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Gabrielle A.

Keaton
Professor Debra Jizi
UWRT 1104-014
9 November 2016

Annotated Bibliography
Slattery, Martha L., Sandra L. Edwards, Wade Samowitz, and John Potter.
"Associations between Family History of Cancer and Genes Coding for Metabolizing
Enzymes (United States)." Cancer Causes Control Cancer Causes & Control 11.9
(2000): 799-803. Print.

According to the research done on Family history and cancer by Dr. Slattery and Dr.
Potter, they have discovered some determining factors. In order to determine your risk, geneticist
often look into your family history and the members who have or have had cancer. Looking
specifically at your first degree relatives because the chance is higher. Geneticist also study
special variants and your low and high penetrance genes which indicate correlation. In return
these factors help scientifically connect family history and inherited cancer genes.
This source is related to my inquiry project because Im inquiring about How can I
determine if I have genetic mutations that will increase my chance of getting cancer?. In this
article I learned that I would potentially have a higher chance of getting cancer because several
of my first degree relatives have the illness. It has also informed me on the specific genes that are
favorable in specific cancers which helped me greatly. I also got a better outlook on what
geneticist do and how they help determine your risk.
I know that is a credible source because it has been peer reviewed and Dr. Martha
Slattery one of the authors is a very reputable doctor. She has over 500 publications on cancer

and its associations and her work has been featured in The Official Journal of the American
College of Epidemiology a subscription journal priced at $499.00. Dr. Potter another author also
listed is the director of international research for the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center.
He has been involved in the study and research of colorectal cancer for more than 20 years and
produced the first comprehensive review of cancer, vegetables and fruit that explored both the
epidemiologic evidence. These are a few of the authors that contribute to the credibility of this
source.
Francken, AB, PC Schouten, EM Bleiker, SC Linn, and EJ Rutgers. "Breast Cancer in
Women at High Risk: The Role of Rapid Genetic Testing for Brca1 and 2 Mutations
and the Consequences for Treatment Strategies." Breast (edinburgh, Scotland). 22.5
(2013): 561-8. Print.

Research done at the Netherlands Cancer Institute in Amsterdam, The Netherlands


studied how discovering genetic mutation, specifically the mutation BRCA1 and BRCA2 can
affect how you are treated. When determining treatment, doctors take into account your past,
your familys past history, and how early you were diagnosed. Through their research, they found
that if you carry the genetic mutation, it actually can harm you in the long run and a lot of times
you dont even know. They really emphasis the importance of genetic counseling in which they
determine whether or not you carry the mutation or not. The purpose of this article is just to
inform people of the heightened risk that comes with having the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic
mutation when it comes to cancer treatment.
This source is related to my inquiry project because I really wanted to know how genetic
mutations affect my chance of getting cancer. In this particular article focuses on how having a
mutation affects the actual treatment of your cancer. From this article I learned a lot and
prompted me to look into genetic counseling. The motivation behind me choosing my inquiry
topic was that Im actually dealing with this. I believe that cancer may be hereditary in my

family and that I carry one of the genetic mutations listed. This article would serve as the next
step in my inquiry project.
This source is credible because it is peer reviewed and the research was done by the
Netherlands Cancer Institute which was officially accredited as an Comprehensive Cancer Center
by the OECI. The Netherlands Cancer Institute was ranked No. 13 on the list of the 30 Most
Technologically Advanced Cancer Centers in the World. Emiel J.Th Rutgers one of the coauthors is a senior staff member at the Netherlands Cancer Institute and has been since 1989. He
holds a chair position with the Dutch National Breast Group and the Dutch Working Groups for
the national guidelines on screening, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer. He also serves as
the principal investigator of the EORTC-AMAROS Trial which looked into the sentinel node
biopsy in breast cancer. He has co-authored over 80 publications and books on breast cancer and
clinical research. These are a few aspects that contribute to the credibility of this source.

Loeb, LA, KR Loeb, and JP Anderson. "Multiple Mutations and Cancer." Proceedings of
the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 100.3 (2003):
776-81. Print.

Studies done on multiple mutations and cancer showed the correlation between mutator
phenotypes and the rate and which the cancer cells grow and spread. The scientists involved in
this research concluded that when mutations are present, they speed up the formation of the
cancer cells which can lead to a complete takeover. When a mutator phenotype is present, it
usually conflicts with the actual treatment of cancer because it causes the cells to continue to
multiply. This purpose of this article is to prompt specific genetic testing so it can be detected
sooner rather than later.

This article relates to my inquiry topic because it shows again how the cancer is affected
if a mutation is present. From this article I learned that mutations are heritable changes in the
nucleotide sequence of DNA including chromosomal abnormalities. They really focused on the
hereditary aspect of cancer and how it affects the patient. I could use this article in my inquiry
project to answer the question of what happens in I have a genetic mutation.
I know that this is a credible source because it has been peer reviewed and it has been
published in the database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine. Lawrence A. Loeb who has
both a MD and PhD is currently the Professor of Biochemistry and Pathology at The University
of Washington. He currently has a lab, The Loeb Lab, located in the Joseph Gottstein
Laboratories in the Department of Pathology. There they conduct research centered on the
molecular biology of mutagenesis, and their goal is to understand the relationships between DNA
damage, mutations and cancer. Their current work involves the study of the fidelity of DNA
replication, an analysis of mutator phenotypes in human cancers, the creation of new enzymes.
for cancer gene therapy, the relationship of mutations to aging, and the prevention of HIV
replication by mutagenic nucleoside analogs. Along with their high-risk projects that he
oversees, the lab was given a grant by the Outstanding Investigator Grant from the National
Cancer Institute. This authors work alone contributes to the credibility of this source.
Silva, Edibaldo. "Genetic Counseling and Clinical Management of Newly Diagnosed
Breast Cancer Patients at Genetic Risk for Brca Germline Mutations: Perspective of a
Surgical Oncologist." Familial Cancer. 7.1 (2008): 91-95. Print.

Women who have discovered a family history usually speed along their process of
mastectomies and pelvic exams, but doctors are now beginning to caution against having these
procedures too young. They have found that the motivation behind this is a family history of
cancer and breast cancer in particular. Although these patients may believe that they carry a

genetic mutation, they find out differently through genetic counseling. The purpose of this article
is to help the public cipher out the details so they dont get tested for the wrong reasons.
This article relates to my inquiry topic because it talks about the testing for the mutations.
In my project, Im inquiring about how I can determine if I carry one of the mutations or not.
This really helps me determine if I should seek genetic counseling or not. They provided a set of
requirements in this case relating to breast cancer to see if you should be tested. This personally
helps me because I believe that I may carry a hereditary genetic mutation that causes breast
cancer.
I know that this is a credible source because it is peer reviewed and the author Edibaldo
Silva is a professor at the University of Nebraska Medical Center since 2013 and has been a
cancer surgeon since 1985. Dr. Silva specializes in high risk breast cancer, melanoma, sarcoma,
thyroid cancer and gastrointestinal cancers. He also serves as a Chairman & Member of the
Olson Breast Centers Steering Committee for certification by the National Accreditation
Program for Breast Centers. His extensive research and experience contributes to the credibility
of this source.
How Genetic Mutations Influence Cancer Risk and How Hereditary Predisposition
Influences Cancer. Perf. Kenneth Offit. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. N.p.,
n.d. Web. 8 Nov. 2016.

In this video Dr. Kenneth Offit talks about cancer related mutations that are inherited
from our relatives specifically our parents. He focuses on the Utah Genealogical Experiment
which showed that everyone in Utah was related and discovered a correlation between families
that share the same type of cancer. They identified that all Utah families shared the same breast
cancer gene but carried a different BRCA mutation. By using a pedigree chart, it helps patients
see on a visual level of their family history.

This video relates to my inquiry topic because it further proves that cancer is a disease
that can be caused by hereditary genetic mutations. Dr. Offit uses charts and diagrams to help
show the correlation that I may not necessarily get when Im reading an article. He explains it in
a way so that someone without a medical background can understand.

I know that this is a credible source because the speaker was Dr. Keith Offit who has
experience as a medical oncologist, and with clinical and laboratory experience in cancer
genetics. He along with his colleagues published the first prospective series describing the
outcome of preventive ovarian surgery and screening in women at hereditary risk for breast and
ovarian cancer. Along with his ivy league education, Dr. Offit was listed as a top doctor in the
New York Magazine from 2002 to 2008 and again from 2014 to 2016. He serves as the Clinical
Genetics Services Vice Chairman, Department of Medicine Co-Head, and Professor of Medicine
and Public Health at Weill Cornell Medical College in New York. At the Memorial Sloan
Kettering Cancer Center, he serves as the Lab Head in The Kenneth Offit Lab which studies the
discovery and characterization of novel cancer predisposing genes in humans, including both
common and rare variants. Dr. Offits credentials alone show that this is a credible source.