82 views

Uploaded by api-323795755

- Part 01 Theory (253 - 273)
- Intro to Mechanical Engineering
- Answers WorkEnergy
- Mechanical Energy.docxU0I\
- Energy, Kinetic Energy, Work,
- eGr13TG ComMathamatic.pdf
- SAQ_ans_5
- 2012 JC1 H2 MYE (Solution)
- WB & HB
- TRG6 C2
- Physics20 Work Energy Power
- Kinema Tics
- year 8 science unit outline for energy
- 0708 Energy
- AITS 1 MED
- Connecticut-Light-
- Pacific-Power--Exhibit-No-WRG-8
- Power of the Pyramid
- j. Physics XI Text Matter Modified
- City-Utilities-of-Springfield-Purchased-Gas-Cost-Factor

You are on page 1of 6

Study Guide

Unit 4

Energy

In our quest to understand and describe the motion that we observe in our world, several different

frameworks have been developed. One is based on the idea that pushing or pulling something will set it in

motion and we can describe the motion by looking at how it changes its location. Another framework for

describing how things behave is based on Energy. The concept of Energy has undergone some radical changes

during the course of the evolution of our understanding of nature. At one point it was thought to be an

invisible fluid (called caloric) that was exchanged between objects. We no longer think that way. Our current

best explanation is that energy is something objects possess because of their position relative to other objects

or because of their state of motion.

Big

Idea

The foundation of the whole Energy Model is a very simple idea. The amount of energy that we

have to work with is constant. It cannot change. In physics we say that Energy is a Conserved

Quantity.

However, we havent completely abandoned the energy flow concept. We still think about energy as being

transferred from one object to another: For example I can burn many calories of energy by lifting a heavy

weight above my head. If I let go of the weight, it can potentially do a great deal of damage to whatever it

lands on. In this process I have lost energy (the calories that I burned). Where did it go? The answer is that I

transferred it to the weight. However much I lost, the weight gained. The total amount of energy has not

changed.

Lets start our look at energy by describing energy based on the position of an object.

Lets think about a few examples:

Pushing or pulling on the coils of a spring will transfer energy from

me to the spring. I will burn calories and the spring will have the

potential to push or pull on something else because of what I did.

The position of the coils changed relative to each other and the

amount of change describes the amount of energy that I

transferred to the spring.

Lifting the weights up, away from the earth, requires a force from the lifter. In

the process, the lifter burns energy by transferring it to the weights. They

have the potential to fall back towards the earth. The position of the weights

relative to the earth changed in the process and the amount of change

describes the amount of energy transferred to the weights.

In both cases, the energy is transferred as the result of pushing or pulling.

Both objects have the potential to do something that they didnt prior to the energy transfer (the spring wont

re-coil until it is pushed or pulled and the weights wont fall until they are lifted). In both cases, the thing that

describes how much energy was transferred is the position of the object before and after it was pushed or

pulled.

This type of energy --- based on position --- is called Potential Energy.

We are going to concentrate on the potential energy associated with moving something above the surface of

the earth. Since it is the Earths gravity that requires us to lift things up in the air, this is called Gravitational

Potential Energy.

Edison Physics

object, the more energy

I transfer (burn as

calories).

something the more

energy I transfer (the

more calories I burn).

Potential energy is

directly related to the

mass lifted.

Potential Energy is

directly related to

height above the Earth.

In our standard system of measurement, mass (m in the equation) is measured in kilograms -- kg. Height (h in

the equation) is measured in meters and earths gravity (g in the equation) has the value 9.8 m/s2. According to

the equation we end up with the combination of kg*m/s2*m = kg*m2/s2. This combination is given the name

Joule and the symbol J. The unit of energy is the Joule.

Energy because of motion is called Kinetic Energy. The word kinetic means motion. Since we use speed to

describe the amount of motion on object has, its probably not a shock that Kinetic Energy is related to speed.

The question becomes, exactly how is kinetic energy related to speed? For now, I will just tell you the answer

and later on we will stop and spend some time trying to figure out why it is this way.

KE = mv2

m is the mass of the object, measured in kg.

v is the speed of the object, measured in m/s

Notice that the units for KE are kg*(m/s)2 = kg m2/s2, which is what we named the Joule.

We use speed instead of velocity because we want to know the amount of energy the object has as it travels a

specific path and speed is how it moves along the path!

Now that we have defined both of the types of energy that combine to make up the total (mechanical) energy

that an object can have, we can start to get to the interesting aspects of energy. Remember the big idea about

energy is that it is conserved. Exactly how this plays out is very interesting. Suppose I lift an object up into the

air. In the process of lifting it I have to exert energy and that is how I transfer it to the object. Once I let go of

the object, it will start to fall. As it falls it loses height and potential energy. Where does the potential energy

go? Also, as it falls it gains speed and kinetic energy. Where did the kinetic energy come from? Does the total

energy remain constant while this is going on?

Well, the cool thing here is that the potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy by the force of gravity.

The total amount of energy doesnt change. Every Joule of lost PE is a Joule of gained KE. Imagine a pail full of

energy (like a pail full of water). When I have the energy in one bucket I call it PE. When gravity transforms it

into KE, its like the energy is being poured into a second bucket labeled KE. An example might help.

Edison Physics

page 2

3

KE

ME

PE

2

KE

ME

PE

1

KE

ME

PE

A ball is thrown up into the air. When it leaves your hand (position #1

in the diagram) it is going as fast as it will go and it is at its lowest point

in its path through the air. So, at this point it has PE = 0 (empty bucket)

and KE = maximum (full bucket). The combination of KE + PE is shown

in the ME bucket.

As the ball moves up to position #2, it is losing speed because of

gravity. At this position, it has reached half of its final height. So, half

of the KE has been transformed into PE. The KE bucket is half full and

the PE bucket is half full. Notice that the ME bucket is still completely

full.

At position #3, the ball has reached its highest point. When it gets

there it must stop for an instant before it starts to fall back down. At

this point, it has KE = 0 (no speed b/c it stopped) and PE = maximum.

So, the KE bucket is empty and the PE bucket is full.

In general, as objects move through the air an increase in PE will correspond to a decrease in

KE and vice-versa. This is because ME is conserved during the motion.

In this section our goal is to write equations that show how energy is conserved. This can be a very powerful

method for making predictions because it doesnt deal with the specifics of the motion, but only the starting

conditions and the conditions at some other time or place.

We have said that the big idea about energy is that it is conserved in the absence of external forces (like

friction). If friction or air resistance is present they will reduce the amount of mechanical energy present by

converting it into heat. This energy is said to be lost in the sense that it is no longer useful to us. However,

the total amount of energy in the universe has not changed, it has just been rearranged.

When friction and air resistance can be ignored then mechanical energy will be conserved. This means that

the total energy of an object (Potential Energy + Kinetic Energy) wont change as it moves under the influence

of gravity. So, if I know its height and speed at some point in its path then I can calculate exactly how much

energy it has.

I know that it will always have the same amount of energy, no matter where it is in its path. So, if I know its

height at some later time, I can use the total energy to find its speed at that time. Or, if I know its speed at

some other time, I can use the total energy to find its height at that time.

It breaks down into a 3-Step Process.

1. Find a place where you know the height and speed and Calculate the total energy at

that place.

2. Use the height or speed at a second place to write an expression for the total energy at

the second place.

3. Set the value you calculated in step #1 equal to the expression you wrote in step #2 and

solve for the thing you dont know (speed or height).

Edison Physics

page 3

First Example: A 0.5 kg ball is thrown up into the air with an initial speed of 24 m/s. How fast will the ball be

traveling when it has risen to a height of 5 meters above where you let go of it?

We know the speed (24 m/s) and height (0 m) when we let go of it. So, we can find the total energy at this

point.

Step #1

E at the start = mv2 + mgh = (0.5 kg)(24 m/s)2 + (0.5 kg)(9.8 m/s2)(0 m)

E at the start = 144 J

Step #2 E at 5 m high = mv2 + mgh = (0.5 kg)v2 + (0.5 kg)(9.8 m/s2)(5 m)

E at 5 m high = 0.25v2 + 24.5

Step #3 E at the start = E at 5 m high

144 J = 0.25 v2 + 24.5

119.5 = 0.25v2

478 = v2

21.9 m/s = v

(divide both sides by 0.25)

(take the square root of both sides)

Second Example: How high will the ball in the first example go?

We still know the total energy of the ball. Step #1 hasnt changed, so E at the start = 144 J.

Step #2 E at max height = mv2 + mgh

we know that when it reaches its highest point it will have no speed left (the energy

will be completely PE!)

E at max height = 0 + (0.5 kg)(9.8 m/s2)h = 4.9h

Step #3 E at start = E at max height

144 J = 4.9h

29.4 m = h

Using conservation of energy can make a complicated problem become much simpler to solve!

Now we need to ask How does energy get transferred to an object?

The answer is through the use of forces. We know that forces are required to change the motion of an object.

When the motion is changed (acceleration) we know that the speed of the object might change. This would

mean the energy of the object has changed. So, forces might be the key to changing energy.

The process that forces use to change energy is called Work. To change the energy of an object, the force

must do work. So we can say that Work = change in energy.

Not all forces do work. If the object is moving forward and the force only causes it to change direction and not

its speed, then that force will not do any work. So, we need to qualify our statement.

Forces that are parallel to the displacement of an object will do work. Forces that are perpendicular to the

displacement of an object will not do any work.

We can calculate the work done as follows:

Edison Physics

page 4

Force and displacement are both vectors, but when we multiply them together to get work, the answer is not a

vector.

The units of work are N (force) x m (displacement). This gives us Nm = (kg m/s2)(m) = kg m2/s2 = J. The units of

work are Joules. This is one more reminder that work is related to energy.

An example: the force of friction does work to change the energy of moving object. Lets say a 5 kg object is

coasting along at a constant speed of 10 m/s. It encounters a friction force of 5 N that acts over a distance of 3

m. The friction force is backwards and the object continues to move forward, so W =

= (-5N)(3m) = -15 J.

This means that the object lost 15 J of energy.

You might be wondering why we calculate PE and KE the way we do, and now we can look at the real

reason.

Suppose we want to lift a crate from a height h1 to a new height h2 so that it moves

with constant velocity. From Newtons first law we know that constant velocity means

equilibrium (balanced forces) and so the lifting force must be equal to the weight of

the crate. The work done to lift the crate is calculated as the product of the lifting

force and displacement. W = Flift x = mg (h2 h1) = mgh2 mgh1. Remember that the

definition of work is to change energy, so mgh2 mgh1 must be E. You recognize this

as the change in potential energy of the crate!

Flift

h2

h1

Now suppose that we want to push a cart at rest across a level, frictionless surface. We apply a force which

causes the cart to accelerate, according to Newtons 2nd Law of motion. The work done is the product of the

pushing force and the displacement of the cart, W = Fpush x = ma x. Using

our relationships to describe motion, we can write x = at2 and a = v/t. If

Fpush = ma

we substitute into our work equation we get: W = ma x = m (v/t)( at2).

We can substitute for a one more time to get W = m (v/t)( (v/t)t2).

x

Rearrange a bit to get: W = mv2 (all of the ts in the equation cancel each

other!). You recognize this result as the KE gained by the cart!

We can graph the force doing the work vs. the position of the object. This will provide some insight into how to

handle forces that are not constant. But first, lets look at the situation where the force doing the work is

constant. The graph will look as shown here:

Force

F

position

displacement = Fd. Notice that this product is the area of the

rectangle formed by the force line on the graph and the axes of

the graph. This is our clue to how to work with forces that change.

If we can produce a graph of force vs position then the area under

the graph will be the work done by the force.

An example of a changing force is one where the force is proportional to the displacement. It turns out that

springs obey this relationship. The graph looks like this:

Force

F

Edison Physics

position

and the slope of the force line). The work done is the area of the

triangle = Fd = (kd)(d) = kd2. This is the energy stored in the

spring as it is stretched (or compressed). It is potential energy

waiting to become kinetic when the spring is released!

page 5

Another useful quantity to explore is how fast the energy changes. This quantity, the rate at which energy is

changed, is called Power.

Power =E / t

Because E = Work, we can also say that power is the rate at which work is done.

The unit for power is J / sec. We call this combination the Watt (W). 1 W = 1 J/s.

Because power is inversely related to time (time is in the denominator) we see that more power is required to

change the energy quickly. The larger the time, the smaller the power required.

Edison Physics

page 6

- Part 01 Theory (253 - 273)Uploaded byPiyush Singh
- Intro to Mechanical EngineeringUploaded byVirgilio
- Answers WorkEnergyUploaded byIan Anonas
- Mechanical Energy.docxU0I\Uploaded bySilokshan Balasingam
- Energy, Kinetic Energy, Work,Uploaded byMOHAMMED ASIF
- eGr13TG ComMathamatic.pdfUploaded bySaraniptha Nonis
- SAQ_ans_5Uploaded byharshanauoc
- 2012 JC1 H2 MYE (Solution)Uploaded byStella Maria
- WB & HBUploaded byAnonymous NsbWjJMPBy
- TRG6 C2Uploaded byapril light
- Physics20 Work Energy PowerUploaded byVikash Sharma
- Kinema TicsUploaded bySivakumar Sarma
- year 8 science unit outline for energyUploaded byapi-297560946
- 0708 EnergyUploaded bybittuchintu
- AITS 1 MEDUploaded bypskphy
- Connecticut-Light-Uploaded byGenability
- Pacific-Power--Exhibit-No-WRG-8Uploaded byGenability
- Power of the PyramidUploaded byliga21
- j. Physics XI Text Matter ModifiedUploaded byBanshi Rajpurohit Chandesara
- City-Utilities-of-Springfield-Purchased-Gas-Cost-FactorUploaded byGenability
- Vikas Gusain Color FormatUploaded byVicky Gusain
- Electric and Magnetic FieldsUploaded byShern Ren Tee
- 148_LGBR 2014-15Uploaded bypinkeshkmr
- 4. Cons of MEUploaded bybevinj
- Activity SheetUploaded byAira Villarin
- 2013 Physics Syllabus & Schyeme of WorkUploaded byTan Kok Kim
- Delmarva-Power-Maryland-Administrative-----------------------------Credit-(AC)-Uploaded byGenability
- Ispit_Fizika_1.pdfUploaded byhazeze2446
- Energy NotesUploaded byBabbi Singh
- Duke-Energy-Indiana-Inc-Standard-Contract-Rider-No.-64---Merger-Savings-Credit-Rider-Applicable-to-Retail-Rate-GroupsUploaded byGenability

- unit 4 workUploaded byapi-323795755
- unit 4 el peUploaded byapi-323795755
- diffraction interferenceUploaded byapi-323795755
- unit forces fields and energyUploaded byapi-323795755
- unit 4 keUploaded byapi-323795755
- polarizationUploaded byapi-323795755
- doppler effectUploaded byapi-323795755
- unit 4 grav peUploaded byapi-323795755
- unit 13 gravitational force and fieldUploaded byapi-323795755
- unit sheet kinetic theory and gas lawsUploaded byapi-323795755
- unit sheet themal energy and pjhaseUploaded byapi-323795755
- unit 13 electric force and electric fieldUploaded byapi-323795755
- unit sheet thermodynamic systemsUploaded byapi-323795755
- unit 13 magnetic field and forceUploaded byapi-323795755
- unit 4 cons of meUploaded byapi-323795755
- unit 2 suvat equationsUploaded byapi-323795755
- unit 2 - pos vel accUploaded byapi-323795755
- unit 1 - sci methodUploaded byapi-323795755
- hl study guide 1Uploaded byapi-323795755
- unit 10 reflection and refractionUploaded byapi-323795755
- unit 2 motion graphsUploaded byapi-323795755
- study guide wave basicsUploaded byapi-323795755
- unit 10 wave characteristicsUploaded byapi-323795755
- hl study guide 2Uploaded byapi-323795755
- unit 2 freefallUploaded byapi-323795755
- unit 1 - measurementUploaded byapi-323795755
- unit sheet more wavesUploaded byapi-323795755
- unit 10 diffraction and interferenceUploaded byapi-323795755
- unit 1 - uncertaintyUploaded byapi-323795755

- Advantage and Disadvantage of Using Different SI UnitsUploaded byQunya Lim
- Lecture 1 2slidesUploaded byShruti Tayal
- Aerodynamic Models for Darrieus-type Straight-blade Vertical Axis Wind TurbinesUploaded byLeslie Hernández
- Fracture Mechanics Testing Methods for Polymers Adhesives and Composites Volume 2Uploaded bylondemon
- b4 astronomy projectUploaded byapi-343640414
- James ChadwickUploaded bydthabatah
- Calibration Philosophy 1Uploaded byAtul Duggal
- Derivation_for_Spherical_Co-ordinates.pdfUploaded bySuhail Bilal
- How to Calculate Square to Round Sizes in Ductwork _ DuctstoreUploaded bybrpnaidu2157
- PURSUIT Newsletter No. 40, Fall 1977 - Ivan T. SandersonUploaded byufortean
- Signals and Systems 2nd Edition Solutions ManualUploaded byPuneet Sharma
- An Investigation of Local Site Effects Using Linear and Nonlinear Analysis (Panah, et al. 2016).pdfUploaded byJose Manuel
- crystal lab reportUploaded byapi-242217266
- Brassylic Acid PVCUploaded bySudha Raman-Shadakshari
- 4.8.CompressorsUploaded byManoj Misra
- 17002 MDB01-E4_0-ASSUITUploaded byMenaKamel
- 4CH0_2C_que_20110615Uploaded byrifkacka
- UPCh13Uploaded byAlonso Camargo
- How to Read EphemerisUploaded byJambe d'Argent
- orca_manual_4_0_1Uploaded byFabio Nery
- Brunswick SuppliesUploaded byNathan Bukoski
- Sample.pdfUploaded bySandeshMahadevappa
- gray codeUploaded byArjohn Gavina
- Pilot ErrorUploaded byvikash_kumar_thakur
- TnxTower 6.1 Release NotesUploaded byruayo
- Bearing Capacity of Footings on SlopesUploaded byRajesh Shukla
- Peter Graneau's Paper on Over-Unity Power From Arcs in FogUploaded byjrod
- Bendik Sen 1991Uploaded byMahesh
- ESTEEM NOTEUploaded byMugiwara No Luffy
- azo 3.PDFUploaded byFernanda Stuani Pereira Furini