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Contents

Cryogenic rocket engine

1.1

Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2

LOX+LH2 rocket engines by government agency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CE-7.5

2.1

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2

Specications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.3

Development

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2.4

Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.5

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.6

References

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CE-20

3.1

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2

Specications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.3

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.4

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.5

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Space Shuttle main engine

4.1

Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.1.1

Turbopumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.1.2

Powerhead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.1.3

Nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.1.4

Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

4.1.5

Gimbal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

4.1.6

Helium system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

4.2.1

Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

4.2.2

Space Shuttle program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

4.2.3

After Shuttle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

4.2

ii

CONTENTS
4.2.4

2015 tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

4.3

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

4.4

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

4.5

External Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

Rocketdyne J-2

18

5.1

Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

5.1.1

Combustion chamber and gimbal system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

5.1.2

Propellant Feed System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

5.1.3

Gas generator and exhaust system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

5.1.4

Start tank assembly system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

5.1.5

Control system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

Engine operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

5.2.1

Start sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

5.2.2

Flight mainstage operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

5.2.3

Cuto sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

5.2.4

Engine restart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

5.3.1

Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

5.3.2

Upgrades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

5.4

Specications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

5.5

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

5.6

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

5.2

5.3

RL10

26

6.1

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

6.1.1

Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

Applications for the RL10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

6.2.1

Potential uses for the RL10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

6.3

Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27

6.4

Specications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27

6.4.1

Original RL10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27

6.4.2

Current design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27

6.5

Engines on display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28

6.6

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28

6.7

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28

6.8

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

6.2

RS-68
7.1

30

Design and development

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30

7.1.1

Proposed uses

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30

7.1.2

Human-rating

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31

CONTENTS

iii

7.2

Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

7.3

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

7.4

References

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31

7.5

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32

RS-83

33

8.1

Development

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33

8.2

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33

8.3

References

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33

8.4

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33

Vulcain

34

9.1

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

9.1.1

Future development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

9.2

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

9.3

Contractors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

9.4

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

9.4.1

Comparable engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

9.5

References and notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

9.6

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

9.6.1

35

Related news . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10 HM7B

36

10.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

10.2 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

10.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

10.3.1 Comparable engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

10.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

11 Vinci (rocket engine)

37

11.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

11.2 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

11.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

11.3.1 Comparable engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

11.4 References and notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

11.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38

12 RD-0120

39

12.1 Specications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

12.1.1 RD-0120 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

12.2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

12.3 References

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39

12.4 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

iv

CONTENTS

13 RD-0146

40

13.1 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

13.2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

13.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

13.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

13.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

14 YF-50t

41

14.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

14.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

15 YF-73

42

15.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

15.2 References

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42

15.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

16 YF-75

43

16.1 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

16.2 Technical Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

16.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

16.4 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

17 YF-77

44

17.1 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

17.2 Technical Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

17.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

17.4 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45

18 LE-7

46

18.1 H-II Flight 8, only operational LE-7 failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

18.2 LE-7A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

18.2.1 Changes / improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

18.2.2 New nozzle design (side-loading problem) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

18.2.3 Use on H-IIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

18.2.4 LE-7A specications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

18.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

18.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

18.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

19 LE-5

48

19.1 LE-5A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48

19.2 LE-5B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48

19.3 LE-5B-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

19.4 Specications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

CONTENTS

19.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

19.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

19.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

19.8 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

19.8.1 Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

19.8.2 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

19.8.3 Content license . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53

Chapter 1

Cryogenic rocket engine

RL-10 is an early example of cryogenic rocket engine.

dizer and fuel pair. At room temperature and pressure,


both are in gaseous state. Hypothetically, if propellants
had been stored as pressurized gases, the size and mass
of fuel tanks themselves would severely decrease rocket
eciency. Therefore, to get the required mass ow
rate, the only option was to cool the propellants down to
cryogenic temperatures (below 183 C [90 K], 253 C
[20 K]), converting them to liquid form. Hence, all cryogenic rocket engines are also, by denition, either liquidpropellant rocket engines or hybrid rocket engines.[2]
The energy conversion takes place while the Liquid fuelled rocket takes o.
Various cryogenic fuel-oxidizer combinations have been
tried, but the combination of liquid hydrogen (LH2)
fuel and the liquid oxygen (LOX) oxidizer is one of the
most widely used.[1][3] Both components are easily and
cheaply available, and when burned have one of the highest enthalpy releases by combustion,[4] producing specic
impulse up to 450 s (eective exhaust velocity 4.4 km/s).

Vulcain engine of Ariane 5 rocket

A cryogenic rocket engine is a rocket engine that uses


a cryogenic fuel or oxidizer, that is, its fuel or oxidizer (or both) are gases liqueed and stored at very low
temperatures.[1] Notably, these engines were one of the
main factors of NASA's success in reaching the Moon by
the Saturn V rocket.[1]

1.1 Construction

During World War II, when powerful rocket engines were


rst considered by the German, American and Soviet engineers independently, all discovered that rocket engines
need high mass ow rate of both oxidizer and fuel to
generate a sucient thrust. At that time oxygen and
low molecular weight hydrocarbons were used as oxi-

The major components of a cryogenic rocket engine are


the combustion chamber (thrust chamber), pyrotechnic
initiator, fuel injector, fuel cryopumps, oxidizer cryopumps, gas turbine, cryo valves, regulators, the fuel tanks,
1

CHAPTER 1. CRYOGENIC ROCKET ENGINE

and rocket engine nozzle. In terms of feeding propellants to the combustion chamber, cryogenic rocket engines (or, generally, all liquid-propellant engines) are either pressure-fed or pump-fed, and pump-fed engines
work in either a gas-generator cycle, a staged-combustion
cycle, or an expander cycle.
The cryopumps are always turbopumps powered by a
ow of fuel through gas turbines. Looking at this aspect,
engines can be dierentiated into a main ow or a bypass ow conguration. In the main ow design, all the
pumped fuel is fed through the gas turbines, and in the end
injected to the combustion chamber. In the bypass conguration, the fuel ow is split; the main part goes directly
to the combustion chamber to generate thrust, while only
a small amount of the fuel goes to the turbine.

Japan
LE-7 / 7A
LE-5 / 5A / 5B

1.3 References
[1] Bilstein, Roger E. (1996). Stages to Saturn: A Technological History of the Apollo/Saturn Launch Vehicles (NASA
SP-4206) (The NASA History Series). NASA History Ofce. pp. 8991. ISBN 0-7881-8186-6.
[2] Biblarz, Oscar; Sutton, George H. (2009). Rocket Propulsion Elements. New York: Wiley. p. 597. ISBN 0-47008024-8.

1.2 LOX+LH2 rocket engines by


government agency

[3] The liquefaction temperature of oxygen is 89 kelvins and


at this temperature it has a density of 1.14 kg/l, and for
hydrogen it is 20 kelvins, just above absolute zero, and
has a density of 0.07 kg/l.

Currently, six governments have successfully developed


and deployed cryogenic rocket engines:

[4] Biswas, S. (2000). Cosmic perspectives in space physics.


Bruxelles: Kluwer. p. 23. ISBN 0-7923-5813-9. "...
[LH2+LOX] has almost the highest specic impulse.

India
CE-7.5[5]

[5] GSLV-D5 launch places India in elite league. http://


www.thehindu.com/. 2014-01-06. Retrieved 2014-0106.

CE-20

United States
SSME

USAs Cryogenic Rocket engine RL10B-2

J-2

Russian Cryogenic Rocket Engines

RL-10
RS-68
RS-83

European Space Agency


Vulcain
HM7-B
Vinci

Russia
RD-0120
RD-0146

1.4 External links

China
YF-50t
YF-73
YF-75
YF-77

Chapter 2

CE-7.5
2.3 Development

The CE-7.5 is a cryogenic rocket engine developed by


ISRO to power the upper stage of its GSLV Mk-2 launch
vehicle. The engine was developed as a part of the Cryogenic Upper Stage Project (CUSP). It replaced the KVD1 (RD-56) Russian cryogenic engine that powered the upper stage of GSLV Mk-1.

ISRO formally started the Cryogenic Upper Stage Project


in 1994.[9] The engine successfully completed the Flight
Acceptance Hot Test in 2008,[5] and was integrated with
propellant tanks, third-stage structures and associated
feed lines for the rst launch. First ight attempt took
place in April 2010 using GSLV Mk-2 D3 launch vehicle.
However the engine failed to ignite.[2] On 27 March 2013
2.1 Overview
the engine was successfully tested under vacuum conditions. The engine performed as expected and was qualiCE-7.5 is a regeneratively cooled, variable thrust, staged
ed to power the third stage of the GSLV Mk-2 rocket.
combustion cycle[3][4] engine.
On 5 January 2014 the cryogenic engine performed successfully and launched the GSAT-14 satellite using GSLV
D5.[10][11]

2.2 Specications

2.4 Applications

The specications and key characteristics of the engine


are:

CE-7.5 is being used in the third stage of ISROs GSLV


Mk-2 rocket.

Operating Cycle Staged combustion[5]


Propellant Combination LOX / LH2[6]

2.5 See also

Maximum thrust (Vacuum) 75 kN[7]

CE-20

Operating Thrust Range (as demonstrated during


GSLV Mk2 D5 ight) 73.55 kN to 82 kN [8][2]

GSLV

Chamber Pressure (Nom) 58 bar


Engine Mixture ratio (Oxidizer/Fuel by mass)
5.05

2.6 References
[1] Cryogenic engine test a big success, say ISRO ocials.
Indian Express. Retrieved 27 December 2013.

Engine Specic Impulse - 454 3 seconds (4.452


0.029 km/s)[5][3]

[2] GSLV-D3. ISRO. Retrieved 8 January 2014.

Engine Burn Duration (Nom) 720 seconds[7]

[3] GSLV-D3 brochure (PDF). ISRO.

Propellant Mass 12800 kg[7]

[4] GSLV MkIII, the next milestone. Frontline.

Two independent regulators: thrust control and mixture ratio control[6]

[5] Flight Acceptance Hot Test Of Indigenous Cryogenic


Engine Successful. ISRO. Retrieved 8 January 2014.

Steering during thrust: provided by two gimbaled


steering engines[6]

[6] Indigenous Cryogenic Upper Stage.


September 2014.

Retrieved 27

[7] GSLV-D5. ISRO. Retrieved 27 September 2014.


[8] GSLV-D5 launch video CE-7.5 thrust was uprated by
9.5% to 82 kN and then brought back to nominal thrust
of 73.55 kN. Doordarshan National TV.
[9] How ISRO developed the indigenous cryogenic engine.
The Economic Times.
[10] http://www.isro.gov.in/gslv-d5/mission.aspx
[11] Indigenous Cryogenic Upper Stage Successfully Flight
Tested On-board GSLV-D5. ISRO. Retrieved 6 January
2014.

CHAPTER 2. CE-7.5

Chapter 3

CE-20
Engine Specic Impulse - 443 3 seconds (4.344
0.029 km/s)

The CE-20 is a cryogenic rocket engine being developed


by the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre, a subsidiary of
Indian Space Research Organisation. It is being developed to power the upper stage of the Geosynchronous
Satellite Launch Vehicle III.[1] It is the rst Indian cryogenic engine to feature a gas-generator cycle.[2]

Engine Burn Duration (Nom) - 595 seconds


Total Flow rate - 462 kg/s
Nozzle Area ratio - 100
Mass - 588 kg

3.1 Overview
The CE-20 is the rst Indian cryogenic engine to feature
a gas-generator cycle.[3] The engine produces a nominal
thrust of 200 kN, but has an operating thrust range between 180 kN to 220 kN and can be set to any xed values between them. The combustion chamber burns liquid
hydrogen and liquid oxygen at 6 MPa with 5.05 engine
mixture ratio. The engine has a thrust-to-weight ratio of
34.7 and a specic impulse of 444 seconds (4.35 km/s)
in vacuum. ISRO tested the CE-20 on 28 thApril 2015
at Mahendragiri test facility achieved on successful long
duration hot test (635 seconds).[4] On July 16, 2015, CE20 was successfully endurance hot tested for a duration
of 800 seconds at ISRO Propulsion Complex, Mahendragiri. This duration is approximately 25% more than the
engine burn duration in ight [5]

3.3 See also


CE-7.5
Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mk III
GSAT-14

3.4 References
[1] Indigenous Cryogenic Engine Tested Successfully ISRO
12 May 2012
[2] Space Transportation. GSLV - Mk III - Status of CE20. Indian Space Research Organization. 2009-07-15.
Retrieved 2009-08-29.

3.2 Specications

[3] GSLV MkIII, the next milestone Frontline 7 February


2014

The specications of the engine as listed on the LPSC


handouts:[6]

[4] http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/
Isros-desi-cryogenic-engine-test-successful/
articleshow/47090046.cms

Operating Cycle - Gas Generator

[5] http://isro.gov.in/update/20-jul-2015/
indigenously-developed-high-thrust-cryogenic-rocket-engine-successfully-g

Propellant Combination - Liquid oxygen / Liquid


hydrogen

[6] LPSC Handouts at Aer India-2009. Specications of


CE-20. Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre. 2009-03-13.
Retrieved 2009-08-29.

Thrust Nominal (Vacuum) - 200 kN


Operating Thrust Range - 180 kN to 220 kN (To be
set at any x values)

3.5 External links

Chamber Pressure (Nom) - 6 MPa


Engine Mixture ratio (Oxidizer/Fuel by weight) 5.05

India test-res indigenous cryo engine for 800 seconds


5

CHAPTER 3. CE-20
LPSC handouts during Aero India-2009 with Ce-20
specications
LPSC handouts during Aero India-2009 with specications of all Liquid-fueled engines of India
Status of CE-20 in Space Transportation/GSLV Mk III of ISROs 2008-09 Annual Report

Chapter 4

Space Shuttle main engine


4.1 Components

SSME redirects here. For the services eld, see


Service Science, Management and Engineering.
The Aerojet Rocketdyne RS-25, otherwise known as
the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME),[4] is a liquidfuel cryogenic rocket engine that was used on NASA's
Space Shuttle and is planned to be used on its successor, the Space Launch System. Built in the United States
by Rocketdyne, the RS-25 burns cryogenic liquid hydrogen & liquid oxygen propellants, with each engine producing 1,859 kN (418,000 lb ) of thrust at lifto. Although the RS-25 can trace its heritage back to the 1960s,
concerted development of the engine began in the 1970s,
with the rst ight, STS-1, occurring on April 12, 1981.
The RS-25 has undergone several upgrades over its operational history to improve the engines reliability, safety
and maintenance load.

Low pressure
fuel
turbopump

Fuel inlet

GH2 pressure
outlet to
external tank

GO2 pressurant
outlet to external
Oxidizer inlet
tank

Main
oxidizer
valve

Fuel preburner
OX valve
Fuel preburner
injector

Hot gas
manifold

Low pressure
oxidizer
turbopump

Oxidizer
preburner
injector

Main
injector

Oxidizer preburner
OX valve

Fuel preburner

Oxidizer preburner

Oxidizer heat
exchanger

High pressure
fuel turbopump

High pressure
oxidizer turbopump

The engine produces a specic impulse (I ) of 452 seconds (4.43 km/s) in a vacuum, or 366 seconds (3.59
km/s) at sea level, has a mass of approximately 3.5 tonnes
(7,700 pounds), and is capable of throttling between 67%
and 109% of its rated power level in one-percent incre- RS-25 schematic.
ments. The RS-25 operates under temperatures ranging
from 253 C (423 F) to 3,315 C (6,000 F).[1]
Main fuel valve

Main combustion
chamber

Fuel
Oxidant

Chamber
coolant valve

On the Space Shuttle, the RS-25 was used in clusters of


three engines mounted in the aft structure of the Orbiter,
with fuel being drawn from the external tank. The engines
were used for propulsion during the entirety of the spacecrafts ascent, with additional thrust being provided by
two solid rocket boosters and the orbiters two AJ10-190
Orbital Maneuvering System engines. Following each
ight, the engines were removed from the orbiter, inspected and refurbished before being reused on another
mission.

Fuel ow.
7

Legend

Hot gases
Nozzle

Combustion
zone

CHAPTER 4. SPACE SHUTTLE MAIN ENGINE


jectors, the propellants are mixed and injected into the
main combustion chamber where they are ignited. The
burning propellant mixture is then ejected through the
throat and bell of the engines nozzle, the pressure of
which creates the thrust.[5]

4.1.1 Turbopumps
Oxidizer system

Oxidiser ow.
RS-25 propellant ow.
The RS-25 engine consists of various pumps, valves
and other components which work in concert to produce thrust. Fuel (liquid hydrogen) and oxidizer (liquid
oxygen) from the Space Shuttle external tank entered
the orbiter at the umbilical disconnect valves, and from
there owed through the orbiters main propulsion system
(MPS) feed lines; whereas in the Space Launch System
(SLS), fuel and oxidizer from the rockets core stage will
ow directly into the MPS lines. Once in the MPS lines,
the fuel and oxidizer each branch out into separate paths
to each engine (three on the Space Shuttle, up to ve on
the SLS). In each branch, prevalves then allow the propellants to enter the engine.[5][6]
Once in the engine, the propellants ow through lowpressure fuel and oxidizer turbopumps (LPFTP and
LPOTP), and from there into high-pressure turbopumps
(HPFTP and HPOTP). From these HPTPs the propellants take dierent routes through the engine. The oxidizer is split into four separate paths: to the oxidizer heat
exchanger, which then splits into the oxidizer tank pressurization and pogo suppression systems; to the low pressure oxidiser turbopump (LPOTP); to the high pressure
oxidizer preburner, from which it is split into the HPFTP
turbine and HPOTP before being reunited in the hot gas
manifold and sent on to the main combustion chamber
(MCC); or directly into the main combustion chamber
(MCC) injectors.
Meanwhile, fuel ows through the main fuel valve into
regenerative cooling systems for the nozzle and MCC, or
through the chamber coolant valve. Fuel passing through
the MCC cooling system then passes back through the
LPFTP turbine before being routed either to the fuel tank
pressurization system or to the hot gas manifold cooling
system (from where it passes into the MCC). Fuel in the
nozzle cooling and chamber coolant valve systems is then
sent via preburners into the HPFTP turbine and HPOTP
before being reunited again in the hot gas manifold, from
where it passes into the MCC injectors. Once in the in-

The low-pressure oxidizer turbopump (LPOTP) is an


axial-ow pump which operates at approximately 5,150
rpm driven by a six-stage turbine powered by highpressure liquid oxygen from the high-pressure oxidizer
turbopump (HPOTP). It boosts the liquid oxygens pressure from 0.7 to 2.9 MPa (100 to 420 psi), with the ow
from the LPOTP then being supplied to the HPOTP.
During engine operation, the pressure boost permits the
high-pressure oxidizer turbine to operate at high speeds
without cavitating. The LPOTP, which measures approximately 450 by 450 mm (18 by 18 in), is connected to the
vehicle propellant ducting and supported in a xed position by being mounted on the launch vehicles structure.[5]
The HPOTP consists of two single-stage centrifugal
pumps (a main pump and a preburner pump) mounted
on a common shaft and driven by a two-stage, hot-gas
turbine. The main pump boosts the liquid oxygens pressure from 2.9 to 30 MPa (420 to 4,350 psi) while operating at approximately 28,120 rpm, giving a power output
of 23,260 hp (17.34 MW). The HPOTP discharge ow
splits into several paths, one of which drives the LPOTP
turbine. Another path is to, and through, the main oxidizer valve and enters the main combustion chamber.
Another small ow path is tapped o and sent to the oxidizer heat exchanger. The liquid oxygen ows through
an anti-ood valve that prevents it from entering the heat
exchanger until sucient heat is present for the heat exchanger to utilize the heat contained in the gases discharged from the HPOTP turbine, converting the liquid
oxygen to gas. The gas is sent to a manifold and then
routed to pressurize the liquid oxygen tank. Another path
enters the HPOTP second-stage preburner pump to boost
the liquid oxygens pressure from 30 to 51 MPa (4,300
psia to 7,400 psia). It passes through the oxidizer preburner oxidizer valve into the oxidizer preburner, and
through the fuel preburner oxidizer valve into the fuel preburner. The HPOTP measures approximately 600 by 900
mm (24 by 35 in). It is attached by anges to the hot-gas
manifold.[5]
The HPOTP turbine and HPOTP pumps are mounted on
a common shaft. Mixing of the fuel-rich hot gases in the
turbine section and the liquid oxygen in the main pump
can create a hazard and, to prevent this, the two sections
are separated by a cavity that is continuously purged by
the engines helium supply during engine operation. Two
seals minimize leakage into the cavity; one seal is located between the turbine section and the cavity, while

4.1. COMPONENTS

the other is between the pump section and cavity. Loss then self-sustaining. The preburners produce the fuelof helium pressure in this cavity results in automatic en- rich hot gases that pass through the turbines to generate
gine shutdown.[5]
the power needed to operate the high-pressure turbopumps. The oxidizer preburners outow drives a turbine
that is connected to the HPOTP and to the oxidizer preFuel system
burner pump. The fuel preburners outow drives a turbine that is connected to the HPFTP.[5]
The low-pressure fuel turbopump (LPFTP) is an axialThe speed of the HPOTP and HPFTP turbines depends
ow pump driven by a two-stage turbine powered by
on the position of the corresponding oxidizer and fuel
gaseous hydrogen. It boosts the pressure of the liquid
preburner oxidizer valves. These valves are positioned
hydrogen from 30 to 276 psia (0.2 to 1.9 MPa) and supby the engine controller, which uses them to throttle the
plies it to the high-pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP).
ow of liquid oxygen to the preburners and, thus, conDuring engine operation, the pressure boost provided
trol engine thrust. The oxidizer and fuel preburner oxiby the LPFTP permits the HPFTP to operate at high
dizer valves increase or decrease the liquid oxygen ow,
speeds without cavitating. The LPFTP operates at around
thus increasing or decreasing preburner chamber pres16,185 rpm, and is approximately 450 by 600 mm (18
sure, HPOTP and HPFTP turbine speed, and liquid oxyby 24 in) in size. It is connected to the vehicle propelgen and gaseous hydrogen ow into the main combuslant ducting and is supported in a xed position by being
tion chamber, which increases or decreases engine thrust.
mounted to the launch vehicles structure.[5]
The oxidizer and fuel preburner valves operate together
The HPFTP is a three-stage centrifugal pump driven by to throttle the engine and maintain a constant 6.03:1 proa two-stage hot-gas turbine. It boosts the pressure of the pellant mixture ratio.[2]
liquid hydrogen from 1.9 to 45 MPa (276 to 6,515 psia),
The main oxidizer and main fuel valves control the ow
and operates at approximately 35,360 rpm with a power
of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen into the engine and
of 71,140 hp. The discharge ow from the turbopump
are controlled by each engine controller. When an engine
is routed to, and through, the main valve and is then split
is operating, the main valves are fully open.[5]
into three ow paths. One path is through the jacket of the
main combustion chamber, where the hydrogen is used to
cool the chamber walls. It is then routed from the main Main combustion chamber
combustion chamber to the LPFTP, where it is used to
drive the LPFTP turbine. A small portion of the ow Each engine main combustion chamber (MCC) receives
from the LPFTP is then directed to a common manifold fuel-rich hot gas from a hot-gas manifold cooling circuit.
from all three engines to form a single path to the liquid The gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen enter the chamhydrogen tank to maintain pressurization. The remaining ber at the injector, which mixes the propellants. A small
hydrogen passes between the inner and outer walls of the augmented-spark igniter-chamber is located in the cenhot-gas manifold to cool it and is then discharged into the ter of the injector, and this dual-redundant igniter is used
main combustion chamber. A second hydrogen ow path during the engine start sequence to initiate combustion.
from the main fuel valve is through the engine nozzle (to The igniters are turned o after approximately three seccool the nozzle). It then joins the third ow path from onds because the combustion process is self-sustaining.
the chamber coolant valve. This combined ow is then The main injector and dome assembly is welded to the
directed to the fuel and oxidizer preburners. The HPFTP hot-gas manifold, and the MCC is also bolted to the hotis approximately 550 by 1,100 mm (22 by 43 in) in size gas manifold.[5] The MCC comprises a structural shell
and is attached to the hot-gas manifold by anges.[5]
made of Inconel 718 which is lined with a copper-silverzirconium alloy called NARloy-Z, developed specically
for the RS-25 in the 1970s. Around 390 channels are ma4.1.2 Powerhead
chined into the liner wall to carry liquid hydrogen through
the liner to provide MCC cooling, as the temperature
Preburners
in the combustion chamber reaches 3,315 C (6,000 F)
during ight higher than the boiling point of iron.[7][8]
The oxidizer and fuel preburners are welded to the hotgas manifold. The fuel and oxidizer enter the preburners and are mixed so that ecient combustion can oc- 4.1.3 Nozzle
cur. The augmented spark igniter is a small combination chamber located in the center of the injector of The engines nozzle is 121 in (3.1 m) long with a diameter
each preburner. The two dual-redundant spark igniters, of 10.3 in (0.26 m) at its throat and 90.7 in (2.30 m) at
which are activated by the engine controller, are used its exit.[9] The nozzle is a bell-shaped extension bolted to
during the engine start sequence to initiate combustion the main combustion chamber, referred to as a de Laval
in each preburner. They are turned o after approxi- nozzle. The RS-25 nozzle has an unusually large expanmately three seconds because the combustion process is sion ratio (about 77.5:1) for the chamber pressure.[10]

10

CHAPTER 4. SPACE SHUTTLE MAIN ENGINE

A Block II RS-25D Main Engine Controller.

The nozzles of Space Shuttle Columbia's three RS-25s following


the landing of STS-93.

At sea level, a nozzle of this ratio would normally undergo ow separation of the jet from the nozzle, which
would cause control diculties and could even mechanically damage the vehicle. However, to aid the engines
operation Rocketdyne engineers varied the angle of the
nozzle walls, reducing it near the exit. This raises the
pressure just around the rim to an absolute pressure between 4.6 and 5.7 psi (32 and 39 kPa), and prevents ow
separation. The inner part of the ow is at much lower
pressure, around 2 psi (14 kPa) or less.[11] The inner surface of each nozzle is cooled by liquid hydrogen owing
through brazed stainless steel tube wall coolant passages.
On the Space Shuttle, a support ring welded to the forward end of the nozzle was the engine attach point to the
orbiter-supplied heat shield. Thermal protection was necessary because of the exposure portions of the nozzles
experience during the launch, ascent, on-orbit and entry
phases of a mission. The insulation consisted of four layers of metallic batting covered with a metallic foil and
screening.[5]

4.1.4

Controller

Each engine is equipped with a Main Engine Controller


(MEC), an integrated computer which controls all of the
engines functions (through the use of valves) and monitors its performance. Built by Honeywell Aerospace,

each MEC originally comprised two redundant Honeywell HDC-601 computers,[12] later upgraded to a system composed of two doubly redundant Motorola 68000
(M68000) processors (for a total of 4 M68000s per
controller).[13] Having the controller installed on the engine itself greatly simplies the wiring between the engine
and the launch vehicle, because all the sensors and actuators are connected directly to only the controller, each
MEC then being connected to the orbiters General Purpose Computers (GPCs) or the SLSs avionics suite via its
own Engine Interface Unit (EIU).[14] Using a dedicated
system also simplies the software and thus improves its
reliability.
Two independent dual-CPU computers, A and B, form
the controller; giving redundancy to the system. The
failure of controller system A automatically leads to a
switch-over to controller system B without impeding operational capabilities; the subsequent failure of controller
system B would provide a graceful shutdown of the engine. Within each system (A and B), the two M68000s
operate in lock-step, thereby enabling each system to
detect failures by comparing the signal levels on the buses
of the two M68000 processors within that system. If
dierences are encountered between the two buses, then
an interrupt is generated and control turned over to the
other system. Because of subtle dierences between
M68000s from Motorola and the second source manufacturer TRW, each system uses M68000s from the same
manufacturer (for instance system A would have two Motorola CPUs while system B would have two CPUs manufactured by TRW). Memory for Block I controllers were

4.2. HISTORY

11

of the plated-wire type, which functions in a manner similar to magnetic core memory and retains data even after
power is turned o.[15] Block II controllers used conventional CMOS static RAM.[13]

the engines thrust vector to be altered, thus steering the


vehicle into the correct orientation. The bearing assembly is approximately 290 by 360 mm (11 by 14 in), has a
mass of 105 lb (48 kg), and is made of titanium alloy.[18]

The controllers were designed to be tough enough to survive the forces of launch, and proved to be extremely resilient to damage. During the investigation of the Challenger accident the two MECs (from engines 2020 and
2021), recovered from the seaoor, were delivered to
Honeywell Aerospace for examination and analysis. One
controller was broken open on one side, and both were
severely corroded and damaged by marine life. Both
units were disassembled and the memory units ushed
with deionized water. After they were dried and vacuum
baked, data from these units was retrieved for forensic
examination.[16]

The low-pressure oxygen and low-pressure fuel turbopumps were mounted 180 degrees apart on the orbiters
aft fuselage thrust structure. The lines from the lowpressure turbopumps to the high-pressure turbopumps
contain exible bellows that enable the low-pressure turbopumps to remain stationary while the rest of the engine
is gimbaled for thrust vector control, and also to prevent
damage to the pumps when loads were applied to them.
The liquid hydrogen line from the LPFTP to the HPFTP
is insulated to prevent the formation of liquid air.[5]

Main valves

In addition to fuel and oxidizer systems, the launch vehicles Main Propulsion System is also equipped with a
helium system consisting of ten storage tanks in addition to various regulators, check valves, distribution lines,
and control valves. The system is used in-ight to purge
the engine, and it provides pressure for actuating engine
valves within the propellant management system and during emergency shutdowns. During entry, on the Space
Shuttle, any remaining helium was used to purge the engines during reentry and for repressurization.[5]

To control the engines output, the MEC operates ve


hydraulically actuated propellant valves on each engine;
the oxidizer preburner oxidizer, fuel preburner oxidizer,
main oxidizer, main fuel, and chamber coolant valves.
In an emergency, the valves can be fully closed by using
the engines helium supply system as a backup actuation
system.[5]

4.1.6 Helium system

In the Space Shuttle the main oxidizer and fuel bleed


valves were used after shutdown to dump any residual
propellant, with residual liquid oxygen venting through
the engine and residual liquid hydrogen venting through 4.2
the liquid hydrogen ll and drain valves. After the dump
was completed, the valves closed and remain closed for
4.2.1
the remainder of the mission.[5]

History
Development

A coolant control valve is mounted on the combustion


chamber coolant bypass duct of each engine. The engine controller regulates the amount of gaseous hydrogen
allowed to bypass the nozzle coolant loop, thus controlling its temperature. The chamber coolant valve is 100%
open before engine start. During engine operation, it is
100% open for throttle settings of 100 to 109% for maximum cooling. For throttle settings between 65 to 100%,
its position ranged from 66.4 to 100% open for reduced
cooling.[5]

4.1.5

Gimbal

Each engine is installed with a gimbal bearing, a universal


ball and socket joint which is bolted to the launch vehicle
by its upper ange and to the engine by its lower ange.
It represents the thrust interface between the engine and
the launch vehicle, supporting 7,480 lb (3,390 kg) of engine weight and withstanding over 500,000 lb (230,000
kg) of thrust. As well as providing a means to attach the
engine to the launch vehicle, the gimbal bearing allows
the engine to be pivoted (or 'gimballed') around two axes
of freedom with a range of 10.5.[17] This motion allows

RS-25 testing at Stennis Space Center.

The history of the RS-25 traces back to the 1960s when


NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and Rocketdyne
were conducting a series of studies on high-pressure engines, developed from the successful J-2 engine used on
the S-II and S-IVB upper stages of the Saturn V rocket
during the Apollo program. The studies were conducted
under a program to upgrade the Saturn V engines, which
produced a design for a 350,000 lb upper-stage engine
known as the HG-3.[19] As funding levels for Apollo
wound down the HG-3 was cancelled as well as the up-

12

CHAPTER 4. SPACE SHUTTLE MAIN ENGINE

graded F-1 engines already being tested.[20] It was the de- and was tested on February 12, 1971, producing a chamsign for the HG-3 that would form the basis for the RS- ber pressure of 3172 psi. The three participating com25.[21]
panies submitted their engine development bids in April
Meanwhile, in 1967, the US Air Force funded a study 1971, with Rocketdyne being awarded the contract on
into advanced rocket propulsion systems for use dur- July 13, 1971although work did not begin on engine
March 31, 1972, due to a legal chaling Project Isinglass, with Rocketdyne asked to inves- development until[10][22]
lenge
from
P&W.
tigate aerospike engines and Pratt & Whitney (P&W)
to research more ecient conventional de Laval nozzle-type engines. At the conclusion of the study, P&W
put forward a proposal for a 250,000 lb engine called
the XLR-129, which used a two-position expanding nozzle to provide increased eciency over a wide range of
altitudes.[22][23]
In January 1969 NASA awarded contracts to General
Dynamics, Lockheed, McDonnell Douglas and North
American Rockwell to initiate early development of the
Space Shuttle.[24] As part of these 'Phase A' studies, the
involved companies selected an upgraded version of the
XLR-129, developing 415,000 lb , as the baseline engine
for their designs.[22] This design can be found on many of
the planned Shuttle versions right up to the nal decision.
However, NASA was interested in pushing the state of the
art in every way, they decided to select a much more advanced design in order to force an advancement of rocket
engine technology.[10][22] They called for a new design
based on a high-pressure combustion chamber running
around 3000 psi, which increases the performance of the
engine.
Development began in 1970, when NASA released a
request for proposal for 'Phase B' main engine concept
studies, requiring development of a throttleable, staged
combustion, de Laval-type engine.[10][22] The request was
based on the then-current design of the Space Shuttle
which featured two reusable stages, the orbiter and a
manned y-back booster, and required one engine which
would be able to power both vehicles via two dierent
nozzles (12 booster engines with 550,000 lb sea level
thrust each and 3 orbiter engines with 632,000 lb vacuum
thrust each).[10] Rocketdyne, P&W and Aerojet General
were selected to receive funding although, given P&Ws
already-advanced development (demonstrating a working
350,000 lb concept engine during the year) and Aerojet
Generals prior experience in developing the 1,500,000
lb M-1 engine, Rocketdyne was forced to put a large
amount of private money into the design process to allow the company to catch up to its competitors.[22]
By the time the contract was awarded, budgetary pressures meant that the shuttles design had changed to its
nal orbiter, external tank and two boosters conguration, and so the engine was only required to power the
orbiter during ascent.[10] During the year-long 'Phase
B' study period, Rocketdyne was able to make use of
their experience developing the HG-3 engine to design
their SSME proposal, producing a prototype by January 1971. The engine made use of a new Rocketdynedeveloped copper-zirconium alloy (called NARloy-Z),

Following the awarding of the contract, a Preliminary Design Review was carried out in September 1972, followed
by a Critical Design Review in September 1976 after
which the engines design was set and construction of the
rst set of ight-capable engines began. Final review of
all the Space Shuttles components, including the engines,
was conducted in 1979. The design reviews operated
in parallel with several test milestones, initial tests consisting of individual engine components which identied
shortcomings with various areas of the design, including
the HPFTP, HPOTP, valves, nozzle and fuel preburners.
The individual engine component tests were followed by
the rst test of a complete engine (0002) on March 16,
1977. NASA specied that, prior to the Shuttles rst
ight, the engines must have undergone at least 65,000
seconds of testing, a milestone that was reached on March
23, 1980, with the engine having undergone 110,253 seconds of testing by the time of STS-1 both on test stands at
Stennis Space Center and installed on the Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA). The rst set of engines (2005,
2006 and 2007) were delivered to Kennedy Space Center in 1979 and installed on Columbia, before being removed in 1980 for further testing and reinstalled on the
orbiter. The engines, which were of the First Manned Orbital Flight (FMOF) conguration and certied for operation at 100% Rated Power Level (RPL), were operated in
a twenty-second Flight Readiness Firing on February 20,
1981, and, after inspection, declared ready for ight.[10]

4.2.2 Space Shuttle program


See also: List of space shuttle missions
Each Space Shuttle had three RS-25 engines, installed in
the aft structure of the Space Shuttle orbiter in the Orbiter
Processing Facility prior to the orbiter being transferred
to the Vehicle Assembly Building. If necessary the engines could be changed on the pad. The engines, drawing propellant from the Space Shuttle external tank (ET)
via the orbiters Main Propulsion System (MPS), were
ignited at T-6.6 seconds prior to lifto (with each ignition staggered by 120 ms[25] ), which allowed their performance to be checked prior to ignition of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs), which committed the
shuttle to the launch.[26] At launch, the engines would be
operating at 100% RPL, throttling up to 104.5% immediately following lifto. The engines would maintain this
power level until around T+40 seconds, where they would
be throttled back to around 70% to reduce aerodynamic
loads on the shuttle stack as it passed through the region
of maximum dynamic pressure, or max Q.[note 1][22][25]

4.2. HISTORY

13

Flight history of the Space Shuttle Main Engines.

Space Shuttle Atlantis's three RS-25D main engines at lifto during STS-110.

turbopump changes in an eort to improve the engines performance and reliability and so reduce the
amount of maintenance required after use. As a result, several versions of the RS-25 were used during the
program:[8][22][24][25][30][31][32][33][34]
FMOF (First Manned Orbital Flight) Certied for
100% Rated Power Level (RPL). Used for the Orbital Flight Test missions STS-1STS-5 (engines
2005, 2006 and 2007).
Phase I Used for missions STS-6STS-51-L, the
Phase I engine oered increased service life and was
certied for 104% RPL.

SSME startup & shutdown sequences.

The engines would then be throttled back up until around


T+8 minutes, at which point they would be gradually
throttled back down to 67% to prevent the stack exceeding 3 g of acceleration as it became progressively lighter
due to propellant consumption. The engines were then
shut down, a procedure known as Main Engine Cuto
(MECO), at around T+8.5 minutes.[22]
After each ight the engines would be removed from the
orbiter and transferred to the Space Shuttle Main Engine
Processing Facility (SSMEPF), where they would be inspected and refurbished in preparation for reuse on a subsequent ight.[27] A total of 46 reusable RS-25 engines,
each costing around US$40 million, were own during
the Space Shuttle program, with each new or overhauled
engine entering the ight inventory requiring ight qualication on one of the test stands at Stennis Space Center
prior to ight.[25][28][29]
Upgrades
Over the course of the Space Shuttle program, the
RS-25 went through a series of upgrades, including combustion chamber changes, improved welds and

Phase II (RS-25A) First own on STS-26, the


Phase II engine oered a number of safety upgrades
and was certied for 104% RPL & 109% Full Power
Level (FPL) in the event of a contingency.
Block I (RS-25B) First own on STS-70, the
Block I engines oered improved turbopumps featuring ceramic bearings, half as many rotating parts
and a new casting process reducing the number of
welds. Block I improvements also included a new,
two-duct powerhead (rather than the original design,
which featured three ducts connected to the HPFTP
and two to the HPOTP), which helped improve hot
gas ow, and an improved engine heat exchanger.
Block IA (RS-25B) First own on STS-73, the
Block IA engine oered main injector improvements.
Block IIA (RS-25C) First own on STS-89, the
Block IIA engine was an interim model used whilst
certain components of the Block II engine completed development. Changes included a new Large
Throat Main Combustion Chamber (which had originally been recommended by Rocketdyne in 1980),
improved low pressure turbopumps and certication for 104.5% RPL to compensate for a 2 seconds
(0.020 km/s) reduction in specic impulse (original
plans called for the engine to be certied to 106%
for heavy International Space Station payloads, but
this was not required and would have reduced engine

14

CHAPTER 4. SPACE SHUTTLE MAIN ENGINE


service life). A slightly modied version rst ew on
STS-96.

Block II (RS-25D) First own on STS-104, the


Block II upgrade included all of the Block IIA improvements plus a new high pressure fuel turbopump. This model was ground-tested to 111% FPL
in the event of a contingency abort, and certied for
109% FPL for use during an intact abort.
The most obvious eects of the upgrades the RS-25 received through the Space Shuttle program were the improvements in engine throttle. Whilst the FMOF engine
had a maximum output of 100% RPL, Block II engines
could throttle as high as 109% or 111% in an emergency,
with usual ight performance being 104.5%. These increases in throttle level made a signicant dierence to
the thrust produced by the engine:[18][25]

STS-51-F (Challenger) No. 2 engine caused an


RSLS shutdown at T-3 seconds due to a coolant
valve malfunction.[36][37]
STS-51-F (Challenger) No. 1 engine (2023) shutdown at T+5:43 due to faulty temperature sensors,
leading to an Abort To Orbit (although the mission
objectives and length were not compromised by the
ATO).[25][37]
STS-55 (Columbia) No. 3 engine caused an RSLS
shutdown at T-3 seconds due to a leak in its liquid
oxygen preburner check valve.[38]
STS-51 (Discovery) No. 2 engine caused an RSLS
shut down at T-3 seconds due to a faulty hydrogen
fuel sensor.[39]
STS-68 (Endeavour) No. 3 engine (2032) caused
an RSLS shutdown at T-1.9 seconds when a temperature sensor in its HPOTP exceeded its redline.[40]

Specifying power levels over 100% may seem nonsensical, but there was a logic behind it. The 100% level
STS-93 (Columbia) At T+5 seconds, an electridoes not mean the maximum physical power level atcal short disabled one primary and one secondary
tainable, rather it was a specication decided on durcontroller on two of the three engines. In addition,
ing engine developmentthe expected rated power level.
an 0.1-inch-diameter, 1-inch-long gold-plated pin,
When later studies indicated the engine could operate
used to plug an oxidizer post orice, came loose
safely at levels above 100%, these higher levels became
inside an engines main injector and impacted the
standard. Maintaining the original relationship of power
engine nozzle inner surface, rupturing a hydrogen
level to physical thrust helps reduce confusion, as it crecooling line. The resulting three breaches in the line
ated an unvarying xed relationship so that test data (or
caused a leak resulting in a premature engine shutoperational data from past or future missions) can be easdown due to increased propellant consumption.[41]
ily compared. If the power level was increased, and that
new value was said to be 100%, then all previous data and
documentation would either require changing, or crosschecking against what physical thrust corresponded to 4.2.3 After Shuttle
100% power level on that date.[10] Engine power level affects engine reliability, with studies indicating the probability of an engine failure increasing rapidly with power
levels over 104.5%, which was why power levels above
104.5% were retained for contingency use only.[30]

Incidents
During the course of the Space Shuttle program, a total of
46 RS-25 engines were used (with one extra RS-25D being built but never used). During the 135 missions, for a
total of 405 individual engine-missions,[28] Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne reports a 99.95% reliability rate, with the
only in-ight SSME failure occurring during Space Shuttle Challenger's STS-51-F mission.[2] The engines, how- The 6 RS-25Ds used during STS-134 and STS-135 in storage at
ever, did suer from a number of pad failures (Redundant Kennedy Space Center.
Set Launch Sequencer aborts, or RSLS) and other issues
during the course of the program:
Project Constellation
STS-41-D (Discovery) No. 3 engine caused an
RSLS shutdown at T-4 seconds due to loss of re- During the period preceding nal Space Shuttle retiredundant control on main engine valve, stack rolled ment, various plans for the remaining engines were proposed, ranging from them all being kept by NASA, to
back and engine replaced.[35]

4.2. HISTORY

15

them all being given away (or sold for US$400,000


800,000 each) to various institutions such as museums
and universities.[42] This policy followed changes to the
planned congurations of the Constellation program's
Ares V cargo-launch vehicle and Ares I crew-launch vehicle rockets, which had been planned to use the RS-25 in
their rst and second stages respectively.[43] Whilst these
congurations had initially seemed worthwhile, as they
would use then-current technology following the shuttles
retirement in 2010, the plan had several drawbacks:[43]
The engines would not be reusable, as they would be
permanently attached to the discarded stages.
Each engine would have to undergo a test ring prior
to installation and launch, with refurbishment required following the test.
It would be expensive, time-consuming, and weightintensive to convert the ground-started RS-25D to
an air-started version for the Ares I second stage.
Following several design changes to the Ares I and Ares V
rockets, the RS-25 was to be replaced with a single J-2X
engine for the Ares I second stage and six modied RS-68
engines (which was based on both the SSME and Apolloera J-2 engine) on the Ares V core stage; this meant that
the RS-25 would be retired along with the space shuttle
eet.[43] In 2010, however, NASA was directed to halt the
Constellation program, and with it development of both
the Ares I and Ares V, instead focusing on building a new
heavy lift launcher.[44]
Space Launch System
On the Space Launch System (SLS), new expendable versions of the engines are planned once the initial inventory of SSME engines from the Shuttle program are used
up. The development of cheaper expendable versions of
the engine has a long history, most notably proposed in
the 1990s with the National Launch System (NLS).[45][46]
The SLSs expendable RS-25, in clusters of three, four or
ve, is being studied; each draw their propellant from the
rockets core stage. They provide propulsion during the
rst stage ight of the SLS, with additional thrust coming from two boosters. Following staging, the engines are
discarded along with the rest of the core stage.
Following the retirement of the Space Shuttle, NASA announced on September 14, 2011, that it would be developing a new launch vehicle, known as the Space Launch
System (SLS), to replace the shuttle eet.[47] The design
for the SLS features the RS-25 on its core stage, with
dierent versions of the rocket being installed with between three and ve engines.[48][49] The initial ights of
the new launch vehicle will make use of own Block II
RS-25D engines, with NASA keeping the remaining such
engines in a purged safe environment at Stennis Space
Center, along with all of the ground systems required to

NASAs SLS reference conguration from February 2011.

maintain them.[50][51] In addition to the RS-25Ds, the


SLS program will make use of the Main Propulsion Systems from the three remaining orbiters for testing purposes (currently being removed as part of the orbiters
decommissioning), with the rst two launches (SLS-1
and SLS-2) possibly making use of the MPS hardware
from Space Shuttles Atlantis and Endeavour in their core
stages.[49][51][52] The SLSs propellants will be supplied to
the engines from the rockets core stage, which will consist of a modied Space Shuttle external tank with the
MPS plumbing and engines at its aft, and an interstage
structure at the top.[6] Once the remaining RS-25Ds are
used up, they are to be replaced with a cheaper, expendable version, currently designated the RS-25E[6] ('E' for
expendable). This engine may be based on one or both of
two single-use variants which were studied in 2005, the
RS-25E (referred to as the 'Minimal Change Expendable
SSME') and the even more simplied RS-25F (referred to
as the 'Low Cost Manufacture Expendable SSME'), both
of which were under consideration in 2011.[32][53]

4.2.4 2015 tests


In 2015, the RS-25 began a test series to provide critical data on the new engine controller unit, materials and
engine propellant inlet pressure conditions for the Space
Launch System engine conguration.
9 January
28 May
11 June - 500 seconds

16
17 July - 535 seconds
13 August
27 August
NASA and the Stennis Space Center are planning on
scheduling two more tests before wrapping up RS-25 testing before early September.

CHAPTER 4. SPACE SHUTTLE MAIN ENGINE

[9] R.A. O'Leary and J. E. Beck (1992). Nozzle Design.


Threshold. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne. Archived from
the original on March 16, 2008.
[10] Robert E. Biggs (May 1992). Space Shuttle Main Engine: The First Ten Years. In Stephen E. Doyle. History
of Liquid Rocket Engine Development in the United States
19551980. AAS History Series. American Astronautical Society. pp. 69122. ISBN 978-0-87703-350-9.
Retrieved December 12, 2011.

Following these series of tests, four more engines will en[11] Nozzle Design. March 16, 2009. Retrieved November
ter a new test cycle. [54]
23, 2011.

The test series is planned to show how the RS-25 engines


will perform with: the new engine controller unit; lower [12] Computers in the Space Shuttle Avionics System. Computers in Spaceight: The NASA Experience. NASA. July
liquid oxygen temperatures; greater inlet pressure due to
15, 2005. Retrieved November 23, 2011.
the taller SLS core stage liquid oxygen tank and higher
vehicle acceleration; and, more nozzle heating due to the [13] The future of the shuttles computers. NASA. July 15,
four-engine conguration and its position in-plane with
2005. Retrieved November 23, 2011.
the SLS booster exhaust nozzles. New ablative insulation
[14] Space Shuttle Main Engine Controllers. NASA. April
and heaters also will be tested during the series.[55]
4, 2004. Retrieved December 8, 2011.

4.3 Notes
[1] The level of throttle was initially set to 65%, but, following review of early ight performance, this was increased
to a minimum of 67% to reduce fatigue on the MPS. The
throttle level was dynamically calculated based on initial
launch performance, generally being reduced to a level
around 70%.

4.4 References
This article incorporates public domain material from
websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and
Space Administration.
[1] Aerojet Rocketdyne, RS-25 Engine (accessed July 22,
2014)
[2] Space Shuttle Main Engine (PDF). Pratt & Whitney
Rocketdyne. 2005. Retrieved November 23, 2011.
[3] Wade, Mark. SSME. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved October 27, 2011.
[4] RS-25 Engine.
[5] Main Propulsion System (MPS)" (PDF). Shuttle Press
Kit.com. Boeing, NASA & United Space Alliance. October 6, 1998. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
[6] Chris Bergin (September 14, 2011). SLS nally
announced by NASA Forward path taking shape.
NASASpaceight.com. Retrieved December 14, 2011.
[7] NASA Relies on Copper for Shuttle Engine. Discover
Copper Online. Copper Development Association. 1992.
Retrieved January 19, 2012.
[8] Steve Roy (August 2000). Space Shuttle Main Engine
Enhancements. NASA. Retrieved December 7, 2011.

[15] RM Mattox & JB White (November 1981). Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (PDF). NASA. Retrieved December 15, 2011.
[16] The Cause of the Accident. Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident.
NASA. June 6, 1986. Retrieved December 8, 2011.
[17] Jim Dumoulin (August 31, 2000). Main Propulsion System. NASA. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
[18] Space Shuttle Main Engine Orientation (PDF). Boeing/Rocketdyne. June 1998. Retrieved December 12,
2011.
[19] Mark Wade. HG-3. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved December 13, 2011.
[20] F-LA TASK ASSIGNMENT PROGRAM nal Report,
(Rocketdyne)
[21] MSFC Propulsion Center of Excellence is Built on Solid
Foundation. NASA. 1995. Retrieved December 13,
2011.
[22] David Baker (April 2011). NASA Space Shuttle. Owners Workshop Manuals. Haynes Publishing. ISBN 9781-84425-866-6.
[23] Dwayne Day (April 12, 2010). A bat outta Hell: the
ISINGLASS Mach 22 follow-on to OXCART. The
Space Review. Retrieved January 8, 2012.
[24] Fred H. Jue. Space Shuttle Main Engine: 30 Years of Innovation (PDF). Boeing. Retrieved November 27, 2011.
[25] Wayne Hale & various (January 17, 2012). An SSMErelated request. NASASpaceight.com. Retrieved January 17, 2012.
[26] Countdown 101. NASA. September 17, 2009. Retrieved January 8, 2012.
[27] John Shannon (June 17, 2009). Shuttle-Derived Heavy
Lift Launch Vehicle (PDF).

4.5. EXTERNAL LINKS

[28] SSME Flight Experience (JPEG). Pratt & Whitney


Rocketdyne. November 2010.
[29] Chris Bergin (December 3, 2007). Constellation transition phased retirement plan for the SSME set. NASASpaceight.com. Retrieved January 23, 2012.
[30] Report of the SSME Assessment Team (PDF). NASA.
January 1993. Retrieved November 27, 2011.
[31] F. Jue and F. Kuck (July 2002). Space Shuttle Main
Engine (SSME) Options for the Future Shuttle (DOC).
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Retrieved November 27, 2011.
[32] Ryan Crierie (November 13, 2011). Reference Spacecraft Engines. Retrieved January 8, 2012.
[33] The Roar of Innovation. NASA. November 6, 2002.
Retrieved December 7, 2011.
[34] MSFC and Exploration: Our Path Forward (PPT).
NASA. September 2005.
[35] Mike Mullane (February 3, 2007). Riding Rockets: The
Outrageous Tales of a Space Shuttle Astronaut. Scribner.
ISBN 0-7432-7682-5.

17

[49] Chris Bergin (January 13, 2012). SSME family prepare for SLS core stage role following Shuttle success.
NASASpaceight.com. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
[50] Carreau, Mark (March 29, 2011). NASA Will Retain
Block II SSMEs. Aviation Week. Retrieved March 30,
2011.
[51] Chris Bergin (January 22, 2012). Engineers begin removing orbiter MPS components for donation to SLS.
NASASpaceight.com. Retrieved January 23, 2012.
[52] Chris Bergin (September 20, 2011). PRCB managers
recommend Atlantis and Endeavour become SLS donors.
NASASpaceight.com. Retrieved December 14, 2011.
[53] P. McConnaughey et al. (February 2011). NASA
Technology Area 1: Launch Propulsion Systems (PDF).
NASA. Retrieved January 23, 2012.
[54] http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/
systems/sls/multimedia/
pedal-to-the-metal-rs-25-engine-revs-up-again.html
[55] RS-25 Engine Fires Up for Third Test in Series, Kim
Henry, Marshall Space Flight Center, in SpaceDaily.com,
17 June 2015, accessed 18 June 2015

[36] Jim Dumoulin (June 29, 2001). 51-F. NASA. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
[37] Ben Evans (2007). Space Shuttle Challenger: Ten Journeys into the Unknown. Warwickshire, United Kingdom:
Springer-Praxis. ISBN 978-0-387-46355-1.
[38] Jim Dumoulin (June 29, 2001). STS-55. NASA. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
[39] Jim Dumoulin (June 29, 2001). STS-51. NASA. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
[40] Jim Dumoulin (June 29, 2001). STS-68. NASA. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
[41] Ben Evans (August 30, 2005). Space Shuttle Columbia:
Her Missions and Crews. Springer Praxis. ISBN 978-0387-21517-4.
[42] Dunn, Marcia (January 15, 2010). Recession Special:
NASA Cuts Space Shuttle Price. ABC News. Archived
from the original on January 18, 2010.
[43] D Harris & C Bergin (December 26, 2008). Return
to SSME Ares V undergoes evaluation into potential
switch. NASASpaceight.com. Retrieved December
15, 2011.
[44] Obama signs Nasa up to new future. BBC News. October 11, 2010.
[45] Lyons 1992, p. 19.
[46] Federation of American Scientists 1996.
[47] NASA Announces Design For New Deep Space Exploration System. NASA. Retrieved December 14, 2011.
[48] Chris Bergin (October 4, 2011). SLS trades lean towards
opening with four RS-25s on the core stage. NASASpaceight.com. Retrieved December 14, 2011.

4.5 External Links


Spherical panoramas of RS-25D in SSME Processing Facility prior to shipping to Stennis Space Center

Chapter 5

Rocketdyne J-2
The J-2 was a liquid-fuel cryogenic rocket engine used on
NASA's Saturn IB and Saturn V launch vehicles. Built in
the U.S. by Rocketdyne, the J-2 burned cryogenic liquid
hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) propellants,
with each engine producing 1,033.1 kN (232,250 lb ) of
thrust in vacuum. The engines preliminary design dates
back to recommendations of the 1959 Silverstein Committee. Rocketdyne won approval to develop the J-2 in
June 1960 and the rst ight, AS-201, occurred on 26
February 1966. The J-2 underwent several minor upgrades over its operational history to improve the engines
performance, with two major upgrade programs, the de
Laval nozzle-type J-2S and aerospike-type J-2T, which
were cancelled after the conclusion of the Apollo pro- A diagram showing the ow of propellant through a J-2 engine
gram.
The engine produced a specic impulse (I ) of 421 seconds (4.13 km/s) in a vacuum (or 200 seconds (2.0 km/s)
at sea level) and had a mass of approximately 1,788 kilograms (3,942 lb). Five J-2 engines were used on the Saturn Vs S-II second stage, and one J-2 was used on the
S-IVB upper stage used on both the Saturn IB and Saturn
V. Proposals also existed to use various numbers of J-2
engines in the upper stages of an even larger rocket, the
planned Nova. The J-2 was Americas largest production
LH2-fuelled rocket engine before the RS-25 Space Shuttle Main Engine. A modernized version of the engine,
the J-2X, is intended for use on the Earth Departure Stage
of NASAs Space Shuttle replacement, the Space Launch
System.
Unlike most liquid-fuelled rocket engines in service at the
time, the J-2 was designed to be restarted once after shutdown when own on the Saturn V S-IVB third stage. The
rst burn, lasting about two minutes, placed the Apollo
spacecraft into a low Earth parking orbit. After the crew
veried that the spacecraft was operating nominally, the
J-2 was re-ignited for translunar injection, a 6.5 minute
burn which accelerated the vehicle to a course for the
Moon.

5.1 Components
5.1.1 Combustion chamber and gimbal
system
The J-2s combustion chamber assembly served as the engines central mounting point, and was composed of the
combustion chamber body, injector and dome assembly,
augmented spark igniter and gimbal bearing assembly.[2]
The thrust chamber was constructed of 0.30 millimetres
(0.012 in) thick stainless steel tubes, stacked longitudinally and furnace-brazed to form a single unit. The chamber was bell-shaped with a 27.5:1 expansion area ratio
for ecient operation at altitude, and was regeneratively
cooled by the fuel. Fuel entered from a manifold, located midway between the thrust chamber throat and the
exit, at a pressure of more than 6,900 kPa (1,000 psi).
In cooling the chamber, the fuel made a one-half pass
downward through 180 tubes and was returned in a full
pass up to the thrust chamber injector through 360 tubes.
Once propellants passed through the injector, they were
ignited by the augmented spark igniter and burned to impart a high velocity to the expelled combustion gases to
produce thrust.[2]
The thrust chamber injector received the propellants under pressure from the turbopumps, then mixed them in a
manner that produced the most ecient combustion. 614
hollow oxidizer posts were machined to form an integral

18

5.1. COMPONENTS
part of the injector, with fuel nozzles (each swaged to the
face of the injector) threaded through and installed over
the oxidizer posts in concentric rings. The injector face
was porous, being formed from layers of stainless steel
wire mesh, and was welded at its periphery to the injector
body. The injector received LOX through the dome manifold and injected it through the oxidizer posts into the
combustion area of the thrust chamber, while fuel was received from the upper fuel manifold in the thrust chamber
and injected through the fuel orices which were concentric with the oxidizer orices. The propellants were injected uniformly to ensure satisfactory combustion. The
injector and oxidizer dome assembly was located at the
top of the thrust chamber. The dome provided a manifold for the distribution of the LOX to the injector and
served as a mount for the gimbal bearing and the augmented spark igniter.[2]
The augmented spark igniter (ASI) was mounted to the
injector face and provided the ame to ignite the propellants in the combustion chamber. When engine start
was initiated, the spark exciters energized two spark plugs
mounted in the side of the combustion chamber. Simultaneously, the control system started the initial ow of
oxidizer and fuel to the spark igniter. As the oxidizer
and fuel entered the combustion chamber of the ASI, they
mixed and were ignited, with proper ignition being monitored by an ignition monitor mounted in the ASI. The ASI
operated continuously during entire engine ring, was uncooled, and was capable of multiple reignitions under all
environmental conditions.[2]
Thrust was transmitted through the gimbal (mounted to
the injector and oxidizer dome assembly and the vehicles thrust structure), which consisted of a compact,
highly loaded (140,000 kPa) universal joint consisting of
a spherical, socket-type bearing. This was covered with a
Teon/berglass coating that provided a dry, low-friction
bearing surface. The gimbal included a lateral adjustment
device for aligning the combustion chamber with the vehicle, so that, in addition to transmitting the thrust from
the injector assembly to the vehicle thrust structure, the
gimbal also provided a pivot bearing for deection of the
thrust vector, thus providing ight attitude control of the
vehicle.[2]

5.1.2

Propellant Feed System

The propellant feed system consists of separate fuel and


oxidizer turbopumps (the bearings of which were lubricated by the uid being pumped because the extremely
low operating temperature of the engine precluded use of
lubricants or other uids), several valves (including the
main fuel valve, main oxidizer valve, propellant utilization valve and fuel and oxidizer bleed valves), fuel and
oxidizer owmeters, and interconnecting lines.[2]

19
Fuel turbopump
The fuel turbopump, mounted on the thrust chamber, was
a turbine-driven, axial ow pumping unit consisting of an
inducer, a seven-stage rotor, and a stator assembly. It was
a high-speed pump operating at 27,000 rpm, and was designed to increase hydrogen pressure from 210 to 8,450
kPa (30 to 1,225 psi) (absolute) through high-pressure
ducting at a owrate which develops 5,800 kW (7,800
bhp). Power for operating the turbopump was provided
by a high-speed, two-stage turbine. Hot gas from the gas
generator was routed to the turbine inlet manifold which
distributed the gas to the inlet nozzles where it was expanded and directed at a high velocity into the rst stage
turbine wheel. After passing through the rst stage turbine wheel, the gas was redirected through a ring of stator
blades and enters the second stage turbine wheel. The gas
left the turbine through the exhaust ducting. Three dynamic seals in series prevented the pump uid and turbine
gas from mixing. Power from the turbine was transmitted
to the pump by means of a one-piece shaft.[2]

Oxidizer turbopump
The oxidizer turbopump was mounted on the thrust
chamber diametrically opposite the fuel turbopump. It
was a single-stage centrifugal pump with direct turbine
drive. The oxidizer turbopump increases the pressure of
the LOX and pumps it through high-pressure ducts to the
thrust chamber. The pump operated at 8,600 rpm at a discharge pressure of 7,400 kPa (1,080 psi) (absolute) and
developed 1,600 kW (2,200 bhp). The pump and its two
turbine wheels are mounted on a common shaft. Power
for operating the oxidizer turbopump was provided by a
high-speed, two-stage turbine which was driven by the exhaust gases from the gas generator. The turbines of the
oxidizer and fuel turbopumps were connected in a series
by exhaust ducting that directed the discharged exhaust
gas from the fuel turbopump turbine to the inlet of the
oxidizer turbopump turbine manifold. One static and two
dynamic seals in series prevented the turbopump oxidizer
uid and turbine gas from mixing.[2]
Beginning the turbopump operation, hot gas entered the
nozzles and, in turn, the rst stage turbine wheel. After passing through the rst stage turbine wheel, the gas
was redirected by the stator blades and entered the second
stage turbine wheel. The gas then left the turbine through
exhaust ducting, passed through the heat exchanger, and
exhausted into the thrust chamber through a manifold directly above the fuel inlet manifold. Power from the turbine was transmitted by means of a one-piece shaft to the
pump. The velocity of the LOX was increased through
the inducer and impeller. As the LOX entered the outlet
volute, velocity was converted to pressure and the LOX
was discharged into the outlet duct at high pressure.[2]

20
Fuel and oxidizer owmeters
The fuel and oxidizer owmeters were helical-vaned,
rotor-type owmeters. They were located in the fuel
and oxidizer high-pressure ducts. The owmeters measured propellant owrates in the high-pressure propellant
ducts. The four-vane rotor in the hydrogen system produced four electrical impulses per revolution and turned
approximately 3,700 rpm at nominal ow. The six-vane
rotor in the LOX system produced six electrical impulses
per revolution and turned at approximately 2,600 rpm at
nominal ow.[2]
Valves
The propellant feed system required a number of valves to
control the operation of the engine by changing the ow
of propellant through the engines components:[2]
The main fuel valve was a buttery-type valve,
spring-loaded to the closed position, pneumatically
operated to the open position, and pneumatically assisted to the closed position. It was mounted between the fuel high-pressure duct from the fuel turbopump and the fuel inlet manifold of the thrust
chamber assembly. The main fuel valve controlled
the ow of fuel to the thrust chamber. Pressure
from the ignition stage control valve on the pneumatic control package opened the valve during engine start and, as the gate started to open, it allowed
fuel to ow to the fuel inlet manifold.[2]
The main oxidizer valve (MOV) was a buttery-type
valve, spring-loaded to the closed position, pneumatically operated to the open position, and pneumatically assisted to the closed position. It was
mounted between the oxidizer high-pressure duct
from the oxidizer turbopump and the oxidizer inlet
on the thrust chamber assembly. Pneumatic pressure from the normally closed port of the mainstage control solenoid valve was routed to both the
rst and second stage opening actuators of the main
oxidizer valve. Application of opening pressure
in this manner, together with controlled venting of
the main oxidizer valve closing pressure through a
thermal-compensating orice, provided a controlled
ramp opening of the main oxidizer valve through
all temperature ranges. A sequence valve, located
within the MOV assembly, supplied pneumatic pressure to the opening control part of the gas generator
control valve and through an orice to the closing
part of the oxidizer turbine bypass valve.[2]
The propellant utilization (PU) valve was an electrically operated, two-phase, motor-driven, oxidizer
transfer valve and is located at the oxidizer turbopump outlet volute. The propellant utilization valve
ensured the simultaneous exhaustion of the contents

CHAPTER 5. ROCKETDYNE J-2


of the propellant tanks. During engine operation,
propellant level sensing devices in the vehicle propellant tanks controlled the valve gate position for
adjusting the oxidizer ow to ensure simultaneous
exhaustion of fuel and oxidizer.[2]
An additional function of the PU Valve
was to provide thrust variations in order
to maximize payload. The second stage,
for example, operated with the PU valve
in the closed position for more than 70%
of the ring duration. This valve position provided 1,000 kN (225,000 lbf) of
thrust at a 5.5:1 propellant (oxidizer to
fuel by weight) mixture ratio (when the
PU valve was fully open, the mixture ratio was 4.5:1 and the thrust level was 780
kN (175,000 lbf)). During the latter portion of the ight, the PU valve position
was varied to provide simultaneous emptying of the propellant tanks. The third
stage also operated at the high-thrust level
for the majority of the burning time in order to realize the high thrust benets. The
exact period of time at which the engine
operated with the PU valve closed varied
with individual mission requirements and
propellant tanking levels.[2]
The propellant bleed valves used in both the fuel
and oxidizer systems were poppet-type, which were
spring-loaded to the normally open position and
pressure-actuated to the closed position. Both propellant bleed valves were mounted to the bootstrap
lines adjacent to their respective turbopump discharge anges. The valves allowed propellant to circulate in the propellant feed system lines to achieve
proper operating temperature prior to engine start,
and were engine controlled. At engine start, a helium control solenoid valve in the pneumatic control
package was energized allowing pneumatic pressure
to close the bleed valves, which remained closed
during engine operation.[2]

5.1.3 Gas generator and exhaust system


The gas generator system consisted of the gas generator,
gas generator control valve, turbine exhaust system and
exhaust manifold, heat exchanger, and oxidizer turbine
bypass valve.[2]
Gas generator
The gas generator itself was welded to the fuel pump turbine manifold, making it an integral part of the fuel turbopump assembly. It produced hot gases to drive the fuel

5.1. COMPONENTS
and oxidizer turbines and consisted of a combustor containing two spark plugs, a control valve containing fuel
and oxidizer ports, and an injector assembly. When engine start was initiated, the spark exciters in the electrical
control package were energized, providing energy to the
spark plugs in the gas generator combustor. Propellants
owed through the control valve to the injector assembly
and into the combustor outlet, before being directed to
the fuel turbine and then to the oxidizer turbine.[2]
Valves

21
maintaining vehicle oxidizer tank pressurization. During
engine operation, either LOX was tapped o the oxidizer
high-pressure duct or helium was provided from the vehicle stage and routed to the heat exchanger coils.[2]

5.1.4 Start tank assembly system


This system was made up of an integral helium and hydrogen start tank, which contained the hydrogen and helium gases for starting and operating the engine. The
gaseous hydrogen imparted initial spin to the turbines and
pumps prior to gas generator combustion, and the helium
was used in the control system to sequence the engine
valves. The spherical helium tank was positioned inside
the hydrogen tank to minimize engine complexity. It held
16,000 cm3 (1,000 cu in) of helium. The larger spherical hydrogen gas tank had a capacity of 118,931 cm3
(7,257.6 cu in). Both tanks were lled from a ground
source prior to launch and the gaseous hydrogen tank was
relled during engine operation from the thrust chamber
fuel inlet manifold for subsequent restart in third stage
application.[2]

The gas generator control valve was a pneumatically


operated poppet-type that was spring-loaded to the
closed position. The fuel and oxidizer poppets were
mechanically linked by an actuator. The valve controlled the ow of propellants through the gas generator injector. When the mainstage signal was received, pneumatic pressure was applied against the
gas generator control valve actuator assembly which
moved the piston and opened the fuel poppet. During the fuel poppet opening, an actuator contacted
the piston that opened the oxidizer poppet. As the
opening pneumatic pressure decayed, spring loads
closed the poppets.[2]
5.1.5
The oxidizer turbine bypass valve was a normally
open, spring-loaded, gate type valve. It was
mounted in the oxidizer turbine bypass duct and
equipped with a nozzle, the size of which was determined during engine calibration. The valve in
its open position depressed the speed of the oxygen
pump during start, and in its closed position acted as
a calibration device for the turbopump performance
balance.[2]
Turbine exhaust system
The turbine exhaust ducting and turbine exhaust hoods
were of welded sheet metal construction. Flanges utilizing dual seals were used at component connections.
The exhaust ducting conducted turbine exhaust gases to
the thrust chamber exhaust manifold which encircled the
combustion chamber approximately halfway between the
throat and the nozzle exit. Exhaust gases passed through
the heat exchanger and exhaust into the main combustion chamber through 180 triangular openings between
the tubes of the combustion chamber.[2]
Heat exchanger
The heat exchanger was a shell assembly, consisting of a
duct, bellows, anges, and coils. It was mounted in the
turbine exhaust duct between the oxidizer turbine discharge manifold and the thrust chamber. It heated and
expanded helium gas for use in the third stage or converted LOX to gaseous oxygen for the second stage for

Control system

The control system included a pneumatic system and a


solid-state electrical sequence controller packaged with
spark exciters for the gas generator and the thrust chamber spark plugs, plus interconnecting electrical cabling
and pneumatic lines, in addition to the ight instrumentation system. The pneumatic system consisted of a highpressure helium gas storage tank, a regulator to reduce
the pressure to a usable level, and electrical solenoid control valves to direct the central gas to the various pneumatically controlled valves. The electrical sequence controller was a completely self-contained, solid-state system, requiring only DC power and start and stop command signals. Pre-start status of all critical engine control functions was monitored in order to provide an engine ready signal. Upon obtaining engine ready and
start signals, solenoid control valves were energized in
a precisely timed sequence to bring the engine through
ignition, transition, and into main-stage operation. After
shutdown, the system automatically reset for a subsequent
restart.[2]
Flight instrumentation system
The ight instrumentation system is composed of a primary instrumentation package and an auxiliary package.
The primary package instrumentation measures those parameters critical to all engine static rings and subsequent vehicle launches. These include some 70 parameters such as pressures, temperatures, ows, speeds, and
valve positions for the engine components, with the capability of transmitting signals to a ground recording sys-

22

CHAPTER 5. ROCKETDYNE J-2

tem or a telemetry system, or both. The instrumentation


system is designed for use throughout the life of the engine, from the rst static acceptance ring to its ultimate
vehicle ight. The auxiliary package is designed for use
during early vehicle ights. It may be deleted from the
basic engine instrumentation system after the propulsion
system has established its reliability during research and
development vehicle ights. It contains sucient exibility to provide for deletion, substitution, or addition of parameters deemed necessary as a result of additional testing. Eventual deletion of the auxiliary package will not
interfere with the measurement capability of the primary
package.[2]

5.2 Engine operation


5.2.1

Start sequence

5. Gradually bleed the pressure from the closing side


of the oxidizer valve pneumatic actuator controlling
the slow opening of this valve for smooth transition
into mainstage.
Energy in the spark plugs was cut o and the engine was
operating at rated thrust. During the initial phase of engine operation, the gaseous hydrogen start tank would
be recharged in those engines having a restart requirement. The hydrogen tank was repressurized by tapping
o a controlled mixture of LH2 from the thrust chamber
fuel inlet manifold and warmer hydrogen from the thrust
chamber fuel injection manifold just before entering the
injector.[2]

5.2.2 Flight mainstage operation


During mainstage operation, engine thrust could be varied between 780 and 1,000 kilonewtons (175,000 and
225,000 lbf) by actuating the propellant utilization valve
to increase or decrease oxidizer ow. This was benecial
to ight trajectories and for overall mission performance
to make greater payloads possible.[2]

Start sequence was initiated by supplying energy to two


spark plugs in the gas generator and two in the augmented
spark igniter for ignition of the propellants. Next, two
solenoid valves were actuated; one for helium control, and
one for ignition phase control. Helium was routed to hold
the propellant bleed valves closed and to purge the thrust
chamber LOX dome, the LOX pump intermediate seal,
5.2.3 Cuto sequence
and the gas generator oxidizer passage. In addition, the
main fuel and ASI oxidizer valves were opened, creating
an ignition ame in the ASI chamber that passed through When the engine cuto signal was received by the electrical control package, it de-energized the main-stage and
the center of the thrust chamber injector.[2]
ignition phase solenoid valves and energized the helium
After a delay of 1, 3, or 8 seconds, during which time control solenoid de-energizer timer. This, in turn, perfuel was circulated through the thrust chamber to condi- mitted closing pressure to the main fuel, main oxidizer,
tion the engine for start, the start tank discharge valve was gas generator control, and augmented spark igniter valves.
opened to initiate turbine spin. The length of the fuel lead The oxidizer turbine bypass valve and propellant bleed
was dependent upon the length of the Saturn V rst stage valves opened and the gas generator and LOX dome
boost phase. When the engine was used in the S-II stage, purges were initiated.[2]
a one-second fuel lead was necessary. The S-IVB, on the
other hand, utilized a three-second fuel lead for its initial
start and an eight-second fuel lead for its restart.[2]
5.2.4 Engine restart

After an interval of 0.450 seconds, the start tank discharge valve was closed and a mainstage control solenoid To provide third stage restart capability for the Saturn
V, the J-2 gaseous hydrogen start tank was relled in 60
was actuated to:[2]
seconds during the previous ring after the engine had
reached steady-state operation (rell of the gaseous he1. Turn o gas generator and thrust chamber helium
lium tank was not required because the original groundpurges
ll supply was sucient for three starts). Prior to engine
2. Open the gas generator control valve (hot gases from restart, the stage ullage rockets were red to settle the
propellants in the stage propellant tanks, ensuring a liqthe gas generator now drive the pump turbines)
uid head to the turbopump inlets. In addition, the engine
3. Open the main oxidizer valve to the rst position (14 propellant bleed valves were opened, the stage recirculadegrees) allowing LOX to ow to the LOX dome to tion valve was opened, the stage prevalve was closed, and
burn with the fuel that has been circulating through a LOX and LH2 circulation was eected through the engine bleed system for ve minutes to condition the engine
the injector
to the proper temperature to ensure proper engine opera4. Close the oxidizer turbine bypass valve (a portion of tion. Engine restart was initiated after the engine ready
the gases for driving the oxidizer turbopump were signal was received from the stage. This was similar to
bypassed during the ignition phase)
the initial engine ready. The hold time between cuto

5.3. HISTORY
and restart was from a minimum of 1.5 hours to a maximum of 6 hours, depending upon the number of earth
orbits required to attain the lunar window for translunar
trajectory.[2]

5.3 History
5.3.1

Development

23
ber 1962. In addition to ight hardware, ve engine simulators were also used during the development process,
assisting in the design of the engines electrical and mechanical systems. Contracts were signed between NASA
and Rocketdyne in the summer of 1962, requiring 55 J2 engines to be produced to support the nal designs for
the Saturn rockets, which required 5 engines for each S-II
second stage of the Saturn V and 1 engine for each S-IVB
Saturn IB and Saturn V stage.[4]

The J-2 entered production in May 1963, with concurrent


testing programs continuing to run at Rocketdyne and
at MSFC during the manufacturing run. The rst production engine, delivered in April 1964, went for static
tests on the S-IVB test stage at the Douglas test facility near Sacramento, California and underwent its rst
full-duration (410 seconds) static test in December 1964.
Testing continued until January 1966, with one engine in
particular igniting successfully in 30 successive rings, including ve tests at full duration of 470 seconds each. The
total ring time of 3774 seconds represented a level of
accumulated operational time almost eight times greater
than the ight requirements. As successful single engine
tests moved toward their completion, integration tests of
the propulsion system with the S-IVB accelerated with
The single J-2 engine of an S-IVB.
the availability of more production engines. The rst operational ight, AS-201, was scheduled in early 1966 for
Inspiration for the J-2 dates back to various NASA stud- the Saturn IB using the S-IB rst stage and the S-IVB as
ies conducted in the late 1950s, of LH2-fuelled engines the second stage.[4]
producing thrust of up to 665 kN (149,000 lb ) following the success of the 67 kN (15,000 lb ) RL-10 used The rst all-up test of a complete S-IVB, including its
on the Atlas-Centaurs Centaur upper stage. As ever- single J-2, in July 1965 was inconclusive when a compoheavier launch vehicles entered consideration, NASA be- nent malfunction in one of the pneumatic consoles premagan to look at engines producing thrusts of up to 890 turely ended the test after a successful propellant loading
kN (200,000 lb ), with development being ocially au- and automatic countdown. Condence in the design was
thorized following the 1959 report of the Saturn Vehi- regained in August, however, when the same stage, Scle Evaluation Committee. A source evaluation board IVB-201, performed awlessly on a full-duration ring of
was formed to nominate a contractor from ve bidding 452 seconds, which was the rst engine test sequence to
companies, and approval was given on 1 June 1960 be controlled entirely by computers. The J-2 was cleared
for Rocketdyne to begin development of a high-energy for ight and, on 26 February 1966, AS-201 went through
rocket engine, fuelled by LOX and hydrogen, to be known a awless launch. In July 1966, NASA conrmed J-2 proas the J-2. The nal contract, awarded in September duction contracts through 1968, by which time Rocket1960, was the rst to explicitly require the design insure dyne agreed to nish deliveries of 155 J-2 engines, with
each engine undergoing a ight qualication ring at the
maximum safety for manned ight.[4]
Santa Susana Field Laboratory before delivery to NASA.
Rocketdyne launched the development of the J-2 with an Reliability and development testing continued on the enanalytical computer model that simulated engine opera- gine, with two uprated versions being used by NASA in
tions and aided in establishing design congurations. The the later ights of the Apollo program.[4]
model was supported by a full-sized mockup which was
used throughout development to judge the positioning of
the engines components. The rst experimental com- 5.3.2 Upgrades
ponent, the engines injector, was produced within two
months of the contract being awarded, and testing of the J-2S
engines components began at Rocketdynes Santa Susana
Field Laboratory in November 1960. Other test facil- An experimental program to improve the performance of
ities, including a vacuum chamber and full-size engine the J-2 started in 1964 as the J-2X (not to be confused
test stand, were used during the development, with the with a later variant by the same name). The main change
engines turbopumps entering testing in November 1961, to the original J-2 design was a change from the gas genthe ignition system in early 1962, and the rst prototype erator cycle to a tap-o cycle that supplied hot gas from
engine running a complete 250-second test run in Octo- a tap on the combustion chamber instead of a separate

24

CHAPTER 5. ROCKETDYNE J-2

burner. In addition to removing parts from the engine, it tronics, a centrifugal turbo pump versus the axial turbo
also reduced the diculty of starting up the engine and pump of the J-2, a dierent chamber and nozzle expanproperly timing various combustors.[5]
sion ratios, a channel-walled combustion chamber verAdditional changes included a throttling system for wider sus the tube-welded chamber of the J-2, a redesign of all
and the use of 21stmission exibility, which also required a variable mixture the electronics, supersonic injection
[9][10]
century
joining
techniques.
system to properly mix the fuel and oxygen for a variety
of dierent operating pressures. It also included a new
Idle Mode that produced little thrust for on-orbit maneuvering or to settle the fuel tanks on-orbit prior to a
burn.
During the experimental program, Rocketdyne also produced a small run of six pre-production models for testing, the J-2S. These were test red many times between
1965 and 1972, for a total of 30,858 seconds burn time.
In 1972 it became clear no follow-on orders for Saturn boosters were coming, and the program shut down.
NASA did consider using the J-2S on a number of different missions, including powering the Space Shuttle in
a number of early designs.[6]

J-2T

On July 16, 2007 NASA ocially announced the award


to Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, Inc. of a $1.2 billion
contract for design, development, testing and evaluation
of the J-2X engine intended to power the upper stages
of the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles.[15] On Sept. 8,
2008 Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne announced successful
testing of the initial J-2X gas generator design.[16] The
completion of a second round of successful gas generator
tests was announced on September 21, 2010.[17]
Project Constellation was cancelled by President Barack
Obama on October 11, 2010,[18] but development of the
J-2X has continued for its potential as the second stage
engine for the new, heavy-lift Space Launch System. The
rst hot-re test of the J-2X was scheduled for late June,
2011.[19]
On November 9, 2011 NASA conducted a successful ring of the J-2X engine of 499.97 seconds in duration.[20]

While work on the J-2S continued, NASA also funded a


design eort to use the J-2S turbomachinery and plumb- On February 27, 2013 NASA continued testing of the Jing with a new aerospike nozzle. This would improve 2X engine of 550 seconds in duration at NASAs Stennis
[21]
performance even further. Two versions were built, the Space Center.
[7]
J-2T-200k that provided 200,000 lbf (890 kN) thrust,
allowing it to be dropped in to the existing S-II and S Concept image of the J-2X engine.
IVB stages, and the J-2T-250k of 1,100 kN (250,000
Test of the J-2X engine 'workhorse' gas generator.
lbf).[8]
Like the J-2S, work on the J-2T had progressed to a
lengthy series of ground-based test runs, but further development ended in the post-Apollo draw-down.

Cold Flow nozzle testing for the J2X program.

5.4 Specications
J-2X

5.5 See also

Main article: J-2X


Comparison of orbital rocket engines
What became a dierent engine with a similar name,
called the J-2X,[9][10] was chosen in 2007 for the Project
Constellation manned lunar landing program. A sin- 5.6 References
gle J-2X engine,generating 1,310 kN (294,000 lbf) of
thrust, was to be used to power the Earth Departure Stage This article incorporates public domain material from
(EDS).[11]
websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and
NASA began construction of a new test stand for altitude Space Administration.
testing of J-2X engines at Stennis Space Center (SSC) on
23 August 2007.[12] Between December 2007 and May [1] Marshall Space Flight Center. J-2 engine. NASA. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
2008, nine tests of heritage J-2 engine components were
conducted at SSC in preparation for the design of the J[2] J-2 Engine Fact Sheet (PDF). Saturn V News Reference.
2X engine.[13]
NASA. December 1968. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
The new J-2X is designed to be more ecient and simpler
to build than its Apollo J-2 predecessor, and cost less than
the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME).[14] Design differences include the removal of beryllium, modern elec-

[3] J-2. Astronautix.


[4] Roger E. Bilstein (1996). Unconventional Cryogenics:
RL-10 and J-2. Stages to Saturn: A technological history

5.6. REFERENCES

of the Apollo/Saturn launch vehicles. The NASA History


Series. NASA. ISBN 978-0-16-048909-9.
[5] J-2S. Astronautix.
[6] Oppenheimer, T.A. (1999). The Space Shuttle Decision:
NASAs Search For A Reusable Space Vehicle.
[7] Mark Wade (17 November 2011). J-2T-200K. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
[8] Mark Wade (17 November 2011). J-2T-250K. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
[9] Mark Wade (17 November 2011). J-2X. Encyclopedia
Astronautica.
[10] William D Greene (4 June 2012). J-2X Extra: Whats in
a Name?". NASA.
[11] Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Awarded $1.2 Billion
NASA Contract for J-2X Ares Rocket Engine (Press release). Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne. July 18, 2007.
[12] NASAs Stennis Space Center Marks New Chapter in
Space Exploration (Press release). NASA. August 23,
2007.
[13] NASA Successfully Completes First Series of Ares Engine Tests (Press release). NASA. May 8, 2008.
[14] J-2X Overview. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne.
[15] NASA Awards Upper Stage Engine Contract for Ares
Rockets (Press release). NASA. July 16, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-17.
[16] Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Completes Successful Test
of J-2X Gas Generator (Press release). Pratt & Whitney
Rocketdyne. September 8, 2008.
[17] Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Completes Latest Round
of Tests on J-2X Gas Generator (Press release). Pratt &
Whitney Rocketdyne. September 21, 2010.
[18] Obama signs Nasa up to new future. BBC News. October 11, 2010.
[19] Morring, Frank. First J-2X Hot-Fire Test Could Come
Next Week. Aviation Week. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
[20] NASA Test Fires Engine for Giant New Rocket.
[21] J-2X Engine 'Goes the Distance' at Stennis.

25

Chapter 6

RL10
The RL10 is a liquid-fuel cryogenic rocket engine used
on the Centaur, S-IV and DCSS upper stages. Built in
the United States by Aerojet Rocketdyne (formerly by
Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne), the RL10 burns cryogenic
liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants, with each
engine producing 64.7 to 110 kN (14,54524,729 lb ) of
thrust in vacuum depending on the version in use. The
RL10 was the rst liquid hydrogen rocket engine to be
built in the United States, and development of the engine
by Marshall Space Flight Center and Pratt & Whitney began in the 1950s, with the rst ight occurring in 1961.
Several versions of the engine have been own, with two,
the RL10A-4-2 and the RL10B-2, still being produced
and own on the Atlas V and Delta IV.
The engine produces a specic impulse (I ) of 373 to 470
s (3.664.61 km/s) in a vacuum and has a mass ranging
from 131 to 317 kg (289699 lb) (depending on version).
Six RL10A-3 engines were used in the S-IV second stage
of the Saturn I rocket, one or two RL10 engines are used
in the Centaur upper stages of Atlas and Titan rockets
and one RL10B-2 is used in the upper stage of Delta IV
rockets.

6.1 History
The RL10 was rst tested on the ground in 1959, at Pratt
and Whitney's Florida Research and Development Center
in West Palm Beach, Florida.[2] It was rst own in 1962
in an unsuccessful suborbital test;[3] the rst successful
ight took place on November 27, 1963.[4][5] For that
launch, two RL10A-3 engines powered the Centaur upper stage of an Atlas launch vehicle. The launch was used
to conduct a heavily instrumented performance and structural integrity test of the vehicle.[6] The RL-10 was designed for the USAF from the beginning as a throttleable
motor for the Lunex lunar lander, nally putting this capability to use twenty years later in the DC-X VTOL
vehicle.[7]

stage, as well as the Delta III second stage. It has been


signicantly modied from the original RL10 to improve
performance. Some of the enhancements include an extendable nozzle and electro-mechanical gimbaling for reduced weight and increased reliability. Current specic
impulse is 464 seconds (4.55 km/s).
A aw in the brazing of an RL10B-2 combustion
chamber was identied as the cause of failure for the
May 4, 1999, Delta III launch carrying the Orion-3
communications satellite.[8]

6.2 Applications for the RL10


Four modied RL10A-5 engines, all of them with the
ability to be throttled, were used in the McDonnell Douglas DC-X.
The DIRECT version 3.0 proposal to replace Ares I and
Ares V with a family of rockets sharing a common core
stage, recommends the RL10 for the second stage of their
proposed J-246 and J-247 launch vehicles.[9] Up to seven
(7) RL10 engines would be used in the proposed Jupiter
Upper Stage, serving an equivalent role to the Ares V
Earth Departure Stage.

6.2.1 Potential uses for the RL10


Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine

The Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine (CECE) is


a testbed to develop RL10 engines that throttle well.
NASA has contracted with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne
to develop the CECE demonstrator engine.[10] In 2007 its
operability (with some chugging) was demonstrated at
11-to-1 throttle ratios.[11] In 2009 NASA reported successfully throttling from 104 percent thrust to eight percent thrust, a record for an engine of this type. Chug6.1.1 Improvements
ging was eliminated by injector and propellant feed sysThe RL10 has been upgraded over the years. One cur- tem modications that control the pressure, temperature
rent model, the RL10B-2, powers the Delta IV second and ow of propellants.[12]
26

6.3. VARIANTS

27
associated with its manufacture, says Dale Thomas, associate director of technical issues at NASA Marshall.
Thats what this study will gure out, is it worthwhile to
build an RL10 replacement?"
USAF hopes to replace the Rocketdyne RL10 engines
used on the upper stage of both the Lockheed Martin Atlas V and the Boeing Delta IV, known as evolved expendable launch vehicles (EELV) that are the primary method
of putting US satellites into space. While NASA frequently uses EELVs to launch large scientic payloads,
the programmes administration is largely run through
other channels.[15]

6.3 Variants
6.4 Specications
6.4.1 Original RL10
Thrust (altitude): 15,000 lbf (66.7 kN)[17]
Burn Time: 470 s[17]
Design: Expander cycle
The CECE at partial throttle.

Specic impulse: 433 seconds (4.25 km/s)


Engine weight - dry: 298 lb (135 kg)

Advanced Common Evolved Stage

Height: 68 in (1.73 m)

Diameter: 39 in (0.99 m)
As of 2009, an enhanced version of the RL10 rocket
engine was proposed to power the upper-stage versions
Nozzle expansion ratio: 40 to 1
of the Advanced Common Evolved Stage (ACES), a
Propellants: Liquid Oxygen & Liquid Hydrogen
long-duration, low-boilo extension of existing ULA
Centaur and Delta Cryogenic Second Stage (DCSS)
Propellant ow: 35 lb/s (16 kg/s)
technology.[13] Long-duration ACES technology is explicitly designed to support geosynchronous, cislunar,
Contractor: Pratt & Whitney
and interplanetary missions as well as provide in-space
Vehicle application: Saturn I / S-IV 2nd stage - 6propellant depots in LEO or at L2 that could be used as
engines
way-stations for other rockets to stop and refuel on the
way to beyond-LEO or interplanetary missions. Addi Vehicle application: Centaur upper stage - 2-engines
tional missions could include the provision of the highenergy technical capacity for the cleanup of space debris.[14]
6.4.2 Current design
RL10B-2 Specications
NextGen Propulsion Study
NASA is partnering with the US Air Force (USAF) to
study next-generation upper stage propulsion, formalizing
the agencies joint interests in a new upper stage engine to
replace the venerable Aerojet Rocketdyne RL10.
We know the list price on an RL10. If you look at cost
over time, a very large portion of the unit cost of the
EELVs is attributable to the propulsion systems, and the
RL10 is a very old engine, and theres a lot of craftwork

Thrust (altitude): 24,750 lbf (110.1 kN)[29]


Design: Expander cycle[30]
Specic impulse: 464 seconds (4.55 km/s)[29]
Engine weight - dry: 610 lb (277 kg)[29]
Height: 163 in (4.14 m)[29]
Diameter: 87 in (2.21 m)[29]

28

CHAPTER 6. RL10

6.7 References
Notes
[1] Mark Wade (17 November 2011). RL-10B-2. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 27 February 2012.
[2] Connors, p 319
[3] Centaur. Gunters Space Pages.

Second stage of a Delta IV Medium rocket featuring an RL10B-2


engine.

Expansion ratio: 250 to 1


Mixture ratio: 5.85 to 1 [29]
Propellants: Liquid oxygen & liquid hydrogen[29]
Propellant ow: Oxidizer 41.42 lb/s (20.6 kg/s), fuel
7.72 lb/s (3.5 kg/s)[29]
Contractor: Pratt & Whitney
Vehicle application: Delta III, Delta IV second stage
(1 engine)
RL10A-4-2

[4] Sutton, George (2005). History of liquid propellant rocket


engines. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. ISBN 1-56347-649-5.
[5] Renowned Rocket Engine Celebrates 40 Years of
Flight. Pratt & Whitney. November 24, 2003.
[6] Atlas Centaur 2. NASA NSSDC.
[7] Encyclopedia Astronautica - Lunex Project page. Mark
Wade.
[8] Delta 269 (Delta III) Investigation Report (PDF).
Boeing. August 16, 2000. MDC 99H0047A. Archived
from the original (PDF) on June 16, 2001.
[9] Jupiter Launch Vehicle Technical Performance Summaries. Archived from the original on 2009-06-08. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
[10] Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine (CECE)".
United Technologies Corporation.

The other current model, the RL10A-4-2, is the engine


[11] Throttling Back to the Moon. NASA. 2007-07-16.
used on Centaur upper stage for Atlas V.[29]

6.5 Engines on display


An RL10 is on display at the New England Air Museum, Windsor Locks, Connecticut[31]
An RL10 is on display at the Museum of Science
and Industry, Chicago, Illinois[32]
An RL10 is on display at the U.S. Space & Rocket
Center, Huntsville, Alabama[32]
An RL10 is on display at Southern University, Baton
Rouge, Louisiana[33]
Two RL10 engines are on display at US Space Walk
of Fame, Titusville, Florida [34]

6.6 See also


Spacecraft propulsion
RL60
RD-0146
XCOR/ULA aluminum alloy nozzle engine, under
development in 2011

[12] NASA Tests Engine Technology for Landing Astronauts


on the Moon. NASA. Jan 14, 2009.
[13] Kutter, Bernard F.; Frank Zegler; Jon Barr; Tim Bulk;
Brian Pitchford (2009). Robust Lunar Exploration Using
an Ecient Lunar Lander Derived from Existing Upper
Stages (PDF). AIAA.
[14] Zegler, Frank; Bernard Kutter (2010-09-02). Evolving
to a Depot-Based Space Transportation Architecture
(PDF). AIAA SPACE 2010 Conference & Exposition.
AIAA. Retrieved 2011-01-25. ACES design conceptualization has been underway at ULA for many years. It
leverages design features of both the Centaur and Delta
Cryogenic Second Stage (DCSS) upper stages and intends
to supplement and perhaps replace these stages in the future. ...
[15] Roseberg, Zach (April 12, 2012). NASA, US Air Force
to study joint rocket engine. Flight Global. Retrieved
June 1, 2012.
[16] Mark Wade (17 November 2011). RL-10A-1. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 27 February 2012.
[17] Bilstein, Roger E. (1996), Unconventional Cryogenics:
RL-10 and J-2, Stages to Saturn; A Technological History
of the Apollo/Saturn Launch Vehicles, Washington, D.C.:
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA
History Oce, retrieved 2011-12-02

6.8. EXTERNAL LINKS

[18] Atlas Centaur. Gunters Space Page. Retrieved 29


February 2012.
[19] Mark Wade (17 November 2011). RL-10A-3. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 27 February 2012.
[20] Mark Wade (17 November 2011). RL-10A-4. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 27 February 2012.
[21] Mark Wade (17 November 2011). RL-10A-4-1. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 27 February 2012.
[22] Mark Wade (17 November 2011). RL-10A-4-2. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 27 February 2012.
[23] Mark Wade (17 November 2011). RL-10A-5. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 27 February 2012.
[24] Mark Wade (17 November 2011). RL-10B-X. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 27 February 2012.
[25] Commons Extensible Cryogenic Engine. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne. Retrieved 28 February 2012.
[26]
[27] Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (PDF). NASA. Retrieved
11 October 2014.
[28]
[29] RL10B-2 (PDF). Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne. 2009.
Retrieved January 29, 2012.
[30] Sutton, A M; Peery, S D; Minick, A B (January
1998). 50K expander cycle engine demonstration.
AIP Conference Proceedings 420: pp. 10621065.
doi:10.1063/1.54719.
[31] Pratt & Whitney RL10A-1 Rocket Engine. New England Air Museum. Retrieved April 26, 2014.
[32] Photos of Rocket Engines. Historic Spacecraft. Retrieved April 26, 2014.
[33] Colaguori, Nancy; Kidder, Bryan (November 3, 2006).
Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Donates Model of Legendary Rl10 Rocket Engine to Southern University. PR
Newswire (Press release). Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne.
Retrieved April 26, 2014.
[34] https://www.facebook.com/SpaceWalkOfFame/photos/
pcb.10152534325180820/10152534320660820/?type=
1&theater

Bibliography
Connors, Jack (2010). The Engines of Pratt &
Whitney: A Technical History. Reston. Virginia:
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.
ISBN 978-1-60086-711-8.

6.8 External links


RL10B-2 at Astronautix
Spaceight Now article
Spaceight Now article

29

Chapter 7

RS-68
The Aerojet Rocketdyne (formerly Rocketdyne and later
Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne) RS-68 (Rocket System 68)
is a liquid-fuel rocket engine that uses liquid hydrogen
(LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) as propellants in a gasgenerator power cycle. It is the largest hydrogen-fueled
rocket engine.[3]
Its development started in the 1990s with the goal of producing a simpler, less-costly, heavy-lift engine for the
Delta IV launch system. Two versions of the engine have
been produced: the original RS-68 and the improved
RS-68A. A third version, the RS-68B, was planned for
NASA's Ares V rocket that was later canceled.

7.1 Design and development


A leading goal of the RS-68 program was to produce a
simple engine that would be cost-eective when used for
a single launch. To achieve this, the RS-68 has 80% fewer
parts than the multi-launch Space Shuttle Main Engine
(SSME).[4] Simplicity came at the cost of lower thrusteciency versus the SSME: the RS-68s thrust-to-weight
ratio is signicantly lower and its specic impulse is 10%
lower.[5] The benet of the RS-68 is its reduced construction cost.[4] The RS-68 is larger, and more powerful than
the SSME and it was designed to be a more cost-eective
engine for an expendable launch vehicle.
The engine uses a gas generator cycle with two independent turbopumps. The combustion chamber uses a
channel-wall design to reduce cost. This design, pioneered in the former Soviet Union, features inner and
outer skins brazed to middle separators, forming cooling channels. Although this method is heavier, it is much
simpler and less costly than the tube-wall design (using
hundreds of tubes, bent into the shape of the combustion
chamber and brazed together) used in other engines. The
lower nozzle has an expansion ratio of 21.5 and is lined
with an ablative material. The nozzles lining burns away
as the engine runs, dissipating heat. This ablative coating
is heavier than other engines tube-wall nozzles but much
easier and less expensive to manufacture. The presence of
carbon in the exhaust from the ablative carbon-containing
inner nozzle lining can be inferred by the yellow color of
the engine exhaust, unlike the SSMEs nearly-transparent

ame of pure hydrogen burning. The combustion chamber burns liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen at 1,486
lbf/in2 (10.25 MPa) at 102% power with a 1:6 engine
mixture ratio.
The RS-68 was developed at Rocketdyne Propulsion and
Power, located in Canoga Park, Los Angeles, California, where the SSME is manufactured. It was designed
to power the Delta IV Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). The initial development engines were assembled at the nearby Santa Susana Field Laboratory where
the Saturn V F-1 engines were developed and tested for
the Apollo missions to the Moon. The RS-68 had initial
testing done at Air Force Research Lab, Edwards AFB
and later at NASAs Stennis Space Center. The rst successful test ring at AFRL was completed on September
11, 1998. The RS-68 was certied for use on Delta IV in
December 2001.[6] The rst successful launch using the
new engine and launch vehicle occurred on November 20,
2002.
The RS-68 is part of the Common Booster Core (CBC)
used to create the ve variants of the Delta IV family of
launch vehicles. The largest of the launch vehicles includes three CBCs mounted together for the Heavy.
At a maximum 102% thrust, the engine produces
758,000 pounds-force (3,370 kN) in a vacuum and
663,000 pounds-force (2,950 kN) at sea level. The engines mass is 14,560 pounds (6,600 kg) at 96 inches (2.4
m). With this thrust, the engine has a thrust-to-weight ratio of 51.2, and a specic impulse of 410 s (4.0 km/s) in
a vacuum and 365 s (3.58 km/s) at sea level.[7] The RS68 is gimbaled hydraulically and is capable of throttling
between 58% and 101% thrust.[8]
The RS-68A is an updated version of the RS-68, with
changes to provide increased specic impulse and thrust
(to over 700,000 pounds-force (3,100 kN) at sea level).[9]
The rst launch used three RS-68A engines mounted in a
Delta IV Heavy. This rst launch occurred June 29, 2012
from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.[10]

7.1.1 Proposed uses


In 2006, NASA announced that ve RS-68 engines would
be used instead of SSMEs on the planned Ares V (CaLV).

30

7.4. REFERENCES
NASA chose the RS-68 because of its lower cost, about
$20 million per engine after NASA upgrades. The modications to the RS-68 for the Ares V included a dierent
ablative nozzle to accommodate a longer burn, a shorter
start sequence, hardware changes to limit free hydrogen at
ignition, and changes to reduce helium use during countdown and ight. Thrust and specic impulse increases
would occur under a separate upgrade program for Delta
IV.[11] Later the Ares V was changed to use six RS-68 engines, designated RS-68B.[12] Ares V was canceled along
with Project Constellation; NASAs successor heavy-lift
vehicle, the Space Launch System, uses Space Shuttle
Main Engines (SSMEs).
The DIRECT alternative launch project included two or
three RS-68 engines in version 2.0 of the teams proposal, but switched to the SSME for version 3.0.

7.1.2

Human-rating

It would reportedly require over 200 changes to the RS-68


to meet human-rating standards.[13] NASA states several
changes are needed to human-rate the RS-68, including
health monitoring, removal of fuel-rich environment at
lifto, and improved subsystems robustness.[14][15]

7.2 Variants
RS-68 is the initial engine version. It produces
663,000 pounds-force (2,950 kN) thrust at sea
level.[16]
RS-68A is an improved engine version. It produces 705,000 lbf (3,140 kN) thrust at sea level and
800,000 lbf (3,560 kN) thrust in vacuum.[17] Vacuum specic impulse is 414 seconds (4.06 km/s).
Certication testing was completed in November
2010. First ight was on a Delta IV Heavy launching
NROL-15 on June 29, 2012.
RS-68B was a proposed upgrade to be used in the
Ares V launch vehicle for NASA's Constellation
program.[12] The Ares V was to use six RS-68B
engines on a 10-meter core stage, along with two
5.5-segment solid rocket boosters. It was later
determined that the ablative nozzle of the RS-68
was poorly suited to this multi-engine environment,
causing reduced engine eciency and extreme heating at the base of the vehicle.[18]

7.3 See also


Comparison of orbital rocket engines
M-1 (rocket engine)

31
SSME
TR-106
RS-83
RS-84
J-2 (rocket engine)

7.4 References
[1] Delta IV Users Guide (PDF). ULA. Retrieved June
2013.
[2] DELTA IV. ULA. Retrieved July 2014.
[3] ATK Propulsion and Composite Technologies Help
Launch National Reconnaissance Oce Satellite (Press
release). Alliant Techsystems. January 19, 2009.
[4] AIAA 2002-4324, Propulsion for the 21st CenturyRS68. AIAA, July 810, 2002.
[5] The RS-68 produces 3370 kN of thrust and has a mass
of 6,600 kg (T/W = 52) at a vacuum ISP of 410. The
SSME produces 2,279 kN of thrust with a mass of 3,500
kg (T/W=66) at a vacuum ISP of 452.
[6] Rocketdyne RS-68 Engine Certied for Boeing Delta
IV (Press release). Boeing. Dec 19, 2001.
[7] RS-68. Academic.ru
[8] Boeing white paper on RS-68 development
[9] United Launch Alliance First RS-68A Hot-Fire Engine
Test a Success (Press release). United Launch Alliance.
2008-09-25. Retrieved 2008-09-30. Currently, the RS68 engine can deliver more than 660,000 pounds of sea
level thrust and the upgraded RS-68A will increase this to
more than 700,000 pounds. The RS-68A also improves
on the specic impulse, or fuel eciency, of the RS-68.
[10] United Launch Alliance Upgraded Delta IV Heavy
rocket successfully Launches Second Payload in Nine
Days for the National Reconnaissance Oce (Press release). United Launch Alliance. 2012-06-29.
[11] NASAs Exploration Systems Progress Report (Press
release). NASA. 2006-05-18. Retrieved 2006-05-30.
[12] Overview: Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle. NASA.
Archived from the original on Sep 26, 2008. Retrieved
30 September 2008.
[13] United Launch Alliance First RS-68A Hot-Fire Engine
Test a Success. NASAspaceight.com forum. 2008-0927.
[14] Frequently Asked Questions, question 3.
ESMD.

NASA

[15] Bearden, David A; Skratt, John P; Hart, Matthew J (June


1, 2009). Human Rated Delta IV Heavy Study Constellation Impacts (PDF). NASA. p. 8.

32

[16] RS-68 Propulsion System (PDF). Pratt & Whitney


Rocketdyne. October 2005.
[17] http://www.asdnews.com/news/32037/P&W_
Successfully_Completes_Hot-Fire_Test_on_2nd_
RS-68A_Certification_Engine.htm
[18] The engines that refused to retire RS-25s prepare for
SLS testing. NASA Spaceight.com. June 2013.

7.5 External links


Aerojet Rocketdynes RS-68 page
RS-68 page on Astronautix.com
Wood, B.K. (2002). Propulsion for the 21st
CenturyRS-68 (doc). 38th Joint Liquid Propulsion Conference. Indianapolis, Indiana: AIAA.

CHAPTER 7. RS-68

Chapter 8

RS-83
The RS-83 was a rocket engine design for a reusable
liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen rocket larger and more
powerful than any other. The RS-83 was designed to last
100 missions, and was intended for use on the rst stage
of a two-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle.[1]

8.2 See also


J-2 (rocket engine)
RS-84

8.3 References
8.1 Development

[1] Main Engine Candidates for a Second Generation


Reusable Launch Vehicle (PDF). NASA. September
2002.

It was developed by Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power,


located in Canoga Park, California to power the launch
vehicle as part of the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) program. This engine was designed to produce a thrust
of 664,000 lbf (2,950 kN) at sea level and 750,000 lbf
(3,300 kN) in a vacuum with an I of 395 and 446 seconds (3.87 and 4.37 kNs/kg), respectively.

[2] Boeing Rocketdyne Chooses Design for NextGeneration Reusable Rocket Engine (Press release).
Boeing Rocketdyne. January 28, 2002.

The engine was designed to use many new technologies including ones developed for the Space Shuttle
Main Engine (SSME). Technologies include channel wall
regenerative nozzles, hydrostatic bearings, and turbine
damping.[2]

[3] Air Force studying reusable upper stage systems for


reusable booster. RLV and Space Transport News.
September 2010.

8.4 External links

The RS-83 is loosely based on the RS-68 that powers the


Delta IV expendable launch vehicle. The RS-83 design is
more ecient, lighter, slightly stronger, and yet reusable.
The engine design weight was 12,700 lb (5,760 kg) with
an engine thrust to weight ratio of 52:1 at launch.
One of the main goals of SLI was to develop components of a reusable launch vehicle with high reliability.
The RS-83 was designed for a loss of vehicle rate of 1 in
1,000. Another goal of the program was to dramatically
reduce the cost per unit weight of payload to low earth orbit. The RS-83 was designed with the goal of $1,000/lb
($2,200/kg).
The engine passed numerous design reviews and was on
schedule for prototype testing in 2005 before the SLI
program was cancelled. NASA changed its focus to
expendable launch systems used in the Constellation program for human spaceights to the Moon and Mars.
The Air Force Reusable Booster System program may
renew interest in further development.[3]
33

Stennis Space Center page.

Chapter 9

Vulcain
For other uses of Vulcain, see Vulcain (disambiguation).
Vulcain is a family of European rst stage rocket engines for the Ariane 5. Its development began in 1988
and the rst ight was completed in 1996. The updated
version of the engine Vulcain 2 was rst successfully
own in 2005. Both members of the family use liquid
oxygen/liquid hydrogen cryogenic fuel. As of 2012 no
new version of the engine is in development.

9.1 History
The development of Vulcain, assured by a European
collaboration, began in 1988 with the Ariane 5 rocket
program.[8] It rst ew in 1996 powering the ill-fated
ight 501 without being the cause of the disaster, and had
its rst successful ight in 1997 (ight 502). In 2002 the
upgraded Vulcain 2 with 20% more thrust[9] rst ew on
ight 517, although a problem with the engine turned the
ight into a failure.[10] The cause was due to ight loads
being much higher than expected, as the inquiry board
concluded.[11] Subsequently the nozzle was redesigned to
include mechanical reinforcement of the structure and
improvement of the thermal situation of the tube wall
through enhancing hydrogen coolant ow as well as applying a thermal barrier coating to the ame-facing side
of the coolant tubes.[11] The rst successful ight of the
(partially redesigned) Vulcain 2 occurred in 2005 on ight
521.[10]

9.1.1

9.2 Overview
The Vulcain engines are gas-generator cycle cryogenic
rocket engines fed with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. They feature regenerative cooling through a tube
wall design, and the Vulcain 2 introduced a particular
lm cooling for the lower part of the nozzle, where exhaust gas from the turbine is re-injected in the engine
[11]
They power the rst stage of the Ariane 5 launcher,
the EPC (tage Principal Cryotechnique, main cryogenic
stage) and provide 8% of the total lift-o thrust[16] (the
rest being provided by the two solid rocket boosters). The
engine operating time is 600 s in both congurations.[17]
3 m tall and 1.76 m in diameter, the engine weighs 1686
kg and provides 137 t of thrust in its latest version.[18] The
oxygen turbopump rotates at 13600 rpm with a power of
3 MW while the hydrogen turbopump rotates at 34000
rpm with 12 MW of power. The total mass ow rate is
235 kg/s, of which 41.2 kg/s are of hydrogen.

9.3 Contractors
The main contractor for the Vulcain engines is Snecma
Moteurs (France), which also provides the liquid hydrogen turbopump. The liquid oxygen turbopump is responsibility of Avio (Italy), and the gas turbines that power
the turbopumps and the nozzle are developed by GKN
(Formerly Volvo) (Sweden).[16]

9.4 See also

Future development

Comparison of orbital rocket engines

Although dierent upgrades to the engine have been


Spacecraft propulsion
proposed,[12] there is no current program to develop an
Timeline of hydrogen technologies
uprated version of the engine. If there will ever be one,
it is likely that the new engine would be introduced after
the PA batch of 30 Ariane 5 ECAs ordered on 10 May
9.4.1 Comparable engines
2004[13][14] will be expended.
On 17 June 2007 Volvo Aero announced that in spring of
2008 it expected to hot-re test a Vulcain 2 nozzle manufactured with a new sandwich technology.[15]
34

RS-68
J-2X

9.6. EXTERNAL LINKS

35

9.6 External links

SSME
RD-0120

Arianespace Ariane 5: Cryogenic Main Stage and


Solid Boosters

9.5 References and notes


[1] EADS Astrium. Vulcain Rocket Engine - Thrust Chamber. Airbus Defence and Space. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
[2] V169 Presskit (PDF). Arianespace. Retrieved 30 June
2015.
[3] Vulcain. Astronautix. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
[4] EADS Astrium. Vulcain 2 Rocket Engine - Thrust
Chamber. Airbus Defence and Space. Retrieved 20 July
2014.
[5] Ariane 5 - Europes Heavy Launcher (PDF). European
Space Agency. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
[6] Vulcain2. Safran. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
[7] Vulcain 2. Astronautix. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
[8] Vulcain Summary.
2006-12-16.

SPACEandTECH. Retrieved

[9] Vulcain 2 engine now in full production. European


Space Agency. 2005-04-05. Retrieved 2006-12-16.
[10] Ariane 5 Data Sheet. Space Launch Report. 2005-1129. Retrieved 2006-12-15.
[11] L. Winterfeldt, Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollhttan,
Sweden; B. Laumert, Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollhttan, Sweden; R. Tano, Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollhttan, Sweden; P. James, Snecma, Vernon, France;
F. Geneau, Snecma, Vernon, France; R. Blasi, EADS
Space Transportation, Ottobrunn, Germany & G. Hagemann, EADS Space Transportation, Ottobrunn, Germany
(2005-07-10). Redesign of the Vulcain 2 Nozzle Extension (PDF). American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Retrieved 2012-07-04.
[12] David Iranzo-Greus (2005-03-23). Ariane 5 A European Launcher for Space Exploration (PowerPoint presentation). EADS SPACE Transportation. Retrieved
2007-06-27.
[13] EADS N.V. EADS welcomes contract signature for 30
Ariane 5 launchers at ILA 2004 in Berlin (Press release).
EADS. 2004-05-10. Retrieved 2012-07-04.
[14] Three billion Euros contract for 30 Ariane 5 launchers
EADS Astrium (Press release). EADS Astrium. 200405-10. Retrieved 2012-07-04.
[15] Volvo Aeros sandwich space technology passes important milestone (Press release). Volvo Aero. June 17,
2007.
[16] ESA Launch Vehicles Vulcain Engine. European
Space Agency. 2005-11-29. Retrieved 2006-12-16.
[17] Volvo Aero: Vulcain characteristics. Volvo Aero. Retrieved 2007-05-12.
[18] ESA Launch Vehicles Ariane 5 ECA. European
Space Agency. Retrieved 2006-12-16.

Ariane 5 ECA and Snecma Snecma Moteurs: Vulcain 2 engine proves its mettle
LH2 Turbine (Vulcain and Vulcain 2 engines) PDF
Volvo Aero
LOX Turbine (Vulcain and Vulcain 2 engines) PDF
Volvo Aero
Development of the turbines for the Vulcain 2 turbopumps PDF Volvo Aero
High cycle fatigue of Vulcain 2 LOx turbine blades
PDF Volvo Aero
An ecient concept design process PDF Volvo
Aero
Vulcain 2 nozzle PDF Volvo Aero

9.6.1 Related news


EADS N.V. EADS welcomes contract signature
for 30 Ariane 5 launchers at ILA 2004 in Berlin
Three billion Euros contract for 30 Ariane 5 launchers EADS Astrium

Chapter 10

HM7B
The HM7B is a European cryogenic upper stage rocket 10.3.1 Comparable engines
engine used in Ariane rocket family.[2] It will be replaced
RL-10
by Vinci as an upper-stage engine for Ariane 5.[3] Nearly
300 engines have been produced to date.[2]
Vinci

10.1 History

10.4 References

The development of HM7 engine begun in 1973 on a


base of HM4 rocket engine. It was designed to power a
third stage of newly constructed Ariane 1, the rst launch
system for European Space Agency. Maiden ight took
place on 24 December 1979 successfully placing CAT-1
satellite on the orbit. Introduction of Ariane 2 and Ariane
3 it become necessary to improve performance of the upper stage engine. It was achieved by extending engine
nozzle and increasing chamber pressure from 30 to 35
bar increasing specic impulse and by this burn time from
570 to 735 seconds. Qualication tests were completed
in 1983 and a modied variant was designated HM7B. It
was also used on Ariane 4 upper stage where the burn
time increased to 780 seconds, and since 12 February
2005 its also used on the upper stage of Ariane 5 ECA.[1]

10.2 Overview
The HM7B is a regeneratively cooled gas generator rocket
engine fed with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. It has
no restart capability: the engine is continuously red for
950 seconds in its Ariane 5 version (780 s in the Ariane
4). It provides 62.7 kN of thrust with a specic impulse
of 444.2 s. The engines chamber pressure is 3.5 MPa.[1]

10.3 See also


Spacecraft propulsion
Timeline of hydrogen technologies
Comparison of orbital rocket engines
36

[1] Airbus Air and Defence. HM-7 and HM-7B Rocket Engine - Thrust Chamber. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
[2] Snecma S.A. HM7B - Snecma. Archived from the original on 2013-04-19. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
[3] Safran Group (December 2012). Safran: Shooting for
the StarS (PDF). Retrieved 10 August 2014.

Chapter 11

Vinci (rocket engine)


Vinci is a European Space Agency cryogenic liquid
rocket engine currently under development. It is designed
to power the new upper stage of Ariane 5, ESC-B, and
will be the rst European re-ignitable cryogenic upper
stage engine, raising the launchers GTO performances
to 12 t.

11.3 See also


Spacecraft propulsion

11.3.1 Comparable engines


RL10

11.1 Overview
Vinci is an expander cycle rocket engine fed with liquid
hydrogen and liquid oxygen. Its biggest improvement
from its predecessor, the HM7B (which powers the ESCA), is the capability of restarting up to ve times. It is
also the rst European expander cycle engine, removing
the need for a gas generator to drive the fuel and oxidizer
pumps. The engine features a carbon ceramic extendable
nozzle in order to have a large, 2.15 m diameter nozzle extension with minimum length: the retracted nozzle part is
deployed only after the upper stage separates from the rest
of the rocket; after extension, the engines overall length
increases from 2.3 m to 4.2 m.

RL60
HM7B

11.4 References and notes

11.2 Development
Although the ESC-B development was put on hold in
2003, the Vinci project has not been cancelled: at a lower
pace, the engine is still being developed. On 22 December 2006, Snecma announced a new ESA contract for
Vinci rocket engine long-duration and re-ignition testing.
In late April 2010 the German Aerospace Center DLR
announced the start of a six-month test campaign for the
Vinci engine at its Lampoldshausen facility.[1] The rst
successful test ring of this campaign took place on 27
May 2010. The rst ight test of the Vinci engine is not
expected until 2016 or 2017.[2]
In 2014, NASA entertained the idea of using the Vinci
instead of the RL10 for an upper stage of Space Launch
System. The Vinci oers the same specic impulse but
with 64% greater thrust, which would allow for a reduction of one or two of the four second stage engines for the
same performance for a lower cost.[3][4]
37

Launch Vehicle Propulsion Vinci. EADS


SPACE Transportation. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
VINCI Thrust Chamber Cryogenic Upper Stage
(PDF). EADS SPACE Transportation. Retrieved
2006-11-24.
Decourt, Rmy (2005-05-24). Ariane 5: EADS
veut geler le dveloppement de la version 12 tonnes
(in French). Futura-Sciences.com. Retrieved 201408-10.
Snecma announces new ESA contract for Vinci
rocket engine. www.safran-group.com. 2006-1222. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
[1] Vinci tests on the high-thrust, cryogenic, restartable upper stage engine for Ariane 5 gather pace.
[2] First test of Vinci M3 engine a success!".
[3] http://seradata.com/SSI/2013/06/
sls-may-change-upper-stage-eng/

[4] http://seradata.com/SSI/2014/11/
next-steps-for-sls-europes-vinci-is-a-contender-for-exploration-upper-stage

38

11.5 External links


ESA news 2005-05-20: Vinci engine hot-ring test
a success
ESA news 2005-06-14: Testing the new Vinci engine
ESA news 2005-07-29: Thumbs up for 60-second
ring
ESA news 2005-11-07: Second Vinci engine ready
for testing

CHAPTER 11. VINCI (ROCKET ENGINE)

Chapter 12

RD-0120
The Soviet RD-0120 (also designated 11D122) was the
Energia Core rocket engine, fueled by LH2/LOX, roughly
equivalent to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME).
These were attached to the Energia Core rather than the
orbiter, so were not recoverable after a ight, but created
a more modular design (the Energia Core could be used
for a variety of missions besides launching the shuttle).
Baselined from the more mature American hydrogen
oxygen engine technology, but considerably modied
with Russian innovations and methods, the RD-0120 and
the SSME have both similarities and dierences. The
RD-0120 achieved nearly identical specic impulse and
combustion chamber pressure with reduced complexity
and cost, as compared to the SSME, primarily at the expense of lower thrust-to-weight ratio. It uses fuel-rich
staged combustion cycle and a single shaft to drive both
the fuel and oxidizer turbopumps. Some of the Russian
design features, such as the simpler and cheaper channel
wall nozzles, were evaluated by Rocketdyne for possible
upgrades to the SSME. It achieved combustion stability
without the acoustic resonance chambers that the SSME
required.

12.2 See also


Energia
SSME
RD-170

12.3 References
Hendrickx, Bart; Bert, Vis (2007). Energiya-Buran:
The Soviet Space Shuttle. Chichester, UK: Praxis
Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-0-387-69848-9.
[1] RD-0120. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 201507-15.
[2] " 0120 (11122)" [RD-0120 (11D122)] (in
Russian). Retrieved 2015-07-07.
[3] Liquid Rocket Engine. Voronezh Mechanical Plant.
Retrieved 2015-05-29.

12.4 External links


Molniya Research & Industrial Corporations Buran
page (english)

12.1 Specications

RD-0120 details (in Russian)

12.1.1

Energiya Booster details (in Russian)

RD-0120

Thrust (vacuum): 1.8639 MN (190 tons), (sealevel):


1.5171 MN
Specic impulse (vacuum): 454 seconds (4.45 km/s),
(sealevel): 359 seconds (3.52 km/s)
Burn time: nominal 480500 s, certied for 1670 s.
Basic engine weight: 3,449 kg.
Length: 4.55 m, Diameter: 2.42 m
Propellants: LOX & LH2
Mixture ratio: 6:1
Contractor: Chemical Automatics Design Bureau
( )
Vehicle Application: Energia Core stage.
39

Chapter 13

RD-0146
The RD-0146 is a Russian cryogenic rocket engine. It
is said to be the Russian version of the Pratt & Whitney
Rocketdyne RL10 engine.[1] The RD-0146 engine was
developed by KBKhA design bureau in Voronezh, Russia,
in cooperation with the American Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne company. In 2009, it came into prominence, as
Russian space agency chose it for the second-stage of the
Rus-M launch vehicle designed to carry the future Russian PPTS manned spacecraft.[2]

13.5 External links

13.1 Development
In 1999, Khrunichev requested KBKhA to develop RD0146U version of the engine for Proton and Angara rockets. The development of the engine was partially nanced by Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne. Pratt & Whitney signed a preliminary marketing agreement on April 7,
2000 with Russias Chemical Automatics Design Bureau
giving Pratt & Whitney exclusive international marketing
rights to the RD-0146.[2]

13.2 Description
The RD-0146 is the rst Russian rocket engine not to feature a gas generator and to be equipped with extendable
nozzle extension without a cooling system. The engine
is capable of multiple rings and thrust control in two
planes. According to the developer, the lack of generator
ensures high reliability of the engine for multiple rings.

13.3 See also


Rocketdyne RL10

13.4 References
[1] http://www.astronautix.com/engines/rd0146.htm
[2] http://www.russianspaceweb.com/rd0146.html

40

KBKhA RD-0146
RD-0146 Specications
RD-0146 description from Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne

Chapter 14

YF-50t
The YF-50t is a Chinese cryogenic rocket engine being
developed to power the upper stages of the Long March
5 family of launch vehicles. It is an indigenous development based on Chinese experience with the YF-73 and
YF-75 upper stage engines. It is gimballed in two axes.
Hydrogen bled from the engine is used to pressurize the
oxygen tank, and helium is used to pressurize the hydrogen tank.[1]

14.1 References
[1] http://www.astronautix.com/engines/yf50t.htm

14.2 External links


YF-50t Specications

41

Chapter 15

YF-73
The YF-73 is Chinas rst successful, cryogenic, gimballed engine, using liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer. It was used on the Long March 3 H8 third
stage. It run on the simple gas generator cycle and had a
thrust of 44.15 kilonewtons (9,930 lb ). It had four hinge
mounted nozzles that gimbaledeach on one axis to supply thrust vector control and was restart capable. It used
cavitating ow venturis to regulate propellant ows. The
gas generator also incorporates dual heat exchanger that
heat hydrogen gas and helium supplied from separate system to pressurize the hydrogen and oxygen tanks. The
engines was relatively underpowered for its task and the
start up and restart procedures were unreliable. Thus, it
was quickly replaced by the YF-75.[3]

tronautical Congress, Beijing, China. (International Astronautical Federation). IAC-13-C4.1 (1x18525): 5. Retrieved 2015-07-08.
[4] Sutton, George Paul (November 2005). History of Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines. AIAA. p. 637-638. ISBN
978-1563476495.

15.3 External links

15.1 History
In October 1970 the Beijing Aerospace Propulsion Institute was tasked with developing a 39 kN (8,800 lbf)
prototype rocket engine burning liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen. They settled on a pump-fed gas generator
design. The prototype was successfully re tested for 20
seconds on January 25, 1975. In March of the same year,
Shina ocially initiated the Project 311 do initiate the
engineering work on the rst Chinese cryogenic engine,
which was named YF-73. It had its debut on April 8,
1984, when it sent the rst geosynchronous communications satellite experiment, the Dongfanghong2 to geosynchronous orbit. It ew 13 times with 3 failures and was
last used on May 26, 2000. It was replaced by the more
capable YF-75 which enabled to increase payload from
1.5 t (3,300 lb) to over 2.6 t (5,700 lb) and signicantly
increased reliability.[3]

15.2 References
[1] Long March. Rocket and Space Technology. Retrieved
2015-07-08.
[2] YF-23. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 201507-08.
[3] Nan, Zhang (2013-09-23).
The Development of
LOX/LH2 Engine in China (pdf). 64rd International As-

42

Encyclopedia Astronautica
Go Taikonauts - An unocial Chinese Space Website

Chapter 16

YF-75
The YF-75 is a liquid cryogenic rocket engine burning
liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen in a gas generator cycle. It is Chinas second generation of cryogenic propellant engine, after the YF-73, which it replaced. It is used
in a dual engine mount in the H-18 third stage of the Long
March 3A, Long March 3B and Long March 3C launch
vehicles. Within the mount, each engine can gimbal individually to enable thrust vectoring control. The engine
also heats hydrogen and helium to pressurize the stage
tanks and can control the mixture ratio to optimize propellant consumption.[4]

16.1 Development
Given the upward trend on geosynchronous communication satellites mass and size, a program to develop an
engine more powerful than the YF-23 was started by
1982.[2] The proper development of the engine started
in 1986 and leveraged the experience of the YF-73.[5] It
ew for the rst time in 1994. By September 2013, it had
accumulated 12 start up and 3,000 seconds of ring time
without malfunction.[2]

the hydrogen and oxygen tanks.[4]


The turbopumps use solid propellant cartridge for start
up, while the gas generator and combustion chamber use
pyrotechnic igniter. It can restart for two burn prole
missions.[2] All subsystems are attached to the combustion chamber and gimbal is achieved by rotating the whole
engine on two orthogonal planes with two independent
actuators. These actuators use high pressure hydrogen as
hydraulic uid.[5] The oxygen supply system has a propellant utilization valve before the main LOX valve to
regulate its ow and thus variate the mixture ratio. This
enables optimization of the propellant reserves and improves performance.[4]

16.3 References
[1] YF-75. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 201507-08.
[2] Nan, Zhang (2013-09-23).
The Development of
LOX/LH2 Engine in China (pdf). 64rd International Astronautical Congress, Beijing, China. (International Astronautical Federation). IAC-13-C4.1 (1x18525): 5. Retrieved 2015-07-08.

By 2006 and with the project for the Long March 5 family a serious redesign program was started. The resulting
engine, the YF-75D is a dierent engine, using a closed
circuit expander cycle like the RL10.

[3] Long March. Rocket and Space Technology. Retrieved


2015-07-08.
[4] LM-3A Series Launch Vehicle Users Manual. Issue 2011
(pdf). CASC. Retrieved 2015-07-08.

16.2 Technical Description


The combustion chamber regeneratively cooled and is
made of a zirconium copper alloy. It is manufactured
by forging, rolled into shape, and then the cooling channels are milled. The outer wall is electroformed nickel.
The nozzle extension uses dump cooling. It is made by
welding spiraling tubes which pass cryogenic hydrogen
that is dumped since the tubes are open at the bottom.
The gas generator feed separate turbopumps for fuel and
oxidizer. The single shaft hydrogen turbopump operates
at 42,000rpm and uses dual elastic supports to enhance
the rotor stability and reliability.[2] The gas generator also
incorporates dual heat exchanger that heat hydrogen gas
and helium supplied from separate system to pressurize

[5] Sutton, George Paul (November 2005). History of Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines. AIAA. p. 637-638. ISBN
978-1563476495.

16.4 External links

43

Encyclopedia Astronautica
Go Taikonauts - An unocial Chinese Space Website
Long March 3B Prole

Chapter 17

YF-77
The YF-77 is Chinas rst cryogenic rocket engine developed for booster applications. It burns liquid hydrogen
fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer in the gas generator cycle.
A pair of these engines will power the LM-5 core stage
in a module that includes the mount that enables each individual engine to gimbal in two planes.[2][4] While it will
be lighten at lift of, its function will be that of a sustainer
engine, like the European Vulcain on the Ariane 5 and the
Japanese LE-7 on the H-II, since the core stage thrust will
be supplemented by the YF-100 powered boosters. Like
the Vulcain, it uses the less ecient gas generator cycle
and even for that application it has less performance than
the European engine. It does advances signicantly the
thrust level of cryogenic rocket technology in China.[1]

17.2 Technical Description

17.1 Development

All subsystems are attached to the combustion chamber


and gimbal is achieved by rotating the whole engine on
two orthogonal planes with two independent actuators.
The injector plate uses coaxial injectors with some extended to create baes that prevent high frequency instabilities. The Titanium fuel turbopump uses a two stage
pump with inducer and is actuated by a two stage axial
turbine. It rotates at 35,000 [rpm] and supplies a discharge pressure of 16.5 MPa (2,390 psi). The oxydizer
turbopump uses a single stage centrifugal pump with a
helical inducer driven by a two stage turbine. It rotates
at 18,000 [rpm] and supplies a discharge pressure of 14
MPa (2,000 psi).[2]

In January 2002, the development of a new cryogenic


engines was approved by the Commission for Science,
Technology and Industry for National Defense. The
development responsibility was assigned to the Beijing Aerospace Propulsion Institute, a division of the
Academy of Aerospace Launch Propulsion Technology.
The preliminary design was accomplished by middle
2002 and the rst set of components was manufactured by
early 2003. The same year saw the initial component and
subsystem tests, with the gas generator successfully performing its rst test on July 30. By December 2003 the
whole powerpack successfully passed its rst integrated
test, and on September 17, 2004 a successful 50 seconds
ring of a whole prototype engine was achieved.

The requirements for an inexpensive and high reliability


disposable engine are met by using dual 510 kN (110,000
lbf) (sea level) gas generator engines on a single mounting
frame. Each engine has dual turbopumps with separate
gas exhaust. Both turbines are fed by a single fuel rich
gas generator. The combustion chambers and throat are
regeneratively cooled, while the welded pipe constructed
nozzle uses dump cooling. The turbopumps use solid propellant cartridge for start up, while the gas generator and
combustion chamber use pyrotechnic igniter. The valves
and prevalves are helium actuated ball valves. The thrust
and mixture ratio are calibrated with venturis and a propellant utilization valve on ground tests. The engine also
has dual heat exchanger to supply hot gaseous hydrogen
and oxygen for tank pressurization.[2]

17.3 References

In May 2013 the formal qualication testing campaign


began. By the end of 2013 more than 70 tests and
24,000seconds of ring at steady state conditions have
been performed by 12 engines. The concept review
conrmed that the performance goal and launcher requirements were met, and the engine was ready for integration for the maiden launch of the Long March 5
rocket.[2] Engine development began in the 2000s, with
testing directed by the China National Space Administration (CNSA) commencing in 2005. The engine has been
successfully tested by mid-2007.[5]
44

[1] YF-77
07-02.

" [YF-77 rocket engine]. Retrieved 2015-

[2] Wang, Weibin; Zheng, Dayong; Qiaot, Guiyu (201309-23). Development Status of the Cryogenic Oxygen/Hydrogen YF-77 Engine for Long-March 5 (pdf).
64rd International Astronautical Congress, Beijing, China.
(International Astronautical Federation). IAC-13-C4.1
(2x17679): 7. Retrieved 2015-07-02.
[3] Nan, Zhang (2013-09-23).
The Development of
LOX/LH2 Engine in China (pdf). 64rd International As-

17.4. EXTERNAL LINKS

tronautical Congress, Beijing, China. (International Astronautical Federation). IAC-13-C4.1 (1x18525): 5. Retrieved 2015-07-02.
[4] Chang Zheng-5 (Long March-5)". SinoDefence. Retrieved 2015-07-02.
[5] Chen,

Minkang;

Ru, Jiaxin (2007).


:
[Divine Arrow Crosses the Sky:
Development History of Long March Rocket Series] (in
Chinese). Shanghai: Shanghai Science Technology and
Education Press. ISBN 7542841130. OCLC 223362195.

17.4 External links


Space Launch Report

45

Chapter 18

LE-7
18.1 H-II Flight 8, only operational
LE-7 failure
The fuel turbopump had an issue using the originally
designed inducer (a propeller-like axial pump used to
raise the inlet pressure of the propellant ahead of the
main turbopumps to prevent cavitation) where the inducer would itself begin to cavitate and cause an imbalance resulting in excessive vibration. A comprehensive
post-ight analysis of the unsuccessful 8th H-II launch,
including a deep ocean retrieval of the wreckage, determined that fatigue due to this vibration was the cause of
premature engine failure.

18.2 LE-7A
The LE-7A is an upgraded model from the LE-7 rocket
engine. Basic design is unchanged from the original
model. The 7A had additional engineering eort placed
on cost cutting, reliability, and performance developments. The renovation was undertaken to mate it with the
likewise improved H-IIA launch vehicle, with the common goal being a more reliable, more powerful and exible, and more cost eective launch system.

LE-7A, (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries show-room, Shinagawa,


Japan)

The LE-7 and its succeeding upgrade model the LE-7A


are staged combustion cycle LH2/LOX liquid rocket engines produced in Japan for the H-II series of launch
vehicles. Design and production work was all done domestically in Japan, the rst major (main/rst-stage) liquid rocket engine with that claim, in a collaborative
eort from the National Space Development Agency
(NASDA), Aerospace Engineering Laboratory (NAL),
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, and Ishikawajima-Harima.
NASDA and NAL have since been integrated into
JAXA. However, a large part of the work was contracted to Mitsubishi, with Ishikawajima-Harima providing turbomachinery, and the engine is often referred to as
the Mitsubishi LE-7(A).

18.2.1 Changes / improvements

Specic emphasis was placed on reducing or the amount


of required welding by allowing for more machined or
cast components, and to simplify as many of the remaining welds as possible. This resulted in a substantial rework of the pipe routing (which makes the outward appearance of the two models considerably dierent). To
combat the fuel inducer complications described above,
the fuel inducer was redesigned for the 7A. The oxidizer
inducer was also redesigned, but this was primarily due to
poor performance at low inlet pressures as opposed to reliability concerns. The fuel turbopump itself was also the
The original LE-7 was designed to be a high eciency, subject of various durability enhancements. Additionally
medium-sized motor with sucient thrust for use on the the combustion chamber/injector assembly underwent a
H-II, and classied as expendable since the engine was number of small changes, like decreasing the number of
non-recoverable after launch.
injector elements, to reduce machining complexity (and
46

18.3. SEE ALSO


thus cost) and improve reliability. While these changes
overall resulted in a drop in maximum specic impulse to
440 seconds (4.3 km/s) (basically making the engine less
fuel ecient), the trade o for lower cost and enhanced
reliability was considered acceptable.

18.2.2

New nozzle design (side-loading


problem)

For the new engine model, a nozzle extension was designed that could be added to the base of the new standard
short nozzle when extra performance was required. But
when the engine was tted with the nozzle extension, the
7A encountered a new problem with unprecedented sideloads and irregular heating on the nozzle strong enough
to damage the gimbal actuators and regenerative cooling
tubes during startup. Meticulous computational uid dynamics (CFD) work was able to suciently replicate and
trace the dangerous transient loading and a new one-piece
long nozzle with full regenerative cooling (as opposed
to the original short nozzle with a separate lm-cooled
extension) was designed to mitigate the problem. Before
this new nozzle was ready, some H-IIAs were launched
using only the short nozzle. The 7A no longer uses a separate nozzle extension in any conguration.[1]

18.2.3

Use on H-IIB

The new H-IIB launch vehicles uses two LE-7A engines


in its rst stage.

47
Specic impulse (vacuum): 440 seconds (4.3
km/s)
Dry mass: 1,800 kg (4,000 lb)
Length:
short nozzle = 3.2 m
long nozzle = 3.7 m
Throttle capability: 72-100%
Thrust-to-weight: 65.9
Nozzle area ratio: 51.9:1
Combustion chamber pressure: 12.0 MPa (1,740
psi)
Liquid hydrogen turbopump: 41,900 rpm
Liquid oxygen turbopump: 18,300 rpm

18.3 See also


LE-5
H-II, H-IIA, & H-IIB
Comparison of orbital rocket engines
liquid rocket engine
staged combustion cycle
JAXA

18.2.4

LE-7A specications

Operational Cycle: staged combustion


Fuel: hydrogen
Oxidizer: liquid oxygen
Mixture ratio (oxidizer to fuel): 5.90
Short nozzle:

18.4 References
[1] AIAA technical paper abstract on LE-7A Nozzle Congurations

18.5 External links

Rated thrust (sea level): 843 kN (190,000 lbf)

Encyclopedia Astronautica info page on the LE-7

Rated thrust (vacuum): 1,074 kN (241,000


lbf)

Encyclopedia Astronautica info page on the LE-7A

Specic impulse (sea level):

Japanese Wikipedia LE-7 page (in Japanese)

Specic impulse (vacuum): 429 seconds (4.21


km/s)

Japanese Wikipedia LE-7A page (in Japanese)

Long nozzle:
Rated thrust (sea level): 870 kN (200,000 lbf)
Rated thrust (vacuum): 1,098 kN (247,000
lbf)
Specic impulse (sea level): 338 seconds (3.31
km/s)

H-IIA Rocket Engine Development


Overview of the H-IIA Launch Vehicle

Chapter 19

LE-5
or hypergolic igniters commonly used on some contemporary engines. Though rated for up to 16 starts and 40+
minutes of ring time, on the H-II the engine is considered expendable, being used for one ight and jettisoned.
It is sometimes started only once for a nine-minute burn,
but in missions to GTO the engine is often red a second time to inject the payload into the higher orbit after
a temporary low Earth orbit has been established.
The original LE-5 was built as a third stage engine for
the H-I launch vehicle. It used a fairly conventional gas
generator cycle.

19.1 LE-5A
The LE-5A was a heavily redesigned version of the LE-5
intended for use on the new H-II launch vehicles second
stage. The major dierence is that the operation of the
engine was switched from the gas generator to expander
bleed cycle. The LE-5A was the rst expander bleed cycle engine to be put into operational service. Cryogenic
liquid hydrogen fuel for the cycle is drawn through tubes
and passages in both the engines nozzle and combustion
chamber where the hydrogen heats up incredibly while
simultaneously cooling those components. The heating
of the initially cold fuel causes it to become signicantly
pressurized and it is utilized to drive the turbine for the
propellant pumps.

19.2 LE-5B

LE-5

The LE-5 liquid rocket engine and its derivative models


were developed in Japan to meet the need for an upper
stage propulsion system for the H-I and H-II series of
launch vehicles. It is a bipropellant design, using LH2
and LOX. Primary design and production work was carried out by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. In terms of liquid rockets, it is a fairly small engine, both in size and
thrust output, being in the 89 kN (20,000 lbf) and the
more recent models the 130 kN (30,000 lbf) thrust class.
The motor is capable of multiple restarts, due to a spark
ignition system as opposed to the single use pyrotechnic

The LE-5B was a further modied version of the LE-5A.


The changes focused on lowering the per-unit cost of the
engine while continuing to increase reliability. The modications veered towards simplication and cheaper production where possible at the cost of actually lowering the
specic impulse to 447 seconds, the lowest of all three
models. However, it produced the highest thrust of the
three and was signicantly cheaper. The primary change
from the 5A model was that the 5Bs expander bleed system circulated fuel around only the combustion chamber
as opposed to both the chamber and the nozzle in the 5A.
Alterations to the combustion chamber cooling passages

48

19.7. EXTERNAL LINKS


and constituent materials were made with special emphasis on eective heat transfer to allow this method to be
successful.

19.3 LE-5B-2
After ight F5 of H-IIA in March 28th, 2003 has resulted
in severe (although not damaging) vibration of the upper stage during LE-5B ring, the work was initiated on
the upgraded version of the LE-5B. The upgraded engine,
named LE-5B-2, was rst own on H-IIB in September
10th, 2009. The main xes are added ow-laminarizing
plates in expander manifold, new mixer of gaseous and
liquid hydrogen in hydrogen feed line, and new injector
plate with 306 smaller coaxial injectors (versus 180 in
LE-5B). See LE-5B-2 development summary (Japanese).
The upgrade resulted in reduction of vibration of the upper stage by half.

19.4 Specications
19.5 See also
H-I
H-II
H-IIA
H-IIB
LE-7

19.6 References
Japanese Wikipedia LE-5B (in Japanese)
Encyclopedia Astronautica info page on the LE-5
Encyclopedia Astronautica info page on the LE-5A
Encyclopedia Astronautica info page on the LE-5B
Studies on Expander Bleed Cycle Engines for
Launchers, AIAA Paper
Development of the LE-X Engine, MHI Technical
Review Vol. 48 No. 4

19.7 External links

49

50

CHAPTER 19. LE-5

19.8 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses


19.8.1

Text

Cryogenic rocket engine Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryogenic_rocket_engine?oldid=679234153 Contributors: Ed Poor, Doradus, Wtmitchell, Vedant, Gene Nygaard, Dreixel, Stuartyeates, Rangek, Tedder, Malcolma, SmackBot, Cabe6403, Modest Genius, Fotoguzzi, Vitall, IronGargoyle, Chetvorno, N2e, Kubanczyk, Sjzukrow, User A1, UnitedStatesian, Drmies, Piledhigheranddeeper, Addbot,
Anxietycello, Wammes Waggel, The Bushranger, , Yobot, AnomieBOT, Hmvont, Xqbot, Suneet87, Erik9bot, Mercurytone, Joshuachohan, Reaper Eternal, RjwilmsiBot, Soupysoap, Mythbuster2010, SkywalkerPL, ChiZeroOne, ClueBot NG, Kartheek.pro,
Somatrix, Sni56996, Gurkisingh, Mrt3366, Avisbliss, Skydoc28, Anythingcouldhappen, Frinthruit, Silverelds15, CriticalMass235 and
Anonymous: 52
CE-7.5 Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CE-7.5?oldid=663626690 Contributors: Firsfron, Chris the speller, WDGraham, N2e, Cydebot, Kaleja, Magioladitis, LogicDictates, Jojalozzo, Afernand74, Siskus, Prad2609, ChrisHodgesUK, Addbot, Yobot, AnomieBOT,
Johnxxx9, GliderMaven, Mercurytone, Amitrc7th, EmausBot, Anir1uph, BG19bot, Ramakrishnan.nikhil, Yadav eklavya, Ninney,
Mrt3366, Hmainsbot1, Skydoc28, Rocketman321, WordSeventeen and Anonymous: 13
CE-20 Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CE-20?oldid=672379308 Contributors: Kolbasz, Arado, Premkudva, SmackBot, WDGraham, Cydebot, Magioladitis, Baldusi, Pankajrai87, Iohannes Animosus, ChrisHodgesUK, Addbot, LaaknorBot, Yobot, Johnxxx9, Anitsingh011, GliderMaven, Prari, CryptBala, ChuispastonBot, Saurabh.agrawal92, BG19bot, Ninney, Mrt3366, Skydoc28, Suchakra, Nbala90
and Anonymous: 18
Space Shuttle main engine Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Shuttle_main_engine?oldid=679086270 Contributors: Bryan
Derksen, Maury Markowitz, Heron, Edward, Patrick, Julesd, Dfeuer, Brouhaha, Wolfkeeper, BenFrantzDale, Theon~enwiki, Jonabbey,
Bobblewik, Christopherlin, Peter Ellis, Ylee, Bobo192, Duk, Elipongo, Anthony Appleyard, Dpjanes, Psychofox, GavinSharp, Mrmiscellanious~enwiki, Saga City, Xnk, Gene Nygaard, Woohookitty, CyrilleDunant, Robert K S, Bricktop, Jenrzzz, Collard, Mike Peel, RobertDahlstrom, Cjosefy, SchuminWeb, Alfred Centauri, TheDJ, Wongm, YurikBot, Arado, RadioFan, Skier, Mipadi, Bota47, Leptictidium,
Festyzizzle, Cassini83, Petri Krohn, Donald Cook, Shyam, Georey.landis, 8472, Victor falk, SmackBot, Ravenmasterq, Chris the speller,
Hibernian, Veggies, Aces lead, Joema, Evil Merlin, Jared, ShaunES, Mion, Will Beback, SalopianJames, Minna Sora no Shita, Like tears in
rain, Mr Stephen, Acha11, Blackhawk charlie2003, Olaf Davis, Ilikefood, N2e, CompRhetoric, Cydebot, Gogo Dodo, Starpol, Thijs!bot,
N5iln, Isildain, Zidane tribal, Steelpillow, Magioladitis, Bongwarrior, Jatkins, Scostas, Cecilkorik, Shining Arcanine, Tdadamemd, Ijustam, Usp, Michaelpremsrirat, Speaker to wolves, Sdsds, Mike Cline, McM.bot, Elitre, Ftbotsb, Pmoir, Woc2006, Thunderbird2, Chuck
Sirloin, Djodland, Bodyn, CapeCanaveral321, Cbennett0811, Kumioko (renamed), Bwfrank, Enenn, Jersey emt, RCalabraro, Chaosdruid, DerBorg, Downix, Mdeby, DumZiBoT, Runningblader, Jabberwoch, Addbot, Download, Fireaxe888, Alpinwolf, Cannizzaro S, The
Bushranger, Yobot, Legobot II, AnomieBOT, VanishedUser sdu9aya9fasdsopa, Ruby2010, Xqbot, Johnxxx9, ThirdCritical, Coosbane,
Fotaun, GliderMaven, FrescoBot, Beaber, Remotelysensed, Goosta, Lonaowna, Ancistrus, Calmer Waters, Tomcat7, RedBot, Savemaxim,
FoxBot, RjwilmsiBot, DASHBot, WikitanvirBot, GA bot, Look2See1, GoingBatty, Tommy2010, Mmeijeri, Wikipelli, ElationAviation,
Hoeksas, ChiZeroOne, Morbrew, Joefromrandb, Mattise135, BG19bot, Felitim, GigaG, PumknPi, Glacialfox, Jongfeli, Duxwing, BattyBot, MP99, YFdyh-bot, Mogism, DaveMohr, Anythingcouldhappen, FrB.TG, Monkbot, Fumbar, Mnethercutt, Chouser42 and Anonymous: 127
Rocketdyne J-2 Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rocketdyne_J-2?oldid=667049811 Contributors: AxelBoldt, Maury Markowitz,
Edward, Audin, Nickshanks, Reubenbarton, Wolfkeeper, Bobblewik, Christopherlin, Erich gasboy, Geni, Zaha, Jimwilliams57, Jkl,
GrantHenninger, ArnoldReinhold, Chairboy, Simonbp, Pmbrennan, Hektor, Gene Nygaard, Fengwah, Mindmatrix, Benbest, Bricktop,
Chronoso, Shashishekhar, Rjwilmsi, Mike s, Bubba73, SchuminWeb, Ground Zero, TheDJ, Midgley, Lockesdonkey, Gadget850, Leptictidium, SmackBot, Sam8, Gjs238, Veloslaw~enwiki, Bluebot, Papa November, Jutta234, Hibernian, Mion, SalopianJames, Rwboa22,
Quaeler, John Trilik, Joseph Solis in Australia, Mikek951, Atomobot, Benabik, CmdrObot, Van helsing, N2e, Cydebot, Fnlayson, VAXHeadroom, Give Peace A Chance, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, Mark Grant, Magioladitis, BilCat, MIT Otackle73, Nat682, Voronwae, Sdsds,
TXiKiBoT, Baldusi, Petebutt, Markp93, Woc2006, AlleborgoBot, Bodyn, Ioverka, Lightmouse, RSStockdale, Bum Bandit, Enenn,
Alexbot, HarrivBOT, AlanM1, Addbot, Download, LaaknorBot, The Bushranger, Yobot, Jasiu Szt, Phaseed, , Xqbot, TechBot,
DSisyphBot, Johnxxx9, Howwi, Heroicrelics, GliderMaven, FrescoBot, Beaber, Originalwana, Sae1962, AmateurEditor, RedBot, Savemaxim, ChickenWhisperer, Full-date unlinking bot, EmausBot, Look2See1, JustinTime55, ZroBot, OllieWilliamson, Magneticlifeform,
Helpful Pixie Bot, Mark Arsten, CitationCleanerBot, PumknPi, Mogism and Anonymous: 46
RL10 Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RL10?oldid=667189488 Contributors: Ke4roh, Reubenbarton, Wolfkeeper, Wwoods, Bobblewik, ChicXulub, Jimwilliams57, Bluemask, Qutezuce, Kbh3rd, Huntster, Evand, Duk, Gene Nygaard, Rjwilmsi, Bubba73, StuOfInterest, Nick L., Ospalh, Leptictidium, Phredward, Curpsbot-unicodify, SmackBot, Mangoe, TestPilot, Beatgr, MrMunky, Mion, SalopianJames, N2e, Cydebot, Fnlayson, JAnDbot, Magioladitis, AtticusX, Faizhaider, BilCat, Srt252, Hddsd~enwiki, Sdsds, Billgordon1099, DavidHitt, Phe-bot, MBK004, HarrivBOT, MystBot, Addbot, Feour, LaaknorBot, AndersBot, Luckas-bot, AnomieBOT,
Phaseed, ArthurBot, Winged Brick, Johnxxx9, GrouchoBot, RibotBOT, , Jojii, GliderMaven, Beaber, Originalwana, Jakeboening,
Tom.Reding, Calmer Waters, Dinamik-bot, RjwilmsiBot, Look2See1, Mmeijeri, VWBot, Accotink2, Helpful Pixie Bot, JeGrundy67,
BattyBot, Kuki5050, Ggudinkas, Tony Mach, GregWikiPal, Monkbot, Limeinthecokonut, N4PIP, Q3f87h4q3h, Sir Liu(the rst) and
Anonymous: 37
RS-68 Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RS-68?oldid=673038544 Contributors: Maury Markowitz, Patrick, Rlandmann, Hike395,
Mulad, Mustang dvs, Wolfkeeper, Karn, Bobblewik, Jkl, GrantHenninger, Wuzzeb, Huntster, Eroberts00, Duk, A2Kar, Bongle,
Schoonov, Hektor, MatthewWilcox, Gene Nygaard, Bricktop, Tabletop, Triddle, SchuminWeb, StuOfInterest, Arjuna909, Epolk, KevinCuddeback, Nick L., Sliggy, JustAddPeter, Cassini83, Georey.landis, SmackBot, Sam8, Gjs238, Audriusa, LouScheer, TheLimbicOne, Autopilot, Rwboa22, Spiel496, Craigboy, Eluchil404, N2e, Cydebot, Fnlayson, Martin Cash, Northumbrian, Escarbot, Fmonahan,
JAnDbot, Magioladitis, BilCat, Perfgeek, CASfan, Rekinser, Sdsds, TXiKiBoT, Petebutt, Woc2006, SieBot, Alexbot, Nc mike, Mm40,
Nukes4Tots, Addbot, LaaknorBot, Lightbot, Cannizzaro S, The Bushranger, StuMaster, Aldebaran66, Marathona, AnomieBOT, Supamike, Sz-iwbot, ArthurBot, Obersachsebot, Xqbot, Johnxxx9, GliderMaven, Beaber, Savemaxim, Full-date unlinking bot, Look2See1,
Boundarylayer, Mmeijeri, ZroBot, Hoeksas, Magneticlifeform, Jongfeli, Duxwing, BattyBot, Makecat-bot, Tony Mach, Anythingcouldhappen, Buchanan0001, Trilionio and Anonymous: 35
RS-83 Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RS-83?oldid=634397342 Contributors: Nv8200pa, Mboverload, Bobblewik, Duk, Gene Nygaard, SmackBot, Sam8, Gjs238, Beatgr, Weirdy, CmdrObot, Fnlayson, Martin Cash, MarshBot, Magioladitis, Sdsds, Lightmouse, ClueBot, Alexbot, Addbot, The Bushranger, Diannaa, GBAKFL, Anythingcouldhappen and Anonymous: 6

19.8. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

51

Vulcain Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vulcain?oldid=672110909 Contributors: Finlay McWalter, Wolfkeeper, Oneiros, Ketiltrout,


Ospalh, PTSE, SmackBot, Sam8, WDGraham, Coyau, Mion, Esoltas, StvnLunsford, Ruslik0, N2e, Cydebot, Duccio, Underpants, Szoltys,
Thijs!bot, Raining girl, Sdsds, Werldwayd, MBK004, Pmronchi, Addbot, LaaknorBot, Lightbot, The Bushranger, Yobot, WatcherZero,
AnomieBOT, Rubinbot, Xqbot, Johnxxx9, Gfha, GliderMaven, Beaber, Gregmiret, Pinethicket, Tom.Reding, MastiBot, Savemaxim,
EmausBot, John of Reading, WikitanvirBot, Flomertens, SkywalkerPL, ClueBot NG, El Roih, ChrisGualtieri, Anythingcouldhappen,
Larlin289 and Anonymous: 14
HM7B Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HM7B?oldid=669423509 Contributors: Darkwind, Shaddack, Leptictidium, WDGraham,
Mion, Uwe W., CmdrObot, Cydebot, Duccio, Kauczuk, Magioladitis, Hugo999, DOHC Holiday, Alexbot, Addbot, DSisyphBot, Johnxxx9,
Gfha, Savemaxim, ZroBot, H3llBot, SkywalkerPL, Anythingcouldhappen and Anonymous: 5
Vinci (rocket engine) Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vinci_(rocket_engine)?oldid=664270446 Contributors: Quasarstrider, Wolfkeeper, Chowbok, Arado, Gaius Cornelius, Ospalh, Gadget850, Leptictidium, WDGraham, Ruslik0, Cydebot, Duccio, IanOsgood, Magioladitis, Emeraude, ImageRemovalBot, Alexbot, Addbot, Yobot, Ptbotgourou, Martindlr, Xqbot, Johnxxx9, Gfha, GliderMaven, Full-date
unlinking bot, Mmeijeri, SkywalkerPL and Anonymous: 12
RD-0120 Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RD-0120?oldid=672269757 Contributors: Wolfkeeper, Blazotron, Duk, DonPMitchell,
Tony1, Leptictidium, SmackBot, Cydebot, Thijs!bot, Magioladitis, Svmich, Baldusi, Lightmouse, ImageRemovalBot, Enenn, Tarlneustaedter, Agricola64, Addbot, 84user, The Bushranger, Luckas-bot, Johnxxx9, GliderMaven, Beaber, ZroBot, Hoeksas, El Roih,
KlickitatGlacier, Anythingcouldhappen, Monkbot and Anonymous: 5
RD-0146 Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RD-0146?oldid=651897941 Contributors: Leptictidium, SmackBot, Hmains, N2e, Cydebot, Magioladitis, Hugo999, Sdsds, Addbot, Fireaxe888, AnomieBOT, Johnxxx9, GliderMaven, Kristian Larsen, Makecat-bot, Anythingcouldhappen and Anonymous: 4
YF-50t Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/YF-50t?oldid=610937238 Contributors:
VolkovBot, JL-Bot, Johnxxx9, GliderMaven, Hazard-SJ and Hmainsbot1

SmackBot, Cattus, Cydebot, Magioladitis,

YF-73 Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/YF-73?oldid=675598021 Contributors: Wolfkeeper, Rjwilmsi, SmackBot, Drakkenfyre, Cattus, Mion, Cydebot, Perfgeek, Baldusi, Gulabatu, Alexbot, AnomieBOT, Johnxxx9, PigFlu Oink, Trappist the monk, Mys 721tx, Updatehelper, EmausBot and Anonymous: 4
YF-75 Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/YF-75?oldid=675598030 Contributors: Cattus, Cydebot, Aldis90, Itsmejudith, Perfgeek,
TXiKiBoT, Baldusi, Gulabatu, Addbot, AnomieBOT, Johnxxx9, GliderMaven, FrescoBot, Trappist the monk, Mys 721tx, Updatehelper,
Snotbot, 32alpha4tango, Hanyu Ye and Anonymous: 2
YF-77 Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/YF-77?oldid=675598090 Contributors: D6, RJFJR, Ground Zero, Ospalh, SmackBot, Cattus,
WDGraham, Shibo77, N2e, Cydebot, Aldis90, Magioladitis, Perfgeek, Baldusi, Yerpo, Gulabatu, Johnuniq, Tide rolls, AnomieBOT, IRP,
Xqbot, Belasted, Johnxxx9, GliderMaven, Zeev.tarantov, Trappist the monk, Mys 721tx, EmausBot, Alakzi and Anonymous: 3
LE-7 Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LE-7?oldid=610937122 Contributors: Centrx, Wolfkeeper, Nihiltres, SmackBot, Mion, Trelio, Cydebot, Butakun~enwiki, Alaibot, Aldis90, Magioladitis, Bcraig15, TXiKiBoT, Lucasbfrbot, Lightmouse, Addbot, Johnxxx9, Heroicrelics, GliderMaven, FrescoBot, PigFlu Oink, DrilBot, Savemaxim, 777sms, EmausBot, ZroBot, BG19bot, STRONGlk7, BunBun-J
and Anonymous: 6
LE-5 Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LE-5?oldid=625646281 Contributors: Wolfkeeper, Spacepotato, SmackBot, Mion, Cydebot, Bcraig15, Lightmouse, Addbot, Johnxxx9, GrouchoBot, Trurle, Prari, FrescoBot, Phyllis8051, Mmeijeri, ZroBot, ChrisGualtieri,
BunBun-J and Anonymous: 5

19.8.2

Images

File:020408_STS110_Atlantis_launch.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/45/020408_STS110_Atlantis_


launch.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/abstracts.php?p=2388 Original artist: NASA
File:99723290_SSME_Blk_II_Controller.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c3/99723290_SSME_Blk_
II_Controller.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Jobyminorbird
File:Ariane_5_(mock-up).jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/24/Ariane_5_%28mock-up%29.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own picture Original artist: Poppy
File:Atlas-F.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0c/Atlas-F.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: USAF
via Gunters Space Page Original artist: USAF
File:Challenger1983.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5a/STS007-32-1702.jpg License: Public domain
Contributors: http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/gallery/ Original artist: NASA
File:Common_Extensible_Cryogenic_Engine.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8a/Common_
Extensible_Cryogenic_Engine.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: NASA Image of the Day Original artist: NASA
File:Commons-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original
artist: ?
File:Constellation_logo_white.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/26/Constellation_logo_white.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Delta_II_rocket_lift_off.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/Delta_II_rocket_lift_off.jpg License:
Public domain Contributors: http://mediaarchive.ksc.nasa.gov/detail.cfm?mediaid=31336 Original artist: NASA/Kim Shiett
File:Flag_of_Europe.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b7/Flag_of_Europe.svg License: Public domain
Contributors:
File based on the specication given at [1]. Original artist: User:Verdy p, User:-x-, User:Paddu, User:Nightstallion, User:Funakoshi,
User:Jeltz, User:Dbenbenn, User:Zscout370
File:Flag_of_India.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/41/Flag_of_India.svg License: Public domain Contributors:
? Original artist: ?

52

CHAPTER 19. LE-5

File:Flag_of_Japan.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/9e/Flag_of_Japan.svg License: PD Contributors: ? Original artist: ?


File:Flag_of_Russia.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/f3/Flag_of_Russia.svg License: PD Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Flag_of_the_People{}s_Republic_of_China.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Flag_of_the_
People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work, http://www.protocol.gov.hk/flags/eng/n_flag/
design.html Original artist: Drawn by User:SKopp, redrawn by User:Denelson83 and User:Zscout370
File:Flag_of_the_United_States.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/a4/Flag_of_the_United_States.svg License:
PD Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg License: Cc-bysa-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:IndianCryoEngine25.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/7/7d/IndianCryoEngine25.JPG License: CC-BYSA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:J-2X_concept_image_June_2006.png Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7f/J-2X_concept_image_
June_2006.png License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/151420main_aresV_factsheet.pdf Original artist: Marshall
Space Flight Center/NASA
File:J-2_engine_schematic.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/29/J-2_engine_schematic.png License:
Public domain Contributors: J-2 engine factsheet. NASA (December 1968). Original artist: Marshall Space Flight Center/NASA
File:J-2_test_firing.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/64/J-2_test_firing.jpg License: Public domain
Contributors: http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/IMAGES/HIGH/8005703.jpg
Original artist: Marshall Space Flight Center/NASA
File:LE-5.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4e/LE-5.JPG License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own
work Original artist: masamic
File:LE-7_rocket_engine.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d2/LE-7_rocket_engine.jpg License: CCBY-SA-3.0 Contributors: I took a picture. Original artist: KAMUI
File:Mitsubishi_LE-7A.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dd/Mitsubishi_LE-7A.JPG License: CC BYSA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: STRONGlk7
File:Moteur-Vulcain.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e1/Moteur-Vulcain.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:NASA_SLS_ref_config_Feb_2011.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/28/NASA_SLS_ref_config_
Feb_2011.png License: Public domain Contributors: Page 4 in NASA report, dated 2/11/2011. Original artist: NASA
File:Nuvola_apps_kaboodle.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1b/Nuvola_apps_kaboodle.svg License:
LGPL Contributors: http://ftp.gnome.org/pub/GNOME/sources/gnome-themes-extras/0.9/gnome-themes-extras-0.9.0.tar.gz Original
artist: David Vignoni / ICON KING
File:Pratt_Whitney_Rocketdyne_space_shuttle_main_engines.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b0/
Pratt_Whitney_Rocketdyne_space_shuttle_main_engines.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: NASA Image of the Day Original
artist: NASA/Dimitri Gerondidakis
File:RD-0146engine.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/2/25/RD-0146engine.jpg License: Fair use Contributors:
http://www.novosti-kosmonavtiki.ru/content/numbers/228/46.jpg Original artist: ?
File:RL-10_rocket_engine.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/95/RL-10_rocket_engine.jpg License:
Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:RL-10_with_cutaway.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/90/RL-10_with_cutaway.JPG License:
CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: James E. Scarborough
File:RS-25_Fuel_Flow.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/53/RS-25_Fuel_Flow.png License: Public domain Contributors: Main Propulsion System (MPS) (PDF). Shuttle Press Kit.com. Boeing, NASA & United Space Alliance (6 October
1998). Retrieved on 7 December 2011. Original artist: NASA
File:RS-25_Oxidiser_Flow.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/59/RS-25_Oxidiser_Flow.png License:
Public domain Contributors: Main Propulsion System (MPS) (PDF). Shuttle Press Kit.com. Boeing, NASA & United Space Alliance (6
October 1998). Retrieved on 7 December 2011. Original artist: NASA
File:RS-68_rocket_engine_test.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4d/RS-68_rocket_engine_test.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: https://rockettest.ssc.nasa.gov/ssc_ptd/projects_rs68.htm , http://www.nasa.gov/images/content/
148709main_d4_testing_08.jpg Original artist: NASA
File:RocketSunIcon.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/RocketSunIcon.svg License: Copyrighted free
use Contributors: Self made, based on File:Spaceship and the Sun.jpg Original artist: Me
File:SNECMA_HM7B_rocket_engine.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/30/SNECMA_HM7B_
rocket_engine.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:SNECMA_Vulcain_II.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/54/SNECMA_Vulcain_II.jpg License:
CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:SSME1.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/90/SSME1.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: http:
//mediaarchive.ksc.nasa.gov/detail.cfm?mediaid=3881 Original artist: NASA
File:SSME_Flight_History.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/25/SSME_Flight_History.png License:
CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Data source:
http://collectspace.com/review/sts133_ssmechart-lg.jpg
Original artist: James Humphreys - SalopianJames

19.8. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

53

File:SSME_startup_&_shutdown.ogv
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d2/SSME_startup_%26_
shutdown.ogv License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=urxrOI6-RlE Original artist: NASA
File:SSME_test_A-1.ogv Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/23/SSME_test_A-1.ogv License: Public domain
Contributors: http://nix3.larc.nasa.gov/info?id=ssme_test_on_a-1&orgid=4 Original artist: NASA
File:STS-80_Landing_01.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a1/STS-80_Landing_01.jpg License: Public
domain Contributors: http://nix.ksc.nasa.gov/info;jsessionid=6bgj2esck42d4?id=KSC-96PC-1334&orgid=5 Original artist: NASA
File:STS120LaunchHiRes-edit1.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/STS120LaunchHiRes-edit1.jpg
License: Public domain Contributors: http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/gallery/images/shuttle/sts-120/html/sts120-s-028.html Original artist:
NASA; edited by jjron (tilt corrected)
File:Saturn_V_Rocket_Stage_S_IVB_-_1992.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/25/Saturn_V_Rocket_
Stage_S_IVB_-_1992.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Torsten Bolten
File:Second_stage_of_a_Delta_IV_Medium_rocket.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/50/Second_
stage_of_a_Delta_IV_Medium_rocket.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Shuttle.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a1/Shuttle.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Shuttle_Main_Engine_Test_Firing.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b1/Shuttle_Main_Engine_
Test_Firing.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: http://dayton.hq.nasa.gov/IMAGES/LARGE/GPN-2000-000543.jpg
Original artist: NASA
File:Ssme_schematic_(updated).svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9e/Ssme_schematic_%28updated%
29.svg License: Public domain Contributors:
Original artist: Jkwchui with minor adjustments from Chouser
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19.8.3

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