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Sensory

Jonathan

properties

of chocolate

Sensory

attributes

of eating

termined
by processing
variables
the cocoa
bean. Flavor
precursors
and primarily
interact
at roasting
ing

reactions

von

compounds

chocolate
textural

occur

during

then

Numerous

contribute

Feel ofchocolate
are determined

Careful

de-

heterocyclic
to the

and

desirable

selection

contribute
produce
feine

and
of

Curing

Am

is

J C/in

Nutr

Chocolate,

several
virtually

attributes,

fermentation,

to colon
chocolate

unchanged

degrade

change
flavor.

The primary
purpose
for consuming
foods and beverages
meet the bodys
nutritional
needs.
Factors
that determine
foods

are consumed

although

for

paramount.

and

why

chocolate,
These

unique

properties

(mouth

feel),

are consumed

sensory
include

and texture,
either developed
the composition
of chocolate,
mouth

they

are

properties
characteristic

is determined

is to
what

numerous,
are

perhaps

taste.

aroma,

via processing
on inherently
such as the feel of chocolate

which

by the qualities

part of
in the
of cocoa

butter-its
unique
fat (Table
1).
Although
known
for perhaps
thousands
of years
in the new
world,
chocolate
as a beverage
was introduced
to the old world
by Christopher
Columbus
introduced
as a medicine

on his fourth
or as a vehicle

erage quickly
became
popular.
ian today
was not introduced

The
until

trip (15021504).
First
for medicine,
the bev-

solid
I 828

eating
chocolate
familor produced
in volume

and

add

to that

and

the tropical

ically
important
varieties
exist,

ingredients
of Theobroma

plant

of the
(bulk

duction)

and

are observed
Differences

l068S

food
fruit

Jorestero

ences
ments.

sired

produced

by roasting.

from

cocoa

pods

followed
the

by drying
sugary
removing

of the beans.

pulp,

they

do not participate
for harmful
bean

potential

death,

is caused

which

acid

is particularly

Cell

membrane

areas where
graded
components
into

and

degradation

produce
that are important

ing the aerobic


the initial
color
when combined

can

cause

carbonyls
factor

passage

of bean

of components
may
during
later processing

in normally

may double
of five, affecting

and
final

present

crio//o

(fine

such

would

Components

L, the

Stenculiaceae
family.
grade.
representing

grade)

and

its cross

are derived
most

not

develop

of fresh

Only
harvested:

regardless
cocoa

beans

trnitario.

Am

J Cliii

ripe
pods,
otherwise
of posthanvest

(cotyledons)
Nutr

econom-

Two
major
95% of pro-

in pod and bean color and processing


also occur
within
varieties
and are

on postharvest
processing.
maximal
triglycerides,
are
flavor

as flavorings

cacao

of
of

(3). The
by bean

and acids.

Acetic
enzymes

occur;
the de(5). Invertase

amino
acids, and pepflavor production.
Dun-

fermentation
phase.
polyphenol
change
and reduce
astringency
with amino
acids (6). Undesirable

changes

which

a wide variety
degradation

(4).

glucose.
fructose.
for later chocolate

proteinases

tides

of heat

regard

allows

degradation
interact

the

in bean changes
is eliminated

by the generation
in this

and
the

thought
to be the purpose
this century
to be neces-

directly
germination

notable

After

pulp is degraded
the pulp
from

flavor

oxidases
cause
and bitterness
mold growth

compounds.

Total

monocarbonyls
may increase
by a
flavor (7). Drying
beans by solar on

heating
to reduce
moisture
is important
during
shipping

inhibits
bean
to chocolate

facturers.
(Wood
fires cannot
be used in heat-generating
ment because
they can add an undesirable
smoky
aroma.)

plant

Chocolate

and

roasting
to
and caf-

is a two-step
process:
it includes
a complex
and natural
of the beans and the surrounding
mucilaginous
pulp

days of fermentation,
disappears,
effectively

growth.

essing.

fermentation

and then rearrange


after
The xanthines
theobromine

bitterness

mechanized

until 1847(1).

pendent
contain

by processing

during

sary for proper


flavor development.
Although
indigenous
microorganisms
participate
in

Introduction

from

is relatively

beans.
Pulp degradation
was initially
of fermentation,
but it was recognized

flavor

The

components

Curing
fermentation
obtained

sensory

butter

other

contribute

1994;60(suppl): 10685-705.
WORDS

2. Cocoa

many

fla-

of ingredients

attributes.

in Table

but

characteristic

in the mouth
(mouth
feel)
by the unique
properties

processing

to produce

are

mold
manuequip-

Roasting
After quality-control
gree of fermentation,

testing
to determine
soundness
and debeans are cleaned
and prepared
for roasting.

Differrequirealso dewhich
the deprocare listed

l994;60(suppl):l()68S-70S.

From

Information
Presented

and
uratvI

Information

Systems

Technology.
at Chocolate

Development.

Division

Clemson
University.
Pecspeetiue:
Cocoa

iii

of

Computing

Anderson.
SC.
Butter.
a tliuique

Sat-

Fcii.
Address

Building.

correspondence
Box

Printed

34203.

in USA.

to JC

Clemson.

1994

Hoskin,

Clemson

University.

P&AS

SC 29634-2803.

American

Society

for Clinical

Nutrition

Downloaded from ajcn.nutrition.org by guest on September 27, 2015

butter.

chocolate

and inherent
characteristics
of
develop
during
fermentation
temperatures.
Complex
brown-

roasting.

produced

flavor.
properties

necessary

KEY

development13

C Hoskin

ABSTRACT

cocoa

and their

SENSORY
TABLE

PROPERTIES

two

Desirable

OF

qualities

Sense

for

rapidevaluation

of eating

Property

chocolatc

Desired

amino

Color

Sight

Surface

Even.

Sound

Break

Touch

Texture

Taste

Sweet.

SnelI

Aroma

appearance

rich

Smooth.
Good

no

snap

Smooth.
bitter

bloom

No

(13).

acid

no detectable

during

monosaccharide

fermentation.

browning

progresses

ducing

the

glucose

and

odors

The

pounds

have

makes

artificial

been

no

off

characteristic

aromas

threonine.

Alkali

of these
flavor.

At

chocolate

by

addition

ops

flavor

further

and

loosens

and

the

product.

process

During

used

development

complex

produce

complex

the paper-thin

fermentation

well

compounds
formation

by the

#{176}C
temdevel-

roasting

(or testa),

described
flavor

and

as a longprocess.

high-temperature

is determined

understood,

that
and

later

is partly

react, forming
development

flavor

phase,
which
form products.

desired

is reduced

ity

alkali

roasted
cocoa beans)
and less frequently

pH near

(pH

flavor

to

beans.

for eating
from

5.2

is milder;

nibs.

the deep-brown

color

limit

understanding

the

simpler

phases

to 5.6).

and color

with

Amino

in the

reversible,

addition
characterize

and

compounds.
Color
the intermediate

Grinding

and

refining

After

roasting,

cocoa

called nibs.
sequentially

Grinding
reduce

beans

easily

product.
Minimal
size
( 15). Control
of particles

allow
a smooth
mouth
feel
noticeable
particles.
Because
browning

may

compounds

continue

such

break

into

large

have

occurs.

Complexity

of the final

phase,

been

acids

participate

and size
but

characterized

of prod-

investigations

in variously

in numerous

The expected
degradation
isoleucine,
phenylalanine,
and

other

making

reactions

of their

Additional

detectable
by the tongue
is 20size is difficult
but necessary
to

from melting
cocoa
grinding
produces

during

as sugars

this

may

process,

no longer

butter
heat,

although

without
Maillard
reacting

be available.

components

of

produce

the

familiar

solid,

moldable

eating

added cocoa butter the product


remains
Inherently
bitter, ground
roasted
cocoa
liquor)

require

sweetener,

normally

chocolate.

that

result

in

of
react

amino

acids

further

Chocolate

of pyrazines,
compound
80 have

Hoskin,
unpublished
have been suggested
the

the final

Composition

sucrose

(except

product

to further

mechanism

to produce
products

including

and
have

long

as

the double-ringed

observation,
depending
that

1982).
Diverse
on the pyrazine
forms

as

quinoxolines.

4-6

aro(JC

from

2-3

2-3
30-32

Protein

8-10

Theobromine

2-3

Caffeine

Polyphenols

mechanisms
structure.
For

2,5-dimethylpynazine

32-39

Pentosans

heterocyclic

group often contributes


nutty roasted
been identified
in chocolate
products

cotyledon

4-6

Fat

known

bean

Composition

Water

Sucrose

been

cocoa

Cellulose
Starch

(substituted

sugars
various

of fresh

re-

inconclusive

Component

valine,
leucine,
been noted (12).

are expected

from

TABLE

From

5-6

Acids

Salts

2-3

reference

2.

Without

coarse and less workable.


beans (liquor
or chocolate

named

production.
products

compounds.
flavor
and

products

isolation

amino-carbonyls)
a source

products
for alanine,
and methionine
have

degradation

their

Addition

example,

particles

ofnibs
and subsequent
refining
of chocolate
bean particles
and other
ingredients
in the

Only by adding
cocoa
butter.
a byproduct
of cocoa
powder
production.
to ground
cocoa
beans
is it technically
possible
to

and isolation
of expected
end products.
Strecken
degnadation
of amino
acids
produces
the appropriate
deaminated,
decarboxylated
aldehyde
(alanine
is converted
to acetaldehyde).

This
mas

darker,

produces

production

flavor

liquor

final-product

is generally

reactions.

proof

or

used for cocoa powder


chocolate.
Product
acid-

is primarily

increases

neutrality;

finished
30 pm

is when
addition
compounds
react irreversibly
to
Very large compounds
form in the final stage,

ucts

act,

economi-

1973).

and

to I 10-220
type,

shell

is usually

short-time,

glucose

multistep
process
is defined
in three phases:
initial,
and final. The phases
can occur
concurrently
in
food systems
such as cocoa beans ( I 2). The initial phase

most

These

complexity

and

intermediate,

when

Such

to

cocoa powder
producers
can modify
color according
to needs
of the final product
( 14) (LR Cook,
unpublished
observations,

Mailland
browning
reactions
are responsible
of typical
chocolate
flavor
(9- 1 1 ). This

roasting.

the

is the

or

(5).

difficult

but

more comroasting.

during

later

of

involved

considerably

on bean

Roasting

and

Reactions

beans

depending

moisture.

low-temperature

end
for

color.

reduces

time,

mm;

40

mixtures

#{176}C,
valine

both

pro-

#{176}C
produces

100

occurring

ofsubjecting

consists

for

and I I oxazolines
and > 4(X) com-

for chocolate

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Roasting

peratures

at

(8).

are

two groups,

Heating

180

odor

during
the roasting
of cocoa
beans
plex.
Maillard
browning.
although
may occur at least minimally
during
drying.

in chocolate
flavor

are
noted

treatments

(ground.
production

produced

or nonenzymatic

or glutamine

as chocolate-like.

a penetrating

are

of Maillard

chocolate

leucine,

described

produce

step

precursors

the interaction

via

identified

chocolate

pyrazines

compounds

grittiness

not cocoa.

flavor

initial

many

taste

Chocolate.

and

that

hetenocyclic

include
14 pyrroles.
7 pynidines.
unpublished
observation,
1982,

Hoskin.

Modification
Amino

suggests

Additional

cally.

ofi

molecules

formed

in chocolate

quality

1069S

acetone

probably
(JC

Sight

CHOCOLATE

HOSKIN

1070S

for people
tificial

with

diabetes).

vanillin

For milk
with

helps

chocolate,

additional

moisture
variables
termine

and

meet

for

milk

milk

for stale

paste.

product

has

All added

on undesirable

an-

or dry solid is added


needed
to reduce

for chocolate.
and enzyme

heating.

final

or the

a dried

aromas

Processing
treatment
de-

milk.

components

caramelized

must

contribute
to its appeal.
Its sensory
attributes,
a characteristic
flavor, and a unique
mouth
feel (attributable
to a narrow
melting
range near body
tnibution
beyond

as

requirements

flavor.

vanilla
flavor.

modifications

legal

milk

of natural

the chocolate

as liquid.

products.

the

or other

checked

out

processing

whether

milk.

Addition

round

temperature)
are appealing.
Its nutritional
conenergy
intake remains
unimportant
to consum-

ens. The

strong

masking

undesirable

complex

to foods

and

flavor

flavors,

beverages

of chocolate,
may

that

be used

which

is capable

to convey

are nutritionally

of

acceptability

superior.

be quality

on tastes.
References

Conching
Traditionally.
volves
roller

chocolate
movement

trough.
This high-energy
days to modify
flavor

and

and batch
and produce

of equipment

modifications

energy-efficient

is processed
by conching.
mixing
in a historically

have

continuous

process
smooth

which
inconch-like

may require
mouth
feel.

reduced

processing

alternative

process

chemical

flavor

This

seemingly

difficult
creased

complex

present
at the beginning
of processing
of volatile
fatty acid. Total carbonyls
no significant

high

change

change

during

are almost
decreased

concentrations

off odor.
phenol-associated
chemical

although

> 95%
showed

boiling

points

contributes

noted,

the resulting

a smoky

reactions
processing.
sensory

or hamlike

edges,
cocoa

which
butter,

do not
which

roasted
tension

cocoa bean
and allows

Food
4.

changes

may

now occur
( I 9). Particles
reduces
the perceived

particles.
the cocoa

Addition
butter

Hoskin

7.

JC. Dimick

Keeney

zation of cocoa
of cocoa
butter

Five or possibly
exist (y, a, if,

a different

butter.
crystals

melting

give maximum
range
30-35
appear

range.

crystallization
#{176}C).
Otherwise,
gray

and

grainy

Tempering

over time
the melting

six polymorphic
fi,
and ),
each
equipment

of high-melting
the desirable

is designed

AP,
A.

crystals
(melting
glossy
appearance

Hodge

energy

intake

of high-fat
remains

chocolate

an enigma,

in a society
suggesting

that

conscious
other

factors

of

University.

Prog

of fermenting

cacao

1952:15:103-7.

of flavour

development

in choc-

chocolate

manufacture

and use.

& Son Ltd.

PG.

1994:102-16.

in chocolate

Comparison

cocoa

Flavor

HE.

flavor.

J Am Oil Chem

of carbonyl

beans.

of browning

J Food

Sci

reactions

Washington.

of browning

Recent

Chem

Food

compounds

in

1970:35:37-40.

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DC:

In:

American

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Chemical

reactions

in model

systems.

developments

Sci

in studies

of the Maillard

reac-

review

from

reactions

the

in food.

1981:5:5-35.

5, de Vrijer

Netherlands:

TNO.

J Agric

198 1:6:263-77.

Nutr

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Central

In: Volatile

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of typical

and atyp-

1977:71.5-7.

Newell
ical

JA,

roasted

Mason

ME,

peanut

flavor.

HJ.

Color

Conf
EA.

Optimum

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FY,

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and chocolate
JM,

scanning

1967:15:767-72.

in the

dutch

processing

cocoa.

for

refining

fine

grinding

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of conching

semi-sweet

PS.
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on the flavor

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Chemico-physical
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Food

PG. Lopez
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and vol-

Lebensmittel-Wisaspects

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AS.

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the smoky/hammy
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PS. Observation

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1978:31:13-8.

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l978;43743-5.
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during

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I 980:45:555-7.
20. Nelson RB. Temperers.
enrobers.
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Blackie

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Dimick

18. Lehrian
DW, Keeney
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Hoskin

Chem

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Technol
JM,

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RS. Precursors

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Maniere

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1953:1:928-43.

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I I . Mauron
J. The Maillard
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by

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on the micro
Soc

and non-moldy

atile

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Hansen

JC.

16.

on a chocolate
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the

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PG. Various

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15.

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Manuf

A visual
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Pennsylvania

Isolation

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Tempering

PA:

manu-

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Soc

never

tides.

may

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Rombouts

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surface
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1988:236-58.

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are coated
with
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of the

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reduces
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Sci

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6.

PG.

involved

beans

9.

be fully understood.
Before
the use of refiners,
conching
accomplished
some partide
size reduction
and perhaps
a smoothing
of sugar
crystal

College.

K. Keeney

8. Mabrouk

would
reduce
For some of the

occurring

PS, ed. Proceedings

State

ganisms

been

shown
to have deacid is noticeably

and it contributes
and monocarbonyls

processing,

of phenols

changes

3. Ostovar

100 #{176}C
lower
than those of acids (16).
during
processing
( I 8). The presence
of

Expected
phenol-protein
astringency
during

has

changes

ed. Industrial

& Son Ltd.

1986:19-53.

5.

but actually

to explain.
Volatile
fatty acids were
in the conched
product
(17). Acetic

of aldehydes
Phenols
also

described
as melwith a detectable

ST.

Blackie

Chemical

In: Dimick

otechnology.

no prefthe differ-

change.
simple

AL.

cacao.

im-

In: Beckett

Recipes.

and use. London:

conching

Food

Sci

and coolers.
and use.

Lon-

Downloaded from ajcn.nutrition.org by guest on September 27, 2015

ence was noted ( 16). Conched


chocolate
was
low and less bitter than unconched
chocolate.

facture

but an

has not been

plemented
in the industry.
Taste-panel
testing
revealed
erence
for conched
on unconched
chocolate,
although

K.

Jackson

2. Lopez

several
Various

time,

I.