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AGENT ARCHITECTURE

Dr. S. Srinivasan, Mr. Amit Kumar Goel,Prof B.K Jha


Head, Department Of Computer Sciences,PDM Bhadurgarh
dss_dce@gmail.com
Research Scholar
BIT-Mesra
goelkamit@rediffmail.com
Department of Management,BITNoida, India
jha_brajendra@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT

The objective of this paper is to provide some rational, structured access to an


analysis of cognitive and agent architectures.[4,5] Some familiar architectures have
been considered for this preliminary analysis representing a wide range of current
architectures in artificial intelligence (AI)[15]. The aim of the paper is to facilitate
both an understanding of current architectures and provide insight to the
development of future, improved intelligent agent architectures. The main focus is
on discussing about various capabilities these architectures possess , various
environments upon which these architectures act , and their memory , knowledge
representation they use.

Keywords: subsumption, soar, atlantis, theo, progigy, homer, icarus, ralph-mea,


multiagent system

1 INTRODUCTION 2 TYPE OF AGENT ARCHITECTURE


2.1 Subsumption Architecture
A complete functioning agent, whether Subsumption architecture designed by Brooks -
biological, or simulated in software, or implemented 1986 .Complicated Intelligent behavior is split into
in the form of a robot, needs an integrated collection Simple behavior modules Organized into layers
of diverse but interrelated capabilities, i.e. .Behavior is distributed rather than centralized.
architecture. At present, most work in AI and Response to stimuli is reflexive -- the perception-
Cognitive Science addresses only components of such action sequence is not modulated by cognitive
an architecture (e.g. vision, speech understanding, deliberation. The agents are organized in a bottom-up
concept formation, rule learning, planning, motor fashion. Thus, complex behaviors are fashioned
control, etc.) or mechanisms and forms of from the combination of simpler, underlying ones. No
representation and inference (logic engines, explicit representation, no explicit working memory,
condition-action rules, neural nets, genetic Heuristic with in each layer as long term memory ,
algorithms) which might be used by many No explicit problem solving mechanism[1] ,implicit
components. While such studies can make useful planning by task decomposition , no learning
contributions it is important to ask, from time to time, mechanism ;Reactions to environment pre-wired into
how everything can be put together, and that requires each module ,no reasoning/inference mechanism.
the study of architectures.
Here we briefly discuss about some familiar 2.2 Gats atlantis architecture
architectures and their features. The study of these Integrating planning and reacting in a
architectures provide a better understanding of how heterogeneous asynchronous architecture for mobile
an intelligent agent should be . [3] agents. It consists of Control layer, sequencing layer,
deliberative layer. It is hybrid reactive/deliberative
robot architecture. 2.9 Soar
SOAR was designed by Laird, Newell and Rosen
2.3 Theo Architecture bloom. It is the oldest and largest AI development
The basic idea is Plan-Then-Compile. It means , efforts from 1983. Newell made it a developing
integrating learning , planning and knowledge Architectures for intelligent agents (1990). SOAR and
representation . It has a self Improving Problem BDI have a lot of commonalities. SOAR means
solver . STATE OPERATOR AND RESULT. Soar use all
capabilities to be handled by an intelligent agent from
2.4 ICARUS highly routine to open-ended problems. It uses
Specific representation of long term memory .It uses symbols (it process symbols only ) . The underlying
3 independent asynchronous modules responsible for SOAR architecture is Symbolic System. SOAR
perception , planning , effecting follows Physical symbolic System Hypothesis
2.5 Prodigy (PSSH). It says that Physical symbol system is
Storing the knowledge in a form of first order necessary and sufficient condition for general
predicate logic (FOPL) called Prodigy Description intelligence. The ultimate aim is to make a general
language (PDL). It has a modular architecture that intelligent agent.
stores the knowledge symbolically. Prodigy is an
Architecture of Planning and Learning. Prodigy does It is based on production system. The production rule
not subscribe to a universal learning method like Soar is to govern behavior. Production system uses
but rather uses a number of different learning problem space [13]. Problem space means set of all
mechanisms. These methods allow Prodigy to be used (possible) states and a set of operators. Operators
as a test-bed for exploring relationships between transforms a particular state with in problem space to
problem-solving and learning [6]. another state in the same space .It has initial stats and
desired state (goal state). Operators are iteratively
2.6 Adaptive Intelligent Systems [2] applied to reach goal . The sequence of steps from the
It can do reasoning and interact with other dynamic initial state to goal state forms the solution or
entities in real time . It has problem solving behavioral path . It uses chunking (a way of learning)
techniques. When encountering un-expected situation, and sub goaling. It uses appropriate knowledge
it decides whether to and how to respond. It focuses (depends on the problem) such as procedural,
attention on the most critical aspects of current declarative, episodic, semantic, iconic. It employs full
situation. It will operate continuously without range of problem solving methods. It interacts with
rebooting and also it is able to coordinate with outside world.
external agent (more or less similar to human being). SOAR uses full capabilities when it tries to solve
problems. Two main principle are Functionality and
2.7 Meta Reasoning Performance. It provides integral approach and this
Many ideas in MAX may be traced to Prodigy. It helps to build general autonomous agents as well as
rule-based forward chaining engine that operates on specific intelligent agents for tasks such as natural
productions. It is designed to support to modular language understanding , analogical reasoning ,
agents. They are used to respond to a dynamic planning and others.
environment in a timely manner. Modules are
categorized in to behavior and monitor. 2.10 Tetlon
It is a problem solver. It uses two memory areas,
2.8 Homer short-Term memory and long-Term memory. Like
It is not designed for general intelligence. The human beings, interruption is allowed .It has a feature
underlying philosophy is to synthesize several key called Execution Cycle which always looks for what
areas of AI to form one complete system, like to do next.
planning, learning, natural language understanding,
and robotic navigation. HOMER answers questions 2.11 Ralph-Mea
posed by users and carries out instructions given by It is multiple execution architecture. Like human
users. It is a modular structure. It consists of memory, being, selecting best one from the environment.
planner, natural language interpreter and generator, RALPH MEA uses Execution Architecture (EA) to
reflective processes, plan executer. select from one state to best one. It uses the
following:
1. Condition action Inductive
2. Action utility Learning
3. Goal based and
4. Decision Theoretic Concept
Acquisitio
2.12 Entropy Reduction Engine n Y Y Y Y
It focuses on problems that require planning , Abstarctio
scheduling and control . It uses many different n Y Y
problem solving methods such as problem reduction , Explanati
temporal projection , rule-based execution . on-based
learning Y Y Y Y Y
3 CAPABILITIES. Transfer
A complete functioning agent, whether biological, or of
simulated in software, or implemented in the form of Learning Y
a robot, needs an integrated collection of diverse but Planning Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
interrelated capabilities. While such studies can make Problem
useful contributions it is important to ask, from time Solving Y Y Y Y Y Y
to time, how everything can be put together, and that Replannin
requires the study of architectures. [5]. The g Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
capabilities are broadly split as learning, planning,
Support of
problem solving and reasoning.
Multiple,
In the following table-1A and Table-1B the rows
Simultane
represent the capabilities and the column corresponds
-ous
to agents with specific architecture. In the cells Y
Goals Y Y Y Y Y Y
indicates that agent corresponds to the column
Self
possess the capability represented by the row.
Reflection Y Y Y Y Y Y
Meta-
Table 1: Capabilities of Agents
Reasoning Y Y Y Y Y Y
Expert
Meta Reasoning Architecture
Adaptive Intelligence System

Entropy Reduction Engine

System
Capability Y Y
Inductive
Subsumption

Ralph-Mea
Capability

Atlantis

and
Prodigy

Homer

Tetlon
Icarus
Theo

Soar

deductive
Reasoning
Prediction Y Y Y Y Y Y
Query
Answerin
g and
providing
Single Explanati
Learning ons for
Method Y Y Y Decisions Y Y Y
Multi- Navigatio
Method nal
Learning Y Y Y Y Y Strategies Y Y Y Y Y Y
Caching Y Y Natural
Learning Language
by Inst. Y Y Understan
Learning ding Y Y
by Expt. Y Y Learning
Learning by
by Perceptio
Analogy Y Y n Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Support environment represented by the row.
for
Inaccurate Table 2: Environment of Agents
sensing

Meta Reasoning Architecture


Adaptive Intelligence System
Y Y Y

Entropy Reduction Engine


Robotic
Tasks Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

Subsumption

Ralph-Mea
Real-time

Atlantis

Prodigy

Homer

Tetlon
Icarus
Execution

Theo

Soar
Focused
Behavior
and
Processin
g/
Selective
Attentions Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Static
Goal Environme
Reconstru nt Y Y
ction Y Dynamic
Respondi Environme
ng nt Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Intelligent Consistent
ly to Environme
Interrupts nt Y Y Y
and Simulated
Failures Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Environme
Human- nt Y Y Y Y Y Y
like Math
Real
Capability Y
World
Environme
4 ENVIRONMENT nt Y Y Y Y Y Y
The world itself is a very complex place for Complex
architecture agents to act in. Most architecture are Environme
designed to only deal with fractions of the total
nt Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
possible environmental complexity by acting in
Knowledg
particular domains. For example, some architecture
e-Rich
assume that the world is static and that the only things
Environme
that change in the world are via an agent's actions.
nt Y Y Y
Other architectures may operate in dynamic
Input-Rich
environments but require that world be consistent or
Environme
predictable.
nt Y
An agent is anything that can be viewed as perceiving
Limited
its environment through sensors and acting upon that
Resources Y Y Y Y
environment through actuator [2]. A Vacuum cleaner
agent is a reactive agent which means it responds Complex
when it senses dirt on the floor . Where as a Taxi Knowledg
Driver agent should behave in a different way since e Y Y Y Y Y
its environment is entirely different. It is a Goal Un-
directed agent .[ 8] It has to keep all the percepts it predictable
receives in its knowledge base . Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
In this section various environments with which the Asynchron
agents have to work are discussed. In table-2 , Rows ous Y Y
indicate the environments and the column indicates Concurren
the particular architecture . Y in the cell means that t
the architecture corresponding to column uses the Y Y Y
Varying

Meta Reasoning Architecture


Adaptive Intelligence System
Priority Y Y Y Y

Entropy Reduction Engine


Memory , Knowledge &
Limited
Response

Representation
Subsumption

Ralph-Mea
Time Y Y Y Y

Atlantis

Prodigy

Homer

Tetlon
Icarus
Multiple

Theo

Soar
Tasks Y Y
Supervisor Y Y

5 MEMORY, KNOWLEDGE AND


KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION

Here the focus is to study Memory , Knowledge and Forward &


Knowledge representation are handled by Agent Back-ward
architecture . The aim of the paper is to understand Chaining Y Y Y
the various Knowledge Representations that agents Impasse-
should adapt generally . Also because of the design of driven
the architecture of the agents that are taken in to Control Y Y Y Y Y
consideration, the representations vary from one agent Serial
to another [11,12]. Processing Y Y Y Y Y Y
Parrellel
A Vacuum cleaner agent is a reactive agent which Processing Y Y Y Y Y
means , it responds when it senses dirt on the floor . Asynchronou
Where as a Taxi Driver agent should behave in a s Processing Y Y Y
different way since its environment is entirely Interruptible
different. It is a Goal directed agent. [ 8 ] it has to Processing Y Y Y Y
keep all the percepts it receives in its knowledge base Open-Loop
. The architectures of these two typical examples processing Y Y
should certainly differ greatly . Agent properties Closed -
identify and entail the techniques and methods that Loop
were used to realize a particular architecture or Processing Y
architectural component. For example, most Hierarchical
architecture includes some sort of memory. An agent Organization Y Y Y Y Y Y
is said to be a knowledge-level system [14] when it Modular
rationally brings to bear all its knowledge onto every Organization Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
problem it attempts to solve. Thus, knowledge is the Symbolic
medium of transaction at the knowledge level and the World Model Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
behavioral law is the principle of maximum Size of the
rationality. Agent properties characterize the memory: Knowledge
Is the memory declarative, procedural, and episodic? Base Y Y Y
Are there size limitations? Is memory uniformly Glass Box
accessed? Is it uniformly organized? These properties approach Y Y Y Y
have been shown in the form a table . Black Box
Approach Y Y Y Y Y
In the Table 3 , Rows indicate the Memory , Declarative
Knowledge and knowledge representation and the Representati
column indicates the particular architecture . Y in the on Y Y Y Y Y Y
cell means that the architecture corresponding to Procedural
column has the type of memory or knowledge and Representati
knowledge representation . on Y Y Y Y
Table 3: Memory Knowledge representation Global
Representati
on Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Uniform

Meta Reasoning Architecture


Adaptive Intelligence System
Access to

Entropy Reduction Engine


Knowledge Y Y
Knowledge

Subsumption

Ralph-Mea
Consistency Y Y Y

Evaluation

Atlantis

Prodigy

Homer

Tetlon
Icarus
Homogenous

Theo

Soar
(Uniform)
Knowledge
Representati
on Y Y Y Y Y
Hetrogenous
Knowledge
Representati Concept
on s
No-Explicit Internal
Representati Architectu
on Y re Y Y
Associate Social
Memory architectur
e Y
Episodic
Communi
Knowledge Y cation
Meta-
Knowledge Y Y Y Y Y Autonomy Y
First-Order
Pro-
Logic Activity Y
Representati Distributio
on Y n
Strips like Notation
operators
Usability Y
representatio
Expressiv
n Y Y Y eness
Frame - Like Refineme
Representati nt
on Y Y Y Dependan
Network cy of
representatio Models
n Y Y Traceabilit
y
6 EVALUATIONS Clear
definition Y
Based on the concepts, notation, process and Modularit
pragmatics the architectures are evaluated. These are y Y Y
the criteria and scales for evaluating architectures. In
table-4 the column represents selected architectures Process Y
and rows represent the criteria considered for Coverage
of
evaluation. Y stands for the architecture being
workflows
evaluated against particular criteria representing the
Managem
row . But most of the cell is blank since no proper ent
methodologies are available. Also due to the lack of Complexit
analytical criteria, the cost of demonstrations and y
varying specifications among different architectures, Properties
developing evaluation methods is a challenge [7, 10]. of process
Pragmatic
Table 4: Evaluations s
Tool Computers and Thought, ed. Feigenbaum and
Support Feldman. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Connectiv [4] Simon, H. (1991). Cognitive Architectures in a
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Usage in
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[6] Elavine Rich , Kevin Knight and Shivshankar ,
CONCLUSION
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study of Multi-Agent systems and its applications. In
depth analysis of various Agent architectures is to
build a Multi Agent System that will be suitable for
our future work on Supply Chain Management.

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