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UNIVERSITY OF THE CORDILLERAS

COLLEGE OF NURSING

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS IN


THE SUBJECT PHYSICS

COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT) SCAN


GROUP 4
(BSN1-SECTION3)

SUBMITTED BY:
ODEJAYI, OLUWASIKEMI MARIAM
MATEO, KRISTA MAE S.
IRISH, BELGICA
SUBMITTED TO: MAAM NASPER P. ANOD
SUBMITTED ON: JULY 13, 2016

COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY(CT) SCAN

DEFINITION
A computed tomography (CT) scan is an
imaging method that uses x-rays to create pictures
of cross-sections of the body. It makes use of
computer-processed combinations of many Xray images taken from different angles to produce
cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual
"slices") of specific areas of a scanned object,
allowing the user to see inside the object without
cutting. A CT scan images provide more detailed
information than plain X-rays do.
It uses special x-ray equipment to create
detailed pictures, or scans, of areas inside the
body. It is also called computerized
tomography and computerized axial tomography
(CAT).
Tomography is from the Greek
word "tomos" meaning "slice" or "section"
and "graphia" meaning "describing".

BRIEF HISTORY
CT was invented in 1972 by British
engineer Godfrey Hounsfield of EMI Laboratories,
England and by South Africa-born physicist Allan
Cormack of Tufts University, Massachusetts.
Hounsfield and Cormack were later awarded the
Nobel Peace Prize for their contributions to
medicine and science.

Original "Siretom" dedicated head CT scanner,


circa 1974
The first clinical CT scanners were installed
between 1974 and 1976. The original systems
were dedicated to head imaging only, but "whole
body" systems with larger patient openings
became available in 1976. CT became widely
available by about 1980. There are now about
6,000 CT scanners installed in the U.S. and about
30,000 installed worldwide.
The first CT scanner developed by Hounsfield
in his lab at EMI took several hours to acquire the
raw data for a single scan or "slice" and took days
to reconstruct a single image from this raw data.
The latest multi-slice CT systems can collect up to
4 slices of data in about 350 ms and reconstruct a
512 x 512-matrix image from millions of data
points in less than a second. An entire chest (forty
8 mm slices) can be scanned in five to ten seconds
using the most advanced multi-slice CT system.
During its 25-year history, CT has made
great improvements in speed, patient comfort, and
resolution. As CT scan times have gotten faster,
more anatomy can be scanned in less time. Faster
scanning helps to eliminate artifacts from patient
motion such as breathing or peristalsis. CT exams
are now quicker and more patient-friendly than
ever before. Tremendous research and
development has been made to provide excellent
image quality for diagnostic confidence at the
lowest possible x-ray dose.

Original axial CT image from the dedicated Siretom


CT scanner circa 1975. This image is a coarse 128
x 128 matrix; however, in 1975 physicians were
fascinated by the ability to see the soft tissue
structures of the brain, including the black
ventricles for the first time (enlarged in this
patient).

Axial CT image of a normal brain using a state-ofthe-art CT system and a 512 x 512 matrix image.
Note the two black "pea-shaped" ventricles in the
middle of the brain and the subtle delineation of
gray and white matter.

USES
CT imaging is:

one of the fastest and most accurate tools for


examining the chest, abdomen and pelvis
because it provides detailed, cross-sectional
views of all types of tissue.

used to examine patients with injuries from


trauma such as a motor vehicle accident.

performed on patients with acute symptoms


such as chest or abdominal pain or difficulty
breathing.

often the best method for detecting many


different cancers, such as lymphoma and
cancers of the lung, liver, kidney, ovary and
pancreas since the image allows a physician to
confirm the presence of a tumor, measure its

size, identify its precise location and determine


the extent of its involvement with other nearby
tissue.

an examination that plays a significant role in


the detection, diagnosis and treatment of
vascular diseases that can lead to stroke,
kidney failure or even death. CT is commonly
used to assess for pulmonary embolism (a
blood clot in the lung vessels) as well as for
aortic aneurysms.

invaluable in diagnosing and treating spinal


problems and injuries to the hands, feet and
other skeletal structures because it can clearly
show even very small bones as well as
surrounding tissues such as muscle and blood
vessels.

In pediatric patients, CT imaging is often used to


evaluate:
lymphoma
neuroblastoma
kidney tumors
congenital malformations of the heart, kidneys
and blood vessels
cystic fibrosis
complications of acute appendicitis
complications of pneumonia
inflammatory bowel disease
severe injuries
Radiologists and radiation oncologists often use the
CT examination to:

1.quickly identify injuries to the lungs, heart and


vessels, liver, spleen, kidneys, bowel or other
internal organs in cases of trauma.
2.guide biopsies and other procedures such as
abscess drainages and minimally invasive
tumor treatments.
3.plan for and assess the results of surgery, such
as organ transplants or gastric bypass.
4.stage, plan and properly administer radiation
treatments for tumors as well as monitor
response to chemotherapy.
5.measure bone mineral density for the detection
of osteoporosis.

FUNCTION
CT scan has the following functions:
Diagnose muscle and bone disorders, such
as bone tumors and fractures.
Pinpoint the location of a tumor, infection
or blood clot.
Guide procedures such as surgery, biopsy
and radiation therapy.
Detect and monitor diseases and
conditions such as cancer, heart disease,
lung nodules and liver masses.
Monitor the effectiveness of certain
treatments, such as cancer treatment.
Detect internal injuries and internal
bleeding.