ u1 = Rc
For first line of Lyman series, n1 = 1, n2 = 2
1 3
1
2 = Rc = Rc
2
1
22 4

For series limit of Balmer series, n1 = 2, n2 =


Rc
1
3 = Rc 0 =
2
4
2
Now, 1 2 = Rc
\

3Rc Rc
=
= 3
4
4

u 1 u 2 = u3

1 2
2E
mv , =
2500 m s 1
m
2
Time taken to cover a distance of 10 m i.e.,
10 m
dt =
= 4 103 s
1
2500 m s

7. (c) : As E =

As

dN
= N ,
dt

dN
0.693
= dt =
(4 103 s)
N
T1/ 2
=

0.693 (4 103 s)
700 s

= 3.96 106

8. (b) : Energy output of the reactor per day


= 200 106 (J s1) (24 60 60 s) = 1728 1010 J
Energy input =

1728 1010
= 6912 1010 J
(25 / 100)

Energy released by the fusion of two 21H nuclei


= [(2 2.0141) 4.0026] 931.5 MeV
= 23.85 MeV = 38.15 1013 J
Number of 21H nuclei required
=

6912 1010 J

(38.15 10

13

J) / 2

Mass of fuel required


= (362.3 1023 )

= 362.3 1023
2g

6.023 1023

= 120.3 g

9. (d) : According to Bohrs theory of hydrogen atom


1
1
1
= RZ 2

n2 n2

c
1
1
= = RcZ 2

2
2

n1 n2

1
n12

n2 n12
= 2
n22
n12 n22
1

n2 (n 1)2
2

n (n 1)

2n 1
2

n (n 1)2

Physics For you | December 16

51

When n > > 1,


2n
1

, i.e.,
or n3
4
3
n
n
10. (c) : When stopping potential is applied to the
anode of photocell, the emitted photoelectrons
experience force of repulsion due to electric field
set up and they are reabsorbed by the photocathode
itself.
11. (a) : Half life time = 30 min;
Rate of decrease (N) = 5 s1 ;
Total time = 2 h = 120 min.
Relation for initial and
N
1
=
N0 2

time half life

final

120 30

1
=
2

count
4

rate

1
1
= =
2
16

Therefore N0 = 16 N = 16 5 s1 = 80 s1.
12. (d) : Velocity ratio, v1 : v2 = 2 : 1

Mass (m) Volume r3.


According to law of conservation of momentum,
m1v1 = m2v2
\

v1 m2 r23
=
=
v2 m1 r13

or

r1 v2
=
r2 v1

13

or

13

1
=
2

1/3

13

r1 : r2 = 1 : 2

13. (a) : Kinetic energy of electrons,

p2 (h / )2
h2
=
=
2m
2m
2m2
So, maximum energy of emitted X-ray photon = K
K=

hc
h2
=
0 2m2

0 =

2mc2
h

14. (d) : N0 = Number of nuclei at time t = 0


N1 = Remaining nuclei after 40% decay
= (1 0.4) N0 = 0.6 N0
N2 = Remaining nuclei after 85% decay
= (1 0.85) N0 = 0.15 N0
\

N 2 0.15N 0 1 1
=
= =
N1 0.6N 0 4 2

Hence, two half lives is required between 40% decay


and 85% decay of a radioactive substance.
\ Time taken = 2T1/2 = 2 30 min = 60 min
52

Physics For you | December 16

15. (c) : When electron jumps from higher orbit to


lower orbit then, wavelength of emitted photon is
given by,
1
1
1
=R

2
2

n f ni
Transition : 3 2, wavelength = l
Transition : 4 3, wavelength = l = ?
so,

1
1 5R
1
= R =
2
2

32 36

and

1
1 7R
1
= R =
2
3

42 144

144 5 20

=
7
36
7
16. (a) : Here, R = 107 m1
The wave number of the last line of the Balmer
series in hydrogen spectrum is given by
7
1
1
1
= R 2 2 = R = 10 = 0.25 107 m 1
2

4
4
\

17. (a) : According to Einsteins photoelectric equation


maximum kinetic energy of a photoelectron,
1
hc
K = mv 2 =

2
According to the question, for incident radiation of
wavelength l, maximum speed of photoelectron is v.
1 2 hc
\
mv =
...(i)

2
Assume speed of fastest photoelectron is v when
3
incident photon has wavelength
.
4
hc
1
4
\
mv 2 =

2
3
or
or
\

1
4 1

mv 2 = mv 2 +

2
3 2

(from Eqn (i))

4 2 2

1
2
v +
mv 2 = mv 2 + or v =
3
3m
2
3
3
4
v >
v
3

18. (d) : Half life of A, T1/2(A) = 20 min


Half life of B, T1/2(B) = 40 min
Initially, number of nuclei in each sample = N
Now, 80 min = 4T1/2(A) = 2T1/2(B)
Number of active nuclei after four half lives of A,

N
16
2
15
\ Number of decayed nuclei = N NA =
N
16
Number of active nuclei after two half lives of B,
N N
NB =
=
22 4
3
\ Number of decayed nuclei = N NB = N
4
15
N
5
\ Required ratio = 16 =
3
4
N
4
19. (b) : Energy of emitted photon,
1
3
1
E = 13.6 eV = 13.6 eV
2
2
4
1
2
NA =

Energy required to completely remove the electron


from nth excited state of doubly ionized lithium,
E =

13.6 Z 2

n
As E E

3
13.6 9
13.6
4
n2

eV =

13.6 9
n2

eV

n2 3 4 or n 12 = 3.5
\ Least quantum number for the excited state = 4.
20. (a) : Using conservation of linear momentum,
Total momentum before collision
= Total momentum after collision
v
mv = (m + m) v v =
2
Loss in kinetic energy during the process,
2

1
1
1
v
K = mv 2 (2m) = mv 2
2
2
2
4
For minimum kinetic energy of neutron, lost kinetic
energy should be used by the electron to jump from
first orbit to second orbit.
1 2

mv = (13.6 3.4) eV = 10.2 eV


4
1 2
mv = 20.4 eV = Kinetic energy of the
2
neutron for inelastic collision.

Physics For you | December 16

53

CLASS XII Series 7

CBSE

Semiconductor Electronics : Materials,


Devices and Simple Circuits
Communication Systems

Time Allowed : 3 hours


Maximum Marks : 70

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
(i)

All questions are compulsory.

(ii)

Q. no. 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.

(iii) Q. no. 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.
(iv) Q. no. 11 to 22 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks
each.
(v)

Q. no. 23 is a value based question and carries 4 marks.

(vi) Q. no. 24 to 26 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.
(vii) Use log tables if necessary, use of calculator is not allowed.

section-A

1. Show variation of resistivity of Si with temperature


in a graph.

Previous Years Analysis


2016
2015
2014
Delhi
AI Delhi
AI Delhi
AI
VSA
SA-I
SA-II

1
1

1
1

VBQ
LA

3
_

3
_

1
1

2
1
_

7. The block diagram of a receiver is shown in the


following figure. Identify X and Y. Write their
functions.

2. Why should a photodiode be operated at reverse


bias?
3. Why do we need carrier waves of very high
frequency in the modulation of signals?
4. Define repeater. What is its function?
5. Which of the following would produce analog
signals and which would produce digital signals?
(i) A vibrating tuning fork.
(ii) Musical sound due to a vibrating sitar string.
(iii) Light pulse.
(iv) Output of NAND gate.
section-B

6. In a transistor, doping level in base is increased


slightly. How will it affect (i) collector current and
(ii) base current?
54

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

8. Answer the following questions, giving reasons :


(i) Why is the current under reverse bias almost
independent of the applied potential upto a
critical voltage?
(ii) Why does the reverse current show a sudden
increase at the critical voltage?
9. Inputs A and B are applied to the logic gate set up as
shown in the figure. Complete the given truth table
and name the equivalent gate formed by this set-up.

0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1

OR
For the circuit shown in figure find the current
flowing through the 1 W resistor. Assume that the
two diodes, D1 and D2, are ideal diodes.

16. Mention three different modes of propagation used


in communication system. Explain with the help
of a diagram how long distance communication
can be achieved by ionospheric reflection of radio
waves.
17. Distinguish between frequency modulation and
amplitude modulation. Why is an FM signal less
susceptible to noise than an AM signal?
18. Write the frequency at which T.V. signals are
transmitted. Derive an expression for the range
upto which signals transmitted by a T.V. tower can
be received.
19. Explain, with the help of a circuit diagram, the
working of a photodiode. Write briefly how it is
used to detect the optical signals.

10. The maximum amplitude of AM wave is found to


be 15 V while its minimum amplitude is found to
be 3 V. What is the modulation index?
section-c

11. Draw a circuit diagram of full wave rectifier. Explain


its working principle. Draw the input and output
waveforms indicating clearly the functions of the
two diodes used.
12. What do we understand by the cut off, active and
saturation states of the transistor?
13. In the given circuit diagram,
a voltmeter V is connected
across a lamp L. How would
(i) the brightness of the lamp,
and (ii) voltmeter reading V
be affected, if the value of
resistance R is decreased?
Justify your answer ?
14. Express by a truth table the output Y for all possible
inputs A and B in the circuit shown in figure

20. A semiconductor has equal electron and hole


concentrations of 2.0 108 cm3. On doping with
a certain impurity, the hole concentration increases
to 4.0 1010 cm3.
(i) What type of semiconductor is obtained on
doping ?
(ii) Calculate the new electron concentration of the
semiconductor.
(iii) How does the energy gap vary with doping?
21. You are given the two circuits as shown in figure.
Show that circuit (i) acts as OR gate while the circuit
(ii) acts as AND gate.

(i)

(ii)
OR
If each diode in figure has a forward bias resistance
of 25 W and infinite resistance in reverse bias, what
will be the values of the current I1, I2, I3 and I4?

15. Explain briefly the following terms used in


communication system :
(i) Transducer
(ii) Receiver
(iii) Transmitter
(iv) Bandpass filter
(v) Amplification
(vi) Demodulator
Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

55

section-D

23. Arnab was talking on his mobile to his friend for


a long time. After his conversation was over, his
sister Anita advised him that if his conversation was
of such a long duration, it would be better to talk
through a landline.
(i) Why is it considered harmful to use a mobile
phone for a long duration?
(ii) Which values are reflected in the advice of his
sister Anita?
(iii) A message signal of frequency 10 kHz is
superposed to modulated a carrier wave of
frequency 1 MHz. Determine the sidebands
produced.
section-e

24. (i) Describe briefly, with the help of a diagram, the


role of the two important processes involved in
the formation of a p-n junction.
(ii) Name the device which is used as a voltage
regulator. Draw the necessary circuit diagram
and explain its working.
OR
Draw the circuit diagrams of a p-n junction diode
in (i) forward bias, (ii) reverse bias. How are these
circuits used to study the V-I characteristics of a
silicon diode ? Draw the typical V-I characteristics.
25. With the help of a labelled circuit diagram,
explain how an n-p-n transistor can be used as an
amplifier in common-emitter configuration. Write
an expression for its voltage gain. Explain how the
input and output voltages are out of phase by 180
for a common-emitter transistor amplifier.
OR
(i) Explain the formation of energy bands in
solids. On the basis of energy band diagrams,
distinguish between metal, insulator and
semiconductor.
(ii) What is a light emitting diode (LED)? Mention
two important advantages of LEDs over
conventional lamps.
56

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

26. (i) Write three important factors which justify the


need of modulating a message signal.
(ii) What is meant by detection of a modulated
signal? Draw block diagram of a detector
for AM waves and state briefly, showing the
waveforms, how the original message signal is
obtained.
OR
(i) What is space wave propagation?
(ii) What is internet? Write the four applications of
the internet.
soLutions

1. The variation of resistivity of silicon (Si) with


temperature is shown as
Resistivity ()

22. Figure shows a communication system. What


is the output power when input signal is of
1.01 mW ? (gain in dB = 10 log10 (Po/Pi ).

Temperature (T)

2. Because in reverse bias, the fractional change in


minority carriers is much larger than the fractional
change in majority carriers in forward bias. So,
effect of intensity of light on the minority carriers
dominated reverse bias current is more easily
measurable than that in forward bias current.
3. High frequency carrier waves are used to increase
operating range, to reduce antenna length and
convert the wide band signal into narrow band
signal. Then the signal can be easily recovered and
distinguished from other signals at the receiving
station.
4. A repeater is a combination of a transmitter, an
amplifier and a receiver which picks up a signal
from the transmitter, amplifies and retransmits it
to the receiver sometimes with a change of carrier
frequency. Multiple repeaters help in extending the
range of the communication system.
5. Analog signal would be produced by vibrating
tuning fork and musical sound due to a vibrating
sitar string.
Digital signal would be produced by light pulse and
NAND gate.

6. If the doping level in base region of a transistor is


increased slightly, then greater fraction of charge
carriers (electrons or holes) entering into base from
the emitter will be neutralised due to recombination
of opposite charge carriers in base region. As a
result, (i) the collector current IC will decrease, but
(ii) base current IB will increase.
7. The component X in the figure is intermediate
frequency (IF) stage, which facilitates further
processing of the received signal by lowering the
carrier frequency.
The component Y is an amplifier, which amplifies
the detected signal so as to have a strong output.

8. (i) When the diode is reverse biased, a very small


current of few microamperes flows due to the drift
of minority charge carriers whose number density
remains constant, so the current under reverse bias
is almost independent of the applied potential upto
a critical voltage.
(ii) When the reverse voltage across the p-n
junction reaches a critical voltage, the reverse
current suddenly increases to a large value. It is
due to the increase in the number of minority
charge carriers because of the breakdown of the
diode. The avalanche breakdown occurs in lightly
doped diodes due to ionisation by collision. Zener
breakdown occurs at low voltages in heavily doped
diodes by field emission.
9. Truth table for the given circuit is as follows:
A

0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1

A = A B = B Y = A + B Y = Y
1
1
0
0

1
0
1
0

1
1
1
0

0
0
0
1

Clearly, Y = AB. Hence the given circuit is equivalent


to an AND gate.
OR
Diode D1 is forward biased and offers zero
resistance. Diode D2 is reversed biased and offers
infinite resistance. The given circuit reduces to the
equivalent circuit as shown in figure.

By Ohm's law, the current through 1 W resistor is


I=

6
=2A
2 +1

A
10. We know that, = m
Ac
It is given that Am + Ac = 15 V and Ac Am = 3 V
\ 2Ac = 15 + 3 = 18 V ; Ac = 9 V
and 2Am = 15 3 = 12 V ; Am = 6 V
\ =6 =2
9 3
11. A full wave rectifier consists of a transformer, two
junction diodes D1 and D2 and a load resistance RL.
The input a.c. signal is fed to the primary coil P of the
transformer. The two ends A and B of the secondary
S are connected to the p-ends of diodes D1 and D2.
The secondary is tapped at its central point T which
is connected to the n-ends of the two diodes through
the load resistance RL, as shown in figure.

Working : At any instant, the voltages at the end


A (input of D1) and end B( input of D2) of the
secondary with respect to the centre tap T will
be out of phase with each other. Supposed during
the positive half cycle of a.c. input, the end A is
positive and the end B is negative with respect to
the centre tap T. Then the diode D1 gets forward
biased and conducts current along the path
AD1XYTA, as indicated by the solid arrows. The
diode D2 is reverse biased and does not conduct.
During the negative half cycle, the end A becomes
negative and the end B becomes positive with
respect to the centre tap T. The diode D1 gets
reverse biased and does not conduct. The diode
D2 conducts current along the path BD2XYTB,
as indicated by broken arrows. As during both
half cycles of input a.c. the current through load
RL flows in the same direction (X Y), so we
get a pulsating d.c. voltage across RL, as shown in
figure.
Waveforms of input a.c. and output voltage obtained
from a full wave rectifier.
Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

57

12. Figure shows the circuit diagram of a base-biased


n-p-n transistor in CE configuration. Here RB is a
resistor in the input circuit and RC in the output
circuit.

V0 = VCC ICRC

...(i)

cutoff region. From equation (i), the output voltage


V0 = VCC
Active region : When Vi increases slightly above
0.7 V, a current IC flows in the output circuit
and the transistor is said to be in the active state.
From equation (i), as the term IC RC increases,
the output voltage V0 decreases. Now as Vi
increases, IC increases almost linearly and so V 0
decreases linearly till its value becomes less then
1.0 V.
Saturation region : When Vi is high i.e., the emitterbase junction is heavily forward biased, a large
collector current IC flows which produces such a
large potential drop across load resistance RC that
the emitter-collector junction also gets forward
biased. The output voltage V0 decreases to almost
zero. The transistor is said to be in the saturation
sate because it cannot pass any more collector
current IC.
13. In the following figure, the
transistor is a n-p-n
transistor with baseemitter junction forward
biased and the collector
reverse biased. Hence,
a base current IB and
consequently,
collector
current IC flow in the circuit. If value of resistor
R is reduced, then IB and correspondingly IC will
increase. Due to increase in IC, the lamp will go more
brilliantly. Due to increase in current IC flowing
through lamp resistance the potential difference
across the lamp increases and consequently,
voltmeter reading will increase.
14. The given circuit includes an AND and an OR gate,
as shown in figure

Cut off region : When Vi increases from zero to a


low value (less then 0.7 V in case of a Si transistor),
the forward bias of the emitter-base junction is
insufficient to start a forward current. That is, IB = 0
and hence IC = 0. The transistor is said to be in the
58

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

Inputs A and B are fed to AND gate so that its


output is
Y= A B
Then inputs A and Y(= A B) are fed to OR gate so
that the output from it is
Y=A+AB

The logic table for the given circuit is as follows :


AND gate
Inputs
Output
A
B
Y= A B
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
Hence the truth table is
Inputs

OR gate
Inputs
Output
A
Y Y = A + Y
0
0
1
1

0
0
0
1

0
0
1
1

Output
A
B
Y
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
15. (i) Transducer : It is a device which converts energy
from one form to another from.
(ii) Receiver : It is a device which recovers the
original message signal from the signal received at
the output of the communication channel.
(iii) Transmitter : It is a device which processes
the incoming message signal into a form suitable
for transmission through a channel and for its
subsequent transmission.
(iv) Bandpass filter : A bandpass filter blocks lower
and higher frequencies and allows only band of
frequency (centred around carrier frequency) to
pass through it.
(v) Amplification : It is the process of increasing
the amplitude and hence the strength of an electrical
signal by using and electric circuit (consisting of
atleast one transistor) called the amplifier.
(vi) Demodulator : Demodulator is a device which
recovers the original information signal from the
modulated wave at the receiver end.
16. (i) Ground wave or surface wave propagation
(ii) Sky wave propagation
or ionospheric propagation
(iii) Space
wave
propagation/Line of sight
propagation.
In sky wave propagation,
radio waves transmitted
by transmitting antenna are directed towards the
ionosphere. The radiowaves having frequency
range 2 MHz to 30 MHz are reflected back by the
ionosphere.

In sky wave propagation, radio signals can be


transmitted to the stations which otherwise become
inaccessible to the ground due to curvature of
earth. Thus due to reflection by ionosphere, radio
wave signals can be transmitted virtually from any
one place to the other on surface of earth. So it is
useful for very long distance radio communication.
Thus for long distance radio broadcasts through sky
wave propagation, we use short wave bands.
17. In amplitude modulation, the amplitude of the
carrier is varied by the modulating signal and the
change in amplitude from the unmodulated value
is directly proportional to the instantaneous value
of the modulating signal but is independent of its
frequency. This is represented in figure.

Carrier wave
(a)

Modulating sine-wave signal

Amplitude-modulated wave
In frequency modulation, the instantaneous
frequency of the carrier is varied by the modulating
signal. The instantaneous deviation of frequency
from the unmodulated values is directly proportional
to the instantaneous value of the modulating
signal but is independent of its frequency. This is
represented in figure.

Frequency-modulation wave
Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

59

AM has : (i) low efficiency as the useful power is in


the side bands, (ii) noisy reception, (iii) poor quality
of reception and (iv) small operating range.
FM has : (i) very high efficiency, (ii) noiseless
reception, (iii) high fidelity and (iv) large operating
range.
Practically all natural and man-made noises result
in electrical amplitude disturbances (variation).
Since in FM modulation, the carrier amplitude is
kept constant, all the amplitude-sensitive noises are
eliminated because variations in amplitude due to
noise are not reproduce. To limit the FM signal to
constant amplitude, a limiter circuit is used in an
FM receiver.
18. Television frequencies lie in
the range 100 200 MHz.
Let T.V. signals be
transmitted
from
an
antenna of height PQ = hT.
Due to the curvature of the
earth, no direct signals are
possible beyond the points
S or T, as shown in figure.
Let PS = PT = d.
From right-angled DOTQ, we get
OQ2 = OT2 + QT2
Here, OQ = R + hT , QT = PT = d
OT = R = Radius of the earth
\ (R + hT)2 = R2 + d2
or R2 + hT2 + 2hTR = R2 + d2
hT
or d2 = hT2 + 2hTR = 2hTR 1 +
2R
But hT << R, therefore, d2 = 2hTR or d = 2hT R
19. A photodiode is a p-n junction fabricated from a
photosensitive semiconductor and provided with a
transparent window so as allow light to fall on on
its junction. Its symbolic representation is shown in
figure.
h

When the photodiode is


illuminated with light
photons of energy
A
hu greater than the
energy gap Eg of
the
semiconductor,
additional electron-hole pairs are generated due
60

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

to the absorption of photons. This generation of


photogenerated charge carriers occurs in or near
the depletion region. Due to the junction field,
electrons get collected on n-side and holes on
the p-side setting up an emf. This send a current
through the load. In a reverse biased photodiode,
we can easily observe the change in photocurrent
with the change in radiation intensity. Hence a
photodiode can be used to detect optical signals.

20. (i) Here, ni = 2.0 108 cm3 and


nh = 4.0 1010 cm3
As on doping, the hole concentration has increased,
so a p-type semiconductor is obtained on doping.
(ii) New electron concentration of the
semiconductor,
n2 (2.0 108 )2
ne = i =
= 1.0 106 cm 3
nh (4.0 1010 )

(iii) On doping, energy gap between acceptor


energy level and valence band decreases to a very
small value ranging from 0.01 eV to 0.05 eV.
21. Let us first find the Boolean expression for logic
circuit (i)

So, above logic circuit provides output as OR gate.

Here X = A + B and Y = X = A + B = A + B
Now let us find the Boolean expression for logic
circuit (ii)

By De-Morgans theorem we know

( A + B ) = AB

So, above logic circuit provides output as AND


gate.
OR
Let R be the effective resistance of the circuit, then
R = RAB || REF + 25
RAB = 125 + 25 = 150 W
REF = 125 + 25 = 150 W
\ R = 25 + 150 = 100 W
2

Since diode in the branch CD is reverse biased, I3 = 0.


5
= 0.05 A
Current, I1 =
100
According to Kirchhoff s, current rule,
I1 = I2 + I3 + I4 or I2 + I4 = I1 = 0.05
... R = R , so, I = I
AB
EF
4
2
2I4 = 2I2 = 0.05
0.05
I 4 = I2 =
= 0.025 A
2
22.

Path length = 5 km, Loss rate = 2 dB km


Loss suffered in path = 5 2 = 10 dB
Total gain of both amplifier = 10 + 20 = 30 dB
Overall gain = 30 10 = 20 dB
P
Gain in dB = 10 log10 o
Pi
or

P
20 = 10 log10 o
Pi

Po = 102 (1.01) = 101 mW


23. (i) The ultra high frequency em radiations,
continuously emitted by a mobile phone, may harm
the system of the human body.
(ii) Values shown by her sister Anita Shows :
(a) Concern about her brother
(b) Awareness about the likely effects of em
radiations on human body
(c) Sense of responsibility.
(iii) The side bands are : (uc + um) and (uc um)
or (1000 + 10) kHz and (1000 10) kHz
or 1010 kHz and 990 kHz
24. (i) Refer to point 9.3 (1, 2, 3) page no. 587 (MTG
Excel in Physics)
(ii) Refer to point 9.3 (7 (i)) page no. 589
(MTG Excel in Physics)
OR
Refer to point 9.3 (4, 5) page no. 588 (MTG Excel
in Physics)
62

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

25. Refer to point 9.4 (8) page no. 595 (MTG Excel in
Physics)
OR
(i) Refer to point 9.1 (5, 6) page no. 583 (MTG
Excel in Physics)
(ii) Refer to point 9.3 (7 (iv (a), (f)) page no. 591
(MTG Excel in Physics)
26. (i) Refer to point 10.2 (2) page no. 637 (MTG
Excel in Physics)
(ii) Refer to point 10.2 (7) page no. 639 (MTG
Excel in Physics)
OR
(i) Refer to point 10.3 (3) page no. 642 (MTG
Excel in Physics)
(ii) Refer to point 10.2 (9) page no. 640 (MTG
Excel in Physics)

comPrehension based questions


Paragraph i

A particle of mass m and charge q is accelerated by


a potential difference V volt and made to enter a
magnetic field region at an angle q with the field. At the
same moment, another particle of same mass and same
charge is projected in the direction of the field from the
same point. Magnetic field of induction is B.
1. What would be the speed of second particle so that
both particles meet again and again after a regular
interval of time, which should be minimum?
(a)

qV
cosq
m

(b)

2qV
cosq
m

(c)

qV
sinq
m

(d)

qV
cosq
2m

2. Find the time interval after which they meet.


2pm
pm
(a)
(b)
qB
2qB
3pm
(c) pm
(d)
2qB
qB
3. Find the distance travelled by the second particle
during that interval mentioned in the above problem.
(a)

Vm 2p
cos q
q B

(b)

2Vm 2p
cos q
3q B

(c)

2Vm 2p
cos q
q B

(d)

2 Vm p
cos q
3 q m

Paragraph ii

A radionuclide with decay constant l is being produced


in a nuclear reactor at a rate q0t per second, where q0 is
a positive constant and t is the time. During each decay,
E0 energy is released. The production of radionuclide
starts at time t = 0.

class-Xii

4. Which differential equation correctly represents the


above process?

dN
dN
lN = q0t
(b)
+ lN = q0t
dt
dt
dN
dN
+ q0t = lN
(c)
(d)
+ q0t = lN
dt
dt
5. Instantaneous power developed at time t due to the
decay of the radionuclide is
q
q

(a) q0t 0 + 0 e lt E0

l
l
q0 q0 lt

(b) q0t +
e E0

l
l
q
q

(c) q0t + 0 + 0 e lt E0

l l
q
q

(d) q0t 0 0 e lt E0 .

l l
6. Average power developed in time t due to the decay
of the radionuclide is
q
q
q t q

(a) 0 0 + 0 0 e lt E0
2
2
2

l l t l t
(a)

q
q
q t q

(b) 0 + 0 + 0 0 e lt E0
2
2
2

l l t l t
q
q
q t q

(c) 0 0 + 0 + 0 e lt E0
2
2
2

l l t l t
q0 lt
q0t q0 q0
+ +
+
e E0 .
(d)
2

l l 2t l 2t
Paragraph iii
There is a uniformly charge ring having radius R. An
infinite line charge (charge per unit length l) is placed
along a diameter of the ring (in gravity free space).
Total charge on the ring is Q = 4 2 lR. An electron of
mass m is released from rest on the axis of the ring at a
distance x = 3R from the centre.
Physics For you | december 16

63

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

The quantity on the left hand side is known as line


integral of magnetic field over a closed Amperes loop.

+
+
R
+
+
+
+
+
++

x 3R

7. Magnitude of initial acceleration of the electron is


el 3 2 2
el 3 + 2 2
(a)

(b)

p0mR 4 6
p mR 4 6
0

(c)

el 3 + 2 2 (d) el 3 2 2

p0mR 2
p0mR 4 3

8. The distance from centre of ring on the axis where


the net force on the electron is zero is
(a) 2R
(b) 2R
(c) R
(d) none of these.
9. Potential difference between points A (x = 3R)
and B (x = R) i.e., (VA VB) is
(a)

l
0

(c)

l
p0

1 ln 3
l
1 ln3

+
1 +
(b)
1

4
2

2
0
1 ln 3
l
1 ln 3

1 +
(d)
1
.
4
p
4
2
2

Paragraph iV
In a mixture of H He+ gas (He+ is singly ionized He
atom), H atoms and He+ ions are excited to their respective first excited states. Subsequently, H atoms transfer
their total excitation energy to He+ ions (by collisions).
Assume that the Bohrs model of atom is exactly valid.

10. The quantum number n of the state finally populated in He+ ions is
(a) 2
(b) 3
(c) 4
(d) 5.
11. The wavelength of light emitted in the visible region
by He+ ions after collisions with H atoms is
(a) 6.5 107 m
(b) 5.6 107 m
7
(c) 4.7 10 m
(d) 4.0 107 m.
12. The ratio of the kinetic energy of the n = 2 electron
for the H atom to that of He+ ion is
(a) 1/4
(b) 1/2
(c) 1
(d) 2.
Paragraph V

Amperes law provides us an easy way to calculate the


magnetic field due to a symmetrical distribution of

current. Its mathematical expression is B dl = m0Iin.


64

Physics For you | december 16

13. Only the current inside the Amperian loop


contributes in
(a) finding magnetic field at any point on the
Amperes loop
(b) line integral of magnetic field
(c) both of them
(d) neither of them.
14. If the current density in a linear conductor of
radius a varies with r according to relation J = kr2,
where k is a constant and r is the distance of a
point from the axis of conductor, find the magnetic
field induction at a distance r from the axis when
r < a. Assume relative permeability of the conductor
to be unity.
4
m kr 3
(a) m0kpa
(b) 0
2
4r
m0kr 3
m0kpa 4
(c)
(d)
4
2r
15. In the above question, find the magnetic field
induction at a point distance r from the axis when
r > a. Assume relative permeability of the medium
surrounding the conductor to be unity.

(a)

3
m0ka 4
m kpa 4
(b) m0kr (c) 0
4r
2r
2

(d)

m0kr 3
4

solutions
1. (b) : The first particle will have a helical path and
the second particle will move rectilinearly along the
field. For the two particles to meet again and again,
v || T = vT where v is the speed of the second
particle.
y-axis

v1=v sin

(q, m) v =v cos

B
(uniform)

x-axis
axis of
helix

\ v = v|| = v cosq
1 2
2qV
2qV
mv = qV v =
cosq
\ v =
m
2
m
2. (a) : Both the particles will meet after the time
2pm
period of helical motion. T =
qB

3. (c) : Distance travelled = pitch of helical path


2qV
2pm
cosq
=
m
qB

= vT =

2Vm 2p
cos q
q B

dN
dN
= q0t lN ;
+ lN = q0t
dt
dt
dN
5. (a) :
+ lN = q0t
dt

4. (a) :

On solving the differential equation, we get


qt q
q
N = 0 02 + 02 e lt
l l
l
q q

Pinst = lNE0 = q0t 0 + 0 e lt E0

l l
t
q
q lt

q0t l0 + l0 e E0dt
6. (a) : Pav = 0
t

dt
0

q
q
q t q

= 0 0 + 0 0 e lt E0
2
2
2

l l t l t
7. (a) : Electric field on the axis of ring at a distance x is,
l
Q
x
E=
+
2p0x 4p0 (R2 + x 2)3/2
(Considering right direction as positive)
=

x 4 2R
l 1
+

2p0 x 2(R2 + x 2 )3/2

l
2p0

(As, Q = 4 2lR)

1
2 2 xR
x + 2

(R + x 2 )3/2

Initially x = 3R
l 1 2 2 3
\ E=
+

2p0R
8
3
l 2 2 + 3
l 32 2
=
=

2p0R 3 (2 2 ) 2p0R 2 6
(e)(E)
el 3 2 2
Acceleration a =
=

m
p0mR 4 6
8. (c) : Force on electron is zero at point where
1
2 2 xR
E = 0 or =
; (R2 + x 2 )3/2 = 2 2 x 2R
2
x (R + x 2 )3/2
On solving, x = R
9. (d) : Potential difference between two points
DV = E dx
Potential difference due to line charge between
x = R and x = 3R
VAB =

3R

ldx
l
l ln 3
=
ln 3 =

2p0x 2p0
p0 4

Potential difference due to the ring between x = R


and x = 3 R
1 4 2lR 4 2lR l 1

VAB =

4p0 2R
2R p0 2
Net potential difference VA VB =

l
p0

1
ln3

4
2

10. (c) : Energy released by H atom in transition from


n = 2 to n = 1 is
3
DEH = 13.6 eV
4
Let He+ ions go to nth state. So energy required
3
1 1
DEHe = 13.6 4 2 eV = 13.6 eV
4 n
4
So, n = 4
11. (c) : Visible light lies in the range, l1 = 4000 to
l2 = 7000 . Energy of photons corresponding to
these wavelengths (in eV) would be
12375
12375
= 1.77 eV
= 3.09 eV and E2 =
E1 =
7000
4000
1.9 eV
n=4
3.4 eV n = 3
n=3
6.04 eV n = 2
3.4 eV
DE = 10.2 eV
DE = 10.2 eV
n=2
13.6 eV
n = 1 H atom 13.6 eV
n=1
54.4
eV
He+
Z=2
From energy level diagram of He atom we can see
that transition from n = 4 to n = 3, energy of photon
released will lie between E1 and E2.
DE43 = 3.4 ( 6.04) = 2.64 eV
Wavelength of photon corresponding to this energy,
12420
= 4.7 107 m
l=
2.64
12. (a)
13. (a) : Magnetic field at any point on Amperes loop
can be due to all currents passing through inside
or outside the loop. But net contribution in the left
hand side will come from inside current only.
14. (d) : For r < a, current passing through within the
cylinder of radius r is given by
r
r
r
kpr 4
2
I = JdA = kr 2prdr = 2pk r 3dr =
2
0
0
0
Now using Amperes law,
m k pr 4
m kr 3
B 2pr = m0I = 0
B= 0
4
2

15. (a)

Physics For you | december 16

65

Class XII

his specially designed column enables students to self analyse their


extent of understanding of specified chapters. Give yourself four
marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.
Self check table given at the end will help you to check your
readiness.

Optics

Total Marks : 120

Time Taken : 60 min


NEET / AIIMS / PMTs

Only One Option Correct Type

1. A plane mirror coincides with a plane having


equation x = 3. A particle is moving along a line
with direction ratios 3, 4, 5. If speed of the particle
is 2 , the velocity of its image is
3 4
3 4
1
(a) i + j + k
(b) i j k
5 5
5 5
5
(c)

3 4
(d) i + j + k
5 5

3 4 1
i+ j k
5 5
5

2. What is the optical path of light ray traversing the


path POQ across two media of refractive indices
3
4
m1 = and m2 = (PR = a, RS = b, RO = x , SQ = y )?
2
3
P
1

2
Q

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
66

8 a 2 + x 2 + 9 b2 + y 2
6
3 a2 + x 2 + 8(b2 + ( y x )2 )
6
3 a 2 + b2 + x 2 + y 2 4 b2 + y 2
3
9 a2 + x 2 + 8 b2 + ( y x )2
6
Physics For you | december 16

Liquid
3. The effective focal length of the lens
combination shown in the figure
is 60 cm. The radii of curvature
of the curved surfaces of the planoconvex lenses are 12 cm each and
refractive index of the material of
3
the lens is . The refractive index
3
2

of the liquid is
2
3
5
8
4
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
2
3
5
3
4. A light ray is travelling between two media as given
below. The angle of incidence on the boundary in
all the cases is 30. Identify the correct sequence of
increasing order of angles of refraction.
(1) Air to water
(2) Water to glass
(3) Glass to water
(Refractive indices of glass and water are respectively
3
4
and )
2
3
(a) 1, 2, 3 (b) 2, 3, 1 (c) 3, 1, 2 (d) 1, 3, 2
5. Two coherent monochromatic light sources are
located at two vertices of an equilateral triangle. If the
intensity due to each of the sources independently
is 1 W m2, then the resultant intensity (in W m2)
due to both the sources at third vertex will be
(a) zero
(b) 2
(c) 2
(d) 4
6. Image of an object at infinity is formed by a convex
lens of focal length 30 cm such that the size of the
image is 2 cm. If a concave lens of focal length
20 cm is placed in between the convex lens and the
image, at a distance 26 cm from the convex lens, the
size of the new image is

(a) 2.5 cm (b) 2.0 cm (c) 1.2 cm (d) 1.5 cm


7. A rainbow is formed when a ray of sunlight passes
through a spherical raindrop. Then the total angle
through which the ray deviates is (i and r denote the
angles of incidence and of refraction respectively)
(a) 2i 4r
(b) p + 2i 4r
(c) 2(i r)
(d) 2(p + i 2r)
8. The velocities of light in two different media are
2 108 m s1 and 2.5 108 m s1 respectively.
The critical angle for these media is
1 1
1 4
(a) sin
(b) sin
5
5
1
(c) sin 1
2

1
(d) sin 1
4

9. The distance between an object and a divergent lens


is n times the focal length of the lens. The linear
magnification produced by the lens will be
1
1
(a) n
(b)
(c) n + 1 (d)
n
(n + 1)
10. An unpolarized light is travelling along z-axis
through three polarizing sheets. The polarizing
directions of the first and the third sheet are
respectively parallel to x-axis and y-axis whereas
that of the second one is at 60 to the y-axis. Then,
the fraction of the initial light intensity that emerges
from the system is about
(a) zero
(b) 0.093 (c) 0.031 (d) 0.28
11. An image is formed at a distance of 100 cm from
the glass surface when light from point source in
air falls on a spherical glass surface with refractive
index 1.5. The distance of the light source from the
glass surface is 100 cm. The radius of curvature is
(a) 20 cm (b) 40 cm (c) 30 cm (d) 50 cm
12. A microscope consists of an objective of focal
length 2 cm and eyepiece of focal length 5 cm.
The two lenses are kept at a distance of 10.5 cm.
If the image is to be formed at the least distance of
distinct vision, the distance at which the object is to
be placed before the objective is
(Least distance of distinct vision is 25 cm)
(a) 1.9 cm (b) 2.9 cm (b) 3.9 cm (d) 4.9 cm
Assertion & Reason Type

Directions : In the following questions, a statement of


assertion is followed by a statement of reason. Mark the
correct choice as :
(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the
correct explanation of assertion.

(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not
the correct explanation of assertion.
(c) If assertion is true but reason is false.
(d) If both assertion and reason are false.
13. Assertion : If objective and eye lenses of a
microscope are interchanged, then it can work as
telescope.
Reason : The objective lens of telescope has small
focal length.
14. Assertion : Blue colour of the sky is due to scattering
of blue light.
Reason : Blue colour has the shortest wavelength in
the visible spectrum.
15. Assertion : Coloured spectrum is seen when we
look through a muslin cloth.
Reason : It is due to diffraction of white light on
passing through fine slits.
JEE MAIN / JEE AdvANcEd / PETs

Only One Option Correct Type

16. A convex lens forms the image of an axial point on a


screen. A second lens with focal length f cm is placed
between the screen and the first lens at a distance
of 10 cm from the screen. To view the image,
the screen has to be shifted away from the lens by
5 cm. A third lens having focal length of the same
magnitude f cm is used to replace the second lens at
the same position. But this time to view the image,
the screen has to be shifted towards the lens by
d cm. The value of f and d respectively, are
(a) 30 cm, 2.5 cm
(b) 30 cm, 5 cm
(c) 7.5 cm, 2.5 cm
(d) 7.5 cm, 5 cm
17. The angle of refraction of a very thin prism is
1. A light ray is incident normally on one of the
refracting surfaces. The ray that ultimately emerges
from the first surface, after suffering reflection from
the second surface makes an angle of 3.32 with the
normal. The deviation of the ray emerging from
the second surface and the refractive index of the
material of the prism respectively are
(a) 0.66, 1.66
(b) 1.66, 1.5
(c) 1.5, 1.66
(d) 0.66, 15
18.
P
S

4
3

3
2

4
3

A long thin rectangular slab PQRS having refractive


3
is immersed in a liquid having refractive
index
2
Physics For you | december 16

67

4
. A ray of light is incident at the edge PQ of
3
the slab as shown in figure. What is the sine of angle
of incidence i such that the ray comes out from the
slab as shown in figure?
1
4
17
8
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
2
8
9
17
19. In Youngs double slit experiment, one of the slits
is wider than the other, so that the amplitude of
the light from one slit is double that from the other
slit. If Im be the maximum intensity, the resultant
intensity when they interfere at phase difference f
is given by
I
I
f
f
(a) m 1 + 2 cos2 (b) m 1 + 2 cos2
9
3
2
2
index

(c)

Im
5

2 f
1 + 4 cos
2

(d)

Im
9

2 f
1 + 8 cos
2

More than One Options Correct Type

20. An object and a screen are separated by a distance


D. A convex lens of focal length f such that 4f < D,
is moved between the object and the screen to get
two sharp images. If the two positions of the lens
are separated by a distance L, then
(a) L is equal to D(D 4 f ).
(b) object distance in one position is numerically
equal to image distance in the other position.
(D L )
(c) the ratio of sizes of the two images is
.
(D + L )
(d) the ratio of sizes of the two image is

(D L)2
(D + L)2

21. A light source, which emits two wavelengths


l1 = 400 nm and l2 = 600 nm, is used in a Youngs
double slit experiment. If recorded fringe widths for
l1 and l2 are b1 and b2 and the number of fringes
for them within a distance y on one side of the
central maximum are n1 and n2, respectively, then
(a) b2 > b1
(b) n1 > n2
(c) from the central maximum, 3rd maximum of l2
overlaps with 5th minimum of l1.
(d) the angular separation of fringes for l1 is greater
than l2.
22. A transparent thin film of uniform thickness and
refractive index m1 = 1.4 is coated on the convex
spherical surface of radius R at one end of a long
solid glass cylinder of refractive index m2 = 1.5, as
shown in the figure. Rays of light parallel to the axis
68

Physics For you | december 16

of the cylinder traversing through the film from


air to glass get focused at distance f1 from the film,
while rays of light traversing from glass to air get
focused at distance f2 from the film. Then
1
(a) |f1| = 3R
(b) |f1| = 2.8R
2
Air
(c) |f2| = 2R
(d) |f2| = 1.4R
23. Consider three
1
converging lenses
L1, L2 and L3
O
O1
O2
2
having identical
geometrical
L3
construction. The refractive indices of L1 and L2 are
m1 and m2 respectively. The upper half of the lens L3
has a refractive index m1 and the lower half has m2.
A point object O is imaged at O1 by the lens L1 and
at O2 by the lens L2 placed in same position. If L3 is
placed at the same place,
(a) there will be an image at O1.
(b) there will be an image at O2.
(c) the only image will form somewhere between
O1 and O2.
(d) the only image will form away from O2.
Integer Answer Type
24. The focal length of a thin biconvex lens is 20 cm.
When an object is moved from a distance of 25 cm
in front of it to 50 cm, the magnification of its image
changes from m25 to m50. The ratio m25/m50 is
25. In Youngs double silt experiment, two slits act as
coherent sources of equal amplitude a and same
wavelength l. In another experiment with the same
set up, the same two slits are incoherent. The ratio
of intensity of light at the middle point of the screen
in the first case to that in second case is
26. Image of an object approaching a convex mirror
of radius of curvature 20 m along its optical axis
25
50
is observed to move from
m to
m in 30 s.
3
7
The speed of the object in km h1 is
Comprehension Type
A prism of refractive index m1 and another prism of
refractive index m2 are stuck together without a gap
as shown in the figure. The angles of the prisms are
as shown. Refractive indices m1 and m2 depends on
wavelength l as follows :
10.8 104
1.80 104
m1 = 1.20 +
and
m
=
1
.
45
+
2
l2
l2

where l is in nm.

D
C

60

70

1
40

27. The wavelength l0 for which rays incident at an


angle on the interface BC pass through without
bending at the interface is
(a) 500 nm (b) 600 nm (c) 650 nm (d) 700 nm
28. For light of wavelength l0, the angle of incidence on
the face AC such that the deviation produced by the
combination of the prisms is minimum will be
(a) 30
(b) 45
3

1
(c) sin
(d) sin 1 4
4
3
Matrix Match Type
29. Four combinations of two thin lenses are given
in column I. The radius of curvature of all curved
surfaces is R and the refractive index of all the
lenses is 1.5. Match lens combinations in column I
with their focal length in column II.
Column I
Column II
(P) 2R
(A)
R
2

(B)

(Q)

(C)

(R) R

(D)

(S) R

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

A
P
Q
S
Q

B
Q
S
P
P

C
R
R
Q
R

y
30. A
monochromatic
S2
parallel beam of light
of wavelength l is
x
O
incident normally on
S1
Screen
the plane containing
D
slits S1 and S2. The slits are of unequal widths
such that intensity only due to one slit on screen
is four times that only due to the other slit. The
screen is placed along y-axis as shown in figure.
The distance between slits is d and that between
the screen and slits is D. Match the statement in
column I with results in column II.
Column I
Column II

D
S
P
R
S

(A) The distance between two (P)


points on the screen having
equal intensities, such that
intensity at those points is
1
th of maximum intensity.
9
(B) The distance between two (Q)
points on the screen having
equal intensities, such that
intensity at those points is
3
th of maximum intensity.
9
(C) The distance between two (R)
points on the screen having
equal intensities, such that
intensity at those points is
5
th of maximum intensity.
9
(D) The distance between two (S)
points on the screen having
equal intensities, such that
intensity at those point is
7
th of maximum intensity.
9
A
B
C
(a) P, Q, R, S Q, R, S
P, Q, R, S
(b) P, R, S
P, Q, R, S Q, R, S
(c) Q, R, S
P, Q, R, S Q, R, S
(d) P, Q, R
P, Q, R, S Q, R, S,

Dl
3d

Dl
d

2Dl
d

3Dl
d

D
P, R, S
P, Q, R, S
P, Q, R, S
P, Q, R

Keys are published in this issue. Search now! J

Check your score! If your score is


> 90%

ExcEllEnt work !

You are well prepared to take the challenge of final exam.

No. of questions attempted

90-75%

Good work !

You can score good in the final exam.

No. of questions correct

74-60%

satisFactory !

You need to score more next time

Marks scored in percentage

< 60%

not satisFactory! Revise thoroughly and strengthen your concepts.

Physics For you | december 16

69

PHYSICS

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In every issue of Physics For You, 10 challenging problems are proposed in various topics of JEE (Main and Advanced) / various PMTs. The detailed
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The readers who have solved five or more problems may send their detailed solutions with their names and complete address. The names of those who
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one or more than one oPtion correct tyPe

1. A long straight wire carries a charge with linear


density . A particle of mass m and charge q is
released at a distance r from the wire. The speed of
the particle as it crosses a point at distance 2r from
the wire is
(a)

q ln r
m0

(b)

q ln 2
m0

(c)

q ln 2
2 m0

(d)

2q ln r
.
m0

2. There are two concentric and coplanar rings of


radius a and 3a with uniformly distributed charge
Q and 8Q respectively, fixed in yz plane with
center at origin.
A particle of small positive
charge q and mass m is
at origin as shown in
the figure then which of
the following statements
is/are correct ?
(Neglect gravity)
(a) If the particle is given a small push along
x-axis then it performs oscillatory motion of
time period, T = 12

33a3m0
.
19qQ

(b) If the particle is given a small push along


x-axis then it performs oscillatory motion of
time period, T = 12

73a3m0
.
19qQ

(c) If the particle is given a velocity along x-axis and


it performs oscillatory motion then amplitude
7
of oscillation must be less than
a.
3
(d) If the particle is given a velocity along x-axis and
it performs oscillatory motion then amplitude
5
of oscillation must be less than
a.
3
3. To measure velocity of sound wave in air, a student
performs air resonance column experiment with
a tuning fork of frequency 500 Hz. He records
length of air column for first three resonances.
First and third resonance lengths are 15.6 cm and
82.8 cm but second resonance length is not clearly
readable because of his casual writing. Then,
(a) velocity of sound wave is 336 m s1
(b) velocity of sound wave is 342 m s1
(c) second resonance length is 49.2 cm
(d) second resonance length is 46.8 cm.
4. A solid sphere of mass M and radius R is lying
on a rough horizontal plane. A constant force
F = 4Mg acts vertically downwards at point P
such that OP makes 60 with horizontal. Find the
minimum value of coefficient of friction m so that
sphere does pure rolling.
3
(a)
F = 4Mg
7
P
4
(b)
60
7
O
2
(c)
7
2
(d)
5

By Akhil Tewari, Author Foundation of Physics for Jee main & Advanced, Professor, IITians PAce, mumbai.

70

Physics For you | december 16

5. A uniform rod of mass M and length L is hinged


at point A about which it can rotate freely. The rod
is kept horizontally by means of a vertical string as
shown. A small block is placed at other end B of the
rod. Now string is cut, then

(a) just after cutting relative acceleration between


block M and end B of the rod is g/2.
(b) just after cutting relative acceleration between
block m and end B of the rod is zero.
(c) tension in the rod at its mid point when the rod
9Mg
becomes vertical is
.
8
(d) tension in the rod at its mid point when the rod
3 Mg
becomes vertical is
.
4
6. A solid conducting sphere of radius R is initially
uncharged. Charge Q is brought from infinity to
point A which is at distance 2R from centre of the
sphere. B and D are points on sphere as shown in
figure and switch S is initially opened.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?

(d) If switch is closed then charge Q flows from


sphere to ground.
7. A spherical ball of mass m moving with initial
velocity v collides elastically with another ball of
mass m, which is fixed at one end of L shaped rigid
massless frame as shown in figure. The L shaped
frame contains another mass m connected at the
other end. The speed of the striking mass after
collision is
v
(a)
backwards
2
(b) v in same direction
5
v
(c)
in same direction
3
v
(d)
backwards.
7
integer ansWer tyPe
8. Two factories are sounding their sirens at 400 Hz
each. A man goes from one factory to the other at a
speed of 2 m s1. The velocity of sound is 320 m s1.
Therefore what will be the number of beats heard by
the person in one second ?
9. Where should a convex lens of focal length 9 cm
be placed (in cm) from nearest source between two
point sources S1 and S2 which are 24 cm apart, so
that the images of both sources are formed at the
same place?
10. A system consist of a uniformly charged sphere
and surrounding medium is filled by charge with
a
volume charge density = ; where a is a positive
r
constant and r is distance from centre of the sphere.

VD
5
; where VB and VD are potential
=
VB 2 5
at B and D respectively due to induced charge
on the sphere.
Q 1 1

(b) VB VD =
; where V B and
40R 2
5
VD are potential at B and D respectively due to
induced charge on the sphere.
Q
(c) If switch is closed then charge
flows from
2
sphere to ground.

It is found that electric field outside sphere is


3a
then m =?
constant and given by E =
m0

(a)

MPP-6 CLASS XI
1.
6.
11.
16.
21.
26.

(c)
(c)
(a)
(d)
(a,d)
(4)

2.
7.
12.
17.
22.
27.

(b)
(c)
(c)
(a)
(a,b)
(a)

3.
8.
13.
18.
23.
28.

ANSWER

KEY

4.
9.
14.
19.
24.
29.

5.
10.
15.
20.
25.
30.

(d)
(b)
(c)
(a)
(a,b,d)
(d)

(a)
(c)
(a)
(d)
(8)
(d)

Physics For you | december 16

(c)
(b)
(c)
(a,c,d)
(9)
(c)
71

ON

R-C Circuit
Er. Sandip Prasad

Initial state

When key is closed, i.e., at t = 0, R-C circuit is in its


initial state. In this state, current in the circuit i is
maximum because there is no potential difference
across capacitor to oppose the applied voltage, i.e., it
behaves like being short circuited. If you wish to find
initial current, short the terminals of the capacitor.
Hence at t = 0 the circuit can be redraw as shown in
the figure.
C

VR =

VC = 0

im

im =

Transient state

As time passes, i decreases


R
+q C q
gradually so does instantaneous
VR
VC
voltage across resistance,
i
VR also decreases gradually,
but instantaneous voltage

across capacitor VC increases


gradually till it reaches at its
maximum value or steady state value . Although VR and
VC are variable, their algebraic summation at any instant
always equal to , i.e., at any time t, = VR + VC .
Final state (Steady state)

As charging continues, charging current i decreases


gradually and it becomes zero at final state or steady
state, hence at steady state condition, the circuit appears
as an open circuit (i = 0), which implies VR = 0 and
VC = . At this state capacitor gets completely charged
and the value of charge becomes maximum and its
maximum value is q0 = C.
+q0 C q0

VC =

VR = 0

charging of capacitor
e C
Consider a circuit in which a
R
+
resistor of resistance R is
A B
connected in series with a
i
capacitor of capacitance C,
the combination is connected
K
across a battery of emf .

When key is closed, electrons from plate A swings


to plate B as shown in the figure. The voltage across
capacitor rise to exponentially and not linearly.
Charging current i is maximum at the start, i.e., when
capacitor is uncharged, then it decreases exponentially
and finally ceases when potential difference across
capacitor plate becomes equal and opposite to the
battery voltage. Hence as charge q on capacitor increases,
current i in the circuit decreases. In other words, as
the time passes, potential difference across resistor
(V R) decreases and difference across the capacitor
(VC) increases.
Whenever a R-C circuit connected with a DC source,
goes from initial state to final state (steady state
condition), it passes through a transient state which is
of short duration. In fact transient state lies in between
initial state and final state (steady state condition).

i=0

Calculation of current in the R-C circuit in transient


state
R

+q

i
K

For the closed loop;


As, V = 0
dq
q
q
\ + iR = 0; = R +
dt
C
C
1
dq
q dq
= R; dt =
q
R
C dt

Sandip Physics Classes, Girish Park-1/1 Shiv Krishna Daw Lane, Kolkata-700007
72

Physics For you | december 16

dq

i =
dt

Integrating both sides,


q
t
dq
1
=
q R dt
0
0
C
q
1
1
q

ln
= t

1 / C C 0 R
q

RC ln ln( 0) = t
C

q
q

C = e t /RC
C=
ln
;
RC

q
q
= e t /RC ; e t /RC =
C
C
q
t / RC
t / RC
)
(1 e
) = ; q = C (1 e
C
q = q0 (1 et/)
Here, q0 = C is the maximum charge on the capacitor
and = RC is time constant of the circuit.
At t = , q = q0(1 e1) = 0.63q0
Hence, time constant is defined as the time in which
charge in the capacitor grows to 63% of its maximum
value.
dq d

Now, i =
= [C(1 e t /RC )] = e t /RC
dt dt
R
i = i0 et/

Here, i0 = = maximum current in the circuit.


R
Important points
Charge on the capacitor at time t is,
q = q0 (1 et/RC)
q0 is the maximum charge on the capacitor, i.e.,
charge on the capacitor at steady state.
\ q0 = C, where is the emf of the cell applied
to the circuit.
Here, = RC is the time constant of the R-C circuit.
Its unit is second.
Hence, charge at time t becomes,
q = q0(1 et/)
We know that charge in the circuit at time t is,
q = q0(1 et/)
If t = , i.e., after one time constant, charge in the
circuit is,
\ q = q0(1 e / )

1
= q0(1 e 1) = q0 1
e
\ q = 0.632 q0

Hence, the time constant of an R-C circuit is


defined as the time during which charge on the
capacitor actually rises from zero to 0.632 of its
final steady value (maximum value) of the charge.
It means after one time constant, 63% of total
charge is accumulated on the capacitor.
As, q = q0(1 et/)
At t = 0, q = q0(1 e0) = q0(1 1)
\ q=0
Hence at t = 0, capacitor can be treated as short
circuit, i.e., capacitor provides zero resistance.
At t = ,
1

1
q = q0(1 e) = q0 1
= q0 1

\ q = q0
Hence t = , i = 0, i.e., capacitor acts as an open
circuit.
Just at the start of the charging, charge on the
capacitor is zero. As, charging continues, charge
on the capacitor changes according to the equation
q = q0(1 et/). It becomes maximum (q0) when
t = , though it is almost charged to this value in
about five time constants (5).
As, q = q0(1 et/)
Graph showing the
variation of charge q
with time t
As, i = i0et/

Here, i0 = = imax
R
If t = ,
i = i0e / = i0e 1

C
0.632C
O t=

i
i0

i = 0.37i0
Graph showing the 0.37 i
0
variation of current i
O
with time t
Voltage across resistance at time t,
VR = iR = i0 Ret/

VR
VR = e t / i0 =

Graph showing the


variation of voltage
0.37
across resistance VR
O
with time t
Voltage across capacitor at time t,
VC =

q q0(1 e t / ) C
= (1 e t / )
=
C
C
C
Physics For you | december 16

73

Important points

VC

\ VC = (1 e t / )
Graph showing the variation
of voltage across capacitor
VC with time t

0.632
O

t=

Heat dissipated:
By energy conservation,
Heat dissipated = work done by cell Ucapacitor
1
1
= C() C2 0 = C2
2
2
Alternatively:

Heat = H = i 2Rdt
0

R2

2t
e RC Rdt

2 2t /RC
dt
e
R 0

2t
2RC RC
2C
e 0 =
=
2R
2
Discharging of capacitor
In the previous case, suppose battery
is shorted after the capacitor is fully
charged and the capacitor is allowed
to discharge through a resistor or

+C
K
R

a capacitor carrying a charge q0 is allowed to discharge


through a resistor.
Suppose the key is closed at t = 0, let q be the charge
on the capacitor and i be the current in the circuit at
any instant of time.
By Kirchhoff s voltage law,
q
iR = 0
C
dq
But i =
dt
Negative sign indicates that charge on the capacitor
is decreasing.
dq q
q
dq
=
\
+ R = 0;
dt RC
C
dt
q

dq
1
dq
1 t
=
dt ;
=
dt
q
RC
q
RC
q0
0
q
1
ln =
t ; q = q0e t /RC
q0
RC
dq
Again, i = = e t / = i0e t /
dt R
74

Physics For you | december 16

Charge on the capacitor at time t is,


q = q0 et/RC
q0 is the initial charge on the capacitor, i.e., charge
on the capacitor at t = 0.
Here, = RC is the time constant of the R-C circuit.
Its unit is second.
Hence, charge at time t becomes,
As, q = q0 et/RC
We know that charge in the circuit at time t,
q = q0 et/
If t = , i.e., after one time constant, charge in the
circuit is,
\ q = q0 e/; q = q0 e1 = 0.37 q0
Hence, the time constant of an R-C circuit is defined
as the time during which charge on the capacitor
falls to 0.37 of its initial value (maximum value)
of the charge. Time constant can also be defined
as the time in which charge on the capacitor falls
to 37% of its maximum value during discharging
process.
As, q = q0 et/
At t = 0, q = q0 e0 = q0
\ q = q0
At t = ,
1
1
q = q0e = q0 = q0

e
\ q=0
Just at the start of the charging, charge on the
capacitor is maximum and equal to q0. As,
discharging continues, charge on the capacitor
changes according to the equation q = q0 et/.
It becomes zero when t = , though it is almost
discharged to zero in about five time constants (5).
Graph showing the variation of charge q with
time t
q

q0
0.37 q0
O

As, q = q0(et/)
And i =

dq i = q0 (e t / )
;
()
dt

q
\ i = 0 (e t / )

or i = i0e t /

Graph showing the variation of current i with time t

q i1R
+
R=0
2R
C
2q
2q
2i1R + i1R = 0 ; 3i1R =
C
C
dq
Again, we know that i1 =
dt
dq
1
dq
2q

=
dt
\ 3 R=
2q 3R
dt
C

C
Integrating both sides,
\ i1R

i
i0
0.37 i0

Voltage across resistance at time t,


q
VR = iR = 0 Re t /
VR

VR = e t / ( q0 = C)

Graph showing the


0.37
variation of voltage
across resistance VR
with time t
Voltage across capacitor at time t,

q e t / C t /
q
e
= 0
=
C
C
C
VC
\ VC = et/
Graph showing the

variation of voltage
across capacitor VC
0.37
with time t
As, VC =

Example-1: Initially the capacitor


is uncharged, find the charge
on the capacitor as a function
of time, if switch is closed at
t = 0.
Soln.: Method-I:
By applying KVL
in loop (1)
As, S V = 0
\ + iR i2R = 0 ... (i)
By applying KVL in loop (2)
As, S V = 0

R
R

R
i
R

t
1
dq
=
dt
2q
3R
0
0
C
q
1 2q
1
ln = t

2 / C
C 0 3R
2q

C = 2t
ln
3RC
2q

C = e 2t /3RC ; 2q = e 2t /3RC

C
2q
2t /3RC 2q
e
= ; (1 e 2t /3RC ) =
C
C
C
2t /3RC
q = (1 e
)
2
Method-II: Another method can be used to find
the charge on the capacitor of R-C circuit as a
function of time. Before going to the method-II,
we need to learn a very important concept related
to electrical circuit or network. This concept is not
only used to solve the problems of R-C circuit but
you can apply it any type of electrical circuit.
r1
Consider the circuit as

shown in figure.
r2

The circuit can be converted A


B
to a single source of battery
r3

by using the following


formula : Equivalent emf,
1 2 3
r + r + r
2
3
eq = VA VB = 1
1 1 1
r + r + r
1
2
3
Where, 1, 2 and 3 are the net emf of the branches
1, 2 and 3 respectively and r1, r2 and r3 are the net
resistances respectively.
Internal resistance of the equivalent battery can be
given by following formula,
1 1 1 1
= + +
req r1 r2 r3

2
1

i1
i2
i
K

q
... (ii)
\ i1R + i2R = 0
C
Hence from both the equations, we can write an
expression in terms of i1.
From equation (i)
(i1 + i2)R i2R = 0
i1R 2i2R = 0
i1R
... (iii)
\ i2 =
2R
From equations (ii) and (iii)

Physics For you | december 16

75

Suppose we have to convert the given circuit into


an equivalent battery, where 1 = 3 V, 2 = 2 V,
3 = 1 V and r1 = r2 = r3 = 1 W.
Equivalent emf of the battery can be written as,
+3 2 +1
+
+
1
1
1 =2 V
eq = VA VB =
1 1 1
3
+ +
1 1 1
Internal resistance of the equivalent battery can be
given by following formula,
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
= + + =
= + + \ req = 3 W
req r1 r2 r3 req 1 1 1
Hence the given network becomes as a single
2
source of voltage
V and having an internal
3
resistance 3 W.

r1

3V

r2

2V

r3

B = A

req

eq =

1V

2
V
3

For problems related with R-C circuit with DC source,


it is easier to convert the R-C circuit having a number
of parallel branches into a R-C circuit of single voltage
source with a series resistance. It makes the solution of
complicated networks quite quick and easy.
Steps for converting an electrical circuit between two
terminals into a single battery:

Step-I: First of all, temporarily remove the branch


containing capacitor and redraw the remaining circuit.
The remaining circuit has a number of parallel branches
containing voltage source (battery) and resistance.
R

B
B

Step-II: To convert the remaining network into a single


equivalent battery, apply the following formula :
Equivalent emf,
1 2 3
r + r + r
2
3
eq = VA VB = 1
1 1 1
r + r + r
1
2
3
76

Physics For you | december 16

Internal resistance of the equivalent battery can be


given by following formula,
1 1 1 1
A
B
= + +
1
R
req r1 r2 r3
Here there are two parallel
branches 1 and 2 in between R
K
2
the terminals A and B. So,

0 +
+
eq = VA VB = R R =
1 1 2
+
R R
Internal resistance of the equivalent battery can be
given by following formula,
1 1 1
1 1
R
= +
\ req = .
= +
req r1 r2 R R
2
Here req is the resistance between the terminal A and
B, i.e., it is considered as the internal resistance of the
equivalent battery.
B

req = R
2
eq =
2

Step-III: Now, the temporarily removed branch is


connected back across from where it was temporarily
removed earlier. From this arrangement we get an R-C
circuit containing a single source.
R

R
R

B
req = R
2

eq =
2

Hence, from the above circuit it is clear that charging


of capacitor takes place, in this case the value of charge
at any time t is given by
q = q0(1 et/)
Here, q0 = the maximum charge on the capacitor, i.e.,

charge on the capacitor at steady or final state = C


2

and = time constant of the circuit = ReqC = R + C


2
3R
\ = C
2
Hence the equation of charge is given by,
C
q = (1 e 2t /3RC )

2
To be continued in next issue

OLYMPIAD
PROBLEMS
1. A heavy particle is tied to the end A of a string of
length 1.6 m. Its other end O is fixed. It revolves as a
conical pendulum with the string making 60 with
the vertical. Which of the following statements is
incorrect ?
4
(a) Its period of revolution is
s.
7
(b) The tension in the string is double the weight of
the particle.
(c) The velocity of the particle is 2.8 m s1.
(d) The centripetal acceleration of the particle is
10 m s2.
2. The gravitational potential changes uniformly from
20 J kg1 to 40 J kg1 as one moves along x-axis
from x = 1 m to x = +1 m. Mark the incorrect
statement about gravitational field intensity at the
origin.
(a) The gravitational field intensity at x = 0 must be
equal to 10 N kg1.
(b) The gravitational field intensity at x = 0 may be
equal to 10 N kg1.
(c) The gravitational field intensity at x = 0 may be
greater than 10 N kg1.
(d) The gravitational field intensity at x = 0 must
not be less than 10 N kg1.
3. A uniform magnetic field of
induction B fills a cylindrical volume
of radius R. A rod AB of length 2l
is placed as shown in figure. If B is
changing at the rate of dB/dt, the emf that is
produced by the changing magnetic field between
the ends of the rod is
dB
dB
l R2 l 2
(a)
(b)
l R2 + l 2
dt
dt
1 dB
1 dB
2
2
l R l
l R2 + l 2
(c)
(d)
2 dt
2 dt
4. A monochromatic beam of light of 6000 is used in
Youngs double slit experiment set-up. The two slits
are covered with two thin films of equal thickness
78

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

t but of different refractive indices as shown in


figure. Considering the intensity of the incident
beam on the slits to be I0, find the distance on the
screen from central maxima at which intensity is I0
(Assume that there is no change in intensity of the
light after passing through the films.)

S1

1 =

3
2

S2

2 =

4
3

Screen

Consider t = 6 mm, d = 1 mm, and D = 1 m, where


d and D have their usual meaning.
(a) 20 mm
(b) 30 mm
(c) 25 mm
(d) 15 mm
5. A man of mass m on an initially stationary boat
gets off the boat by leaping to the left in an exactly
horizontal direction. Immediately after the leap, the
boat of mass M, is observed to be moving to the
right at speed v. Then,
1
(a) work done by the man on boat is mv 2
2
(b) increase in the mechanical energy of the system

1 M2
+ M v2
of man and boat is

2 m
(c) velocity of centre of mass of system is v
(d) increase in kinetic energy of man is

M2 2
v .
m

L
6. A rod of mass m, uniform
x
cross sectional area A and
F
length L is accelerated by
Smooth
applying force F as shown in
figure on a smooth surface. Youngs modulus of
elasticity of the material of rod is Y. Which of the

following statements is correct? (Consider x is


measured from the right end.)
(a) Tension in rod as a function of distance x is
Fx
.
2L
F
(b) Strain in rod is
.
AY
(c) Elastic potential energy stored in the rod is
F 2L
.
6AY
(d) There is no stress in rod.

7. Figure shows the variation U (J)


of the internal energy U
A
C
with density r of one mole
of an ideal monatomic
B
(kg m3)
gas for a thermodynamic
cycle ABCA. Here process AB is a part of rectangular
hyperbola. Then,
(a) process AB is isothermal and net work in the
cycle is done by gas
(b) process AB is isobaric and net work in the cycle
is done by gas
(c) process AB is isobaric and net work in the cycle
is done on the gas
(d) process AB is adiabatic and net work in the
cycle is done by gas.
8. A homogeneous rod AB of length L = 1.8 m and
mass M is pivoted at the centre O in such a way that
it can rotate freely in the vertical plane as shown in
figure. The rod is initially in the horizontal position.
An insect S of the same mass M falls vertically with
speed v on the point C, midway between the points
O and B. Immediately after falling, the insect moves
towards the end B such that the rod rotates with a
constant angular velocity. If the insect reaches the
end B when the rod has turned through an angle of
90, then the value of v will be
S

(a) 3.5 m s1
(c) 10 m s1

L
2

L
4

L
4

(b) 7 m s1
(d) 1.5 m s1

9. A 100 eV electron collides with a stationary helium


ion (He+) in its ground state and excites to a higher
level. After the collision, He+ ion emits two photons

in succession with wavelengths 1085 and 304 .


The principal quantum number of the excited state
is
(a) 2
(b) 3
(c) 5
(d) 7
10. A
right
angled

triangular loop as a
v
v
a

shown in figure enters
a
a
uniform
magnetic

x
field (at right angle to
a
0
2a
3a
the boundary of the
field) directed into the paper at constant velocity.
Draw the graph between induced emf e and the
distance along the perpendicular to the boundary
of the field, (say x) along which loop moves.

(a)

a 2a 3a

(b)

a 2a 3a

(c)

a 2a 3a

(d)

2a 3a

solution oF noVEMBEr 2016 crossword


1

R A
A P S E R A T E
A
O B O S
7
P I T O T T U B
M
U
11
P O L A R I
12
S
F
C
E
15
14
R
L A M
P
L
U
R
U C A U L T P E N
N
S
E
T
23
22
S
I
R
D
R
H
E
Y
F
A
P
I
F
I
C
A G E
N
E
C
27
G R A V I
T

D I O L Y S I S
M I C R O W A V
6
B
8
U
B
E
F
A
R
F
R
S C O P E
R
E
T
B D A P O I N T
E
17
D U L U M
R
19
I
P
C
A
24
A S T E R S C A
O
H
T
G
M
Y
R
O
M
26
E
M
A
F
V
E
A
T
I
E
T O N
R
E
I
T
28
29
Y
N
I S O B A R F L A S H O V E R

H
3
L
E
5
P H
A
T
9
J
D
10
Z E T T A
N
A
T
S
H
K
13
Y
H
N
I
16
G
F O
18
A
G
I
C
S
S
21
B S O N E
U
O
S
S
T
O
25
N L I N K
C
S

20

I
N
T
E
R
F
A
C
E

Winner (November 2016)


Jyoti rathour, Haldwani

Solution Senders (October 2016)


Santoshi Rawat, Delhi

Bhavesh Bisht, Lucknow

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

79

3. (b) : Suppose q is the required angle.


At extreme position the velocity
of the ball is zero, thus normal

l cos
ve2
acceleration an =
= 0, and
l
h
tangential acceleration at = g sinq.
g sin
\ Total acceleration at extreme
position ae = g sinq
At mean position, the velocity of the ball

solution set-40

1. (a) : Mass per unit area of the disc,


Mass
M
M
s=
=
=
Area p (4 R)2 (3R)2
7 pR2

Consider a ring of radius


P
x and thickness dx as
4R
shown in the figure.
Mass of the ring,
3R
dx
dM = s2pxdx
4R
x
2pMxdx
=
7 pR2
Potential at point P due to annular disc is
VP =

4R

GdM

GM 2p 4 R
2

18 1.8 10 5 2 10 3
4 900 9.8
3
r = 10 5 m
7
4 pr 3g
From equation (i), we get q =
3E
Substituting the given values, we get

and displacement of ball, h = (l l cosq)

xdx

r2 =

6rvT

Physics For you | December 16

v2
The normal acceleration at this position, an = m
l
2 g (l l cos q)
=
= 2 g (1 cos q)
l
and tangential acceleration at = g sin q = g sin0 = 0
Thus total acceleration at mean position
am = 2g (1 cos q)
According to given condition, we have
ae = am g sin q = 2g (1 cos q)
q 1
1
tan = q = 2 tan 1
2 2
2
4. (c) : Let n number of men are required for the
block to just start moving up the plane
nF = mg sin q + f
nF
= mg [sin q + ms cos q]
1

= 200 10 sin 45 + cos 45

or n =

mg

200 10 3
2 2 500

A
5. (b) : Q = T
A 4
T = Q A 4 = 5.5 216 = 5.4 MeV
A
220
6. (c) : Impulse = change in momentum Dp = 50 N s
and Dp = p 0 \ p = 50 N s
Velocity along vertical direction
p sin60
= 25 3 m s 1
m
Velocity along horizontal direction,
p cos60
vH =
= 25 m s 1
m
Since, the impulse is applied tangentially, the ball will
take parabolic path.
vV =

4 p 10 5 900 9.8
7

q=
= 8 1019 C
81p
5
3
10
7

80

g g cos

vm = 2 gh = 2 g (l l cosq )

7 pR 3R 16R2 + x 2
(4 R)2 + (x )2
Solving, we get, VP = 2GM 4 2 5
7R
Work done in moving a unit mass from P to
2GM
(4 2 5)
= V VP =
7R
2. (d) : In presence of electric field, in equilibrium,
Force on the drop due to electric = Weight of the drop
field(E),
4
...(i)
qE = mg = pr 3g
3
In the absence of electric field, drop acquires equilibrium.
So, Viscous force on the drop = Weight of the drop
4 3
...(ii)
6phrvT = mg = pr g
3
2 18 h vT
or r =
4 g
Substituting the given values, we get
3R

Time of flight, T =

Volume of the gas is constant as it is kept in a closed


vessel.

2vV
= 5 3s
g

L rp
50 0.2 5
=
Also, w = =
= 625 rad s1
I 2 2 2 1 (0.2)2
mr
5
w 625
=
As 2pu = w \ u =
2p 2p
Now, total number of rotation during the time of flight
3125 3
= u T =
2p
V
Q
7. (i) VA = VB = V, E =
and V =
d
C
2Q
e = 2V =
...(i)
C
Q Q
Q
(ii) VA =
=
; VB =
C K C
C
Q
1
...(ii)
Hence e =
1+

C K
From (i) and (ii), we get
2K
Q =
Q , since K > 1, Q > Q
1+ K
2K
2
VA =
V and VB =
V
1+ K
1+ K
V
2V
Electric field E A = A =
d (1 + K )d
VB
2KV
EB =
=
d (1 + K )d
Change in electric fields
2V
V V 1 K
DE A = E A E =

=
(1 + K )d d
d 1 + K
2KV
V
V K 1
DEB = EB E =

=
(1 + K )d d
d K + 1
The amount of charge that flows into the circuit
2K

1 K 1
DQ = Q Q =
1 Q =
Ce
2 K + 1
1+ K
8. According to gas equation, PV = nRT
\ n=

PV

6
(1.6 10 ) 0.0083

16

8.3 300
3
3R
5R
CP CV = R \
CV = R or CV =
2
2

Amount of heat supplied = nCV dT


\

RT

dT =

2.49 10 4 3 2
16 3 8.3

= 375 K

\ Final temperature, T2 = 300 + 375 = 675 K

P1V
T1

P2V

or

T2

P2 = P1

or P2 = 3.6 106 N m2

T2
T1

(1.6

106 ) 675
300

9. The motion of the sphere is similar to projectile


motion. The components of its acceleration are;
0. 9
ax =
= 1.80 m s 2 and a y = 0
0. 5
when the sphere crosses the y-axis, its displacement
component along x-axis is zero.
ay = 0

ax = 1.8 m s2
30

1
1
0 = ux t + ax t 2 = 3 sin 30 t (1.8)t 2 or t = 1.66 sec
2
2
10. Let Mmix be the molecular weight of the mixture.
m
m
m1 + m2 = 1 + 2 M mix
M1 M2
As v1 =

...(i)

RT
RT
or M1 = 2
M1
v1

RT
RT
or M2 = 2
M2
v2
RT
Similarly, Mmix =
v2
m + m2
From (i), Mmix = 1
m1 m2
+
M1 M2
m1 + m2
m1v12 + m2v22
RT
or
=
v=
m1 + m2
v2
m1v12 m2v22
+
RT
RT
and v2 =

Solution Senders of Physics Musing


Set-40
1. Nikita Pandey, Dehradun (Uttrakhand)
2. Jisha Nair, Kota (rajasthan)
3. Sabhya Sanchi, Asansol (West bengal)
Physics For you | December 16

81

CLASS XI Series 6

Specific heat ratio, g =


CBSE

Contd. from Page No. 30

Force exerted on the wall of area A


Dp
=
= nmv 2x A
Dt
2
Force nmv x A
Pressure on the wall =
=
Area
A
or P = nmvx2
As the molecules move with different velocities, so
we replace vx2 by its average value v x2 in the above
equation.
\ P = nmv x2
Again, the gas is isotropic. So the molecular
velocities are almost equally distributed in different
directions. By symmetry,
v x2 = v y2 = vz2 =

1 2
1 2
v + v y2 + vz2 = v
3 x
3

where v 2 is the mean square velocity of the


molecules.
1
...(i)
Hence, P = nmv 2
3
Mass
nm
Density of gas, r =
= nm
=
1
Volume
1
\ P = rv 2
...(ii)
3
OR
(a) In case of a monatomic gases, like He, Ar,
etc., a molecule has three translational degrees of
freedom. According to the law of equipartition of
energy, average energy associated with each degree
1
of freedom per molecule = kBT
2
Let R = gas constant per mole of a gas
NA = Avogadro's number i.e., the number of
atoms in one mole of the gas.
Then the total internal energy of one mole of a
monatomic gas,
3
3
U = kBT NA = RT
(Q kB NA = R)
2
2
The molar specific heat at constant volume will be
dU
d 3
3
=
CV (monatomic) =
RT = R
dT dT 2
2
The molar specific heat at constant pressure,
3
5
CP (monatomic) = CV + R = R + R = R
2
2
82

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

CP (5 / 2)R 5
=
= = 1.67
CV (3 / 2)R 3

(b) (i) Diatomic molecules such as N2, O2, etc.,


behave as rigid rotator at moderate temperatures.
Such molecules have 5 degrees of freedom : 3
translational and 2 rotational. According to the law
of equipartition of energy, the total energy of a mole
of such a gas is
5
5
U = kBT N A = RT
2
2
dU 5
= R
\ CV (rigid diatomic) =
dT 2
7
CP (rigid diatomic) = CV + R = R
2
(7 / 2)R 7
g(rigid diatomic) =
= = 1.4
(5 / 2)R 5
(ii) If the diatomic molecule is not rigid but has
also a vibrational mode, then each molecule has
1
an additional energy equal to 2 kBT = kBT,
2
because a vibrational frequency has both kinetic
and potential energy modes.
7
7
5

\ U = kBT + kBT N A = kB N AT = RT
2
2
2

dU 7
= R
CV (diatomic with vibrational mode) =
dT 2
CP (diatomic with vibrational mode)
9
= CV + R = R
2
g (diatomic with vibrational mode)
(9 / 2)R 9
=
= = 1.28
(7 / 2)R 7
(c) (i) A non-linear triatomic gas molecule has six
degrees of freedom.
6
\ U = kBT N A = 3RT
2
dU
CV =
= 3R; CP = CV + R = 4R
dT
C
4
g = P = = 1.33
CV 3
(ii) A linear triatomic molecule has seven degrees
of freedom.
7
7
\ U = kBT N A = RT
2
2
dU 7
9
CV =
= R ; CP = CV + R = R
dT 2
2
C
(9 / 2)R 9
g= P =
= = 1.28
CV (7 / 2)R 7

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The best questions and their solutions will be printed in
this column each month.

Q1. What are fermions and bosons?

Aditya Yaligar (Dharwad, Karnataka)

Ans. Fermions are the half spin particles. These particles


cannot exist at the same place having exactly the
same properties. Electron, proton, neutron etc.
are fermions.
Bosons have whole number spins. These particles
can exist at same place and in same physical state.
Photons, mesons etc. are bosons.
Q2. We can tune radio only on a AC source, then

how are we able to hear FM radio in our mobile


phones?
Seetharaman
Ans. Tuner receive a mixture of signals of different
frequencies and able us to choose a particular
frequency whereas detector is responsible for
separating audio information from the carrier
wave. For AM signals, this can be done with a
diode but for FM signals, the detector circuits
are specially designed. Detectors are basically
demodulators, FM demodulators convert
frequency variations of the input signal into
amplitude variations at the output.
Q3. Why does pizza develop a nicely melted cheese
surface, with lightly browned spots, if topped
with real cheese but not with fat-free cheese?
Harlin Engtipi, Guwahati

Ans. A pizza is cooked on the hot pan by conduction


of infrared radiation from the oven walls
surrounding it, and convection of hot air across
its top (especially if the air is being forced to
move by a fan). As thermal energy is gradually
transferred to the interior, largely to cook the
dough, the cheese is supposed to melt uniformly
over the top and then lightly brown. The browning
occurs where bubbles form in the cheese (where
water vaporizes to form bubbles of steam inside

the cheese). As the tops of these bubbles are thin


during bubble growth, the tops can absorb enough
thermal energy to turn brown.
If the pizza is topped with fat-free cheese, the water
evaporates very quickly from the cheese, and the
dried-out individual strands of cheese never melt
and fuse, but instead just burn. To remedy this,
fat-free or low-fat cheese is sprayed with an oil
film when the pizza is prepared. Then the oil film
slows the evaporation of water from the cheese, so
that melting, fusing, bubbling, and browning can
all occur.
Q4. When the sky is overcast, why is snow at the
horizon brighter than the adjacent sky?
Nustrat Khan, Hyderabad

Ans. During an overcast day, snow at the horizon is


brighter than the adjacent sky for three reasons
(1) Drops in the cloud scatter sunlight primarily
in a forward direction, and so you intercept more
light from the overhead portion of the overcast
sky than a portion near the horizon. Thus, the sky
near the horizon is comparatively dark.
(2) Snow scatters light strongly in all directions,
and so you intercept significant light from snow
near the horizon. Thus that snow is bright.
(3) When you view a border separating regions
differing in brightness, your visual system will
enhance that difference in order to make the
border more distinct.
Q5. Why are the hairs on polar bears hollow?
Deepika Tyagi, Surat

Ans. The white hairs on a polar bear trap the visible


and infrared portions of sunlight, because those
portions are reflected and transmitted down into
the pelt to reach the skin. There it is absorbed which
increases the thermal energy of the skin. (The
ultraviolet portion of sunlight is also absorbed by
the hairs, but ultraviolet light contributes little to
the warming of a bear). The thermal energy of the
skin is maintained partially because the hairs are
hollow and conduct thermal energy poorly. (The
notion that the hollow hairs somehow function as
optical fibres is just a myth.)

MPP-6 CLASS XII


ANSWER KEY
1.
6.
11.
16.
21.
26.

(d)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a,b,c)
(3)

2.
7.
12.
17.
22.
27.

(d)
(b)
(b)
(a)
(a,c)
(b)

3.
8.
13.
18.
23.
28.

(c)
(b)
(d)
(b)
(a,b)
(c)

4.
9.
14.
19.
24.
29.

(a)
(d)
(c)
(d)
(6)
(b)

Physics For you | december 16

5.
10.
15.
20.
25.
30.

(d)
(b)
(a)
(a,b,d)
(2)
(c)
83

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CUT HERE
ACROSS
2
1
2. An instrument for measuring changes in
5
magnetic flux. [9]
3. A semiconductor device that acts as a
10
storage location in processing unit of a
11
computer. [8]
8. A unit of frequency equal to 1012 hertz.
[7]
17
11. A mechanical device that prevents any
18
sudden or oscillatory motion of a moving
part of any piece of apparatus. [4, 3]
12. A device used for separating two isotopes
21
by thermal diffusion. [7, 6]
15. An inductor that presents a relatively high
22
impedance to alternating current. [5]
17. An electronic instrument for measuring
very short time intervals. [11]
20. A particle made from glass is being
developed that can absorb pollutants from
contaminated water. [7, 8]
27
22. The path that a moving object follows
through space as a function of time. [10]
23. An equation that predicts the degree of thermal ionization
in a gas. [4, 8]
24. The variable voltage dividers with a shaft or slide control for
setting the division ratio. [13]
25. A machine invented by E.O. Lawrence in 1934. [9]
26. The process of boiling or bubbling up of a liquid. [10]
27. The forces which act on a solid object in the direction of the
relative fluid flow velocity. [4]
28. The reciprocal of the force constant. [10]

DOWN
1. Father of electrodynamics. [5, 5, 6]
4. A spinning wheel in which the axis of rotation is free to
assume any orientation by itself. [9]
5. An electrical device permitting only one way current flow.
[5]
6. A mode of computer processing and output in which a large
proportion of the output is in pictorial form. [8]
7. A part of the electromagnetic spectrum comprising low
energy X-rays. [5, 4]

4
7

6
9

13

12

14

16

15

19

20

23

24

25
26

28

9.
10.
13.
14.
15.
16.
18.
19.
21.
25.

A highly magnetized, rotating neutron star that emits a


beam of electromagnetic radiation. [6]
An electronic device in which a single bit of data is stored
temporarily. [5]
A rule for determining the direction of lines of magnetic
force around a wire carrying a current. [9, 4]
An instrument for measuring the inclination of a surface to
a horizontal plane. [12]
The special arrangement of molecules in a liquid crystal.
[9]
An optical system that produces a beam of parallel
light. [10]
The reciprocal of capacitance. [9]
An instrument for measuring optical transmission or
reflection of a material. [12]
An instrument that measures the rate of flow of fluids. [9]
The streams of gas and dust surrounding the nucleus of a
comet. [4]

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

85

86

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16