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WHAT IS MEANT AS

LEADER??
AHMAD AZMY, S.E, M.M
TANRI ABENG UNIVERSITY

OBJECTIVES
Understand the full meaning of leadership and see the leadership potential in
yourself and others
Recognize and facilitate the six fundamental transformations in todays
organizations and leaders

Identify the primary reasons for leadership derailment and the new paradigm skills
that can help avoid it
Recognize the traditional functions of management and the fundamental differences
between leadership and management

Appreciate the crucial importance of providing direction, alignment, relationships,


personal qualities, and outcomes
Explain how leadership has evolved and how historical approaches apply to the
practice of leadership today

MATERIAL

The New Reality for Todays Organizations


Comparing Management and Leadership
Evolving Theories of Leadership

Exhibit 1.1 - What Leadership Involves

Leadership

Influencing others to come together around a common


vision
Multidirectional
Noncoercive

Reciprocal in nature
Involves creating change

Qualities required for effective leadership are also needed


to be an effective follower

Leadership
Effective followers are:

Self thinkers who do assignments with energy and


enthusiasm

Leaders are:
Committed to the common good
rather than self-interest
Firm in their beliefs
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Exhibit 1.2 - The New Reality for Leaders

Management and Vision


Management
Attainment of organizational goals in an
effective and efficient manner through:
Planning and organizing
Staffing and directing
Controlling organizational resources
Vision
Picture of an ambitious, desirable future for
the organization or team
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Exhibit 1.3 - Comparing Management and


Leadership

Source: Based on John P. Kotter, A Force for Change: How Leadership Differs from Management (New York: The Free Press, 1990) and ideas in Kevin
Cashman, Lead with Energy, Leadership Excellence, (December 2010) :7; Henry Mintzberg

Theories of Leadership
Great man theories
Leadership was conceptualized as a single Great Man
who put everything together and influenced others to
follow along based on the strength of inherited traits,
qualities, and abilities

Trait theories
Leaders had particular traits or characteristics that
distinguished them from non-leaders and contributed
to success
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Theories of Leadership
Behavior theories
Leaders behavior correlated with leadership
effectiveness or ineffectiveness

Contingency theories
Leaders can analyze their situation and tailor their
behavior to improve leadership effectiveness
Known as situational theories
Emphasized that leadership cannot be understood
in a vacuum separate from various elements of the
group or organizational situation
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Theories of Leadership
Influence theories
Examined the influence processes between
leaders and followers
Charismatic leadership - Influence based on
the qualities and personality of the leader

Relational theories
Focused on how leaders and followers interact
and influence one another
Transformational leadership and servant
leadership are two important relational theories
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Exhibit 1.4 - Leadership Evolution

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Fatal Flaws That Cause Derailment


Performance problems
Failing to meet business objectives because of too much time
promoting themselves and playing politics, a failure to fulfill
promises, or a lack of hard work

Problems with relationships


Being insensitive, manipulative, critical, and not trustworthy in
relationships with peers, direct reports, customers, and others

Difficulty changing
Not learning from feedback and mistakes to change old
behaviors
Defensive, unable to handle pressure, and unable to change
management style to meet new demands
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Fatal Flaws That Cause Derailment


Difficulty building and leading a
team
Poor management of direct reports
Inability to get work done through others
Not identifying and hiring the right people
Too narrow management experience
Inability to work effectively or collaborate
outside their current function
Failing to see big picture when moved into
general management position over several
functions
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Exhibit 1.6 - Learning to Be a Leader

Source: Based on Guidelines for the Apprentice Leader, in Robert J. Allio, Masterclass: Leaders and LeadershipMany Theories, But What Advice Is Reliable?
Strategy & Leadership 41, no. 1 (2013): 414.

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