Sie sind auf Seite 1von 14


Would a federal government be beneficial to the

With Duterte declaring his intention to run for President, and one of his ideologies being
turning the Philippines into a federal country, one has to wonder what good this would do.
Jake Nasol Loria,
Written Mar 11

Yes, federalism can be adapted and in my personal opinion should be

implemented for the sake of this country.
As we all know, the Philippines is a rotting and decaying country. Though Bloomberg TV
and other news outlets project the Philippines as a "Developing" country, in truth and in
reality, this country is dying. We are governed by morons and idiots and 80% of the people
living in the archipelago are illiterates in one way or another. (The best evidence on this
claim is the Filipinos' love for voting plunderers, thieves and liars into government
positions; The Estrada's, The Binay's, Enrile, Revilla, Ampatuan, etc)
Now that I have laid down that frustration, let me expound as to why it should be
If and when the regions/provinces are given more independence to govern their territories
(i.e. create individual laws, taxes within their region), it will create a more conducive
working environment for the people to improve their livelihood.
Instead of concentrating all the power to Malacanang, the regions/provinces can work
independently to find ways to enhance their economies or to protect their constituents.
Federalism will allow each sovereign province to implement their own laws. For example,
one province might be allow same-sex marriage while the other may allow use of medical
marijuana. Each for their own.
I lived the first 20 years of my life in Albay (Region 5) and let me assure you, we don't
identify ourselves with those people in Region 6 or 7 or whatever region that doesn't belong
on the 5th. Yes, we love other Filipinos but there are plenty of major cultural differences in
every region.
So, in my beloved Albay, I can ask for my representative to lower down income tax so it
could increase my business profit and allow for expansion and hire more staff (increase
employment). The provinces in Visayas and Mindanao may adapt a different law to improve
their economy and that would be there own problem.
Right now, income tax law is tied to the central government. Whatever their decisions are,
the local government will just follow like a little dog. You get my drift?

Here's a good answer from LegalMatch about as to: Why Do States Have Different
Laws? [in the US]
Note: This would totally work in the Philippines.
Why Do States Have Different Laws?
Federal laws are generally applicable in the same way across all state borders. However,
under constitutional laws, states are allowed to create, implement, and enforce their own
laws in additional to federal laws. This is because every U.S. state is also a sovereign
entity in its own right and is granted the power to create laws and regulate them
according to their needs.
Another reason behind this is that each state has unique characteristics in terms of factors
such as:
Geography and natural resources
Demographics of the population
Historical operations of business, commerce, and industry
Public policies and community standards in the state
What Are Some Types of Laws that Are Different by State?
Some laws, such as certain voting laws and criminal laws and statutes, tend to be
somewhat uniform across states. However, some areas of law can be very, very different
from one state to the next. Some types of laws that can vary widely across state regions
Gun control laws- these are often dependent on crime rates in the area
Child custody laws
Trucking and motor carrier laws
Business and corporate laws
Marriage licensing laws, especially with regards to same-sex marriage
Lastly, (and I think this is relevant for your question) User Estherxyu from The Q&A
wiki had a good answer for What are the benefits of a Federal system of
By dividing power between the states and the national government, one level can serve as a
check on the other. This should provide a "double security" to the rights of the people.
According the James Madison, this system was especially fitting for American because the
nation was one of diverse interests. Each of these interests would constitute a faction that
would seek its own advantage, and one faction might come to dominate government or a
part of government in one place, and a different faction might come to power in another.
The tugging and pulling of these factions would prevent any single region of the United
states from dominating all of government. The division of powers among several
governments would give to virtually every faction an opportunity to gain some-but not fullpower. One of the major concerns of the Framers was the prevention of tyranny in a
concentration of power. They believed that federalism checks the growth of tyranny while

inhibiting the formation of single-interest majorities. The system promotes unity without
uniformity and promotes experimentation in public policy. For example, the states often
serve as testing grounds for policies that later translate to the national level. Lastly,
federalism keeps the government close to the people, giving them a greater say in affairs at
both levels.
9.1k Views View Upvotes Answer requested by Des Uy

Related QuestionsMore Answers Below

If we change our political system, How can federalism work here in the Philippines?

What type of Federalism best suits the Philippines?

How could the Philippines be improved through federalism?

What is the current government strategy in the Philippines?

Is Federalism good for the Philippines?

Robert Anthony Ramos, Manila born and bred. Filipino since conception and proud of it
Written May 17

This is a question thats hard to answer with a clear yes or no. I say this because, in my
opinion, a lot hinges on these two things:
1. The Articles of Federation, and
2. Our sociopolitical culture
I dont have to read the other answers to know what they contain because in the ten years I
served with the Liberal Party (20002005 for the unified, 2006 - 2010 for the Atienza Wing
during the LP Civil War) Federalism was one of the things you not only learn (given youre
part of a political party) but also technically fight for (since its in the Party Program of
Besides, we can always look at existing federations today to see whats good and not with
their arrangements. Just right next to us is Malaysia, a federation. The United States is a
But thats also what colors my answer.
First, you have to clearly define your Articles of Federation. Most importantly, what the
States and the Federal Government can and cant do. Most of the time, States retain the
right to pass local laws and govern their state as they see fit within the boundaries of the
larger Federal Constitution.
For example, you cant be Emperor of Ilocandia, Absolute Ruler of the North Where Your
Word Is Law and still be part of a Federal Republic of the Philippines whose core
governance mechanism is that of a representative body elected by popular vote like a
Congress or Parliament. Neither can you declare that you will run Katagalugan the way

Marx, Lenin, Mao and maybe Joma, says so while part of a Federal Republic of the
Philippines that will most likely stick to its liberal democratic roots.
A good sticking point with current, real-world examples are same-sex marriage and
marijuana use, both from the United States (from whom, by the way, we derive a great deal
of jurisprudence). When the United States Supreme Court declared in Obergefell v.
Hodges that marriage is a fundamental right accorded to all in the United States of America
regardless of gender, that meant every single one of the fifty States had to comply. In the
same way, lacking a Federal statute on Marijuana use, each of the same fifty States are free
to decide whether they want to legalize MJ and on what levels.
In view of situations like this, how will each state in a Federal Republic of the Philippines
deal with matters of law? What are they allowed to do and when does Federal Law
supersede State Law? If Bangsamoro wishes to strictly adhere to sharia, what happens
when its pronouncements conflict with a religion-neutral but liberal democratic Federal
What about licenses? In the United States, just because you are a member of the Bar of
California doesnt mean you can automatically practice law in New York, as far as I know.
Each State has its own Bar and Professional Boards. Right now, just passing the Bar or the
Board for your profession means you can practice in any territory of the Republic; will it be
the same in a Federal Philippines?
How about military? Usually, the Federal Government handles external security through the
Federal Armed Forces, but even in the United States each State has its own National Guard
that the Governor can call on to quell local disturbances that need an extra military oomph
to the response.
In the current Constitution, even rebellions like that of the CPP-NPA or terrorism is
supposed to be the jurisdiction of the PNP since they handle internal security; the AFP
should only concern itself with invasion by a belligerent state actor. The AFP acts against
the NPA and similar groups only because weve redefined it as a internal invasion.
What about disaster response? A lot of people (including me) criticized Dubyas government
with its slow response to Hurricane Katrina but, apparently, because of their laws and
jurisprudence on their being a Federal country, the United States President cant
immediately step in to help a State suffering a calamity until its Governor requests it. So no
matter how well-equipped a federal-level disaster unit is, if the Articles of Federation say
that there must be a request from a high-ranking State official for the Federal Gov to step in,
then they wont do so for fear of being sued.
Taxes. If youre a registered tax payer in Katagalugan or the National Capital Region but do
work in the Bisaya State, do you pay twice? How about social welfare? Salary
Standardization, anyone?
What happens when one State suddenly wants to secede from the Federation?
And those are just the legal matters.

Ive always maintained that a Federation is an advanced political system. Instead of striking
out on your own, your State decides to abrogate certain of its privileges to be part of a
supposedly stronger, bigger, whole. There has to be that idea of a single nation comprised
by many smaller nations for it to work. There is a regionalism that comes with each State in
America but someone from Ohio and another from Illinois will agree that they are both
American and proud of it.
We dont even know half the time what being Filipino really is.
In fact, we identify more readily with our home provinces or sociolinguistic group. Youre
more Kapampangan, Ilocano, Tagalog, Bisaya or even Muslim before youre Filipino.
Will we be able to set aside our high level of regionalism to make a Federal Republic of the
Philippines work?
There is also an element of the ideal with the States because its leaders have more power
than, say, a provincial head has because he or she rules their State until such time as what
he or she does is unconstitutional (or inhumane) that the Federal Gov has to step in.
Governors will fully control not only the apparatus of government on a local level - social
welfare, infrastructure, utilities, etc. - but they will also be in charge of an armed force in the
State Militia or National Guard.
Given what you know of Philippine local leaders, are you ready for the likes of Chavit
Singson or the Ampatuans to formally and legally be given the privilege to be at the head of
substantial legal military forces that, by the way, your taxes pay for? Right now its all
private armies and creative application of state funds, but what happens when the Articles
of Federation allow the warlord families to raise loyal armed units for zero expense to their
own riches?
Federalism isnt a simple matter of letting locals run the store almost as they wish. Its a
give-and-take between local and national. It also presupposes a level of political maturity
where local leaders care enough about the national to not shaft the Federal government
when they can for their or their States advancement.
Im not saying its bad. It could be what the doctor ordered. But Im saying that its not as
easy nor as simple the way many whove been romanticized to think this is some sort of
magic bullet view it.
7.9k Views View Upvotes Answer requested by Steven de Guzman

John Jelsovsky, Crying every day over what has happened to this beautiful land this year.
Written Nov 3, 2014

I don't think so, because a federal system will add another layer of bureaucracy to a system
that already has too much bureaucracy. It will also add another layer of complexity to the
laws and another level of taxation. It will also increase the inequality between regions which
is already tremendous. Compare the poverty rates in the NCR (2.6%) and Region IVA
(8.3%) with those of the ARMM (48.7%) and Region VIII (37.4%). NSCB - Statistics Family Income

Federalism can work, but usually for very large and/or very wealthy countries, e.g. the USA,
Russia, Germany, India. But federalism is not necessary for a country to be large and
prosperous, e.g. China, Japan, France, UK. Personally I think the Philippines should stick
with the system it already has. The only thing I would change, if it was up to me (and not
being Filipino it is definitely NOT) would be to have a runoff in the presidential elections to
prevent the problem with splitting the vote so many ways and electing a candidate without a
majority as has happened in every election since 1992. In 2010 that would have been very
unlikely to make a difference, but in the previous 3 elections it easily could have.
15.8k Views View Upvotes Answer requested by 1 person

Ma.Evelyn D. Vergara, I was born here.

Written Apr 25

Personally, I would say PLEASE DO NOT. Look around you at the nations espousing
Federalism. They are not necessarily more united or more peaceful than the Philippines.
Today, with the migrant issue (m. from Middle East), the said federal nations are having a
hard time getting things together and maintaining peace and order.
The key to having a successful economy in the Philippines is :
1-do away with oligarchs etc.
2-have a President and supporters/assistants who truly love their country more than they
do their pockets or their family interests
3-maintain Good Moral Character among the family, which will affect the school,
government, workplace, churches/religions and vice versa
4-focus on Self-Determinism rather than on Globalism, which invites temptation to incur
global debts with the IMF etc.
(A free/healthy nation is a more or less debt-free nation.)
3.5k Views View Upvotes Answer requested by Richmond Acosta

Richmond Acosta, Filipino, Ilocano and Tagalog. Born in Isabela, Raised in Bataan
Updated May 14

Right now, one of our biggest problems is political dynasty. With federalism, the
Congressmen will become like kings in their own "states." Federalism will give them more
autonomy to create laws that will benefit their own clans. Especially in island provinces that
are already geographically isolated, Federalism will further isolate these islands allowing the
local congressmen to live and act like kings. Because the National government will have
little to no access to them, the local governors and Congressmen will have absolute powers
in their own territories.

Imagine the kind of power that political clans have in Mindanao and Visayas privinces. It
will be worse with federalism.

Davao City Mayor Rodrigo Duterte's presidential bid is highly

controversial for his hardline beliefs on criminal justice and his
authoritarian form of governance. One of the highlights of his platforms
is his promise to introduce federalism to the Philippines.
What is federalism?
The Philippines is currently under a unitary form of government - this means
that the central government is the highest governing power. It receives a large
part of every region's income and redistributes it, often disproportionately so.
Our autonomous regions, provinces, municipalities and barangays can only
exercise powers and enact policies that the central government chooses to
delegate to them.
Federalism is a type of government wherein sovereignty is constitutionally
divided between the national government and subdivisional governments
(such as states or provinces). Federalism divides the country into several
autonomous states with a national government.

The autonomous states are even further divided into local government units.
They will have the main responsibility over developing their local industries,
public health and safety, education, transportation, and culture. These states
have more power over their finances, policies, development plans, and laws.
The United States, Switzerland, Germany and Australia, Canada, India,
Malaysia and Brazil are examples of countries with a federalist form of

In the past, the Philippines has had attempts at a reform towards federalism during the administration of President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, she
recommended federalism as one of the goals of the proposed charter change.
However, the attempt failed because opposition from various sectors believes
this reform was used to extend her term limit.

What are its advantages and why is it attractive to Filipinos?

Firstly, under a federalist form of government, states are empowered to
make their own decisions. They no longer need to rely on the central
government to decide for them. This is important to note in the Philippine
context because of the vast geographical and cultural differences between
regions - differences that the central government may not always be able to
cater to.
Furthermore, states will be able to keep more of their income to
themselves. They do not have to rely on collecting real estate tax and
business permit fees - 80% of their total earned income stays, while only 20%
goes back to the national government. This means that states are able to

channel their own income for their own development, creating policies and
programs suitable for them without having to wait for the national government
to approve. Within the 80% budget that remains with these states, 30% will be
funneled to the local state government, and 70% will be allocated to the
provinces, cities, municipalities and barangays.
Because states are able to both make their own decisions and retain the
income they have to fund these decisions, it's possible for federalism
to promote specialization and competition. This affects both the national
government and the states - since the national government turned certain
administrative powers over to the regional governments, it can now funnel its
resources more intensively towards the issues it is assigned to, such as
foreign policy and nationwide defense. Likewise, the states are now better
able to nurture their individual strengths and selling points because the people
who have the decisions and funding are the people who are personally
involved in the state's development.
These self-reliant states will compare their growth to the growth of surrounding
states. Hopefully, this will lead to friendly competition between states that will
help raise the quality of life and economic development for everybody
Mayor Duterte presents federalism as a possible solution to the Mindanao
conflictinstead of implementing the Bangsamoro Basic Law. According to
him, "nothing short can bring peace in Mindanao.". This is likely a reference to
the numerous revisions the BBL has undergone, and the number of years it
has stayed in Congress.
All in all, federalism is a hot topic among Filipinos because it is expected to
accommodate regional preferences and diversity - a matter of great
importance in a country with 7,107 islands and more than 40 different ethnic
Geoffrey de Q. Walker, Emeritus Professor of Law at Queensland, believes
that "by these means, overall satisfaction can me maximized and the winnertakes-all problem alleviated," especially in policies with divided opinions. if we

allow people to make decisions with reference to their cultural and ethnical
beliefs, as well as their economic and social backgrounds, we allow them to
coexist with others and achieve solidarity as a whole.

What are its disadvantages?

Like all forms of government, federalism has its ugly side too. The first
problem the Philippines would have to iron out would be the overlaps in
jurisdiction. Unless responsibilities of state governments and national
governments are very clearly stated in the amended Constitution, there will be
ambiguities that can lead to conflict and confusion.
Next, there is always a chance that it will bring more division than unity. It
can arise from more than just increased hostility between ethnic groups competition between states can quickly become unhealthy, and can lead to
the regionalism that is currently already challenging the unity of the country.
Moreover, development of the states might not even work at all. Some
states may not be as gifted or as ready for autonomy as others. A major
concern is that while some states may progress faster, the converse is also
true because other states may devolve faster as well - even more so without a
national government to back them up. However, in some federal countries, the
national government provides funds to help underdeveloped states. A
proposed Equalization Fund will use part of the tax from rich states for the
funding of poorer states.

What would the Philippines look like under transition to a federal

Past proposals divided the Philippines into 10 or 11 autonomous states. Mayor
Duterte envisions 14. Billions of pesos will have to be spent on setting up state
governments and the delivery of state services. States will then have to spend
for the elections of their own officials.
While the idea of federalism is attractive for most Filipinos, the possible
benefits that are marketed by the idea will inevitably come at a cost, and will

require extensive time and effort from both governments and citizens alike. If
Mayor Duterte becomes president of the Philippines, he has to make sure the
people are satisfied with the division of responsibilities that will be stated in the
Amendment, and that the work towards building a federalist country will not
alienate other states or leave them behind, the way they are being left behind
right now.