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# CE LICENSURE EXAMINATION (HYDRAULICS)

SOIL MECHANICS
EFFECTIVE STRESSES IN SOILS
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1.

A clay layer 4 m thick rests beneath a deposit of submerged sand 8 m thick. The top of the
sand is located 3 m below the surface of a lake. The saturated unit weight of sand is 25
kN/m3 and of clay 20 kN/m3. Which of the following most nearly gives the total vertical
pressure at mid-height of the clay layer? (N98 H 20)
a.
270 kPa
c.
130 kPa
b.
400 kPa
d.
240 kPa

2.

A clay layer 25 ft thick is overlain with 50 ft thick of sand (Gs = 2.71). The water table is
20 ft below the sand (ground) surface. The saturated unit weight of clay is 141 pcf. The
sand below the water table has a unit weight of 128 pcf. The sand above the water table
has average moisture content of 20%. After drying, the sand was found to have a dry unit
weight of 92 pcf. Determine the effective stress at the mid-height of the clay layer. (N00
H 14)
a.
5,010 psf
c.
5,480 psf
b.
4,788 psf
d.
5,160 psf

3.

A ground profile consists of 2 m of silty sand underlain by 3 m of clay. The ground water
table is 3 m below the ground surface. The sand has a unit weight of 14 kN/m3. The clay
has a unit weight of 16 kN/m3 above the water table and 20 kN/m3 below the water table.
Determine the total stress at the bottom of the clay layer. (N01 H 15)
a.
65 kPa
c.
84 kPa
b.
72 kPa
d.
98 kPa

Situation:

The soil shown in the figure has a void ratio of 0.50 and Gs = 2.70. h1 = 1.5 m,
h2 = 3 m.

Water

h1
h2

Sand
A

## CE LICENSURE EXAMINATION (HYDRAULICS)

SOIL MECHANICS
4.

Which of the following is closest to the effective unit weight of sand in kN/m3? (M02 H
16)
a.
15.24
c.
14.25
b.
10.14
d.
11.12

5.

Which of the following is closest to the effective stress at point A in kPa? (M02 H 17)
a.
33.35
c.
28.41
b.
18.64
d.
62.79

6.

Which of the following is closest to the critical hydraulic gradient of sand (for quick
condition)? (M02 H 18)
a.
0.85
c.
1.13
b.
1.87
d.
1.54

Situation:

A soil deposit is shown in the figure. The ground water table, initially at the
ground surface, was lowered to a depth of 25 ft below the ground. After such
lowering, the degree of saturation of the sand above water table was lowered to
20%.
Water table

7.

Ground surface

50 ft

Sand

d 116 pcf

25 ft

Clay

## sat 120 pcf

Which of the following gives the vertical effective pressure at the mid-height of the clay
layer before lowering of the water table, in psf? (M02 H 25)
a.
4,890
c.
4,350
b.
2,450
d.
6,750

## CE LICENSURE EXAMINATION (HYDRAULICS)

SOIL MECHANICS
25

8.

Which of the following gives the vertical effective pressure at the mid-height of the clay
layer after lowering of the water table, in psf? (M02 H 26)
a.
3,250
c.
4,760
b.
6,120
d.
5,530

9.

Which of the following gives the vertical effective pressure when there is no water in the
sand layer, in psf? (M02 H 27)
a.
6,710
c.
5,180
b.
7,450
d.
4,660

Situation:

A 20 m thick submerged saturated clay layer has water content of 57%. The
specific gravity of the solid particles is 2.84.

10.

## Determine the density of the clay in kg/m3. (N03 H 7)

a.
1,703
c.
1,614
b.
1,852
d.
1,528

11.

Determine the total vertical stress at the bottom of the clay layer, in kPa. (N03 H 8)
a.
365
c.
287
b.
334
d.
396

12.

Determine the effective vertical stress at the bottom of the clay layer, in kPa. (N03 H 9)
a.
200
c.
114
b.
185
d.
138