1 views

Uploaded by samygamal

Loh

- exploration guide
- 06 Thermics
- MEC203 Heat Transfer Lab Report
- H.K. Moffatt- Relaxation Under Topological Constraints
- IMG
- rallyvsideout
- Water as Therapeutic Agent
- Golfo de california
- IES Syllabus
- 5e lesson lab report template
- Motivation and Highlights
- 2016 SCIENCE FAIR PACKET
- Makoto Tsubota et al- Instability of vortex array and transitions to turbulence in rotating helium II
- Understanding Heat Transfer, Conduction, Convection And
- Lecture2-2
- TANCET 2016 Syllabus Mechanical Engg
- Milton C. Lopes Filhon, Helena J. Nussenzveig Lopes and Max O. Souza- On the Equation Satisfied by a Steady Prandtl-Munk Vortex Sheet
- Document
- CHE654_2012_Homework4_Solutions.pdf
- 37.IJMPERDDEC201737

You are on page 1of 7

Proceedings of HT2003

ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference

July 21-23, 2003, Las

Vegas, Nevada,

USA

Proceedings

of HT2003

2003 ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference

July 21-23, 2003, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

HT2003-47548

HT03/HT2003-47548

PHENOMENA

J. M. McDonough

Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics

University of Kentucky

Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0503

Email: jmmcd@uky.edu

ABSTRACT

In this study the commercial flow code STAR-CD has been

used to simulate a laboratory experiment involving a so-called

fire whirl. Such phenomena are typically characterized as exhibiting significantly enhanced mixing and consequently higher

combustion rates due to an interaction of buoyancy and vorticity,

but the details of this are only beginning to be understood. The

present study focuses attention on this interaction in the absence

of combustion, thus removing significant complications and allowing a clearer view of the vorticity-buoyancy interaction itself.

Andrew Loh

Math, Science and Technology Center

P. L. Dunbar High School

Lexington, Kentucky 40513

investigations are those of Emmons and Ying [2] and Satoh and

Yang [3], neither of which provide complete explanations of the

reported observed phenomena. This has motivated recent theoretical and numerical studies (Battaglia et al. [4] and Battaglia et

al. [5]) both involving the experimental configuration of [2]. The

theoretical results of [4] are of limited applicability since they are

based on an inviscid model, and while they appear to reproduce

some of the experimental observations of [2], they also fail to

agree with some aspects of the experiments. The computations

reported in [5] do not seem to agree well with results reported

in [2] even in a qualitative way suggesting, among other things,

possible shortcomings of the experimental data.

INTRODUCTION

Study of fire whirls is motivated by their great potential for

damage when occurring in nature, but also by their potential

for use in controlled applications. Fire whirls occur rather infrequently, usually as the result of (i.e., as part of) large-scale

wildland or urban firesthe former usually caused by lightning

strikes and the latter often due to earthquakes or some similar

disaster. They may, or may not, be precursors to firestorms of

the sort Allied bombers attempted to start in enemy cities during WW II, and also which have been considered a contributing

factor in the demise of much of the dinosaur population as a detonation wave swept across the entire planet following the KT

impact. But small fire whirls could possibly have industrial applications if they could be sufficiently well understood to permit

their control. In fact, it has even been sugested that they be used

to destroy oil slicks (see Saito and Cremers [1]).

There have been relatively few definitive studies of fire

Here we choose to focus on simulating the experiments reported in [3]. These authors have also provided calculations in

Satoh and Yang [6], but these were rather low resolution by current standards. Furthermore, there seems to have been little effort

to compare shear-induced and baroclinic mechanisms of vorticity

production. In the current work we present two sets of simulations of the experiment described in [3], both without combustion, and with a focus on seeking proper gridding to resolve the

key features of the vorticity-buoyancy interaction phenomena; in

particular, we compare the level of vorticity produced by each of

the abovementioned mechanisms and provide preliminary results

regarding the grid configuration needed for adequate resolution.

The goal of the present study is to characterize the differences in

observed flow swirl arising from these two sources of vorticity,

at least qualitatively.

The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. In the

1

Laboratory

next section we provide the governing equations, problem geometry and boundary conditions employed for the two cases being

considered. Then we present and discuss computed results and,

in particular, compare the two cases. Finally, we summarize the

present work and suggest further investigations that are needed.

Experimental

Setup

ANALYSIS

In this section we first present the equations governing fluid

flow and heat transfer in buoyancy-driven flows. Then we describe the geometry employed for the current study, and discuss

required boundary conditions in the context of this geometry.

1.8 m

Inlet Air

1m

Governing Equations

The equations governing the flow situations being considered here are well known; they are the equations for natural convection heat transfer, expressed here as

DU

Dt

DT

c p

Dt

U

kT

g

Heat

Input

(1a)

slip. All walls, the ceiling and floor are thermally insulated except in the square region on the floor corresponding to the burner

of the physical experiment.

In this non-combusting case we have employed a square

plate 0.25 m2 situated in the center of the experiment and maintained at a constant temperature of 2000 K. The standard boundary condition interface of STAR-CD does not contain an option

for input of heat transfer coefficients, so we have employed a refined mesh above this surface to transfer heat into the fluid by

conduction (the actual physics). More details of this will be provided below.

The four vertical slots in the corners of the experiment, depicted in Fig. 1, were given no specific treatment. Pressure, temperature and velocity at these locations were computed consistent

with the solution domain being the entire laboratory. It is worth

noting, however, that since the laboratory walls contain no openings, the pressure slowly rises as the heat source transfers energy

to the air. As a consequence, we do not attempt to run the simulation for a time longer than is taken to increase the maximum

pressure in the laboratory to 10% above ambient.

(1b)

Dt is

the substantial derivative, is the gradient operator, and g is the

body-force acceleration vector; and p are density and pressure,

respectively; T denotes temperature, and c p is specific heat of the

fluid. In the present study these equations will be solved subject

to the divergence-free constraint, U 0, and density will be

calculated from the ideal gas equation of state, p

RT , where

R is the specific gas constant for air.

Problem Geometry

The geometry corresponding to the calculations reported

here is displayed in Fig. 1. As shown, we have simulated the

entire laboratory (but not to scale) in which the experiments of

Ref. [3] were conducted. The experimental setup is depicted in

the center of the laboratory and is scaled in the same manner as

the reported physical experiments; viz., four walls each 0.9 m

wide and 1.8 m high arranged so as to leave slots of width 0.1

m for air flow at each of the four corners. The only significant

differences between our computational set up and the actual experiment are the size and shape of the pan containing the heptane

fuel in the experiment. For simplicity (in grid generation) we

have employed a square pan with area considerably larger (to

increase the amount of heat input in the absence of combustion)

than that of the circular one used in the physical experiments. All

walls are solid, including the ceiling of the laboratory; we have

depicted some of these as open in the figure to facilitate viewing.

In this section we first describe the computing environment

in which the fire whirl simulations were performed. We then discuss initial efforts to establish accuracy of the calculations via

grid refinement, and we present computed results for two cases

associated with this. In particular, we first consider the effects

of grid refinement near the floor of the experiment (and laboratory) on temperature rise within the experiment, and we then

investigate effects of similar refinements near the walls of the

experiment to better resolve the boundary layers, and thus more

accurately predict the shear-induced vorticity generation.

Boundary Conditions

We employ no-slip conditions on all solid surfaces, viz., the

laboratory walls, floor and ceiling, as well as the side walls of

2

Computing Environment

All simulations reported herein were carried out on the

Hewlett Packard SuperDome 224-processor SMP operated by

the University of Kentucky Computing Center. The parallel capabilities of this machine were not exploited during the current

study; all calculations were performed on a single processor.

time of t

(a)

(b)

A number of different grid configurations were initially run

for this case, and only a few will be reported here. Figure 2

displays a baseline grid highlighting the finer resolution employed in the vicinity of the heat input area and adjacent to the

floor throughout the laboratory in an effort to obtain more heat

transfer to the fluid in a shorter period of time. This was the

Figure 3.

FINE GRID.

The experimental results reported in Ref. 3 indicate that stationarity has been reached at most locations within the experiment

by this time. Although qualitative differences do not appear to

be extremely great, the quantitative discrepancies are significant.

This must be expected since for the finest grid the first plane

of interior grid points is already 1.25 cm above the floor (and,

hence, above the heat source). As a consequence, temperatures

are relatively low throughout the experimental domain and exceed 300 K only very near the floor. Moreover, the temperature

at x y z

1 1 1 changes more between the baseline and finegrid calculations than between the coarse-grid and baseline ones.

Thus, it is clear that further grid refinement in the vertical direction near the floor is needed before results can be accepted with

confidence.

y

x

z

Figure 2.

Starting with the baseline grid spacing displayed in Fig. 2,

we conducted a sequence of grid refinements, 22 30 22, 33

30 33 and 49 30 49, near the walls of the experiment. The

first such grid is displayed in Fig. 4.

We note that this near-wall refinement has minimal effect on

the temperature distribution, but it significantly altered the nature

of the vorticity. One would expect, however, that if finer nearwall resolution were employed, thus effecting higher numerical

heat transfer rates and better near-floor vorticity resolution, that

further, indirect, effects might be observed.

Figure 5 provides an indication of enhancement of near-wall

vorticity by comparing the velocity field at y 0 2 m looking

down from the top of the experiment. The top figure corresponds

to results computed with the grid shown in Fig. 4, while results

in the bottom figure were produced on a 49 30 49 grid. There

is very little evidence of proper boundary layer resolution in the

top figure for which the grid was the first near-wall refinement

dark rectangle in the middle of the xz plane represents the noncombusting heat source, and the heavy dark line indicates the

boundary of the experimental apparatus. The three grids employed for the grid-function convergence tests discussed below

consisted of 17 25 17, 17 30 17 and 17 40 17 points,

with all the refinement in the y direction being introduced near

the floor. As should be expected, the coarser grids did not lead to

effective heat transfer from the hot plate to the surrounding fluid

since this must occur by conduction. Nevertheless, the swirling

flow characteristic of a fire whirl was observed in all cases.

Figure 3 presents temperature contours in the yz plane at

x 1 computed on the baseline and finest grids at a physical

3

y

x

z

Figure 4.

MENT.

the fine-grid results show very detailed boundary layer structure,

even including regions of secondary recirculation to the left of

each of the inlets. Based on this, one would expect rather different predicted distributions of shear-induced vorticity along the

walls of the experiment for these two grids. On the other hand,

vorticity generation along the floor, both by shear and by baroclinicity, would be expected to be similar for these two cases

because the vertical grid spacing is the same.

It is also worthwhile to observe that even with minimal wall

shear stress resolution, swirl is already observed in the coarsegrid results shown in the top figure. In addition, careful examination of both figures shows that velocity vectors directly over

the heat source not only indicate swirl, but also have an upward

component.

Figure 5. VELOCITY IN y

GRID, (BOTTOM) 49 30

0 2 M IN xz PLANE; (TOP) 22 30 22

49.

is simply the curl of the velocity vector:

To provide further insight into the nature of the vorticitybuoyancy interaction we consider several comparisons associated with differences in results obtained when only vertical gridding was refined, and when only near-wall refinement was used.

We will demonstrate that in the absence of near-wall refinement there is minmal interaction between shear-induced and

buoyancy- (baroclinically-) generated vorticity, mainly because

there is very little computed shear-induced vorticity in this situation. In contrast to this is the case for which near-wall resolution

has been increased; we then demonstrate significant interaction

of these two modes of vorticity generation.

U

There are several specific formulas (related to various atmospheric circumstances) for baroclinic vorticity. Herein, we have

used the following general expression,

B

p 1

4

S

T

Ying [2], but under much different physical conditions. These

similarities, however, suggest that more detailed investigation

would be in order, for they may be telling us something rather

fundamental.

The next comparison we provide is displayed in Fig. 7. Each

part of this figure is of the entire y 1 cm plane looking down

from the top of the laboratory. The two upper figures are obtained

B

In the figures that follow we will compare normalized magnitudes of B and S , as well as display the magnitude of T .

In Fig. 6 we present two images depicting flow streamlines

shaded with T . The figure on the left shows results of cal-

(RIGHT) 22 30 22.

17

25

17

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

GRID,

GRID, (c), (d) USING 49 30 49 GRID.

shown in Fig. 2; thus, no near-wall refinement has been done.

Based on the first part of Fig. 5 where one level of refinement

has been done (and the boundary layer still is not well resolved),

we can expect that shear stress on the vertical walls will exhibit

essentially no resemblance to physical reality in this case. As a

consequence, shear-induced vorticity will be very minimal, and

nearly all vorticity will be buoyancy induced. But even this will

not be very accurate. Nevertheless, the figure does display some

indication of swirl, particularly near the floor where B would

be greatest, and it appears that this swirl decreases significantly

with height above the floor, as does B .

In contrast to this is the right-hand side part of Fig. 6. (We

note here that both figures display the entire laboratory, and that

streamlines for both figures were computed with the same number of seeds starting from the same locations.) Now one refinement of near-wall gridding has been performed in addition to one

vertical refinement (see Fig. 4), and vorticity and swirl are evidently quite strong throughout the flow.

It is rather interesting that the qualitative nature of the column of fluid in the right-hand figure is quite similar to the photographs of the combusting fire whirl provided in Satoh and Yang

[3], but it is not clear that this is anything but coincidental. At the

same time, the narrow set of streamlines in the left-hand figure is

17 40 17

from a computation performed with the most highly refined vertical grid (but with no near-wall refinement). The darkest regions,

farthest from the heat source, have very low (nearly zero) vorticity magnitudes; the central cores have the highest magnitudes.

The contours of the left-hand figure, Fig. 7(a), are those of baroclinic vorticity magnitude, B , and those in the right-hand figure, Fig. 7(b), are from the shear-induced vorticity, S . Results

in the bottom two parts of the figure were computed with baseline

vertical resolution, but with the finest near-wall gridding.

In comparing parts (a) and (b) of the figure we see that the

overall shape of the B and S contours is similar, and the latter shows only rather weak influence from the surrounding walls

(shown as dark straight lines). A similar comparison between

parts (c) and (d) shows precisely the opposite. The shape of

the baroclinic vorticity contours has been distorted by interaction with the shear-induced vorticity, and this latter vorticity has

been strongly influenced by the wall shear stresses.

It is also interesting to compare parts (a) and (c), and (b) and

(d) of the figure. In the former we see that the overall size of the

5

since this size will depend mainly on heat transfer from the heat

source on the floor, and this heat transfer is at least qualitatively

similar in the two casesas we have already indicated, even the

finest vertical gridding is still significantly under resolved. On

the other hand, the shapes of the highest-intensity B central

core regions are quite different due to interaction with S in the

case of Fig. 7(c). The comparison between parts (b) and (d) is

obvious, and has actually already been implied in earlier discussions associated with Fig. 5: calculations leading to Fig. 7(b)

lacked the near-wall resolution required to capture the physics

shown in part (d).

Finally, we note several observations that are difficult to

present pictorially. First, as is already evident in Figs. 7, the

baroclinically-generated vorticity is concentrated over the heat

source, as would be expected. But this figure does not show the

nearly planar (parallel to the floor) configuration of the baroclinic

vorticity vectors; i.e., they are essentially two dimensional. Second, the magnitude of B falls off quite rapidly with height

above the heat source, and is nearly zero at the height of 0 2 m

above the floor. (Of course, this could be changed significantly

by better resolution of the region near the floor.) Near the heat

source the shear-generated vorticity vectors are also nearly parallel to the floor. But with increasing height their directions come

out of the floor-parallel planes and ultimately point in directions

that are nearly vertical. These features are summarized in Figs. 8

and 9.

In particular, Fig. 8(a) displays vorticity streamlines (continuous lines that are everywhere tangent to the vorticity vector) at selected heights above the floor indicating the planarity of

the baroclinic vorticity, as described above. Figure 8(b) shows

analogous streamlines for the shear-induced vorticity, and it also

contains two planes of vorticity vectors. A zoom-in of the region

near the heat source is provided by Fig. 9 which clearly shows

near planarity of the shear-induced vorticity near the floor over

the heat source, and dramatic loss of this with height above the

floor. Also shown are vorticity vectors near the walls of the experimental apparatus; these are generally nonplanar.

The transition between these two behaviors appears to be

very gradual and appears to be possibly associated with the decay

of B with height. That is, there may be a transfer of enstrophy

from B to S resulting in an altered direction of the latter; but

further studies are needed to confirm this, and if confirmed, to

quantify it and establish its possible relationship to the vorticity

concentrating mechanism alluded to by Emmons and Ying [2].

(a)

(b)

Figure 8. VORTICITY STREAMLINES; (a) BAROCLINIC, (b) SHEARGENERATED.

In this paper we have described numerical simulations, using

the commercial CFD code STAR-CD, of a fire whirl that earlier

had been experimentally studied by Satoh and Yang [3]. To the

authors knowledge these are the first simulations of this particular experiment beyond the much earlier work reported in [6]. As

has been typical in such calculations (cf., Battaglia et al. [5]) we

REFERENCES

1. Saito, K. and Cremers, C. J., 1995, Fire Whirl Enhanced

Combustion, Proceedings of the Joint ASME/JSME Fluids

Engineering Conference, ASME FED 220.

2. Emmons, H. W. and Ying, S.-J., 1967, The Fire Whirl,

Proceedings of 11 th International Symposium on Combustion, Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, pp. 475488.

3. Satoh, K. and Yang, K. T., 1999, Measurements of Fire

Whirls from a Single Flame in a Vertical Square Channel

with Symmetrical Corner Gaps, Proceedings of ASME Heat

Transfer Division-1999, 1999 ASME IMECE, HTD 364-4,

pp. 167173.

4. Battaglia, F., Rehm, R. G. and Baum, H. R., 2000, The

Fluid Mechanics of Fire Whirls: An Inviscid Model,

Physics of Fluids 12, pp. 28592867.

5. Battaglia, F., McGrattan, K. B., Rehm, R. G. and Baum, H.

R., 2000, Simulating Fire Whirls, Combustion Theory and

Modelling 4, pp. 123138.

6. Satoh, K. and Yang, K. T., 1997, Simulation of Swirling

Fires Controlled by Channeled Self-Generated Entrainment

Flows, Proceedings of 5 th International Symposium on Fire

Safety Science, Melbourne, pp. 210212.

in some situations could be very important), and to focus attention on the fluid mechanics and heat transfer. Within this context

we have used the simplest possible, and not completely realistic

model, viz., a constant-temperature heat source located where the

combustible fuel was placed in the laboratory experiment.

In addition to the simplicity of this model, there are two

other features of this study that we believe to be new. The first is

that we have simulated the entire laboratory in which the experiments were done. While this might at first seem to be a waste

of computational effort, it permits one to study effects of the surroundings on the outcome of the experiments. In the present case

this has not been done in great detail, but as computing power

continues to increase this will provide a valuable tool in interpreting experimental results. The second is our investigation of

the two separate mechanisms for vorticity generation. Little attention has previously been given this in the present context even

though it is clear from simple physical arguments that details of

the interactions could be very important for a complete understanding and ultimate control of fire whirls.

We have also attempted to provide information on the grid

requirements for adequate simulation of vorticity-buoyancy interactions. We have been able to show that the gridding we have

employed normal to the vertical walls of the experimental apparatus is easily adequate, but that the gridding near the floor and

heat source is not sufficient. Work still is in progress with respect

to the latter.

The conclusions one can draw from the foregoing include

the following:

adequate grid resolution, at least within the simulated experimental apparatus is essentialeffects of gridding in the

remainder of the laboratory have not yet been investigated,

but should be;

with respect to the above, we have shown that wall-normal

resolution sufficient to accurately capture the boundary layer

is needed to produce magnitudes of shear-induced vorticity

able to interact with baroclinically-induced vorticity;

details of this interaction are not yet completely understood

in the case of fire whirls, and they need to be because this

suggests a possible control mechanism.

As the reader will quickly recognize, this study has barely

scratched the surface of the overall understanding of the underlying physics of fire whirls. What remains is first to arrive

at a thorough understanding of the interaction between shearand baroclinically-generated vorticity; second, to consider distributed heat sources to more accurately simulate a flame; third,

begin introduction of finite-rate chemistry in the context of very

simple kinetic mechanisms, and finally to also consider the effects of turbulence. The authors hope the present contribution

will motivate some of these further studies, possibly resulting in

controllable, practical applications of this interesting and complex phenomenon.

7

- exploration guideUploaded byapi-340521631
- 06 ThermicsUploaded byAnrapo
- MEC203 Heat Transfer Lab ReportUploaded byElma Smriko
- H.K. Moffatt- Relaxation Under Topological ConstraintsUploaded byVortices3443
- IMGUploaded byMuhammad Fitri
- rallyvsideoutUploaded byaustinjp
- Water as Therapeutic AgentUploaded byHamid
- Golfo de californiaUploaded byDiego Gamez Soto
- IES SyllabusUploaded byDhileeban Sat
- 5e lesson lab report templateUploaded byapi-364124618
- Motivation and HighlightsUploaded bycaptainhass
- 2016 SCIENCE FAIR PACKETUploaded byWest View PTA
- Makoto Tsubota et al- Instability of vortex array and transitions to turbulence in rotating helium IIUploaded byPlamcfe
- Understanding Heat Transfer, Conduction, Convection AndUploaded byTodd Cole
- Lecture2-2Uploaded byomissammassimo
- TANCET 2016 Syllabus Mechanical EnggUploaded byAbdul rahuman
- Milton C. Lopes Filhon, Helena J. Nussenzveig Lopes and Max O. Souza- On the Equation Satisfied by a Steady Prandtl-Munk Vortex SheetUploaded byPonmij
- DocumentUploaded byHarshit Jain
- CHE654_2012_Homework4_Solutions.pdfUploaded bymbolantenaina
- 37.IJMPERDDEC201737Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- Thermo Chap IIIUploaded byAmmar Naveed Bajwa
- Heat TransferUploaded byshapeah
- Summary for 2LEUploaded byPaul Rodgers
- IndicesUploaded byWanderliA.B.Junior
- RPT Science Frm 1Uploaded byyunianis
- 123.docxUploaded byAjayBravo
- Mech302hw3s.pdfUploaded bySUMANT
- COTDLPUploaded byEricka Mae Tizon
- Intro1 M12 ThermalUploaded byLUISALBERTO06011985
- brenes lp sept29-oct3Uploaded byapi-206424278

- logistic growth.pdfUploaded bysamygamal
- Applications+of+Linear+Equations.pdfUploaded bysamygamal
- Applications+of+Quadratic+Equations.pdfUploaded bysamygamal
- Chap 10 review.pdfUploaded bysamygamal
- Practice+Sheet(Basics+of+Trig).pdfUploaded bysamygamal
- expanding factoring.pdfUploaded bysamygamal
- Order+of+Operations.pdfUploaded bysamygamal
- Rational+Exponents.pdfUploaded bysamygamal
- integrals and deriviatives.pdfUploaded bysamygamal
- mat150_e6_practice.pdfUploaded bysamygamal
- VakilPoster.pdfUploaded bysamygamal
- trig review.pdfUploaded bysamygamal
- Review Chap 2-3 2-4Uploaded bysamygamal
- vector sheet.pdfUploaded bysamygamal
- finite area 2.pdfUploaded bysamygamal
- logistic growth (2).pdfUploaded bysamygamal
- February Review.pdfUploaded bysamygamal
- 2nd FTC sheet 1.pdfUploaded bysamygamal
- optimization problems 2.pdfUploaded bysamygamal
- Rectilinear motion.pdfUploaded bySaher Saher
- AP take home 1.pdfUploaded bysamygamal
- finite area 2.pdfUploaded bysamygamal
- optimization problems 2.pdfUploaded bysamygamal
- logistic growth (2).pdfUploaded bysamygamal
- 2nd FTC sheet 1.pdfUploaded bysamygamal
- AP take home 1.pdfUploaded bysamygamal
- integrals and deriviatives.pdfUploaded bysamygamal
- trig review.pdfUploaded bysamygamal

- A10-A-DOC-VE-068274_00 离心泵 设计要求Uploaded byzhang
- man624_enUploaded byiikcom
- IMP Class 150 LBS Weld Neck FlangeUploaded byMayur Patil
- Electromechanical Cylinder EmcUploaded byDoan Hiep
- Guide Chp BoilerUploaded bylynncao
- AFD DA 1Uploaded byAnshulGupta
- AWS CWEngPart1&2BrochureUploaded byJoseph Peter
- Chrysler Neon 99 - Power WindowsUploaded byeephantom
- Expansion Joint - 1Uploaded byDanish Yaseen
- starbus-ultra.pdfUploaded byHarshal Dhanawade
- Zoeller M267Uploaded by123john123
- 1_machines Fronius and Other Welding Power SourceUploaded byf_allahdad
- JSA for welding Job.pdfUploaded bymujahed.ahmed4253063
- Sdi Ansi Nc 2010Uploaded byVitelio Pinzon
- New Mud Motor ConceptUploaded byGregory Demerji
- Bsee Plug Testing ReportUploaded byjulian1972mx
- bedeschi - schivoUploaded byMicheleDiSclafani
- CantileverUploaded byNasir Roslan
- mitshubushicompoUploaded byDani Quirante Flaaut Etc
- d4 Intake DesignUploaded bychoibe
- Ijret - Collectors Innovation to Increase Performance Solar Water HeaterUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Bicycle - An Engineering MarvelUploaded byb1657937
- 1450-55840803287SUploaded byAleksa Marjanović
- Advanced Level Mathematics Mechanics 1 Cambridge Education Cambridge University Press SamplesUploaded byAshraful Ferdous
- Geet PlansUploaded bybyenter
- Room Air ConditionersUploaded byAshish Aggarwal
- MCU ProcedureUploaded bywill Lee
- Ford Wind Star 2001Uploaded byRoque Cardenas Vazquez Tagle
- 4TNE98-G1A (0CR10-G45800)Uploaded byngafri
- Work and EnergyUploaded bythinkiit