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Innovative Casting

Technologies

Opened in 1996.
Specializes in prototypes &
low volume production
runs.
TS Certified 16949.

Dualtech, Inc.
Ductile/Aluminum Casting Technology

Opened in 2002.
Prototyping and low volume production.
Metals

Aluminum 356, 355 and 319


Iron Gray, Ductile and Ni-resist

TS 16949 Certified.

Step 1: Data Transfer


IGES, Pro E Files, STEP Files and PDF for prints.
Cummins SFT site.
http://sft.cummins.com

Must provide application name.


For zipped file, change .zip extension to .rar.

Step 2: The Pattern Shop


Pattern Creation Process
1. File Preparation
2. Gating, Risering & Pattern Design
3. Programming & Cutting
4. Framing & Pattern Assembly

Pattern Shop

Parting: Pattern Makers must decide how to best create a


parting line, which in turn creates the cope and drag.

Cope

Cope

Parting Line

Drag

1. File Preparation

Drag

Pattern Shop

Cope The top half or the cover.

1. File Preparation

Pattern Shop

Drag The bottom half or the part that drags on the floor.

1. File Preparation

Pattern Shop

Pattern makers inspect the CAD file and look for


several key elements.
Draft:
After parting line is determined, the pattern
maker adds draft.
Generally, parts will have 2 degrees draft
added to them.
(See example on next slide)

1. File Preparation

Pattern Shop

Pattern Shop

Pattern makers must also add shrink to the part.


Iron Shrink: .010 per inch
Aluminum Shrink: .013 per inch

Shrink factor may need to be adjusted for larger parts.

1. File Preparation

Pattern Shop

Pattern makers must also decide


how many/if any cores are needed
for the part.

Core Prints (Orange)

Main Core (Light Orange)

1. File Preparation

Pattern Shop

After the core boxes have been determined, the pattern


maker must now create corresponding core prints.
Core Prints: The area of the tool that supports the core.

1. File Preparation

Pattern Shop

Pattern makers must also decide how many/if any body


cores are needed for the part.
Body core in orange.
Cope

Cope

Parting Line

Drag
Parting Line

Drag
Body Core Needed

Body Core (orange)

Parting Line

1. File Preparation

Pattern Shop

Gating: The path the metal flows to fill the part.


Risers: Reservoirs of hot liquid metal for added feed
during the solidification of the part.
Gating & Risering in green.

2. Gating & Risering

Pattern Shop

Delcam is the software we use for programming


the CAD file.
Pattern makers must determine the proper tooling
and size of cutters to be used.

3. Programming & Cutting

Pattern Shop

Tooling
Standard 4 inch face mill.
1 inch flat bottom mill.
1/2 inch flat bottom mill.

3. Programming & Cutting

Pattern Shop

Tooling
1/8 inch ball end mill.
1/4 inch ball end mill.
1/2 inch ball end mill.

Leaves inside fillet radius

3. Programming & Cutting

Pattern Shop

All tooling is then programmed per the file to create what


is known as a program or tool paths.

3. Programming & Cutting

Pattern Shop

All tool paths are then processed into alpha and numeric
code.
G Code

3. Programming & Cutting

Pattern Shop

The machine then cuts the pattern unattended.


It changes tools as needed.

3. Programming & Cutting

Pattern Shop

Wooden frames or flasks are created.

4. Framing & Pattern Assembly

Pattern Shop

Frames or flasks are fixed onto the pattern.

4. Framing & Pattern Assembly

Pattern Shop

After frames are fixed, the


downsprue is constructed and
assembled per calculated results.

4. Framing & Pattern Assembly

Notes to the Engineer


Design parts with nominal wall
thickness.
Keep constant wall thickness when
possible.

Avoid thick areas if at all possible.

Islands of material require risering to avoid porosity and


blows.

Notes

Rib intersections.
Use offsets if possible to avoid porosity and voids.

Bad

Notes

Good

To prevent uneven cooling, stagger the sections so no


more than two sections conjoin.
If the sections have to intersect, create a circular web or
round-a-bout design.

Incorrect

Notes

Correct

Designs that have sharp corners result in structural weaknesses from


localized hot spots at the junction.
Incorporate rounded corners to avoid hot spots and improve strength.

Sharp Corners

Local
Structural
Weakness
(possible
hot tear)

Notes

Round Inside, Sharp Outside

Shrink
Defect

Rounded corners improves strength and limits shrink.


Rounding corners also allows you to keep walls nominal.

Radius to the
outsider corner
equals 20.

Notes

If possible, design uniform sections.


This reduces the weight of the casting (better yield).
Avoids shrinking problem.
Eliminates porosity.

Incorrect

Notes

Correct

Remove unnecessary metal for a lighter casting with less


strain in the radial veins.
Remedies shrinkage defects.
Eliminates porosity.

Incorrect

Notes

Correct

Notice how each design is gradually improved by eliminating


structural weakness until honeycombing is achieved.

Incorrect

Better

Improved

Best

Notes

2-1 Rule: For a one inch diameter boss, two inches of


height is generally allowed.

2 in.

Notes

1 in.

Eliminate body cores if possible.


Below is the original design with two body cores.
Pattern cannot be pulled from the sand.

Cope

Parting Line
Drag

Notes

Eliminate body cores if possible.


Add material to eliminate the two body cores.
The pattern can now be pulled from the sand.

Cope
Parting Line
Drag

Notes

Step 3: Casting
Process
1. Molding
2. Melting
3. Pouring
4. Shakeout
5. Cutoff & Grinding

Dualtech, Inc.
Ductile/Aluminum Casting Technology

Opened in 2002.
Prototyping and low volume production.
Metals

Aluminum 356, 355 and 319


Iron Gray, Ductile and Ni-resist

TS 16949 Certified

Casting

Green Sand: Clay and sand, no binder is


required.
Air-Set (Dualtech): Dry sand, with a resin
added to harden the molds.

Types of Foundries

Casting

Manual Squeezer (set flask or frame sizes).


Disa matics

Other Molding Methods

Casting

Robert Sintos
Hunter

Other Molding Methods

Casting

Molding: Process where the cope and drag mold boxes


are filled with sand.
Cope half and drag half are filled and molded individually.

1. Molding

Casting

1. Molding

Casting

1. Molding

Casting

Core is hand packed.


Typically for larger cores.

1. Molding

Casting

Core is blown.
Chamber is filled with sand, air then blows the sand into the core box.
Efficient for small-mid sized cores.

1. Molding

Casting

Cope is vented in specified locations using a drill.

1. Molding

Casting

Body cores are set in their proper places.

1. Molding

Casting

A look at why the body core is needed.

1. Molding

Casting

Main core set in proper place.

1. Molding

Casting

Ready to close.

1. Molding

Casting

After the cope and drag halves are assembled, the mold
is closed using a crane.
Smaller molds are closed by hand.

1. Molding

Casting

Metals Poured.
Aluminum 356, 355, 319, etc.
Iron Gray, Ductile, Ni-resist.
Recipe is prepared by callouts per spec.
Cummins spec 40,000.

2. Melting

Casting

Each individual material is weighed and added to meet


specifications.

Nickel

Silicon

2. Melting

Molybdenum

Copper

The furnace is then brought to temperature.


Range of 2500-2800 degrees.

2. Melting

Casting

A sample button of material is poured from the furnace before


each heat.
The button is taken to the lab to verify the chemistry before the
metal is poured.

2. Melting

Casting

After chemistry verification, the material can be


transferred from the furnace to the ladle.

2. Melting

Casting

Once the material has been transferred, the crane carries


the ladle to each individual mold for pouring.

3. Pouring

Casting

Aluminum Pouring.

3. Pouring

Casting

Metal is poured into the riser and then it begins to flow


through the mold.

Down sprue is filled.

3. Pouring

Casting

Metal passes through the choked runner.

Choked Runner

3. Pouring

Casting

The metal then drops through the filter to the drag half.

3. Pouring

Casting

Metal returns to the cope half and enters the runner.

Runner

3. Pouring

Casting

Metal then fills the hot riser.

Hot Riser

3. Pouring

Casting

Next the part is filled.

3. Pouring

Casting

Cold riser is filled.

Vents

Cold Riser

3. Pouring

Casting

Casting

Test bars are also poured for each heat.


A heat number is assigned to all parts in a particular heat.
The corresponding test bar is assigned the same number.

Heat numbers allow for identification and traceability to


address any issues that may have risen.

3. Pouring

Casting

After hours of solidification and cooling, the parts are


removed from the mold.
Molds are transferred to the shakeout machine.

4. Shakeout

Casting

The machine shakes the mold until the sand has broken
away from the part so it can be removed.
The shaker continues to shake until the sand has returned
to normal size so it can be reclaimed for future molds.

4. Shakeout

Casting

Gates and risers are removed from the castings.


Parts are pre-blasted and sent to the grinding department.

5. Cutoff & Grinding

Casting

The grinding department will remove all flash, vents and


excess gating.
Parts are blasted once more and shipped to ICT for machining.

5. Cutoff & Grinding

Step 4: Machining & Inspection


After the castings are finished at Dualtech, they
are delivered to ICT for machining.
An initial casting is given to quality control
personnel to perform a casting layout.
Casting layouts are completed using PC-Dmis
software and are checked back to the CAD file.

Machine Shop
When the casting layout is confirmed, the casting is given the OK to be
machined.
After the casting is given the OK, a router is given to the machinist.
The router contains all pertinent information necessary to machine the
part.
(Router example on next page)

Machining

Job #
Customer
Phone #
Quantity
Comments:

9057
Cummins
843-745-1602
40

Part #
Contact
Fax #

3924561
Greg Wright
Received Date

2/2/2009

Desc.
Manifold
Mach Req.
Yes
Heat Treat
No
Delivery Date
2/2/2009

Old job# 8483,8425,8281,8099,8002,7623,7211,7154,7001,6421,6339,6280,6229, etc.

Pattern Shop
Start Date
Shrink
Comments

N/A

Finish Date
Draft

#Core boxes

Design reviewed
Foundry
Material
40000
Poured #
33
Casting Wt #
13 lbs
# Core Boxes
2
Comments
25 pore filter - Tits are fragile on cores (4x) - Pour temp 2580 degrees - 9 sec pour time Blow cores and hand ram to firm tits on both boxes. Watch #'s on prints when closing
(can go both ways)
Machine Shop
Start Date
Finish Date

Scrapped
Total Good

Eng Version
Comments

First Part Verified


Total Run Time 30 minutes
Machining Cad File Location # 4086

Signature
Layout/QC
Requirement

N/A

Signature

Final Layout

Machining

Verification

Casting

Delivery
Quantity Shipped

Signature

Date

Via

Machine Shop

The machinist then programs the casting using Surfcam


software.
The program is transmitted to the CNC machine, where
the part will be machined.

Machining

Machine Shop

Many parts are placed in fixtures.


Fixtures are cut to a 3D contour of the casting.
Fixtures are unique to every part.
They help to eliminate error and keep all variables constant.

Machining

Machine Shop

After the first casting is machined, it is given back to


quality personnel for inspection.
If the part checks to print, the machinist continues
running the part.
If the part is not to print, adjustments are made until the
machining passes inspection.

Machining

Machine Shop

After the castings pass final inspection, a router is


completed and documented.
The router contains all comments and information regarding
the part.
Routers are stored electronically and in hard copy form.

Castings are then delivered to the packaging department.

Machining

Step 5: Packaging & Delivery


All finished parts are placed in the parts
washer to remove any dirt or shavings they
may contain.

After parts are cleaned, they are carefully packaged.


The boxes are then closed, banded and ready to ship.

Packaging & Delivery