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Oscullo / Essay: The scientific method as a tool for the development of knowledge.

Essay: The scientific method as a tool for the development of knowledge.

Jos Antonio Oscullo1

Student of Research Doctoral Program of FIEE, EPN Quito-Ecuador


an, since his appearance on earth

has questioned its environment, to
meet their needs in the pursuit of
achieving wellness and better
conditions to develop individual and

within the society.

The society saw the need to systematize the

knowledge development, in a way structured and
ordered what is known as "Science", to be transmitted
and improved both for the present and future
generations. This feature makes that knowledge is not
stable, due mainly to the needs are changing; But if it
must be fastened to a rigor established by the scientific
method, which allows knowledge to be verifiable,
transmissible, and adaptable.
Under this context, science is the set of ideas, ever
growing, through which allow man to shape their
environment to respond to a problem posed.
The generation of new ideas demand mechanisms to
ensure the increase of knowledge, here being the
scientific method; the tool throughout the development
of each science that has made it possible to ensure good
This paper presents the philosophical points of the
argentine physicist and epistemologist Mario Bunge,
which discusses, describes the reasons for which the
scientific method is the right tool to establish the
classification and characteristics of science.
Given the wide range of needs that facing societies,
situation that makes various science not something
objective and therefore not verifiable via implemented
mechanisms to solve them. For which there are two
types of science; on the one hand, formal Sciences,
where forms discuss and demonstrates their solution
through an idealized abstraction of the problem (e.g.,
mathematics), i.e. does not provide information about
events that occur in nature, therefore, their show will
not use experience and subsequent experimentation, use
the deduction as a scientific technique. They usually
establish a logical system that must be respected and
which arise deductions
By other side, factual science that analyzes the facts
through the exploration of reality and explain the
different interrelations between the cause and effect of
the problem as far as possible by means of mathematical
expressions; obtained in the interactions observed in the
experimental stages to verify through controlled acts.
This process makes it possible to validate the
hypotheses proposals are adequate to respond to the

problem, this must necessarily include the existing

historical knowledge about the topic.
As provided, specifically formal Sciences
demonstrate or prove ideas, while factual science verify
tentative hypotheses, which should be demonstrated
experimentally, by what the formal sciences seek to
create an object to describe it completely and if the
object is changed it is necessary to create a new
description, while the factual science is incomplete and
temporary; Since it is not possible to fully describe the
differences analyzed reality relations, thus using a new
hypothesis is sought the incorporation of new facts,
which shape more clearly the nature.
Thus, factual science is the science of the "facts" so
using the reasoning and the objectivity of the researcher
seeks to establish starting from axioms, concepts and
experimentation combined rules logical objective
systematically organized to form a system of ideas and
theories that verified adapt to reality.
experimentation and verification of the facts and
therefore transcends them, due to their development can
be discarded and produce new facts. In addition, factual
science defines analytical problems based on the
individual analysis of the elements, provides
troubleshooting partial and, therefore, is not absolute.
Factual science is mainly characterized by
verifiability, through a scientific fact not only is valid
for having demonstrated its veracity, in addition it must
be reproducible and verifiable. Thus; the technique of
the scientific method provides a series of steps for
planning and verification of scientific hypothesis,
allowing to establish the validity of the theories.
As a first step, the scientific method sets the
statement of the problem and the construction of
theoretical models that determine the hypothesis, are
defined from the research and analysis of the facts, so
that there is a unique way to propose them. However,
the starting point in the process of hypothesis is often
based on inductive processes, analogies, and deductions.
Verifiable propositions, with one sufficient degree of
generality, define scientific hypothesis.
Be followed when establishing the scientific
hypothesis, it is necessary to find consequences for
rational or already verified facts, and that allow to
analyze the data considered empirically and those
obtained by the proposed model.

Oscullo / Essay: The scientific method as a tool for the development of knowledge.

The crucial point of the method is the proof of the

hypothesis by means of an experiment designed and
adapted that allow a proper test execution, data
processing, and data collection to establish so deductive
A principal point is determined the validity of the
thesis the comparison of the results of the research, the
model of adjustment and suggestions for analysis and
subsequent works.
By its nature, the scientific method seeks the
continuous improvement of the knowledge, both
constants and all results will be considered as a source
of new questions, thus becoming a tool for the
development of science in general. By this feature the
scientific method has enabled document and transfer all
the advances of the scientific field that have helped the
scientific community and general have a broader view
of the internal and external environment of the universe.
The scientific method has allowed the development
of the science and the technique of a society to achieve
the integration of the economic, social and political
issues in parallel.
Since the development of the society, always
looking for a practicality and verification of knowledge,
these characteristics are due in good part to the
application of the scientific method, to achieve social
well-being. The relevant scientific method is through his
rigor in the process of obtaining the knowledge,
allowing that a physical phenomenon, or social duly
studied is subjected to such scientific severity, with
which you can get to establish laws or theories that are
transformed into temporary absolute truths from a point
of view unique, reductionist that leads to the acceptance
of those laws until there new approaches on the
phenomenon and it is necessary to adapt theory
established and thus through the doubt about whether
the theory is absolute to give way to the restructuring of
new knowledge about the same phenomenon in order
hold or discard theories and established laws.
Not only the physical phenomena, the quantifiable,
measurable, the verifiable, are liable to be subject to a
criterion of the scientist, but also the social aspects, as
mentioned throughout this short essay, established
theories that allow to understand social phenomena and
the inference that have these in other character
humanistic sciences.
Without a doubt, the contributions of some theorists
of knowledge allow reaffirm the importance that has the
scientific method and evolution that it has had
throughout the history of man, from empiricism as a
rudimentary approach that is to do science, to find
extremely complicated positions on scientific theory, to
account for what can conceive as part of science to
transcend such as law or scientific postulates.

All this, it is recommended that the researcher seeks

a balance between depth of research and an
epistemological perspective, this last will allow
scientists to optimize your effort to improve your
research strategy and facilitate the correct apprehension
of knowledge with the consistent management and
Finally, it should be noted that the fundamental
characteristic of the scientific method is the growing
and continuous development of knowledge of
effectively and efficiently, however, it should be noted
that the use of these features remains outside of the
scientific method, and these aspects can be used for or
against man, depending on the pros and cons how that
uses it.

Bibliographic references
[1] Bunge, M. La ciencia su mtodo y filosofa
Panamericana, 2003.