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CE6411 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

LABORATORY

GKM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

MULLAINATHAN.N

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I sincerely thank our respected chairman, Dr. G.KATHAMUTHU, G.K.M
Group of Educational Institutions for all his efforts and administrations in
educating us in his prestigious institution.
I

take

this

opportunity

to

thank

our

CEO,

Dr.SUJATHA

BALASUBRAMANIAN, MBA., Ph.D ., for the kind cooperation in helping us to


complete this manual.
I express my sincere thanks to our Director, Dr.K.JAGANATHAN, M.Tech.,
Ph.D., for providing appropriate facilities for completing this manual.
I wish to extend my grateful acknowledgment and sincere thanks to my
Head of Department

Dr. J.V.SAI PRASANA KUMAR ,Ph.D., for his constant

motivation encouragement and criticism in completing this manual.

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Tension test on mild steel rod
2. Compression test on wood
3. Double shear test on metal
4. Torsion test on mild steel rod
5. Impact test on metal specimen (Izod and Charpy)
6. Hardness test on metals (Rockwell and Brinell Hardness
Tests)
7. Deflection test on metal beam
8. Compression test on helical spring

9. Deflection test on carriage spring


10. Test on Cement
Ex.No 1

Tensile test on a metal

AIM
To conduct a tensile test on a mild steel specimen and determine the following
i.

Limit of proportionality

ii.

Elastic limit

iii.

Yield strength

iv.

Ultimate strength

v.

Youngs modulus of elasticity

vi.

Percentage elongation

vii.

Percentage reduction in area.

APPARATUS
i.

Universal Testing Machine (UTM)

ii.

Mild steel specimens

iii.

Graph paper

iv.

Scale

v.

Vernier Caliper

DIAGRAM

Tensile Testing Material

THEORY
The tensile test is most applied one, of all mechanical tests. In this test ends of test piece
are fixed into grips connected to a straining device and to a load measuring device. If the applied
load is small enough, the deformation of any solid body is entirely elastic. An elastically
deformed solid will return to its original from as soon as load is removed. However, if the load is
too large, the material can be deformed permanently. The initial part of the tension curve which
is recoverable immediately after unloading is termed. As elastic and the rest of the curve which
represents the manner in which solid undergoes plastic deformation is termed plastic. The stress
below which the deformations essentially entirely elastic is known as the yield strength of
material. In some material the onset of plastic deformation is denoted by a sudden drop in load
indicating both an upper and a lower yield point. However, some materials do not exhibit a sharp
yield point. During plastic deformation, at larger extensions strain hardening cannot compensate
for the decrease in section and thus the load passes through a maximum and then begins to
decrease. This stage the ultimate strength which is defined as the ratio of the load on the
specimen to original cross-sectional area, reaches a maximum value. Further loading will
eventually cause neck formation and rupture.
PROCEDURE

1. Measure the original length and diameter of the specimen. The length may either be length of
gauge section which is marked on the specimen with a preset punch or the total length of the
specimen.
2. Insert the specimen into grips of the test machine and attach strain-measuring device to it.
3. Begin the load application and record load versus elongation data.
4. Take readings more frequently as yield point is approached.
5. Measure elongation values with the help of dividers and a ruler.
6. Continue the test till Fracture occurs.
7. By joining the two broken halves of the specimen together, measure the final length and
diameter of specimen.
OBESERVATION
A) Original dimensions
Length = -----------Diameter = --------Area = -------------B) Final Dimensions
Length = ------------------Diameter = ----------------Area = -----------------------OBESERVATION TABLE
S.NO

Load (N) Original


Gauge

Extension
(mm)

Length
1
2
3
4
5

MODEL GRAPH

RESULT
i) Average Breaking Stress =
ii) Ultimate Stress =
iii) Average % Elongation =

PRECAUTION
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1. If the strain measuring device is an extensometer it should be removed before necking begins.
2. Measure deflection on scale accurately & carefully

Ex.No2
AIM

Compression test on wood

To determine the compressive strength of given sample.


APPARATUS:Universal compressive testing machine (UTM), Vernier calipers, stop watch, dial gauge.
THEORY:Structure components such as columns and struts are subjected to compressive load in
applications. These components are made of high compressive strength materials. Not all the
materials are strong in compression. Several materials, which are good in tension are poor in
compression. Many materials poor in tension are good in compression. Cast iron is one such
example. This strength is determined by conducting a compression test. During the test, the
specimen is compressed and deformation versus the applied is recorded. Compression test is just
opposite in nature to tensile test. Nature of deformation and fracture is quite different from that
in tensile test. Compressive load tends to squeeze the specimen. Brittle materials are generally
weak in tension but strong in compression. Hence this test is normally performed on cast iron,
cement concrete etc. But ductile materials like Aluminum and mild steel which are strong in
tension are also tested in compression.

Formulae
Youngs modulus = slope of stress Vs Strain.
Ultimate compressive strength = Force (N) just before rupture / (original c/s area)
Percentage reduction in length = (initial length- final length)*100/initial length.
PROCEDURE
1. Dimensions of test piece is measured at 3 different places along its height/length to determine
the average c/s area.
2. Ends of the specimen should be plane. For that the ends are tested on a bearing plate.
3. The specimen is placed centrally between the two compressions plates, such that the center of
moving head is vertically above the center of specimen.
4. Load is applied on the specimen by moving the movable head.
5. The load and the corresponding contraction are measured at different intervals. The load
interval may be as 500kg.
6. Load is applied until the specimen fails.
OBSERVATION:
1. Initial length or height of specimen h =______mm.
S.NO

Applied

Recorded

Load (N)

in length

Change Stress=Load/area

Strain=change
length/original length

1
2
3
4

CALCULATION
For compression test, we can
a. Draw stress-strain (a-s) curve in compression,
b. Determine Youngs modulus in compression,
c. Determine ultimate (max.) compressive strength, and
d. Determine percentage reduction in length (or height) to the specimen

RESULT:
9

in

The compressive strength of given specimen =- N/mm2


PRECAUTIONS
a. The specimen should be prepared in proper dimensions.
b. The specimen should be properly to get between the compression plates.
c. Take reading carefully.
d. After failed specimen stop to m/c.

Ex.No 3

Double Shear Test on Metal

AIM
To conduct shear test on specimens under double shear.
APPARATUS
i.

Universal testing machine.

ii.

Shear test attachment.

iii.

Specimens

DIAGRAM

10

THEORY
Place the shear test attachment on the lower table, this attachment consists of cutter. The
specimen is inserted in shear test attachment & lift the lower table so that the zero is adjusted,
then apply the load such that the specimen breaks in two or three pieces.If the specimen breaks in
two pieces then it will be in single shear & if it breaks in three pieces then it will be in double
shear.
PROCEDURE:
1. Insert the specimen in position and grip one end of the attachment in the upper portion and one
end in the lower portion.
2. Switch on the main switch of universal testing machine.
3. The drag indicator in contact with the main indicator.
4. Select the suitable range of loads and space the corresponding weight in the pendulum and
balance it if necessary with the help of small balancing weights.
5. Operate (push) buttons for driving the motor to drive the pump.
6. Gradually move the head control level in left-hand direction till the specimen shears.
7. Down the load at which the specimen shears.
8. Stop the machine and remove the specimen
Repeat the experiment with other specimens.
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OBESERVATION:Diameter of the Rod, D = .. mm


Cross-section area of the Rod (in double shear) = 2x /4x d2 =.. mm2
Load taken by the Specimen at the time of failure , W = N
Strength of rod against Shearing = x2x /4x d2
= W / 2x /4x d2 N/mm2
RESULT:
The Shear strength of mild steel specimen is found to be= N/mm2
PRECAUTION
1 The measuring range should not be changed at any stage during the test.
2. The inner diameter of the hole in the shear stress attachment should be slightly greater than
that of the specimen.
3. Measure the diameter of the specimen accurately.

Ex.No 4

Torsion test on mild steel rod.

AIM
To conduct torsion test on mild steel or cast iron specimens to find out modulus of rigidity
APPARATUS
1. A torsion testing machine.
2. Twist meter for measuring angles of twist
3. A steel rule and Vernier Caliper or micrometer.

12

DIAGRAM:-

Torsion Testing Machine


THEORY: A torsion test is quite instrumental in determining the value of modulus of rigidity of a
metallic specimen. The value of modulus of rigidity can be found out thought observations made
during the experiment by using the torsion equation

Where, T = Torque applied,


= Polar moment of inertia,
C = Modulus of rigidity,
= Angle of twist (radians), and
l = Length of the shaft
q = Shear stress
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r = Distance of element from center of shaft


PROCEDURE
1. Select the driving dogs to suit the size of the specimen and clamp it in the machine by
adjusting the length of the specimen by means of a sliding spindle.
2. Measure the diameter at about three places and take the average value.
3. Choose the appropriate range by capacity change lever
4. Set the maximum load pointer to zero.
5. Set the protector to zero for convenience and clamp it by means of knurled screw.
6. Carry out straining by rotating the handweel in either direction.
7. Load the machine in suitable increments.
8. Then load out to failure as to cause equal increments of strain reading.
9. Plot a torque- twist (T- ) graph.
10. Read off co-ordinates of a convenient point from the straight line portion of the torque
twist (T- ) graph and calculate the value of C by using relation
OBESERVATION
Gauge length of the specimen, l =
Diameter of the specimen, d =
Polar moment of inertia,

OBESERVATION TABLE
Torque (T)
Angle

of

Twist () in
Radians

14

10

11

12

13

14

15

Modulus of
Rigidity(C)

RESULT
i) Modulus of rigidity of mild steel rod is ------------- N/mm2
ii) Modulus of rigidity of Aluminum rod is ------------- N/mm2
PRECAUTION
1) Measure the dimensions of the specimen carefully
2) Measure the Angle of twist accurately for the corresponding value of Torque.

Ex.No 5

Impact test on metal Specimen

AIM
To determine the impact strength of steel by Izod and Charpy impact test
APPARATUS
1. Impact testing machine
2. A steel specimen 75 mm X 10mm X 10mm
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DIAGRAM

IZOD TEST

CHARPY TEST

\THEORY
An impact test signifies toughness of material that is ability of material to absorb energy during
plastic deformation. Static tension tests of unnotched specimens do not always reveal the
susceptibility of a metal to brittle fracture. This important factor is determined by impact test.
Toughness takes into account both the strength and ductility of the material. Several engineering
materials have to withstand impact or suddenly applied loads while in service. Impact strengths
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are generally lower as compared to strengths achieved under slowly applied loads. Of all types of
impact tests, the notch bar tests are most extensively used. Therefore, the impact test measures
the energy necessary to fracture a standard notch bar by applying an impulse load. The test
measures the notch toughness of material under shock loading. Values obtained from these tests
are not of much utility to design problems directly and are highly arbitrary. Still it is important to
note that it provides a good way of comparing toughness of various materials or toughness of the
same material under different condition. This test can also be used to assess the ductile brittle
transition temperature of the material occurring due to lowering of temperature.
PROCEDURE
(a) lzod test
1. With the striking hammer (pendulum) in safe test position, firmly hold the steel specimen in
impact testing machines vice in such a way that the notch face the hammer and is half inside and
half above the top surface of the vice.
2. Bring the striking hammer to its top most striking position unless it is already there, and lock it
at that position.
3. Bring indicator of the machine to zero, or follow the instructions of the operating manual
supplied with the machine.
4. Release the hammer. It will fall due to gravity and break the specimen through its momentum,
the total energy is not absorbed by the specimen. Then it continues to swing. At its topmost
height
after breaking the specimen, the indicator stops moving, while the pendulum falls back. Note the
indicator at that topmost final position.
5. Again bring back the hammer to its idle position and back.

(b) Charpy Test


1. With the striking hammer (pendulum) in safe test position, firmly hold the steel specimen in
impact testing machines vice in such a way that the notch faces s the hammer and is half inside
and half above the top surface of the vice.

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2. Bring the striking hammer to its top most striking position unless it is already there, and lock it
at that position.
3. Bring indicator of the machine to zero, or follow the instructions of the operating manual
supplied with the machine.
4. Release the hammer. It will fall due to gravity and break the specimen through its momentum,
the total energy is not absorbed by the specimen. Then it continues to swing. At its topmost
height after breaking the specimen, the indicator stops moving, while the pendulum falls back.
Note the indicator at that topmost final position.
5. The specimen is placed on supports or anvil so that the blow of hammer is opposite to the
notch.
OBESERVATION
a)Izod Test
S.No

Initial Energy(E1)

Residual Energy(E2)

Absorb Energy (E1-E2)

Residual Energy(E2)

Absorb Energy (E1-E2)

b) Charpy Test
S.No

Initial Energy(E1)

Modulus of Rupture= Rupture/Effective Volume of Specimen


Notch Impact Strength = Absorb Energy/ Effective cross sectional Area
RESULT
a) Izod Test
The impact Strength of the specimen =

J/mm 2

b) Charpy Test
The impact Strength of the specimen =

J/mm 2

PRECAUTION
1. Measure the dimensions of the specimen carefully.
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2. Hold the specimen firmly.


3. Note down readings carefully.

Ex.No 6

Hardness Test on metals

AIM
To conduct hardness test on mild steel, carbon steel, brass and aluminum specimens.
19

APPARATUS
Hardness tester, soft and hard mild steel specimens, brass, aluminum etc.
DIAGRAM

Hardness Testing Machine


THEORY
The hardness of a material is resistance to penetration under a localized pressure or
resistance to abrasion. Hardness tests provide an accurate, rapid and economical way of
determining the resistance of materials to deformation. There are three general types of hardness
measurements depending upon the manner in which the test is conducted:
a. Scratch hardness measurement,
b. Rebound hardness measurement
c. Indention hardness measurement.
In scratch hardness method the material are rated on their ability to scratch one another and it is
usually used by mineralogists only. In rebound hardness measurement, a standard body is usually
dropped on to the material surface and the hardness is measured in terms of the height of its
rebound .The general means of judging the hardness is measuring the resistance of a material to
indentation. The indenters usually a ball cone or pyramid of a material much harder than that
20

being used. Hardened steel, sintered tungsten carbide or diamond indenters are generally used in
indentation tests; a load is applied by pressing the indenter at right angles to the surface being
tested. The hardness of the material depends on the resistance which it exerts during a small
amount of yielding or plastic. The resistance depends on friction, elasticity, viscosity and the
intensity and distribution of plastic strain produced by a given tool during indentation.
A hardness test can be conducted on Brinell testing m/c, Rockwell hardness m/c or vicker testing
m/c. the specimen may be a cylinder, cube, thick or thin metallic sheet. A Brinell- cum-Rockwell
hardness testing m/c along with the specimen is shown in figure.Its specification are as follows:
1. Ability to determine hardness upto 500BHN.
2. Diameter of ball (as indentor) used D = 2.5mm, 5mm, 10mm.
3. Maximum application load = 3000kgf.
4. Method of load application = Lever type
5. Capability of testing the lower hardness range = 1 BHN on application of 0.5D2 load.
Rockwell hardness tester presents direct reading of hardness number on a dial provided with the
m/c. principally this testing is similar to Brinell hardness testing. It differs only in diameter and
material of the indentor and the applied force. Although there are many scales having different
combinations of load and size of indentor but commonly C scale is used and hardness is
presented as HRC. Here the indentor has a diamond cone at the tip and applied force is of 150
kgf. Soft materials are often tested in B scale with a 1.6mm dia. Steel indentor at 60kgf.
Various scale in Rockwell Hardness test are given below.
Scale

Type of Indentor

Initial Load

Major Load Pointer Position

Kind of Material

Cone,120o

10

50

Much harder steels

Ball,1.58mm

10

90

30

Soft steels, Copper


, Aluminum

Cone,120o

10

140

Hard Steels like


Ti,W,Va,etc

PROCEDURE
1. Insert ball of diameter D in ball holder of the m/c.
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2. Make the specimen surface clean by removing dust, dirt, oil and grease etc.
3. Make contact between the specimen surface and the ball by rotating the jack adjusting wheel.
4. Push the required button for loading.
5. Pull the load release level and wait for minimum 15 second. The load will automatically apply
gradually.
6. Remove the specimen from support table and locate the indentation so made.
7. View the indentation through microscope and measure the diameterd by micrometer fitted on
microscope.
8. Repeat the entire operation, 3-times.

OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION


(a) Brinell Hardness Test
Following observation are recorded from a test on steel specimen using a hardened steel ball as
indentor.
Test piece material = --------------S.No Ball Diameter D (mm)

Load Applied P(N)

Diameter of Indentation

BHN

d(mm)

BHN = Load Applied (kgf.)/ Spherical surface area indentation (in mm.)
BHN= 2P/D(D-D2 d2)
(b) Rockwell Hardness Test
Following observation are recorded are from a test on steel specimen using a hardened steel ball
as indentor.
Test piece material =---------- HRA = 100-(t/0.002)
HRB = 130-(t/0.002)
HRC = 100-(t/0.002)
RESULT
Brinell hardness number of the specimen is -------22

Rockwell hardness of given specimen is -------PRECAUTIONS


1. The specimen should be clean properly.
2. Take reading more carefully and correct.
3. Place the specimen properly.
4. Jack adjusting wheel move slowly
5. After applying load remove the load.

Ex.No7

Deflection Test on metal beam

.AIM

23

To find the values of bending stresses and youngs modulus of elasticity of the material
of a beam simply supported at the ends and carrying a concentrated load at the centre.
APPARATUS
1. Deflection of beam apparatus
2. Pan
3. Weights
4. Beam of different cross-sections and material
DIAGRAM

Beam Deflection Test Apparatus


THEORY
If a beam is simply supported at the ends and carries a concentrated load at its centre, the beam
bends concave upwards. The distance between the original position of the beams and its position
after bending at different points along the length of the beam, being maximum at the centre in
this
case. This difference is known as deflection In this particular type of loading the maximum
amount of deflection () is given by the relation,

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W =Load acting at the center, N


L =Length of the beam between the supports mm
E =Youngs modulus of material of the beam, N/mm2
I =Second moment of area of the cross- section ( moment of Inertia) of the beam, about the
neutral axis, mm
BENDING STRESS

Where, M = Bending moment, N-mm


I = Moment of inertia,
= Bending stress,

, and

Y = Distance of the top fiber of the beam from the neutral axis
PROCEDURE
1. Adjust cast- iron block along the bed so that they are symmetrical with respect to the length of
the bed.
2. Place the beam on the knife edges on the block so as to project equally beyond each knife
edge. See that the load is applied at the center of the beam
3. Note the initial reading of Vernier scale.
4. Add a weight of 20N (say) and again note the reading of the Vernier scale.
5. Go on taking readings adding 20N (say) each time till you have minimum six readings.
6. Find the deflection () in each case by subtracting the initial reading of Vernier scale.
7. Draw a graph between load (W) and deflection () . On the graph choose any two convenient
points and between these points find the corresponding values of W and . Putting these Values
in the relation
8. Calculate the bending stresses for different loads using relation

25

OBESERVATION TABLE
S.NO

Load W(N)

Bending

Bending

Moment

Stress

Deflection

2
3
4
5

RESULT
1. The youngs modulus for metal beam is found to be-----.,
PRECAUTION
1. Make sure that beam and load are placed a proper position.
2. The cross- section of the beam should be large.
3. Note down the readings of the Vernier scale carefully

Compression Test on Helical Spring

AIM
To determine the stiffness of the spring and modulus of rigidity of the spring wire
APPARATUS
i.

Spring testing machine.

ii.

A spring

Modulus
Elasticity

M=

Ex.No8

Youngs

26

of

iii.

Vernier caliper, Scale.

iv.

Micrometer.

DIAGRAM

THEORY
Springs are elastic member which distort under load and regain their original shape when
load is removed. They are used in railway carriages, motor cars, scooters, motorcycles,
rickshaws, governors etc. According to their uses the springs perform the following Functions:
1) To absorb shock or impact loading as in carriage springs.
2) To store energy as in clock springs.
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3) To apply forces to and to control motions as in brakes and clutches.


4) To measure forces as in spring balances.
5) To change the variations characteristic of a member as in flexible mounting of motors.
The spring is usually made of either high carbon steel (0.7 to 1.0%) or medium carbon alloy
steels. Phosphor bronze, brass, 18/8 stainless steel and Monel and other metal alloys are used for
corrosion resistance spring. Several types of spring are available for different application.
Springs may classified as helical springs, leaf springs and flat spring depending upon their shape.
They are fabricated of high shear strength materials such as high carbon alloy steels spring form
elements of not only mechanical system but also structural system. In several cases it is essential
to idealize complex structural systems by suitable spring.
PROCEDURE
1) Measure the diameter of the wire of the spring by using the micrometer.
2) Measure the diameter of spring coils by using the Vernier caliper
3) Count the number of turns.
4) Insert the spring in the spring testing machine and load the spring by a suitable weight and
note the corresponding axial deflection in tension or compression.
5) Increase the load and take the corresponding axial deflection readings.
6) Plot a curve between load and deflection. The shape of the curve gives the stiffness of the
spring.
OBESERVATION
Least count of micrometer = mm
Diameter of the spring wire, d =mm
(Mean of three readings)
Least count of Vernier caliper = mm
Diameter of the spring coil, D = mm
(Mean of three readings)
Mean coil diameter,

= D - dmm

Number of turns, n =

OBESERVATION TABLE

28

S.NO

Load W (N)

Deflection (mm)

Stiffness K=

Mean K=
Modulus of Rigidity
Spring Index =
RESULT
The value of spring constant k of closely coiled helical spring is found to be------------ N / mm
PRECAUTION
1) The dimension of spring was measured accurately.
2) Deflection obtained in spring was measured

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Ex.No 9

Deflection Test on Carriage Spring

AIM
To determine the modulus of rigidity and stiffness of the given tension spring specimen.
APPARATUS AND SPECIMEN REQUIRED
1. Spring test machine
2. Tension spring specimen
3. Vernier caliper

PROCEDURE
1. Measure the outer diameter (D) and diameter of the spring coil (D) for the given tension
spring.
2. Count the number of turns i.e. coils (n) of the given specimen.
3. Fit the specimen in the top of the hook of the spring testing machine.
4. Adjust the wheel at the top of the machine so that the other end of the specimen can be fitted
to the bottom hook in the machine.
5. Note down the initial reading from the scale in the machine.
6. Apply a load of 25kg and note down the scale reading. Increase the load at the rate of 25kg up
to a maximum of 100kg and note down the corresponding scale readings.
7. Find the actual deflection of the spring for each load by deducting the initial scale reading
from the corresponding scale reading.
8. Calculate the modulus of rigidity for each load applied by using the following formula:
Modulus of rigidity,
Where,
P = Load in N
R = Mean radius of the spring in mm (D d /2)
d = Diameter of the spring coil in mm
30

= Deflection of the spring in mm


D = Outer diameter of the spring in mm.
9. Determine the stiffness for each load applied by using the formula Stiffness, K = P/
10. Find the values of modulus of rigidity and spring constant of the given spring by taking
average values.
OBSERVATION
1. Material of the spring specimen =
2. Outer diameter of the spring. D = mm
3. Diameter of the spring coil, d = mm
4. Number of coils / turns, n = Nos.
5. Initial scale reading =
Applied Load

mm
Scale reading Actual

Modulus

in mm

deflection

rigidity

in mm

In N/mm2

S.No
Kgf

1
2
3
4
5
6

Result
The modulus of rigidity of the given spring = -------------------N/mm2
The stiffness of the given spring

= -------------------N/mm2

31

of Stiffness
N/mm

in

Ex.No 10

Test on cement

AIM
To determine the soundness of the given sample of cement by "Le Chatelier" Method and to
determine the quantity of water required to produce a cement paste of standard consistency.

APPARATUS
Le-Chatelier apparatus conforming to IS 5514-1969, Vicat apparatus (conforming to IS: 5513 1976) with plunger (10 mm in diameter) balance, weights, gauging trowel Balance, Weights,
Water bath.
DIAGRAM

32

33

34

INTRODUCTION
It is essential that the cement concrete shall not undergo appreciable change in volume
after setting. This is ensured by limiting the quantities of free lime, magnesia and sulphates in
cement which are the causes of the change in volume known as unsoundness. Unsoundness in
cement does not come to surface for a considerable period of time. This test is designed to
accelerate the slaking process by the application of heat and discovering the defects in a short
time. Unsoundness produces cracks, distortion and disintegration there by giving passage to
water and atmospheric gases which may have injurious effects on concrete and reinforcement.
The apparatus for conducting the test consists of small split cylinder of spring brass or other
suitable metal of 0.5mm thickness forming a mould 30 mm internal diameter and 30mm high.
On either side of the split mould are attached to indicators with pointed ends, the distance from
these ends to the center of the cylinder being 165 mm. The mould shall be kept in good condition
with the jaws not more than 50mm apart.
The standard consistency of a cement paste is defined as that consistency
which will permit the vicat plunger to penetrate to a point 5 to 7 mm from the bottom of the vicat
mould. For finding out initial setting time, final setting time, soundness of cement and
compressive strength of cement, it is necessary to fix the quantity of water to be mixed in cement
in each case. This experiment is intended to find out the quantity of water to be mixed for a given
cement to give a cement paste of normal consistency and can be done with the help of vicat
apparatus.

PROCEDURE
(a) To determine the soundness of the given sample of cement
1. Place the lightly oiled mould on a lightly oiled glass sheet and fill it with cement paste formed
by gauging cement with 0.78 times the water required to give a paste of standard consistency.
2. The paste shall be gauged in the manner and under the conditions prescribed in determination
of consistency of standard cement paste, taking care to keep the edges of the mould gently
together
3. While this operation is being performed cover the mould with another piece of glass sheet,
place a small weight on this covering glass sheet and immediately submerge the whole assembly
in water at a temperature of 27 0 - 20 C and keep there for 24 hours.
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4. Measure the distance separating the indicator points.


5. Submerge the moulds again in water at the temperature prescribed above.
6. Bring the water to boiling, with the mould kept submerged for 25 to 30 minutes, and keep
it boiling for three hours.
7. Remove the mould from the water allow it to cool and measure the distance between the
indicator points.
8. The difference between these two measurements represents the expansion of the cement.
9. For good quality cement this expansion should not be more than 10mm.
(b) To determine the quantity of water required to produce a cement paste of standard
consistency
1. Prepare a paste of weighed quantity of cement (300 grams) with a weighed quantity of potable
or distilled water, starting with 26% water of 300g of cement.
2. Take care that the time of gauging is not less than 3 minutes, not more than 5 minutes and the
gauging shall be completed before setting occurs.
3. The gauging time shall be counted from the time of adding the water to the dry cement until
commencing to fill the mould.
4. Fill the vicat mould with this paste, the mould resting upon a non porous plate.
5. After completely filling the mould, trim off the surface of the paste, making it in level with the
top of the mould. The mould may slightly be shaken to expel the air.
6. Place the test block with the mould, together with the non-porous resting plate, under the rod
bearing the plunger (10mm diameter), lower the plunger gently to touch the surface of the test
block and quickly release, allowing it to penetrate into the paste.
7. This operation shall be carried out immediately after filling the mould.
8. Prepare trial pastes with varying percentages of water and test as described above until the
amount of water necessary for making the standard consistency as defined above is obtained.
9. Express the amount of water as a percentage by weight of the dry cement.

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OBSERVATIONS
(a) Soundness of cement
Sample 1
Initial distance between the indicator points in mm =
Final distance between the indicator points in mm =
Expansion in mm = final length - initial length =
Sample 2
Initial distance between the indicator points in mm =
Final distance between the indicator points in mm =
Expansion in mm = final length - initial length =
Sample 3
Initial distance between the indicator points in mm =
Final distance between the indicator points in mm =
Expansion in mm = final length - initial length =
(b) Normal consistency of cement
S. No

Weight of
cement
taken in gms
(a)

Weight of
water
taken in gms
(b)

Plunger
penetration
(mm)

RESULT:
The average Expansion in mm is ______________
Normal consistency for the given sample of cement is_______

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Time
Taken

Consistency of
cement in % by
weight b/a * 100

PRECAUTIONS
Clean appliances shall be used for gauging. In filling the mould the operator hands and
the blade of the gauging trowel shall alone be used. The temperature of cement, water and that of
test room, at the time when the above operations are being performed, shall be 27 + 2 C. For
each repetition of the experiment fresh cement is to be taken.

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